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and is adopted by Rosenmüller and Noyes, who refer to the following places as parallel instances of the use of the word. Virg. Ecl. 8, 58. "Vivite Sylvoe" - a form, says the Annotator on Virgil (Delphin), of bidding farewell to, like the Greek ÷áéìñåôå chairete - "a form used against those whom we reject with hatred, and wish to depart." Thus, Catull. 11. 17: Cum suis vivat, valeatque moechis. So Aesch. Agam. 574: ÊáéÌ ðïëëáÌ ÷áéìñåéí îõìöïñáé ò êáôáîéù Kai polla chairein cumforais katacioð. Thus, Plutarch, Dion. p. 975. So Cicero in a letter to Atticus (Psa_8:8), in which he complains of the disgraceful flight of Pompey, applies to him a quotation from Aristophanes; ðïëëáÌ ÷áéìñåéí åé*ðùÌí ôù | êáëù | polla chairein eipoðn toð kaloð - "bidding farewell to honour he fled to Brundusium;" compare Ter. And. 4:2. 14. Cicero de Nat. Deor. 1. 44. According to this interpretation, it means that Job apprehended they had renounced God in their hearts. that is, had been unmindful of him, and had withheld from him the homage which was due. - This is plausible: but the difficulty is in making out the use of this sense of the word in Hebrew. That the word was used as a mode of "parting salutation" among the Hebrews is undoubted. It was a solemn form of invoking the divine blessing when friends separated; compare Gen_28:3; Gen_47:10. But I find no use of the word where it is applied to separation in the sense of "renouncing," or bidding farewell to "in a bad sense;" and unless some instances of this kind can be adduced, the interpretation is unsound, and though similar phrases are used in Greek, Latin, and other languages, it does not demonstrate that this use of the word obtained in the Hebrew. (3) A third, and more simple explanation is that which supposes that the original sense of the word was "to kneel." This, according to Gesenius, is the meaning of the word in Arabic. So Castell gives the meaning of the word - "to bend the knees for the sake of honour;" that is, as an act of respect. So in Syriac, "Genua flexit8 procubuit." So "Genu." the "knee." Then it means to bend the knee for the purpose of invoking God, or worshipping. In the Piel, the form used here, it means (1) to bless God, to celebrate, to adore; (2) to bless men - that is, to "invoke" blessings on them; to greet or salute them - in the sense of invoking blessings on them when we meet them; 1Sa_15:13; Gen_47:7; 2Sa_6:20; or when we part from them; Gen_47:10; 1Ki_8:66; Gen_24:60; (3) to "invoke evil," in the sense of "cursing others." The idea is, that punishment or destruction is from God, and hence, it is "imprecated" on others. In one word, the term is used, as derived from the general sense of kneeling, in the sense of "invoking" either blessings or curses; and then in the general sense of blessing or cursing. This interpretation is defended by Selden, de jure Nat. et Gent. Lib. II. 100:11:p. 255, and by Gesenius, Lexicon. The idea here is, that Job apprehended that his sons, in the midst of mirth, and perhaps revelry, had been guilty of irreverence, and perhaps of reproaching God inwardly for the restraints of virtue and piety. What is more common in such scenes? What was more to be apprehended?

(Job 1  

offered: Job_42:8; Gen_8:20; Exo_18:12, Exo_24:5; Lev_1:3-6 cursed: Job_1:11, Job_2:9; Lev_24:10-16; 1Ki_21:10, 1Ki_21:13 according: 1Ki_18:...