Issuu on Google+

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts Version 11.2 MAN-0378-02


Product Version This manual applies to version 11.2 of the BIG-IP速 product family.

Publication Date This manual was published on May 7, 2012.

Legal Notices Copyright Copyright 2008- 2012, F5 Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. F5 Networks, Inc. (F5) believes the information it furnishes to be accurate and reliable. However, F5 assumes no responsibility for the use of this information, nor any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent, copyright, or other intellectual property right of F5 except as specifically described by applicable user licenses. F5 reserves the right to change specifications at any time without notice.

Trademarks 3DNS, Access Policy Manager, Acopia, Acopia Networks, Advanced Client Authentication, Advanced Routing, APM, Application Security Manager, ARX, AskF5, ASM, BIG-IP, Cloud Extender, CloudFucious, CMP, Data Manager, DevCentral, DevCentral [DESIGN], DNS Express, DSC, DSI, Edge Client, Edge Gateway, Edge Portal, EM, Enterprise Manager, F5, F5 [DESIGN], F5 Management Pack, F5 Networks, F5 World, Fast Application Proxy, Fast Cache, FirePass, Global Traffic Manager, GTM, IBR, Intelligent Browser Referencing, Intelligent Compression, IPv6 Gateway, iApps, iControl, iHealth, iQuery, iRules, iRules OnDemand, iSession, IT agility. Your way., L7 Rate Shaping, LC, Link Controller, Local Traffic Manager, LTM, Message Security Module, MSM, Netcelera, OneConnect, Packet Velocity, Protocol Security Module, PSM, Real Traffic Policy Builder, ScaleN, SSL Acceleration, StrongBox, SuperVIP, SYN Check, TCP Express, TDR, TMOS, Traffic Management Operating System, TrafficShield, Transparent Data Reduction, VIPRION, vCMP, WA, WAN Optimization Manager, WANJet, WebAccelerator, WOM, and ZoneRunner, are trademarks or service marks of F5 Networks, Inc., in the U.S. and other countries, and may not be used without F5's express written consent. All other product and company names herein may be trademarks of their respective owners.

Export Regulation Notice This product may include cryptographic software. Under the Export Administration Act, the United States government may consider it a criminal offense to export this product from the United States.

RF Interference Warning This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.

FCC Compliance This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device pursuant to Part 15 of FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This unit generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the user, at his own expense, will be required to take whatever measures may be required to correct the interference. Any modifications to this device, unless expressly approved by the manufacturer, can void the user's authority to operate this equipment under part 15 of the FCC rules.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

i


Canadian Regulatory Compliance This class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian I CES-003.

Standards Compliance This product conforms to the IEC, European Union, ANSI/UL and Canadian CSA standards applicable to Information Technology products at the time of manufacture.

Acknowledgments This product includes software developed by Bill Paul. This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone. This product includes software developed by Manuel Bouyer. This product includes software developed by Paul Richards. This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors. This product includes software developed by the Politecnico di Torino, and its contributors. This product includes software developed by the Swedish Institute of Computer Science and its contributors. This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors. This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project. This product includes software developed by Adam Glass. This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps. This product includes software developed by Dean Huxley. This product includes software developed by John Kohl. This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg. This product includes software developed by Terrence R. Lambert. This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson. This product includes software developed by Herb Peyerl. This product includes software developed by Jochen Pohl for the NetBSD Project. This product includes software developed by Chris Provenzano. This product includes software developed by Theo de Raadt. This product includes software developed by David Muir Sharnoff. This product includes software developed by SigmaSoft, Th. Lockert. This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe. This product includes software developed by Jason R. Thorpe for And Communications, http://www.and.com. This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank Van der Linden. This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal. This product includes software developed by Christos Zoulas. This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman. This product includes software developed by Balazs Scheidler (bazsi@balabit.hu), which is protected under the GNU Public License. This product includes software developed by Niels Mueller (nisse@lysator.liu.se), which is protected under the GNU Public License. In the following statement, This software refers to the Mitsumi CD-ROM driver: This software was developed by Holger Veit and Brian Moore for use with 386BSD and similar operating systems. Similar operating systems includes mainly non-profit oriented systems for research and education, including but not restricted to NetBSD, FreeBSD, Mach (by CMU). This product includes software developed by the Apache Group for use in the Apache HTTP server project (http://www.apache.org/). This product includes software licensed from Richard H. Porter under the GNU Library General Public License (Š 1998, Red Hat Software), www.gnu.org/copyleft/lgpl.html.

ii


This product includes the standard version of Perl software licensed under the Perl Artistic License (© 1997, 1998 Tom Christiansen and Nathan Torkington). All rights reserved. You may find the most current standard version of Perl at http://www.perl.com. This product includes software developed by Jared Minch. This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the OpenSSL Toolkit (http://www.openssl.org/). This product includes cryptographic software written by Eric Young (eay@cryptsoft.com). This product contains software based on oprofile, which is protected under the GNU Public License. This product includes RRDtool software developed by Tobi Oetiker (http://www.rrdtool.com/index.html) and licensed under the GNU General Public License. This product contains software licensed from Dr. Brian Gladman under the GNU General Public License (GPL). This product includes software developed by the Apache Software Foundation (http://www.apache.org/). This product includes Hypersonic SQL This product contains software developed by the Regents of the University of California, Sun Microsystems, Inc., Scriptics Corporation, and others. This product includes software developed by the Internet Software Consortium. This product includes software developed by Nominum, Inc. (http://www.nominum.com). This product contains software developed by Broadcom Corporation, which is protected under the GNU Public License. This product contains software developed by MaxMind LLC, and is protected under the GNU Lesser General Public License, as published by the Free Software Foundation. This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Copyright ©1990-1994 Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software must display the following acknowledgement: This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. 4. Neither the name of the University nor of the Laboratory may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. This product includes software developed by Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc. Copyright © 1997-2003 Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc. All rights reserved. Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

iii


THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY SONY CSL AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SONY CSL OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

iv


Table of Contents


Table of Contents

1 Introducing the Traffic Management Operating System What is the BIG-IP system? ..........................................................................................................1-1 What is TMOS? ...............................................................................................................................1-2 Stylistic conventions .......................................................................................................................1-3 Finding help and technical support resources ..........................................................................1-4

2 The BIG-IP System Configuration State Introduction to the BIG-IP system configuration state ..........................................................2-1 Storage of BIG-IP configuration data .................................................................................2-1 Loading of configuration data ..............................................................................................2-2 Understanding the stored configuration files ...........................................................................2-2

3 Single Configuration Files (SCF) Introduction to the single configuration file .............................................................................3-1 Summary of tmsh commands to save and load an SCF .........................................................3-2 Creating and saving an SCF .................................................................................................3-2 Replicating configurations using an SCF ...........................................................................3-3 Restoring a BIG-IP system configuration using SCF ......................................................3-3

4 General Configuration Properties Introduction .....................................................................................................................................4-1 About device properties ..............................................................................................................4-2 General device properties ...................................................................................................4-2 Updates to the IP geolocation database ...........................................................................4-2 About NTP ..............................................................................................................................4-3 Configuring DNS ....................................................................................................................4-3 The hosts file ...........................................................................................................................4-3 About local-traffic properties .......................................................................................................4-4 General local-traffic properties ..........................................................................................4-4 Configuring general local-traffic properties .....................................................................4-4 Configuring persistence properties ...................................................................................4-6

5 SSL Certificates for BIG-IP Devices Introduction .....................................................................................................................................5-1 Device certificates ..........................................................................................................................5-2 Trusted device certificates ............................................................................................................5-2

6 External File Management Introduction to external file management ................................................................................6-1 Data group files ...............................................................................................................................6-1 iFiles ....................................................................................................................................................6-3 External monitor program files ...................................................................................................6-4 SSL certificate files ..........................................................................................................................6-5

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

vii


Table of Contents

7 BIG-IP Platform Properties Introduction to platform properties ..........................................................................................7-1 General properties .........................................................................................................................7-1 Management port configuration .........................................................................................7-1 The management port ..........................................................................................................7-1 Host name ..............................................................................................................................7-2 Host IP address ......................................................................................................................7-2 Time zone ................................................................................................................................7-2 Redundant device configuration ..................................................................................................7-3 User administration properties ...................................................................................................7-3 Administrative account passwords ....................................................................................7-3 Configuring SSH access ........................................................................................................7-3

8 Fail-Safe and Fast Failover Introduction .....................................................................................................................................8-1 Understanding fail-safe ...................................................................................................................8-1 Configuring system fail-safe .................................................................................................8-1 Configuring VLAN fail-safe ..................................................................................................8-3 Understanding fast failover ...........................................................................................................8-4 Understanding HA score calculation .................................................................................8-4

9 Archives Introducing archives .......................................................................................................................9-1 What is an archive? .........................................................................................................................9-1 Working with archives ...................................................................................................................9-2 Saving archives ........................................................................................................................9-2 Restoring archives .................................................................................................................9-3

10 BIG-IP System Services Managing BIG-IP System Services ............................................................................................. 10-1 Viewing the status of a service ........................................................................................ 10-1

11 SNMP Introduction to SNMP administration ..................................................................................... 11-1 Reviewing an industry-standard SNMP implementation ............................................ 11-1 Reviewing the BIG-IP system SNMP implementation ................................................ 11-1 Summarizing SNMP configuration on the BIG-IP system .......................................... 11-2 SNMP agent configuration ......................................................................................................... 11-2 Controlling access to SNMP data ................................................................................... 11-3 Working with SNMP MIB files .................................................................................................. 11-4 Overview of F5 enterprise MIB files ........................................................................................ 11-5 Using the F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt file ................................................................. 11-5 Using the F5-BIGIP-LOCAL-MIB.txt file ........................................................................ 11-5 Using the F5-BIGIP-SYSTEM-MIB.txt file ....................................................................... 11-6 Using the F5-BIGIP-GLOBAL-MIB.txt ........................................................................... 11-6 Overview of the RMON MIB file ............................................................................................. 11-6 Using the RMON-MIB.txt file .......................................................................................... 11-6 viii


Table of Contents

Collecting performance data ..................................................................................................... 11-7 Collecting data on memory use ...................................................................................... 11-8 Collecting data on active connections ........................................................................... 11-8 Collecting data on new connections .............................................................................. 11-9 Collecting data on throughput rates ............................................................................ 11-10 Collecting data on HTTP requests ............................................................................... 11-12 Collecting data on RAM Cache use .............................................................................. 11-13 Collecting data on CPU use ........................................................................................... 11-15 Collecting data on SSL transactions per second ....................................................... 11-19

12 Administrative Partitions and Folders About administrative partitions ................................................................................................ 12-1 The partition Common ..................................................................................................... 12-2 The current partition ......................................................................................................... 12-2 Referencing objects in partitions ..................................................................................... 12-3 Partitions and user accounts ............................................................................................ 12-5 Partition summary .............................................................................................................. 12-5 Implementation considerations ....................................................................................... 12-7 About folders ................................................................................................................................ 12-8

13 BIG-IP User Accounts Introduction to user account management ........................................................................... 13-1 Understanding user account types ................................................................................. 13-1 Understanding administrative partitions ........................................................................ 13-2 Understanding user roles .................................................................................................. 13-4 Managing local user accounts .................................................................................................... 13-7 Configuring the admin account ........................................................................................ 13-8 Configuring a secure password policy ........................................................................... 13-8 User authentication lockout ........................................................................................... 13-11 Configuring local user accounts .................................................................................... 13-11 Managing remote user accounts ............................................................................................. 13-14 Specifying a remote user-account server .................................................................... 13-15 Configuring authorization for remote accounts ........................................................ 13-15 Auditing user access to the system ....................................................................................... 13-19

14 Event Logging Introducing BIG-IP system logging ........................................................................................... 14-1 Summarizing logging features ........................................................................................... 14-1 Understanding log content ............................................................................................... 14-2 Viewing and filtering log messages .................................................................................. 14-3 Understanding log types ............................................................................................................. 14-5 Logging system events ....................................................................................................... 14-6 Logging packet filter events .............................................................................................. 14-6 Logging local traffic events ................................................................................................ 14-6 Auditing configuration changes ........................................................................................ 14-7 Setting log levels ........................................................................................................................... 14-8 Setting log access ................................................................................................................ 14-8 Setting log levels for local traffic events ........................................................................ 14-8 Setting log levels for auditing events ............................................................................ 14-10 Viewing and searching the audit log ............................................................................. 14-10

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

ix


Table of Contents

Configuring encrypted remote logging ................................................................................. 14-11 Before you begin ............................................................................................................... 14-11 Creating the remote encrypted logging configuration ............................................. 14-11 Reviewing the SSH syntax required to create this configuration .......................... 14-12 Creating an SSH key to identify and authorize the BIG-IP system ....................... 14-12 Editing the syslog-ng start script to open and close the tunnel ............................. 14-13 Setting up message logging on a remote logging host .............................................. 14-14 Copying the SSH identity to the remote logging host ............................................. 14-15 Verifying the logging configuration and restarting syslog-ng ................................... 14-15

15 Interfaces Introduction to BIG-IP system interfaces ............................................................................... 15-1 About Link Layer Discovery Protocol .................................................................................... 15-2 Interface properties ..................................................................................................................... 15-3 Understanding interface naming conventions .............................................................. 15-3 Viewing interface information and media properties ................................................. 15-3 Interface mirroring ...................................................................................................................... 15-7 LLDP ............................................................................................................................................... 15-8 General settings .................................................................................................................. 15-8 Neighbor settings ................................................................................................................ 15-9 Interface statistics ...................................................................................................................... 15-10 Related configuration tasks ...................................................................................................... 15-10

16 Self IP Addresses Introduction to self IP addresses .............................................................................................. 16-1 Types of self IP addresses .......................................................................................................... 16-2 Self IP addresses and MAC addresses ..................................................................................... 16-2 Self IP addresses for SNATs ...................................................................................................... 16-2 Self IP address properties .......................................................................................................... 16-3

17 Traffic Groups Traffic group overview ............................................................................................................... 17-1 Types of traffic groups ................................................................................................................ 17-1 For more information ................................................................................................................. 17-2

18 Packet Filters Introduction to packet filtering ................................................................................................. 18-1 Global settings .............................................................................................................................. 18-2 Global properties ................................................................................................................ 18-2 Global exemptions .............................................................................................................. 18-3 Packet filter rules ......................................................................................................................... 18-4 Configuring settings for packet filter rules ................................................................... 18-5 Creating a filter expression .............................................................................................. 18-7

x


Table of Contents

19 Rate Shaping Introduction to rate shaping ...................................................................................................... 19-1 About rate classes ........................................................................................................................ 19-2 Rate class properties ................................................................................................................... 19-2 Rate class name ................................................................................................................... 19-2 Base rate ............................................................................................................................... 19-3 Ceiling rate ........................................................................................................................... 19-3 Burst size .............................................................................................................................. 19-3 Direction ............................................................................................................................... 19-6 Parent class ........................................................................................................................... 19-6 Shaping policy ....................................................................................................................... 19-7 Queue method .................................................................................................................... 19-7 Drop policy .......................................................................................................................... 19-7

20 Spanning Tree Protocols Introduction to spanning tree protocols ................................................................................ 20-1 Spanning tree protocol types ........................................................................................... 20-1 Using spanning tree with legacy bridges ........................................................................ 20-3 Configuration overview ..................................................................................................... 20-4 Global spanning tree properties ............................................................................................... 20-5 Spanning tree mode ............................................................................................................ 20-5 Global timers ....................................................................................................................... 20-6 Transmit Hold Count option ........................................................................................... 20-7 MSTP-specific global properties ...................................................................................... 20-7 Management of spanning tree instances ................................................................................. 20-8 Viewing a list of spanning tree instances ....................................................................... 20-8 Creating a spanning tree instance (MSTP-only) ........................................................... 20-8 Viewing and modifying a spanning tree instance ........................................................ 20-12 Deleting a spanning tree instance or its members (MSTP-only) ............................ 20-12 Interfaces for spanning tree ..................................................................................................... 20-12 Configuring spanning tree settings on an interface ................................................... 20-12 Managing interfaces for a specific instance .................................................................. 20-14

21 Trunks Introduction to trunks ................................................................................................................ 21-1 How do trunks work? ........................................................................................................ 21-1 Overview of LACP ............................................................................................................. 21-2 Trunk properties .......................................................................................................................... 21-2 Trunk name .......................................................................................................................... 21-2 Interfaces for a trunk ......................................................................................................... 21-3 Enabling LACP ..................................................................................................................... 21-3 LACP mode .......................................................................................................................... 21-4 LACP timeout ...................................................................................................................... 21-5 Link selection policy ........................................................................................................... 21-5 Frame distribution hash ..................................................................................................... 21-7

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

xi


Table of Contents

22 VLANs and VLAN Groups Introduction to virtual LANs .................................................................................................... 22-1 VLANs on a BIG-IP system ........................................................................................................ 22-2 Understanding the default VLAN configuration .......................................................... 22-2 VLAN groups ................................................................................................................................ 22-9 VLAN group name ............................................................................................................ 22-10 VLAN group ID ................................................................................................................. 22-10 Transparency mode .......................................................................................................... 22-10 Traffic bridging ................................................................................................................... 22-11 Traffic bridging with standby units ................................................................................ 22-11 Host exclusion from proxy ARP forwarding .............................................................. 22-11 VLAN association with a self IP address .............................................................................. 22-12 VLAN assignment to route domains ..................................................................................... 22-12

A Troubleshooting SNMP Traps Understanding F5-specific traps ..................................................................................................A-1 General traps .........................................................................................................................A-1 Hardware-related traps .......................................................................................................A-2 License-related traps ............................................................................................................A-3 TMOS-related traps .............................................................................................................A-3 Authentication-related traps ..............................................................................................A-4 DoS-related traps .................................................................................................................A-5 Network-related traps ........................................................................................................A-5 Logging-related traps ............................................................................................................A-6 Application Security Manager-related traps ...................................................................A-7 Global Traffic Manager-related traps ...............................................................................A-7 Other traps ..........................................................................................................................A-10

Glossary Index

xii


Table of Contents

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

xiii


1 Introducing the Traffic Management Operating System

• What is the BIG-IP system? • What is TMOS? • Stylistic conventions • Finding help and technical support resources


Introducing the Traffic Management Operating System

What is the BIG-IP system? The BIG-IP® system is a set of application delivery products that work together to ensure high availability, improved performance, application security, and access control. One of the primary functions of the BIG-IP system is to direct different types of protocol and application traffic to an appropriate destination server. The system accomplishes this through its Local Traffic Manager™ module, which can forward traffic directly to a load balancing server pool, or send traffic to a next-hop router, a pool of routers, or directly to a selected node on the network. Other modules available on the BIG-IP system provide critical functions such as applying security policies to network traffic, accelerating HTTP connections, and optimizing connections across a wide-area network. Figure 1.1 shows an example of the most basic BIG-IP system configuration.

Figure 1.1 A basic BIG-IP system configuration

The foundation of the BIG-IP system from a software perspective is the F5 Networks® Traffic Management Operation System® (TMOS®).

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

1-1


Chapter 1

What is TMOS? TMOS is a real-time, event-driven operating system designed specifically for application delivery networking. Through TMOS, you can configure all of the basic BIG-IP system routing and switching functions, as well as enhancements such as clusters, user roles, and administrative partitions. On top of TMOS runs a set of independent modules that you can configure TMOS is designed to meet the performance, security, availability, and management needs of applications, as enterprises conduct business through the Internet. To successfully meet these needs, TMOS features the following architectural elements: ◆

Proxy architecture Through the TMOS proxy architecture, the BIG-IP system can inspect traffic, optimize application performance, and off load downstream servers.

High-speed performance TMOS is specifically designed for high performance. For example, TMOS separates client-side flows from server-side flows for customized acceleration, and minimizes overhead energy spent on process context switching and resource allocation.

Modular functionality Through TMOS, you can readily add features without embarking on costly network infrastructure upgrades.

After completing the initial configuration, you can configure TMOS to further customize the system. For example, the most basic system configuration that results from running the Setup utility includes two virtual local area networks (VLANs) with one or more BIG-IP system interfaces (ports) assigned to each VLAN. Using the BIG-IP system’s browser-based Configuration utility, you can customize this configuration by assigning additional interfaces to each VLAN or configuring the BIG-IP system to send traffic for multiple VLANs through the same interface. A key feature of TMOS is a feature known as device service clustering, or DSCTM. With DSC, you can configure multiple BIG-IP devices to share their device properties, synchronize their configuration data at user-defined levels of granularity, and fail over to one another if an active device in the device group becomes unavailable. For more information, see these guides: • BIG-IP® Redundant Systems Configuration Guide • BIG-IP® TMOS®: Implementations

1-2


Introducing the Traffic Management Operating System

Stylistic conventions To help you easily identify and understand important information, all of our documentation uses the stylistic conventions described here.

Using the examples All examples in this document use only private class IP addresses. When you set up the configurations we describe, you must use valid IP addresses suitable to your own network in place of our sample addresses.

Identifying new terms To help you identify sections where a term is defined, the term itself is shown in bold italic text. For example, a floating IP address is an IP address assigned to a VLAN and shared between two computer systems.

Identifying references to objects, names, and commands We apply bold text to a variety of items to help you easily pick them out of a block of text. These items include web addresses, IP addresses, utility names, and portions of commands, such as variables and keywords. For example, with the tmsh save sys config file <user_filename> command, you can define a filename to by specifying it for the <user_filename> variable.

Identifying references to other documents We use italic text to denote a reference to another document or section of a document. We use bold, italic text to denote a reference to a book title. For example, for installation instructions, see the guide titled BIG-IP速 Systems: Getting Started Guide.

Identifying command syntax We show complete commands in bold Courier text. Note that we do not include the corresponding screen prompt, unless the command is shown in a figure that depicts an entire command line screen. For example, to save your configuration in all partitions, type the following command: tmsh save sys config partitions all

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

1-3


Chapter 1

Table 1.1 explains additional special conventions used in command line syntax. Item in text

...

Description

\

Indicates that the command continues on the following line, and that users should type the entire command without typing a line break.

< >

Identifies a user-defined parameter. For example, if the command has <your name>, type in your name, but do not include the brackets.

|

Separates parts of a command.

[]

Indicates that syntax inside the brackets is optional. Indicates that you can type a series of items.

Table 1.1 Command line syntax conventions

Finding help and technical support resources You can find additional technical documentation and product information in the following locations: ◆

Online help The Configuration utility has online help for each screen. The online help contains descriptions of each control and setting on the screen. Click the Help tab in the left navigation pane to view the online help for a screen.

Welcome screen in the Configuration utility The Welcome screen in the Configuration utility contains links to many useful web sites and resources, including: • The F5 Networks Technical Support web site • The F5 Solution Center • The F5 DevCentralSM web site • Plug-ins, SNMP MIBs, and SSH clients

F5 Networks Technical Support web site The F5 Networks Technical Support web site, http://support.f5.com, provides the latest documentation for the product, including: • Release notes for the BIG-IP system, current and past • Updates for guides (in PDF form) • Technical notes • Answers to frequently asked questions • The AskF5TM Knowledge Base

1-4


2 The BIG-IP System Configuration State

â&#x20AC;˘ Introduction to the BIG-IP system configuration state â&#x20AC;˘ Understanding the stored configuration files


The BIG-IP System Configuration State

Introduction to the BIG-IP system configuration state When you perform configuration tasks on the BIG-IP® system, the system generates underlying configuration data. The system must store this data so that the data is not lost when an unexpected system event occurs, or you restart the system. Before the system can store this data, however, the data must be saved. More specifically, the BIG-IP system configuration data exists in two different states: the stored configuration and the running configuration: • The stored configuration comprises all of the configuration tasks that you have performed on the system and saved to the system configuration files. • The running configuration comprises the stored configuration and all of the changes that you have made to the system since the last save operation. The BIG-IP system operates based on the running configuration.

Storage of BIG-IP configuration data The way that BIG-IP system configuration data is saved depends on which tool you are using to configure the system: ◆

Configuration utility If you are using the browser-based BIG-IP Configuration utility, the utility automatically saves the configuration data for you as you complete each configuration task; you do not need to perform any additional steps to save configuration data. For this reason, this chapter serves primarily as background information and is not required for you to configure the system successfully.

tmsh If you are using this command line tool to configure the system, you must explicitly issue a save command to store the configuration data you have generated. Otherwise, the newly-generated configuration data is not actually stored on the system. The command tmsh sys save [base-config | config] writes the running configuration to the stored configuration files. This ensures that recent configuration changes are retained. WARNING

If multiple users are making changes to the system, and one user runs the command sequence tmsh sys save config, the system saves the changes made by all of the users.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

2-1


Chapter 2

Important

Only users assigned the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can run the command sequence tmsh sys save config. Users assigned other roles receive an error when they run these commands.

Loading of configuration data The command tmsh sys load [base-config | config] resets the running configuration with the values that are contained in the stored configuration. Therefore, when you are modifying the system configuration, if you run any of the load commands before you save your changes to the stored configuration, the changes are lost. Similarly, if you restart the system before saving any recent changes, the changes are lost, because restarting the system utilizes the stored configuration.

Understanding the stored configuration files The BIG-IP system has numerous stored configuration files. You can make changes to the BIG-IP system by configuring these files. While some of these files can actually be configured manually by editing the files directly, other files require you to use the tmsh command to make changes to the files. Note

The objects in these files reside in partition Common. Consequently, the objects have limited protection by partition access control.

2-2


3 Single Configuration Files (SCF)

• Introduction to the single configuration file • Summary of tmsh commands to save and load an SCF


Single Configuration Files (SCF)

Introduction to the single configuration file A single configuration file (SCF) is a flat, text file that contains a series of tmsh commands, and the attributes and values of those commands, that reflect the configuration of the BIG-IP system. Specifically, the SCF contains the LTM® and TMOS® configurations of the BIG-IP system. Figure 3.1 shows a small part of a sample SCF.

vlan external { tag 4093 interfaces 1.3 } vlan internal { tag 4094 interfaces 1.10 } pool dev_https3 { members { 10.60.10.105:https{} 10.60.10.106:https{} } }

Figure 3.1 Portion of a sample SCF

The single configuration file feature allows you to save the configuration of a BIG-IP® system in a text file. You can then use the text file to easily replicate the configuration across multiple BIG-IP systems. This not only saves you time, but also allows you to create a consistent, secure, comprehensive local traffic management environment on your network.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

3-1


Chapter 3

Summary of tmsh commands to save and load an SCF You use the tmsh utility to perform the basic management of a single configuration file (SCF). Table 3.1 contains an overview of the commands to accomplish this. For information about the additional parameters for each command, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide. tmsh command

Usage

save /sys config file [filename] tar-file [filename]

Use this command to save a copy of the currently running configuration to an SCF.

load sys config file [filename] tar-file [filename]

Use this command to replace or restore an SCF with a saved configuration.

load sys config default

Use this command to restore the factory default settings of the configuration file, while retaining the management IP address and the administrator user name and password.

It is important to note that saving a configuration to an SCF does not affect the running configuration or the stored configuration of the BIG-IP system upon which you run the command.

When you use this command, the system saves any previously running configuration to /var/local/scf/, by default.

Table 3.1 Overview of the tmsh commands used to manage an SCF

More detailed information about how these commands are used to manage an SCF is provided in the following sections.

Creating and saving an SCF When you use the tmsh command save /sys config file [filename] tar-file [filename] to create an SCF, the command prompts the tmsh utility to gather all of the commands (and their attributes and values) that compose the running configuration. Once gathered, the system saves the configuration to a flat file with the name you specify and the extension of .scf. By default, the system stores this file in the /var/local/scf directory, but you can specify a different path if you prefer. Note that when you use the save command to create an SCF, you include the name of a tar file as well. For example, the following command saves the running configuration to the specified file, my_config.scf, and saves all user-provided disk files referred to by the configuration into my_config.tar: tmsh save /sys config file my_config.scf tar-file my_config.tar

3-2


Single Configuration Files (SCF)

When you load the configuration later, you system uses the tar file. For more information, see Restoring a BIG-IP system configuration using SCF, on page 3-3. Note

A tar file contains objects such as trusted device certificates, device certificates, device keys, CRLs, external data group files, external monitor program files, iFiles, and so on. Note

If you include the .scf extension in the file name, the system does not add additional extension. Tip

If you create an SCF file twice (on two different occasions), you can compare the contents of the two files.

Replicating configurations using an SCF The primary benefit of the SCF feature is that it gives you the ability to create a configuration on one BIG-IP system that you can load onto other BIG-IP systems (hereafter referred to as the target BIG-IP system), rather than having to recreate the configuration multiple times. After you have created and saved the SCF using the save sys config file [filename] command, you can modify any data unique to the specific target BIG-IP system, then load the configuration on that system. Important

To successfully load a configuration you have replicated, no line of the configuration can be longer than 4096 characters. If there are more than 4096 characters in a single line, the system reverts to the previous running configuration.

Restoring a BIG-IP system configuration using SCF The BIG-IP system ships with a default SCF. Depending on whether you want to restore the factory default configuration or load a specific configuration, use one of the following commands. ◆

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

tmsh load /sys config default This command restores a system to the factory default configuration, while retaining the management IP and the assigned root and administrator passwords. When you use this command, the system first

3-3


Chapter 3

saves the running configuration in the backup.scf file and then resets the local traffic management and the operating system configuration to the factory default settings by loading the SCF, /defaults/defaults.scf. â&#x2014;&#x2020;

tmsh load /sys config file [filename] tar-file [filename] This command restores the configuration of a system with values defined in the specified SCF and tar files. When you use this command, the system first saves the running configuration in the backup.scf file, and then resets the running configuration to the values contained in the specified SCF and tar files.

For example, the following command replaces the running configuration with the configuration stored in the file my_config.scf and retrieves the disk files referred to in the configuration from the file my_config.tar: tmsh load /sys config file my_config.scf tar-file my_config.tar

You must run the command save /sys config partitions all to save the running configuration in the stored configuration files.

3-4


4 General Configuration Properties

• Introduction • About device properties • About local-traffic properties


General Configuration Properties

Introduction Part of managing the BIG-IP® system involves configuring and maintaining a set of global system properties. These properties allow you to configure: • General device features, such as NTP and DNS • General local traffic features, including some global persistence settings • General global traffic features, including load balancing and metric collection When you configure general device properties, you are affecting the operation of the BIG-IP system as a whole, rather than just one aspect of it. Similarly, when you configure the general properties related to local traffic or global traffic, you are globally affecting the operation of the local traffic management and global traffic management systems.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

4-1


Chapter 4

About device properties The BIG-IP system includes some general properties that you can configure, as well as properties related to Network Time Protocol (NTP), Domain Name System (DNS), and host names on the network. To manage these properties, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Configuration.

General device properties The BIG-IP system general device properties that you can view or configure are: • The host name • The BIG-IP software version number • The number of CPUs available • The number of CPUs that are active You can also perform operations such as reboot or force the system into an OFFLINE state. The BIG-IP system general device properties that you can configure are: • Network boot • Quiet boot You can also reload the default geolocation data files that the BIG-IP system uses to source the origin of a name resolution request.

Updates to the IP geolocation database The BIG-IP system uses an IP geolocation database to determine the origin of a name resolution request. The default database provides geolocation data for IPv4 addresses at the continent, country, state, ISP, and organization levels. The state-level data is worldwide, and thus includes designations in other countries that correspond to the U.S. state-level in the geolocation hierarchy, for example, provinces in Canada. The default database also provides geolocation data for IPv6 addresses at the continent and country levels. Note

You can access the ISP and organization-level geolocation data for IPv4 and IPv6 addresses using the iRules® whereis command. Tip

If you require geolocation data at the city-level, contact your F5 Networks sales representative to purchase additional database files.

4-2


General Configuration Properties

You can download a monthly update to the IP geolocation database from F5 Networks.

About NTP Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a protocol that synchronizes the clocks on a network. You can use the Configuration utility to specify a list of IP addresses of the servers that you want the BIG-IP system to use when updating the time on network systems. You can also edit or delete the entries in the server list.

Configuring DNS Domain Name System (DNS) is an industry-standard distributed internet directory service that resolves domain names to IP addresses. If you plan to use DNS in your network, you can use the Configuration utility to configure DNS for the BIG-IP system. When you configure DNS, you create two lists: a DNS lookup server list, and a BIND forwarder server list. The DNS lookup server list allows BIG-IP system users to use IP addresses, host names, or fully-qualified domain names (FQDNs) to access virtual servers, nodes, or other network objects. The BIND forwarder server list provides DNS resolution for servers and other equipment load balanced by the BIG-IP system, that is, for the servers that the BIG-IP system uses for DNS proxy services. Note

To use DNS Proxy services, you must enable the named service.

The hosts file You can create and manage a list of IP addresses and their associated host names, to identify and locate hosts on the network.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

4-3


Chapter 4

About local-traffic properties The BIG-IP system includes a set of properties that apply globally to the local traffic management system. These properties fall into two main categories: general local-traffic properties, and persistence properties. You can use the Configuration utility to configure and maintain these properties.

General local-traffic properties You can configure a number of properties that affect the general behavior of the BIG-IP local traffic management system. In most cases, these properties are not directly related to any one type of local traffic management object, such as a virtual server or a load balancing pool.

Configuring general local-traffic properties Table 4.1 lists and describes the properties that you can configure to manage the behavior of the local traffic management system. Property

Description

Default Value

Auto Last Hop

Specifies, when checked (enabled), that the system automatically maps the last hop for pools.

Enabled (checked)

Maintenance Mode

Specifies, when checked (enabled), that the unit is in maintenance mode. In maintenance mode, the system stops accepting new connections and slowly completes the processing of existing connections.

Disabled (unchecked)

VLAN-Keyed Connections

Check this setting to enable VLAN-keyed connections. VLAN-keyed connections are used when traffic for the same connection must pass through the system several times, on multiple pairs of VLANs (or in different VLAN groups).

Enabled (checked)

Path MTU Discovery

Specifies, when checked (enabled), that the system discovers the maximum transmission unit (MTU) that it can send over a path without fragmenting TCP packets.

Enabled (checked)

Reject Unmatched Packets

Specifies that the BIG-IP system sends a TCP RST packet in response to a non-SYN packet that matches a virtual server address and port or self IP address and port, but does not match an established connection. The BIG-IP system also sends a TCP RST packet in response to a packet matching a virtual server address or self IP address but specifying an invalid port. The TCP RST packet is sent on the client-side of the connection, and the source IP address of the reset is the relevant BIG-IP LTM object address or self IP address for which the packet was destined. If you disable this setting, the system silently drops unmatched packets.

Enabled (checked)

Table 4.1 General properties for globally managing local traffic

4-4


General Configuration Properties

Property

Description

Default Value

Maximum Node Idle Time

Specifies the number of seconds a node can be left idle by the Fastest load balancing mode. The system sends fewer connections to a node that is responding slowly, and periodically recalculates the response time of the slow node.

0 (disabled)

Reaper High-water Mark

Specifies, in percent, the memory usage at which the system silently purges stale connections, without sending reset packets (RST) to the client. If the memory usage remains above the low-water mark after the purge, then the system starts purging established connections closest to their service timeout. To disable the adaptive reaper, set the high-water mark to 100.

95

Reaper Low-water Mark

Specifies, in percent, the memory usage at which the system starts establishing new connections. Once the system meets the reaper high-water mark, the system does not establish new connections until the memory usage drops below the reaper low-water mark. To disable the adaptive reaper, set the low-water mark to 100.

85

Note: This setting helps to mitigate the effects of a denial-of-service attack. SYN CheckTM Activation Threshold

Specifies the number of new or untrusted TCP connections that can be established before the system activates the SYN Cookies authentication method for subsequent TCP connections.

16384

Layer 2 Cache Aging Time

Specifies, in seconds, the amount of time that records remain in the Layer 2 forwarding table, when the MAC address of the record is no longer detected on the network.

300

Share Single MAC Address

Specifies, when checked (enabled), that all VLANs share a single MAC address. If you use the default value (unchecked), the BIG-IP gives each VLAN the MAC address of the VLAN’s lowest-numbered interface. Use this setting when configuring an active/standby redundant system.

Disabled (unchecked)

SNAT Packet Forwarding

Specifies the type of traffic for which the system attempts to forward (instead of reject) Any-IP packets, when the traffic originates from a member of a SNAT. There are two possible values:

TCP and UDP Only

TCP and UDP Only: Specifies that the system forwards, for TCP and UDP traffic only, Any-IP packets originating from a SNAT member. All Traffic: Specifies that the system forwards, for all traffic types, Any-IP packets originating from a SNAT member.

Table 4.1 General properties for globally managing local traffic

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

4-5


Chapter 4

Configuring persistence properties Using the Configuration utility, you can perform certain persistence-related tasks such as managing the way that destination IP addresses are stored in the persistence table, and specifying a data group that contains proxy IP addresses. Table 4.2, on page 4-6, lists and describes the properties that you can configure to manage general persistence-related properties.

Property

Description

Default Value

Management of Destination Address Entries

Specifies how the system manages the destination IP address entries in the persistence table. Note that when either the timeout value or the maximum number of persistence entries is reached, the BIG-IP system no longer adds destination address entries to the persistence table. To ensure that the BIG-IP system can always add entries to the persistence table, either increase the timeout value in the Destination Address Affinity persistence profile, or increase the maximum number of entries allowed.

Timeout

Timeout: Specifies that entries remain in the persistence table until the BIG-IP system times them out, based on the timeout value configured in the corresponding persistence profile. Maximum Entries: Specifies that the system stops adding entries to the persistence table when the number of entries reaches the value specified in the Maximum Entries setting, following. Maximum Entries

Specifies the maximum entries allowed in the persistence table before the BIG-IP system stops adding entries. Note that you can increase this value with no significant impact to the amount of memory consumed.

2048

Proxy Address Data Group

Specifies the data group that contains proxy IP addresses. You use this data group to identify the addresses that are to be treated as proxies when you enable the Map Proxies option on a persistence profile.

aol

Table 4.2 General properties for controlling session persistence

4-6


5 SSL Certificates for BIG-IP Devices

• Introduction • Device certificates • Trusted device certificates


SSL Certificates for BIG-IP Devices

Introduction In some cases, BIG-IP® systems need to exchange device certificates, that is, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates and keys used to verify each others’ credentials before exchanging data. For example, multiple BIG-IP systems might need to verify credentials before communicating with each other to collect performance data over a wide area network, for global traffic management. Note

If you are using the device service clustering feature (DSCTM), see the BIG-IP® Redundant Systems Configuration Guide. If you are using SSL certificates to terminate and initiate local SSL traffic, see the guides BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Concepts and BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations. To perform mutual authentication, BIG-IP systems can use either self-signed certificates or CA-signed certificates: ◆

Self-signed certificates When you install BIG-IP software, the application includes a self-signed SSL certificate. A self-signed certificate is an authentication mechanism that is created and authenticated by the system on which it resides.

CA-signed certificates If your network includes one or more certificate authority (CA) servers, you can replace the self-signed certificate on each BIG-IP system with a CA-signed certificate, that is, a certificate that is signed by a third party. Authenticating BIG-IP systems using CA-signed certificates is more secure than using self-signed certificates.

BIG-IP systems on the network uses self-signed or CA-signed certificates for these reasons:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

To request authentication A BIG-IP system can send a certificate to another (target) BIG-IP system to request authentication by that target BIG-IP system. In this context, the certificate is referred to as a device certificate.

To grant authentication A BIG-IP system can store one or more certificates that it trusts, to check when receiving a device certificate from another BIG-IP system during a request for authentication.

5-1


Chapter 5

Device certificates When requesting SSL authentication from another system, the BIG-IP system need to present its device certificate. On the BIG-IP system, a device certificate is an SSL certificate that a BIG-IP system presents to another device on the network, for authentication purposes. A device certificate can be either a self-signed certificate or a CA-signed certificate. Using the Configuration utility, you can view, import, renew, or export a device certificate. You can also import or export a device key. The properties of a device key are: • Key type (such as KTYPE_RSA_PRIVATE) • Key size (such as 1024 bits) • Security type, either Normal or FIPS (FIPS-enabled systems only)

Trusted device certificates The BIG-IP system uses a trusted device certificate or a certificate chain to authenticate another system. For example, a BIG-IP system running Global Traffic ManagerTM system might send a request to a Local Traffic ManagerTM system. In this case, the Local Traffic Manager system receiving the request checks its trusted device certificate or certificate chain in its attempt to authenticate the request. The SSL protocol supports ten levels of authentication: ◆

Level 0 Certificates are verified by the system to which they belong. These types of certificates are also known as self-signed certificates.

Level 1 Certificates are authenticated by a Certificate Authority server that is separate from the system.

Levels 2 through 9 Certificates are authenticated by additional CA servers, which verify the authenticity of other servers. These multiple levels of authentication are referred to as certificate chains, and allow for a tiered verification system that ensures that only authorized communications occur between servers.

To configure multi-level certificate authentication, you must: • Import on to each BIG-IP system the trusted device certificates that are necessary to authenticate communications with other BIG-IP systems. • Specify the depth of the certificate chain that the BIG-IP system must traverse.

5-2


SSL Certificates for BIG-IP Devices

You can view, import, or export a trusted device certificate or certificate chain. To manage device certificates, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Device Certificates.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

5-3


Chapter 5

5-4


6 External File Management

• Introduction to external file management • Data group files • iFiles • External monitor program files • SSL certificate files


External File Management

Introduction to external file management You can import certain external files for use by iRules速, or you can import or create SSL certificates. The external files that iRules can use can be data group files and iFiles. Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, you can manage these external files or SSL certificates from a central location. To use this feature, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click File Management.

Data group files Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, you can import an existing file from another system to the BIG-IP system with content that you want to reference in an iRule. There are three possible types of data group files: address, integer, and string. Figure 6.1 shows an example of an address data group. This example shows host and network entries that have or lack corresponding values. class addr_testclass { { host 192.168.1.1 host 192.168.1.2 { "host 2" } network 192.168.2.0/24 network 192.168.3.0/24 { "network 2" } } }

Figure 6.1 Example of an address data group

Figure 6.2 shows an example of an integer data group. This example shows integer entries that have corresponding values. class int_testclass { { 1 { "test 1" } 2 { "test 2" } } }

Figure 6.2 Example of an integer data group

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

6-1


Chapter 6

Figure 6.3 shows an example of a string data group. This example shows string entries that have or lack corresponding values. class str_testclass { { "str1" { "value 1" } "str2" { "value 2" } } }

Figure 6.3 Example of a string data group

To use this feature, you first import an existing file to the BIG-IP system and then assign a new name to the file. To import a file and assign it a new name, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click File Management. The imported file has these attributes: File Properties

Description

Type

The type of file contents. Possible types are address, string, or integer.

Size

The size, in bytes, of the imported.

Version

The version of the imported file.

Referenced

An indicator of whether the file references another file.

Last Update Date

The time that the file was created.

Created By

The name of the user account that created the file.

Partition / Path

The path name to the administrative partition on the BIG-IP system in which the file resides.

Table 6.1 External data group file attributes and their descriptions

After importing the file, you use the Local Traffic area of the Configuration utility to create a new data group based on the imported file. You can then reference the new data group from within an iRule. For more information, see the guide titled BIG-IP速 Local Traffic ManagerTM: Concepts.

6-2


External File Management

iFiles Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, you can import an existing file or URL from another system to the BIG-IP system, with content that you want an iRule to return to a client based on some iRule event. To use this feature, you first import an existing file or URL to the BIG-IP system and then assign a new name to the file. To import a file with the Configuration utility and assign it a new name, you use the System area of the navigation pane. This imported file has these attributes:

File Properties

Description

Size

The size, in bytes, of the iFile.

Version

The version of the iFile.

Referenced

An indicator of whether the iFile references another file.

Created

The time that the iFile was created.

Created By

The name of the user account that created the iFile.

Partition / Path

The path name to the administrative partition on the BIG-IP system in which the iFile resides.

Table 6.2 External file attributes and their descriptions

Note

The maximum allowed size of a file that you import is 4MB. Next, you associate the newly-named imported file with an iFile, which is a file you create for referencing within an iRule. For more information, see the guide titled BIG-IP速 Local Traffic ManagerTM: Concepts.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

6-3


Chapter 6

External monitor program files Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, you can import an existing external program monitor file to the BIG-IP system, with content that an external monitor can reference. To use this feature, you first import an existing file from another system to the BIG-IP system and then assign a new name to the file. To import a file and assign it a new name, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration Utility速, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click File Management. The imported file has these attributes: File Properties

Description

Size

The size, in bytes, of the imported.

Version

The version of the imported file.

Referenced

An indicator of whether the external monitor references the external monitor program file.

Last Update Date

The time that the file was created.

Created By

The name of the user account that created the file.

Partition / Path

The path name to the administrative partition on the BIG-IP system in which the file resides.

Table 6.3 External monitor program file attributes and their descriptions

After importing the file, you use the Local Traffic area of the Configuration utility to create a new external monitor program based on the imported file. For more information, see the guide titled BIG-IP速 Local Traffic ManagerTM: Concepts.

6-4


External File Management

SSL certificate files Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, you can import an existing certificate file from another system to the BIG-IP system, or you can create a new SSL certificate. To import or create an SSL certificate, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click File Management. An imported certificate file has these attributes: • Contents • Common Name • Organization • Expiration date • Partition / Path Using the Configuration utility, you can view, import, renew, or export a device certificate. You can also import or export a device key. The properties of a device key are: • Key type (such as KTYPE_RSA_PRIVATE) • Key size (such as 1024 bits) • Security type, either Normal or FIPS (FIPS-enabled systems only) There are several types of files that you can import using the File Management screens of the BIG-IP Configuration utility. These file types are: • Key files • Certificate files • PKCS 12 (IIS) files • Archive files • Certificate Revocation List (CRL) files Note

Do not attempt to manage certificates by copying SSL certificate files into the /config/ssl/* directory and then reloading the system configuration. Certificate-related files are not stored in that location. Therefore, you must use the BIG-IP Configuration utility or tmsh to manage certificate files, key files, and CRL files.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

6-5


Chapter 6

6-6


7 BIG-IP Platform Properties

• Introduction to platform properties • General properties • Redundant device configuration • User administration properties


BIG-IP Platform Properties

Introduction to platform properties Part of managing a BIG-IP® system involves configuring and maintaining a certain set of system properties. These properties consist of general platform properties such as the BIG-IP system host name, IP address, and passwords for its system administrative accounts. To manage these properties, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Platform.

General properties You can configure these general properties for the BIG-IP system platform: • An IP address, netmask, and route for the management port • The host name for the BIG-IP system • The host IP address for the BIG-IP system • The time zone in which the BIG-IP system operates

Management port configuration To assign an IP address to the management port, you can either use the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), or you can specify an IP address manually, using the BIG-IP Configuration utility.

The management port Every BIG-IP system has a management port. The management port is a special interface that the BIG-IP system uses to receive or send certain types of administrative traffic. You cannot use the management port for normal traffic that is slated for load balancing. Instead, the BIG-IP system uses the TMM switch interfaces for that type of traffic. TMM switch interfaces are those interfaces controlled by the Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) service. Configuring the management port of a BIG-IP system means assigning an IP address to the port, supplying a netmask for the IP address, and specifying an IP address for the BIG-IP system to use as a default route. The IP address that you assign to the management port must be on a different network than the self IP addresses that you assign to VLANs. Note that specifying a default route for the management port is only necessary if you intend to manage the BIG-IP system from a node on a different subnet. Note

The IP address for the management port must be in IPv4 format.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

7-1


Chapter 7

Host name Every BIG-IP system must have a host name that is a fully qualified domain name. An example of a host name is mybigip.win.net.

Host IP address Every BIG-IP system must have a host IP address. This IP address can be the same as the address that you used for the management port, or you can assign a unique address. The default value is Use Management Port IP Address.

Time zone Another of the general platform properties that you can specify is the time zone. The many time zones that you can choose from are grouped into these categories: Africa, America, Antarctica, Arctic, Asia, Atlantic, Australia, Europe, Indian, and Pacific. You should specify the time zone that most closely represents the location of the BIG-IP system you are configuring.

7-2


BIG-IP Platform Properties

Redundant device configuration A BIG-IP system is typically part of a device group that synchronizes configuration data across two or more BIG-IP devices and provides high availability (failover and connection mirroring). To ensure that this operates successfully, you assign a device group, to the root folder, to which you want to synchronize configuration data. All folders and sub-folders in the folder hierarchy inherit this device group as a folder attribute. You also assign a floating traffic group to the root folder. All folders and sub-folders in the folder hierarchy inherit this traffic group as a folder attribute. For detailed information on redundant system configuration, see the BIG-IP速 Redundant Systems Configuration Guide.

User administration properties Part of managing platform-related properties is maintaining passwords for the system account. You can also configure the system to allow certain IP addresses to access the BIG-IP system through SSH.

Administrative account passwords When you ran the Setup utility on the BIG-IP system, you set up some administrative accounts. Specifically, you set up the root and admin accounts. The root and admin accounts are for use by BIG-IP system administrators. Users logging in with the root account have terminal and browser access to the BIG-IP system. By default, users logging in with the admin account have browser-only access to the BIG-IP system. You can use the General screen of the platform properties to change the passwords for root and admin accounts on a regular basis. To change a password, locate the Root Account or Admin Account setting, and in the Password box, type a new password. In the Confirm box, re-type the same password.

Configuring SSH access When you configure SSH access, you enable user access to the BIG-IP system through SSH. Also, only the IP addresses that you specify are allowed access to the system using SSH. To configure SSH access, locate the SSH Access setting and click the Enabled box. Then use the SSH IP Allow setting to select either * All Addresses or Specify Range, which allows you to specify a range of addresses for which access is allowed.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

7-3


Chapter 7

7-4


8 Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

• Introduction • Understanding fail-safe • Understanding fast failover


Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

Introduction Two features of high availability are fail-safe and HA groups. The remainder of this chapter describes these features. Important

For information on implementing configuration synchronization, failover, and connection mirroring, see the BIG-IP® Redundant Systems Configuration Guide and BIG-IP® TMOS®: Implementations.

Understanding fail-safe Fail-safe is the ability of a BIG-IP® system to monitor certain aspects of the system or network, detect interruptions, and consequently take some action. More specifically: • In the case of a redundant system, a device can detect a problem with a service or VLAN, and initiate failover to a peer device. • In the case of a single device (non-redundant system), the system can detect a problem with a service or VLAN, and take some action, such as restarting the service. The BIG-IP system offers these types of fail-safe: ◆

System fail-safe Monitors the switch board component and a set of key system services.

VLAN fail-safe Monitors traffic on a VLAN. Note

Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can configure fail-safe. To configure and manage fail-safe, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click High Availability.

Configuring system fail-safe When you configure system fail-safe, the BIG-IP system monitors various hardware components, as well as the heartbeat of various system services, and can take action if the system detects a heartbeat failure.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

8-1


Chapter 8

Configuring hardware-component monitoring You can configure the BIG-IP system to monitor the switch board component and then take some action if the BIG-IP system detects a failure. Using the Configuration utility, you can specify the action that you want the BIG-IP system to take when the component fails. Possible actions that the BIG-IP system can take are: • Reboot the BIG-IP system. • Restart all system services. • Go offline. • Go offline and abort the TMM service. • Fail Over and Restart TM.

Configuring system-service monitoring You can specify the particular action that you want the BIG-IP system to take when the heartbeat of a system service fails. The following table lists each system service, and shows the possible actions that the BIG-IP system can take in the event of a heartbeat failure.

System Service

Possible actions

BIGD

Restart the system service. Restart all system services.

MCPD GTMD

Reboot the BIG-IP system. Go offline. Go offline and abort the TMM service.

TMROUTED (Single device only)

Take no action.

BCM56XXD

Restart No action

TMM

Go offline and down links and restart. Restart the system service. Restart all system services. Reboot the BIG-IP system. Go offline. Go offline and restart.

SOD

Reboot the system. Restart all system services. Take no action.

CBRD

Restart the system service. Take no action.

Table 8.1 Possible actions in response to heartbeat failure 8-2


Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

System Service

Possible actions

SCRIPTD

Restart the system service. Restart all system services. Reboot the BIG-IP system. Go offline. Go offline and restart. Take no action.

DEDUP_ADMIN

Restart the system service. Take no action.

Table 8.1 Possible actions in response to heartbeat failure

Configuring VLAN fail-safe For maximum reliability, the BIG-IP system supports failure detection on all VLANs. When you configure the fail-safe option on a VLAN, the BIG-IP system monitors network traffic going through that VLAN. If the BIG-IP system detects a loss of traffic on the VLAN and the fail-safe timeout period has elapsed, the BIG-IP system attempts to generate traffic by issuing ARP requests to nodes accessible through the VLAN. The BIG-IP system also generates an ARP request for the default route, if the default router is accessible from the VLAN. Failover is averted if the BIG-IP system is able to send and receive any traffic on the VLAN, including a response to its ARP request. For a redundant system configuration, if the BIG-IP system does not receive traffic on the VLAN before the timeout period expires, the system can initiate failover and switch control to the standby device, reboot, or restart all system services. The default action is Reboot. For a single device, the system can either reboot or restart all system services. The default action is Reboot. WARNING

You should configure the fail-safe option on a VLAN only after the BIG-IP system is in a stable production environment. Otherwise, routine network changes might cause failover unnecessarily. Each interface card installed on the BIG-IP system is typically mapped to a different VLAN. Thus, when you set the fail-safe option on a particular VLAN, you need to know the interface to which the VLAN is mapped. You can use the Configuration utility to view VLAN names and their associated interfaces. There are two ways to configure VLAN fail-safe: from the Redundancy Properties screen, or from the VLANs screen.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

8-3


Chapter 8

Understanding fast failover The BIG-IP system includes a feature known as fast failover. Fast failover is a feature that is based on the concept of an HA group. An HA group is a set of trunks, pools, or clusters (or any combination of these) that you want the BIG-IP system to use to calculate an overall health score for a device in a redundant system configuration. A health score is based on the number of members that are currently available for any trunks, pools, and clusters in the HA group, combined with a weight that you assign to each trunk, pool, and cluster. The device that has the best overall score at any given time becomes or remains the active device. To configure and manage fast failover, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click High Availability. Note

To use the fast failover feature, you must first create a redundant system configuration. The fast failover feature is designed for a redundant configuration that contains a maximum of two devices in a device group. Note

Only VIPRION® systems can have a cluster as an object in an HA group. For all other platforms, HA group members consist of pools and trunks only. An HA group is typically configured to fail over based on trunk health in particular. Trunk configurations are not synchronized between units, which means that the number of trunk members on the two units often differs whenever a trunk loses or gains members. The HA group feature allows failover to occur based on changes to trunk health instead of on system or VLAN failure. Only one HA group can exist on the BIG-IP system. By default, the HA group feature is disabled. To summarize, when you configure the HA group, the process of one BIG-IP device failing over to the other based on HA scores is noticeably faster than if failover occurs due to a hardware or daemon failure.

Understanding HA score calculation The BIG-IP system calculates an HA score based on these criteria: • The number of available members for each object (such as a trunk) • The weight that you assign to each object in the HA group • The threshold you specify for each object (optional) • The active bonus value that you specify for the HA group

8-4


Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

Specifying a weight A weight is a health value that you assign to each object in the HA group (that is, pool, trunk, and cluster). The weight that you assign to each object must be in the range of 10 through 100. The maximum overall score that the BIG-IP system can potentially calculate for a device is the sum of the individual weights for the HA group objects, plus the active bonus value. (For information on the Active Bonus setting, see Specifying an active bonus, on page 8-6.) Table 8.2, on page 8-5 shows an example of how the system calculates a score for the device, based solely on the weight of objects in the HA group. In this example, the HA group contains two pools (my_http_pool and my_ftp_pool) and one trunk (my_trunk1). A user has assigned a weight to each object.

Available Members

User-assigned Weight

Object Name

Members

HA Score

my_http_pool

8

5 (62.5%)

50

31 (60% x 50)

my_ftp_pool

6

6 (100%)

20

20 (100% x 20)

my_trunk1

4

3 (75%)

30

23 (75% x 30)

Total device score = 74

Table 8.2 Example of an HA score calculation for a device

On each device, the system uses each weight, along with a percentage that the system derives for each object (the percentage of the object’s members that are available), to calculate a score for each object. The system then adds the scores to determine a total score for the device. The device with the highest score becomes or remains the active device in the redundant system configuration. Note that if you have configured VLAN fail-safe, and the VLAN fails on an active device, the device goes offline regardless of its score, and its peer becomes active.

Specifying a threshold For each object in an HA group, you can specify an optional setting known as a threshold. A threshold is a value that specifies the number of object members that must be available to prevent failover. If the number of available members dips below the threshold, the BIG-IP system assigns a score of 0 to the object, so that the score of that object no longer contributes to the overall score of the device.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

8-5


Chapter 8

For example, if a trunk in the HA group has four members and you specify a threshold value of 3, and the number of available trunk members falls to 2, then the trunk contributes a score of 0 to the total device score. If the number of available object members equals or exceeds the threshold value, or you do not specify a threshold, the BIG-IP system calculates the score as described previously, by multiplying the percentage of available object members by the weight for each object and then adding the scores to determine the overall device score. Tip

Do not configure the tmsh attribute min-up-members on any pool that you intend to include in the HA group.

Specifying an active bonus An active bonus is an amount that the BIG-IP system automatically adds to the overall score of the active device. An active bonus ensures that the active device remains active when the deviceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s score would otherwise temporarily fall below the score of the standby device. A common reason to specify an active bonus is to prevent failover due to flapping, the condition where failover occurs frequently as a trunk member toggles between availability and unavailability. In this case, you might want to prevent the HA scoring feature from triggering failover each time a trunk member is lost. You might also want to prevent the HA scoring feature from triggering failover when you make minor changes to the BIG-IP system configuration, such as adding or removing a trunk member. Suppose that the HA group on each device contains a trunk with four members, and you assign a weight of 30 to each trunk. Without an active bonus defined, if the trunk on device 1 loses some number of members, failover occurs because the overall calculated score for device 1 becomes lower than that of device 2. Table 8.3 shows the scores that could result if the trunk on device 1 loses one trunk member and no active bonus is specified.

Event

Members Available

Trunk score

Device Score

Failover?

Device 1

Device 2

Device 1

Device 2

Device 1

Device 2

Device 1 is active (initial state)

4 (100%)

4 (100%)

30

30

30

30

No

Device 1 loses a trunk member

3 (75%)

4 (100%)

30

23

30

Yes

23 (75% of 30)

Table 8.3 Failover when no active bonus is specified

8-6

(100% of 30)


Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

You can prevent this failover from occur i ng by specifying an active bonus value. In our example, if we specify an active bonus of 10 (the default value), the score of the active device changes from 23 to 33, thereby ensuring that the score of the active device remains equal to or higher than that of the standby device (30). Although you specify an active bonus value on each device, the BIG-IP system uses the active bonus specified on the active device only, to contribute to the score of the active device. The BIG-IP system never uses the active bonus on the standby device to contribute to the score of the standby device. Important

An exception to this behavior is when the active device score is 0. If the score of the active device is 0, the system does not add the active bonus to the active device score. To decide on an active bonus value, calculate the trunk score for some number of failed members (such as one of four members), and then specify an active bonus that results in a trunk score that is greater than or equal to the weight that you assigned to the trunk. For example, if you assigned a weight of 30 to the trunk, and one of the four trunk members fails, the trunk score becomes 23 (75% of 30), putting the device at risk for failover. However, if you specified an active bonus of 7 or higher, failover would not actually occur, because a score of 7 or higher, when added to the score of 23, is greater than or equal to 30. For the procedure on specifying an active bonus, see 6 Device 1 regains two trunk member Device 2 remains the active device even when one trunk member is unavailable, due to the active bonus., on page 8-9.

Example You can prevent failover from occur i ng by specifying an active bonus value. Table 8.4, on page 8-8, and the list that follows, show how configuring an active bonus for the active device can affect failover.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

8-7


Chapter 8

Event

Trunk Members Available Device 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

Device 2

Device 1 is active (initial state)

4 (100%) 4 (100%)

Device 1 loses a trunk member

3 (75%)

Device 1 loses another trunk member

2 (50%)

Device 1 goes to standby. Device 2 goes active.

2 (50%)

4 (100%)

Device Score Trunk Score Device 1

Device 2

Device 1

30

30

10

(100% of 30)

(100% of 30)

23 (75% of 30)

4 (100%)

15 (50% of 30)

4 (100%)

15 (50% of 30)

Device 2 loses a trunk member

2 (50%)

Device 1 regains two trunk members

4 (100%)

3 (75%)

15 (50% of 30)

3 (75%)

Active Bonus

30 (100% of 30)

30

Device 2

(Trunk Score + Active Bonus)

Fail over?

Device 1

Device 2

0

40

30

No

10

0

33

30

No

10

0

25

30

Yes

0

10

15

40

N/A

0

10

15

33

No

0

10

30

33

No

(100% of 30)

30 (100% of 30)

30 (100% of 30)

23 (75% of 30)

23 (75% of 30)

Table 8.4 Example of configuring an active bonus to prevent failover

To help understand Table 8.4, the row numbers in the left column of the table correspond to the explanations below:

8-8

1

Device 1 is active (initial state) With all trunk members available on both units, and the active bonus configured, the active device (device 1) retains the higher device score and therefore remains active.

2

Device 1 loses a trunk member The device score for device 1 is still higher than the score for device 2, due to an active bonus value of 10.


Fail-Safe and Fast Failover

BIG-IPÂŽ TMOSÂŽ: Concepts

3

Device 1 loses another trunk member With an active bonus of 10, failover occurs when 50% of the members are lost.

4

Device 1 switches to standby mode and device 2 becomes active Once the active device (device 1) has failed over to device 2, the active bonus on device 1 no longer applies, thus reducing its score from 25 to 15. The active bonus on device 2 is then applied, increasing device 2â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s score from 30 to 40.

5

Device 2 loses a trunk member If the active device (device 2) loses a trunk member, the score on device 2 is still higher than device 1 (with two unavailable members), due to the active bonus.

6

Device 1 regains two trunk member Device 2 remains the active device even when one trunk member is unavailable, due to the active bonus.

8-9


Chapter 8

8 - 10


9 Archives

• Introducing archives • What is an archive? • Working with archives


Archives

Introducing archives On any BIG-IP® system, you have a set of data that you created when you initially configured the system, using the Setup utility and the Configuration utility or tmsh. This data consists of traffic management elements such as virtual servers, pools, and profiles. Configuration data also consists of system and network definitions such as interface properties, self IP addresses, VLANs, and more. Once you have created the configuration data for the BIG-IP system, you can replicate all of this set of data in a separate file. You can then use this replicated data later, for these reasons: ◆

As an archive for disaster recovery Using the Archives feature, you can back up the current configuration data, and if necessary, restore the data at a later time. We highly recommend that you use this feature to mitigate the potential loss of BIG-IP system configuration data. To create an archive, you can use the Configuration utility, which stores the configuration data in a special file known as a user configuration set, or UCS file. You can then use the UCS file to recover from any loss of data, in the unlikely event that you need to do so. For more information about creating and managing archives, see the remainder of this chapter.

As a way to propagate data to other systems Using the single configuration file feature, you can easily and quickly propagate the exact configuration of the BIG-IP system to other BIG-IP systems. To create a single configuration file, you export the configuration data to a special file known as an .scf file. You can then use the .scf file to configure another system in one simple operation. For details about using a single configuration file, see Chapter 3, Single Configuration Files (SCF).

To configure and manage archives, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Archives.

What is an archive? Before you replace a version of the BIG-IP system with a newer version, you should always create an archive, which is a backup copy of the configuration data. This archive is in the form of a user configuration set, or UCS. Then, if you need to recover that data later, you can restore the data from the archive that you created. A UCS contains the following types of BIG-IP system configuration data: • System-specific configuration files • Product licenses • User accounts and password information • Domain Name Service (DNS) zone files

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

9-1


Chapter 9

â&#x20AC;˘ Installed SSL keys and certificates Each time you back up the configuration data, the BIG-IP system creates a new file with a .ucs extension. Each UCS file contains various configuration files needed for the BIG-IP system to operate correctly, as well as the configuration data. Important

To create, delete, upload, or download an archive, you must have either the Administrator or Resource Administrator role assigned to your user account.

Working with archives Using the Configuration utility, you can save and restore archives that are stored on the BIG-IP system. Furthermore, for added security, you can save archives to and restore archives from a remote system, that is, the system on which you are running the Configuration utility.

Saving archives By default, the system stores all archives in the directory /var/local/ucs. You can specify a different location, but in this case, the Configuration utility does not display the UCS files when you view the list of archives After you create an archive on the BIG-IP system, you can download a copy of the UCS file to the system from which you are running the Configuration utility (a secure remote system). This provides an extra level of protection by preserving the configuration data on a remote system. In the unlikely event that you need to restore the data, and a BIG-IP system event prevents you from accessing the archive in the BIG-IP system directory in which you saved the archive, you still have a backup copy of the data. Important

Any UCS file that you create includes the host name of the BIG-IP system as part of the data stored in that file. When you later specify this UCS file during the process of restoring configuration data to a BIG-IP system, the host name stored in this UCS file must match the host name of the system to which you are restoring the configuration data. Otherwise, the system does not fully restore the data. Important

If your configuration data includes SSL keys and certificates, be sure to store the archive file in a secure environment.

9-2


Archives

Restoring archives Not only is the /var/local/ucs directory the only location on the BIG-IP system in which you can save an archive, but it is also the only location on the BIG-IP system from which you can restore an archive. However, if you previously downloaded an archive to a remote system, and a BIG-IP system event prevents you from accessing the /var/local/ucs directory, you can upload the archive from that remote system.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

9-3


Chapter 9

9-4


10 BIG-IP System Services

â&#x20AC;˘ Managing BIG-IP System Services


BIG-IP System Services

Managing BIG-IP System Services The BIG-IP® system includes a number of services that you can start, stop, or restart using the Configuration utility. This ability to start or stop services from within the Configuration utility is useful when you want to run only those services that you need to successfully manage network traffic. The Configuration utility screen for managing services lists the name of each service and its current status. At a minimum, the services that you can stop or start with the Configuration utility are: ◆

ntpd Sets and maintains the system time of day.

snmpd Receives and processes SNMP requests, and sends trap notifications. Note that you must stop this service before updating the SNMP v3 file /config/net-snmp/snmpd.conf, which specifies SNMP user names.

sshd Provides secure remote login between untrusted hosts.

If you have other BIG-IP product modules running on the BIG-IP system, such as Global Traffic Manager™, you might see other services listed on the Services screen. Important

You must have either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role assigned to your user account to stop, start, or restart a service. To configure and manage system services, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System and click Services.

Viewing the status of a service When you view the list of services available on the BIG-IP system, you can also view current status. In the Configuration utility, you can see this status in the History column. Examples of status for a service are: Running for 6 days, Running, and down, not configured.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

10 - 1


Chapter 10

10 - 2


11 SNMP

• Introduction to SNMP administration • SNMP agent configuration • Working with SNMP MIB files • Overview of F5 enterprise MIB files • Overview of the RMON MIB file • Collecting performance data


SNMP

Introduction to SNMP administration Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an industry-standard protocol that gives a standard SNMP management system the ability to remotely manage a device on the network. One of the devices that an SNMP management system can manage is a BIG-IP® system. The SNMP versions that the BIG-IP system supports are: SNMP v1, SNMP v2c, and SNMP v3. The BIG-IP system implementation of SNMP is based on a well-known SNMP package, Net-SNMP, which was formerly known as UCD-SNMP. To configure and manage SNMP, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click SNMP.

Reviewing an industry-standard SNMP implementation A standard SNMP implementation consists of an SNMP manager, which runs on a management system and makes requests to a device, and an SNMP agent, which runs on the managed device and fulfills those requests. SNMP device management is based on the standard management information base (MIB) known as MIB-II, as well as object IDs and MIB files. • The MIB defines the standard objects that you can manage for a device, presenting those objects in a hierarchical, tree structure. • Each object defined in the MIB has a unique object ID (OID), written as a series of integers. An OID indicates the location of the object within the MIB tree. • A set of MIB files resides on both the SNMP manager system and the managed device. MIB files specify values for the data objects defined in the MIB. This set of MIB files consists of standard SNMP MIB files and enterprise MIB files. Enterprise MIB files are those MIB files that pertain to a particular company, such as F5 Networks®, Inc. Typical SNMP tasks that an SNMP manager performs include polling for data about a device, receiving notifications from a device about specific events, and modifying writable object data.

Reviewing the BIG-IP system SNMP implementation To comply with the standard SNMP implementation, the BIG-IP system includes both an SNMP agent, a set of standard SNMP MIB files, and a set of enterprise MIB files (those that are specific to the BIG-IP system). The enterprise MIB files typically reside on both the BIG-IP system and system running the SNMP manager. Fortunately, you can use the browser-based Configuration utility to download the enterprise MIB files to your SNMP manager.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 1


Chapter 11

Using the BIG-IP system implementation of SNMP, the SNMP manager can perform these distinct functions: • Poll for information (such as performance metrics) • Receive notification of specific events that occur on the BIG-IP system • Set data for SNMP objects that have a read/write access type

Summarizing SNMP configuration on the BIG-IP system Before you can use an SNMP manager system to manage a BIG-IP system remotely, you must perform the following procedures on the BIG-IP system, using the BIG-IP® Configuration utility. ◆

Configuring the SNMP agent There are a number of ways to configure the SNMP agent on the BIG-IP system. For example, you can allow client access to information that the SNMP agent collects, and you can configure the way that the SNMP agent handles SNMP traps. (Traps are definitions of unsolicited notification messages that the BIG-IP alert system and the SNMP agent send to the SNMP manager when certain events occur.)

Downloading MIB files You can download two sets of MIB files to your remote manager system: the standard SNMP MIB files and the enterprise MIB files. Note

An alternate way to configure SNMP is to use tmsh. For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

SNMP agent configuration You configure the SNMP agent by performing the following tasks:

11 - 2

Configuring BIG-IP system information Specify a system contact name and the location of the BIG-IP system.

Configuring client access to the SNMP agent Configure the BIG-IP system to allow access to the SNMP agent from an SNMP manager system.

Controlling access to SNMP data Assign access levels to SNMP communities or users, to control access to SNMP data.


SNMP

Configuring traps Enable or disable traps and specify the destination SNMP manager system for SNMP traps. Note

Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can configure SNMP on the BIG-IP system.

Controlling access to SNMP data To better control access to SNMP data, you can assign an access level to an SNMP v1 or v2c community, or to an SNMP v3 user. There is a default access level for communities, and this access level is read-only. This means that you cannot write to an individual data object that has a read/write access type until you change the default read-only access level of the community or user. When you set the access level of a community or user to read/write, and an individual data object has a read-only access type, access to the object remains read-only. In short, the access level or type that is the most secure takes precedence when there is a conflict. Table 11.1 illustrates this point.

If the access type of an object is...

And you set the access level of a community or user to...

Then access to the object is...

Read-only

Read-only

Read/write

Read-only

Read-only

Read-only

Read/write

Read/write

Read-only

Read/write

Table 11.1 Access control for SNMP data

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 3


Chapter 11

Working with SNMP MIB files There are two sets of MIB files that typically reside on the BIG-IP system and the SNMP manager system: enterprise MIB files (that is, F5速-specific MIB files) and standard SNMP MIB files. Both sets of MIB files are present on the BIG-IP system, in the directory /usr/share/snmp/mibs. However, you still need to download them to your SNMP manager system. You can download these MIB files from the Welcome screen of the browser-based Configuration utility. The implementation of the Packet Velocity速 ASIC (PVA) feature affects the ability for users to use MIB-II to gather certain kinds of data. For example, with a PVA system, you can use MIB-II to collect statistics on physical system interfaces, but not on logical interfaces (that is, VLANs). The BIG-IP system uses MIB-II for gathering standard Linux data only. You cannot use MIB-II to gather data that is specific to the BIG-IP system and instead must use the F5 enterprise MIB files. All OIDS for BIG-IP system data are contained in the F5 enterprise MIB files, including all interface statistics (1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.2.4 (sysNetwork.sysInterfaces)). If you want to use SNMP to monitor a specific process on the BIG-IP system, you can use the HOST-RESOURCES MIB and then write a script to monitor that process. Then, for example, to determine the number of TMM processes currently running on the system, you can use a command such as the following: snmpwalk -v2c -c public localhost hrSWRunName | egrep "\"tmm(.[0-9]+)?\"" | wc -l

Note

All BIG-IP system statistics are defined by 64-bit counters. Thus, because only SNMP v2c supports 64-bit counters, your management system needs to use SNMP v2c to query BIG-IP system statistics data.

11 - 4


SNMP

Overview of F5 enterprise MIB files The F5 enterprise MIB files contain information that you can use for your remote management station to: poll the SNMP agent for BIG-IP system-specific information, receive BIG-IP system-specific notifications, or set BIG-IP system data. To perform remote management, download the following F5 enterprise MIB files to the SNMP manager system: • F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt • F5-BIGIP-LOCAL-MIB.txt • F5-BIGIP-SYSTEM-MIB.txt • F5-BIGIP-GLOBAL-MIB.txt Once you have downloaded all of the necessary MIB files, you should familiarize yourself with the contents of the enterprise MIBs, for purposes of managing the BIG-IP system and troubleshooting BIG-IP system events. Note

To manage a BIG-IP system with SNMP, you need to use the standard set of SNMP commands. For information about SNMP commands, consult your favorite third-party SNMP documentation, or visit the web site http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net.

Using the F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt file The F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt file contains objects pertaining to any common information, as well as all F5-specific notifications (SNMP traps). This MIB file specifies and defines objects for which all other BIG-IP MIB files reference. You can identify the traps within this MIB file by viewing the file and finding object names that show the designation NOTIFICATION-TYPE. When an F5-specific trap sends a notification to the SNMP manager system, the SNMP manager system receives a text message describing the event or problem that has occurred. For troubleshooting assistance regarding F5-specific traps, see Appendix A, Troubleshooting SNMP Traps.

Using the F5-BIGIP-LOCAL-MIB.txt file The F5-BIGIP-LOCAL-MIB.txt file contains information about the properties associated with any local traffic management object (virtual servers, pools, nodes, profiles, SNATs, health monitors, and iRules®). An SNMP manager system can access and use this information to help you manage local application traffic. For example, you can:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 5


Chapter 11

• View the maximum number of entries that a node can have open at any given time. • Get a pool name. • View the current active members for a load balancing pool. • Reset pool statistics • Get profile information such as the total number of concurrent authentication sessions. You can also reset statistics for any of these objects.

Using the F5-BIGIP-SYSTEM-MIB.txt file The F5-BIGIP-SYSTEM-MIB.txt file describes objects representing common BIG-IP system information. Examples of information in this MIB file are global statistic data, network information, and platform information. Some of the data in this MIB file is similar to that defined in MIB-II, but is not exactly the same.

Using the F5-BIGIP-GLOBAL-MIB.txt The F5-BIGIP-GLOBAL-MIB.txt file contains information that an SNMP manager system can use to help manage global application traffic objects, such as wide IPs, virtual servers, pools, links, servers, and data centers. You can reset statistics for any of these objects.

Overview of the RMON MIB file In addition to the F5 enterprise MIB files, the BIG-IP system also provides the remote network monitoring (RMON) MIB file, RMON-MIB.txt.

Using the RMON-MIB.txt file The implementation of RMON on the BIG-IP system differs slightly from the standard RMON implementation, in the following ways: • The BIG-IP system implementation of RMON supports four of the nine RMON groups. The four supported RMON groups are: statistics, history, alarms, and events. • The RMON-MIB.txt file monitors the BIG-IP system interfaces (that is, sysIfIndex), and not the standard Linux interfaces. • For hardware reasons, the packet-length-specific statistics in the RMON statistics group offer combined transmission and receiving statistics only. This behavior differs from the behavior described in the definitions of the corresponding object IDs. 11 - 6


SNMP

Collecting performance data The Configuration utility on the BIG-IP system displays graphs showing performance metrics for the system. However, you can also use SNMP to collect the same information. The types of performance metrics that you can gather using SNMP are: • Memory use • Number of active connections • Number of new connections • Throughput in bits per second • Number of HTTP requests • RAM Cache use • CPU use • Number of SSL transactions Each type of metric has one or more SNMP object IDs (OIDs) associated with it. To gather performance data, you specify these OIDs with the appropriate SNMP command. For example, the following SNMP command collects data on current memory use, where public is the community name and bigip is the host name of the BIG-IP system: snmpget -c public bigip sysGlobalStat.sysStatMemoryUsed.0

For some types of metrics, such as memory use, simply issuing an SNMP command with an OID gives you the information you need. For other types of metrics, the data that you collect with SNMP is not useful until you perform a calculation on it to interpret the data. For example, to determine the throughput rate of client bits coming into the BIG-IP system, you must you must use the relevant OID (sysStatClientBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.3)) to take two polls at a certain interval (such as ten seconds), calculate the delta of the two polls, and then perform the following calculation on that delta value: ( <DeltaStatClientBytesIn>*8 ) / <interval>

Important

For calculations that include a polling interval, the interval can be any amount of time that you choose, as long as you use that same number as the value for <interval> in your calculations. Note that the performance graphs that the Configuration utility displays are based on a polling interval of ten seconds.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 7


Chapter 11

The following sections contain tables that list: â&#x20AC;˘ The OIDs that you can use to collect the performance data â&#x20AC;˘ The calculations that you must perform to interpret the performance data that you collect (not required for interpreting data on memory use and active connections).

Collecting data on memory use You can use an SNMP command with OIDs to gather data on the number of bytes of memory currently being used on the BIG-IP system. Table 11.2 shows the OIDs that you need to specify to gather data on current memory use. To interpret data on memory use, you do not need to perform a calculation on the collected data. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OIDs

Memory Used

TMM Mem Usage

sysStatMemoryUsed (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.45)

Host Mem Usage

sysHostMemoryUsed (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.1.2)

Table 11.2 Required OIDs for collecting metrics on memory use

Collecting data on active connections You can use SNMP commands with various OIDs to gather data on the number of active connections on the BIG-IP system. Table 11.3 shows the OIDs that you need to specify to gather data on active connections. To interpret data on active connections, you do not need to perform any calculations on the collected data. Performance Graph (Configuration utility) Active Connections (summary graph)

Active Connections (detailed graph)

Graph Metrics

Required SNMP OIDs

Connections

sysStatClientCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.8)

client

sysStatClientCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.8)

server

sysStatServerCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.15)

pva client

sysStatPvaClientCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.22)

pva server

sysStatPvaServerCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.29)

ssl client

sysClientsslStatCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.2)

ssl server

sysServersslStatCurConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.10.2)

Table 11.3 Required OIDs for collecting metrics on active connections

11 - 8


SNMP

Collecting data on new connections You can use SNMP commands with various OIDs to gather and interpret data on the number of new connections on the BIG-IP system. To gather and interpret the data for each of these metrics, you must perform some polling and calculations: • First, for each OID, you must perform two separate polls, at a time interval of your choice. • Next, you calculate the delta of the two poll values. • Finally, for each graph metric, you perform a calculation on those OID deltas. Table 11.4 shows the individual OIDS that you must poll to retrieve two separate poll values for each OID. Performance Graph (Configuration utility) New Connections (summary graph)

Total New Connections (detailed graph)

New PVA Connections (detailed graph)

New Client SSL Profile Connections (detailed graph) New Accepts/Connects (detailed graph)

Graph Metrics

Required SNMP OIDs

Client Accepts

sysTcpStatAccepts (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.12.6)

Server Connects

sysStatServerTotConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.14)

Client Connects

sysStatClientTotConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.7)

Server Connects

sysStatServerTotConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.14)

pva client

sysStatPvaClientTotConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.21)

pva server

sysStatPvaServerTotConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.28)

SSL Client

sysClientsslStatTotNativeConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.6) sysClientsslStatTotCompatConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.9)

SSL Server

sysServersslStatTotNativeConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.10.6) sysServersslStatTotCompatConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.10.9)

Client Accepts

sysTcpStatAccepts (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.12.6)

Server Connects

sysTcpStatConnects (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.12.8)

Table 11.4 Required OIDs for polling for data on new connections

For example, the following steps show how to collect data for the Client Accepts graph metric: 1. Poll OID sysTcpStatAccepts (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.12.6) twice, at a 10-second interval. This results in two values, <sysTcpStatAccepts1> and <sysTcpStatAccepts2>. Note: Although this example uses an interval of ten seconds, the interval can actually be any duration that you choose.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 9


Chapter 11

2. Calculate the delta of the two poll values: <DeltaTcpStatAccepts> = <sysTcpStatAccepts2> <sysTcpStatAccepts1>

3. Calculate the value of the Client Accepts graph metric using the calculation shown in Table 11.5 (<DeltaTcpStatAccepts> / <interval>), where the value of <interval> is 10.

Performance Graph (Configuration utility) New Connections (summary graph)

Total New Connections (detailed graph)

New PVA Connections (detailed graph)

New SSL Connections (detailed graph)

New Accepts/Connects (detailed graph)

Graph Metrics

Required calculations for new connection metrics

Client Accepts

<DeltaTcpStatAccept> / <interval>

Server Connects

<DeltaStatServerTotConns> / <interval>

Client Connects

<DeltaStatClientTotConns> / <interval>

Server Connects

<DeltaStatServerTotConns> / <interval>

pva client

<DeltaStatPvaClientTotConns> / <interval>

pva server

<DeltaStatPvaServerTotConns> / <interval>

SSL Client

( <DeltaClientsslStatTotNativeConns> + <DeltaClientsslStatTotCompatConns>) / <interval>

SSL Server

(<DeltaServersslStatTotNativeConns> + <DeltaServersslStatTotCompatConns>) / <interval>

Client Accepts

<DeltaTcpStatAccepts> / <interval>

Server Connects

<DeltaTcpStatConnects> / <interval>

Table 11.5 Required calculations for interpreting metrics on new connections

Collecting data on throughput rates You can use SNMP commands with various OIDs to gather and interpret data on the throughput rate on the BIG-IP system, in terms of bits per second. To gather and interpret the data for each of these metrics, you must perform some polling and calculations: • First, for each OID, you must perform two separate polls, at an interval of your choice. • Next, you calculate the delta of the two poll values. • Finally, for each graph metric, you perform a calculation on those OID deltas.

11 - 10


SNMP

Table 11.6 shows the individual OIDS that you must poll, retrieving two separate poll values for each OID. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metrics

Required SNMP OIDs

Client Bits

sysStatClientBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.3) sysStatClientBytesOut (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.5)

Server Bits

sysStatServerBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.10) sysStatServerBytesOut (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.12)

Client Bits In

sysStatClientBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.3)

Client Bits Out

sysStatClientBytesOut (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.5)

Server-side Throughput (detailed graph)

Server Bits In

sysStatServerBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.10)

Server Bits Out

sysStatServerBytesOut (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.12)

HTTP Compression Rate (detailed graph)

Compression

sysHttpStatPrecompresssBytes (.3375.2.1.1.2.4.21)

Throughput (summary graph)

Client-side Throughput (detailed graph)

Table 11.6 Required OIDs for polling for data on throughput rates

For example, the following steps show how to collect data on throughput rates for the Server Bits In graph metric: 1. Poll OID sysStatServerBytesIn (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.10) twice, at a 10-second interval. This results in two values, <sysStatServerBytesIn1> and <sysStatServerBytesIn2>. Note: Although this example uses an interval of ten seconds, the interval can actually be any duration that you choose. 2. Calculate the delta of the two poll values: <DeltaStatServerBytesIn> = <sysStatServerBytesIn2> <sysStatServerBytesIn1>

3. Calculate the value of the Server Bits In graph metric using the calculation shown in Table 11.7, on page 11-12 (<DeltaStatServerBytesIn> / <interval>), where the value of <interval> is 10.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

11 - 11


Chapter 11

Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metrics

Required calculations for throughput rates

Client Bits

( (<DeltaStatClientBytesIn> + <DeltasysStatClientBytesOut> )*8 ) / <interval>

Server Bits

( (<DeltaStatServerBytesIn> + <DeltasysStatServerBytesOut> )*8 ) / <interval>

Compression

( <DeltaHttpStatPrecompressBytes>*8 ) / <interval>

Client Bits In

( <DeltaStatClientBytesIn>*8 ) / <interval>

Client Bits Out

( <DeltaStatClientBytesOut>*8 ) / <interval>

Server Bits In

( <DeltaStatServerBytesIn>*8 ) / <interval>

Server Bits Out

( <DeltaStatServerBytesOut>*8 ) / <interval>

Compression

( <DeltaHttpStatPrecompressBytes>*8 ) / <interval>

Throughput (summary graph)

Throughput (detailed graph)

Table 11.7 Required calculations for interpreting metrics on throughput rates

Collecting data on HTTP requests You can use SNMP commands with an OID to gather and interpret data on the number of current HTTP requests on the BIG-IP system, in terms of requests per second. To gather and interpret the data for this metric, you must perform some polling and calculations: • First, you must use the OID to perform two separate polls, at an interval of your choice. • Next, you calculate the delta of the two poll values. • Finally, you perform a calculation on the OID delta. Table 11.8 shows the OID that you must poll, retrieving two separate poll values for this OID. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OIDs

HTTP Requests

HTTP Requests

sysStatHttpRequests (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.56)

Table 11.8 Required OIDs for polling for data on HTTP requests

11 - 12


SNMP

For example, to collect data on HTTP requests for the HTTP Requests graph metric, follow these steps. 1. Poll OID sysStatHttpRequests (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.56) twice, at a 10-second interval. This results in two values, <sysStatHttpRequests1> and <sysStatHttpRequests2>. Note: Although this example uses an interval of ten seconds, the interval can actually be any duration that you choose. 2. Calculate the delta of the two poll values: <DeltaStatHttpRequests> = <sysStatHttpRequests2> <sysStatHttpRequests1>

3. Calculate the value of the HTTP Requests graph metric using the calculation shown in Table 11.9, where the value of <interval> is 10.

Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required calculations for HTTP requests

HTTP Requests

HTTP Requests

<DeltaStatHttpRequests> / <interval>

Table 11.9 Required calculations for interpreting metrics on HTTP requests

Collecting data on RAM Cache use You can use an SNMP command with various OIDs to gather and interpret data on RAM cache use. To gather and interpret the data for each of these metrics, you must perform some polling and calculations: • First, for each OID, you must poll for data. • Then, for each graph metric, you perform a calculation using the OID data.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 13


Chapter 11

Table 11.10 shows the individual OIDS that you must use to poll for RAM Cache data. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

RAM Cache Utilization

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OID

Hit Rate

sysHttpStatRamcacheHits (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.46) sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.47)

Byte Rate

sysHttpStatRamcacheHitBytes (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.49) sysHttpStatRamcacheMissBytes (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.50)

Eviction Rate

sysHttpStatRamcacheEvictions (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.54) sysHttpStatRamcacheHits (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.46) sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.47)

Table 11.10 Required OIDs for polling for data on RAM Cache use

For example, the following steps show how to collect data on RAM Cache use for the Hit Rate graph metric: 1. Poll the OID sysHttpStatRamcacheHits (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.46). This results in a value of <sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1>. 2. Poll the OID sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.4.47). This results in a value of <sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses1>. 3. Calculate the value of the Hit Rate graph metric using the calculation shown in Table 11.11 (<sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1> / (<sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1> + <sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses1>) *100).

Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

RAM Cache Utilization

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OID

Hit Rate

<sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1> / (<sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1> + <sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses1>) *100

Byte Rate

<sysHttpStatRamcacheHitBytes1> / (<sysHttpStatRamcacheHitBytes1> + <sysHttpStatRamcacheMissBytes1> ) *100

Eviction Rate

<sysHttpStatRamcacheEvictions1> / (<sysHttpStatRamcacheHits1> + <sysHttpStatRamcacheMisses1>) *100

Table 11.11 Required calculations for interpreting metrics on RAM Cache use

11 - 14


SNMP

Collecting data on CPU use You can use SNMP commands to gather and interpret data on CPU use on the BIG-IP system. Specifically, you can gather and interpret data for these types of graph metrics: ◆

CPU[0-n] and Global Host CPU Usage For these graph metrics, you can either instruct the BIG-IP system to collect the data automatically, based on a predefined polling interval, or you can use a polling interval of your choice. In either case, you use the MIBs named sysMultiHostCpu and sysGlobalHostCpu, respectively. Collecting data based on a predefined polling interval is the recommended way to collect CPU[0-n] and Global Host CPU Usage graph metrics. However, you can also perform the calculation manually, if you want to use a polling interval other than 5 seconds, one minute, or five minutes. For the procedure about collecting CPU[0-n] and Global Host CPU Usage graph metrics based on a predefined polling interval, see Using a predefined polling interval, on this page. For the procedure about collecting this performance data manually, see Using a custom polling interval, on page 11-18.

TMM CPU Usage For these graph metrics, there is no predefined polling interval for this MIB; therefore, you must choose a polling interval and perform the calculations manually. To perform the calculations, you use the MIB sysStatTm. For more information, see Using a custom polling interval, on page 11-18.

Using a predefined polling interval The sysMultiHostCpu and sysGlobalHostCpu MIBs include some special CPU usage ratio OIDs that cause the BIG-IP system to automatically calculate graph metrics for you. The particular CPU usage ratio OID that you use is based on a predefined polling interval that you want the BIG-IP system to use when performing the calculation: five seconds, one minute, or five minutes. Specifically, a CPU usage ratio OID: • Polls each individual CPU OID twice • Calculates the delta of the two polls • Performs a calculation using all delta values (that is, delta values from all OIDs polled) The sysMultiHostCpu usage ratio OIDs available for you to use are: • sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio (uses a 5-second polling interval) • sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio5s (also uses a 5-second polling interval) • sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio1m (uses a 1-minute polling interval) • sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio5m (uses a 5-minute polling interval)

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 15


Chapter 11

The sysGlobalHostCpu usage ratio OIDs available for you to use are: • sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio (uses a 5-second polling interval) • sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio5s (also uses a 5-second polling interval) • sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio1m (uses a 1-minute polling interval) • sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio5m (uses a 5-minute polling interval) Table 11.12 shows the individual OIDS that the BIG-IP system polls for CPU[0-n] graph metrics, based on 5-second, 1-minute, or 5-minute intervals. Note that for each polling interval, the MIB also includes the pertinent CPU usage ratio OID or OIDs that you use to initiate the automatic polling and resulting delta calculations. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OIDs 5-second Polling Interval sysMultiHostCpuUser5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.12) sysMultiHostCpuNice5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.13) sysMultiHostCpuSystem5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.14) sysMultiHostCpuIdle5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.15) sysMultiHostCpuIrq5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.16) sysMultiHostCpuSoftirq5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.17) sysMultiHostCpuIowait5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.18) sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.19) sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.11)

CPU Usage

CPU[0-n]

1-minute Polling Interval sysMultiHostCpuUser1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.20) sysMultiHostCpuNice1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.21) sysMultiHostCpuSystem1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.22) sysMultiHostCpuIdle1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.23) sysMultiHostCpuIrq 1m(.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.24) sysMultiHostCpuSoftirq1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.25 sysMultiHostCpuIowait1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.26) sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.26) 5-minute Polling Interval sysMultiHostCpuUse5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.28) sysMultiHostCpuNice5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.29) sysMultiHostCpuSystem5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.30) sysMultiHostCpuIdle5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.31) sysMultiHostCpuIrq5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.32 sysMultiHostCpuSoftirq5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.33) sysMultiHostCpuIowait5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.34) sysMultiHostCpuUsageRatio5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.35)

Table 11.12 Required OIDs for automatic collection of CPU[0-n] graph metrics

11 - 16


SNMP

Table 11.13 shows the individual OIDS that the BIG-IP system polls for Global Host CPU Usage graph metrics, based on five-second, 1-minute, or 5-minute intervals. Note that for each polling interval, the MIB also includes the pertinent CPU usage ratio OID or OIDs that you use to initiate the automatic polling and resulting delta calculations. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OIDs 5-second Polling Interval sysGlobalHostCpuUser5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.14) sysGlobalHostCpuNice5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.15) sysGlobalHostCpuSystem5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.16) sysGlobalHostCpuIdle5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.17) sysGlobalHostCpuIrq5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.18) sysGlobalHostCpuSoftirq5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.19) sysGlobalHostCpuIowait5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.20) sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.21) sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.13)

CPU Usage

Gobal Host CPU Usage

1-minute Polling Interval sysGlobalHostCpuUser1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.22) sysGlobalHostCpuNice1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.23) sysGlobalHostCpuSystem1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.24) sysGlobalHostCpuIdle1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.25) sysGlobalHostCpuIrq1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.26) sysGlobalHostCpuSoftirq1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.27) sysGlobalHostCpuIowait1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.28) sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.29) 5-minute Polling Interval sysGlobalHostCpuUser5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.30) sysGlobalHostCpuNice5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.31) sysGlobalHostCpuSystem5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.32) sysGlobalHostCpuIdle5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.33) sysGlobalHostCpuIrq5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.34) sysGlobalHostCpuSoftirq5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.35) sysGlobalHostCpuIowait5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.36) sysGlobalHostCpuUsageRatio5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.37)

Table 11.13 Required OIDs for automatic collection of Global Host CPU Usage graph metrics

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

11 - 17


Chapter 11

Using a custom polling interval The sysMultiHostCpu and sysGlobalHostCpu MIBs include additional OIDs that you can use to calculate CPU performance data based on a custom polling interval, that is, a polling interval that you choose. Using a custom polling interval requires you to poll each individual OID twice at an interval of your choice, calculate the delta of the two polls, and then perform a calculation according to a predefined formula. Table 11.14 includes a list of OIDs to use when collecting CPU performance data with a custom polling interval. Included are the OIDs for polling for TMM CPU usage graph metrics, based on five-second, 1-minute, or 5-minute intervals. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

CPU Usage

Graph Metric

Required SNMP OIDs

CPU[0-n]

sysMultiHostCpuUser (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.4) sysMultiHostCpuNice (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.5) sysMultiHostCpuSystem (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.6) sysMultiHostCpuIdle (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.7) sysMultiHostCpuIrq (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.8) sysMultiHostCpuSoftirq (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.9) sysMultiHostCpuIowait (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.10)

Global Host CPU Usage

sysGlobalHostCpuCount (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.4) sysGlobalHostActiveCpu (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.5) sysGlobalHostCpuUser (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.6) sysGlobalHostCpuNice (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.7) sysGlobalHostCpuSystem (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.8) sysGlobalHostCpuIdle (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.9) sysGlobalHostCpuIrq (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.10) sysGlobalHostCpuSoftirq (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.11) sysGlobalHostCpuIowait (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.20.12)

TMM CPU Usage

sysStatTmTotalCycles (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.41) sysStatTmIdleCycles (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.42) sysStatTmSleepCycles (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.1.43) sysTmmStatTmUsageRatio5s (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.8.2.3.1.37.[tmm_id]) sysTmmStatTmUsageRatio1m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.8.2.3.1.38.[tmm_id]) sysTmmStatTmUsageRatio5m (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.8.2.3.1.39.[tmm_id]

Table 11.14 Required SNMP OIDs for collecting CPU data manually

Note

TMM IDs within the TMM CPU usage OIDs are used to index the SysTmmStatEntry table. These TMM IDs vary by platform. An example of an OID for sysTmmStatTmUsageRatio5s is .1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.8.2.3.1.37.3.48.46.49.

11 - 18


SNMP

To calculate CPU usage data manually 1. Poll the OID sysMultiHostCpuUser (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.7.5.2.1.4) twice, at a 10-second interval. This results in two values, <sysMultiHostCpuUser1> and <sysMultiHostCpuUser2>. Note: Although this example uses an interval of ten seconds, the interval can actually be any duration that you choose. 2. Calculate the delta of the two poll values: <DeltaCpuUser> = <sysMultiHostCpuUser2> <sysMultiHostCpuUser1>

3. Repeat steps one and two for each OID pertaining to the CPU[0-n] graph metric. 4. Repeat steps 1 and 2 again, using the OIDs from the MIBs sysStatTm and sysGlobalHostCpu. 5. Calculate the values of the graph metrics, using the formulas shown in Table 11.15.

Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

CPU Usage

Graph Metric

Required calculations for CPU use

CPU[0-n]

(<DeltaCpuUser> + <DeltaCpuNice> + <DeltaCpuSystem>) / (<DeltaCpuUser> + <DeltaCpuNice> + <Delta CpuIdle> + <DeltaCpuSystem> + <DeltaCpuIrq> + <DeltaCpuSoftirq> + <DeltaCpuIowait>) *100

Global Host CPU Usage

(<DeltaCpuUser> + <DeltaCpuNice> + <DeltaCpuSystem>) / (<DeltaCpuUser> + <DeltaCpuNice> + <Delta CpuIdle> + <DeltaCpuSystem> + <DeltaCpuIrq> + <DeltaCpuSoftirq> + <DeltaCpuIowait>) *100

TMM CPU Usage

((<DeltaTmTotalCycles> - (<DeltaTmIdleCycles> + <DeltaTmSleepCycles>)) / <DeltaTmTotalCycles>) *100

Table 11.15 Formulas for calculating metrics on CPU use

Collecting data on SSL transactions per second You can use SNMP commands with an OID to gather and interpret data on SSL performance, in terms of transactions per second. To gather and interpret the data for this metric, you must perform some polling and calculations: • First, you must poll two OIDs separately and then add the two poll values together. • Next, you must repeat the first two steps at some time interval (such as ten seconds) from the first two polls. Again, you add the two poll values together. • Next, you calculate the delta of the two sums. BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

11 - 19


Chapter 11

â&#x20AC;˘ Finally, you perform a calculation on the OID delta. Table 11.16 shows the OID that you must poll, retrieving two separate poll values for this OID. Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metrics

Required SNMP OIDs

SSL TPS

SSL TPS

sysClientsslStatTotNativeConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.6)

SSL TPS

SSL TPS

sysClientsslStatTotCompatConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.9)

SSL TPS

SSL TPS

sysServersslStatTotNativeConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.10.6)

SSL TPS

SSL TPS

sysServersslStatTotCompatConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.10.9)

Table 11.16 Required OIDs for polling for data on SSL TPS

For example, the following steps show how to collect data on SSL transactions for the SSL TPS graph metric: 1. Poll the OID sysClientsslStatTotNativeConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.6). 2. Poll the OID sysClientsslStatTotCompatConns (.1.3.6.1.4.1.3375.2.1.1.2.9.9). 3. Add the two values together. This results in the value sysClientsslStatTotConns1. 4. Poll the two OIDs again, within ten seconds of the previous polls (shown in steps 1 and 2). Note: Although this example uses an interval of ten seconds, the interval can actually be any duration that you choose. 5. Again, add the two values together. This results in the value sysClientsslStatTotConns2. 6. Calculate the delta of the two sums: <DeltaClientsslStatTotConns> = <sysClientsslStatTotConns2> - <sysClientsslStatTotConns1>

7. Calculate the actual value of the SSL TPS graph metric using the calculation shown in Table 11.17. An example of the <interval> value is 10.

Performance Graph (Configuration utility)

Graph Metric

Required calculations for SSL TPS

SSL TPS

SSL TPS

<DeltaClientsslStatClientTotConns> / <interval>

Table 11.17 Required calculations for interpreting metrics on SSL TPS

11 - 20


12 Administrative Partitions and Folders

â&#x20AC;˘ About administrative partitions â&#x20AC;˘ About folders


Administrative Partitions and Folders

About administrative partitions If you have the Administrator or User Manager user role assigned to your BIG-IP® system user account, you can control other users’ access to objects by using a feature known as administrative partitions. An administrative partition is a logical container that you create, containing a defined set of BIG-IP system objects. When a specific set of objects resides in a partition, you can then give certain users the authority to view and manage the objects in that partition only, rather than to all objects on the BIG-IP system. This gives a finer granularity of administrative control. A significant benefit to administrative partitions is that they allow you to place administrative ownership of an application into the hands of the business units that actually run the applications. To configure and manage administrative partitions, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Users. Figure 12.1, on page 12-1, shows an example of partitions that you can create on a BIG-IP system. Partition App1 contains objects that pertain to an HTTP application, partition App2 contains objects that pertain to traffic utilizing Packet Velocity® ASIC (PVA), and partition Users contains local user accounts on the BIG-IP system.

Figure 12.1 Sample partitions on the BIG-IP system

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

12 - 1


Chapter 12

In short, partitions affect the way that you manage configurable objects on the BIG-IP system, including user accounts.

The partition Common During BIG-IP system installation, the system automatically creates a partition known as partition Common (often referred to as the Common partition). At a minimum, this partition contains all of the BIG-IP system objects that the system creates during installation. Note

Until you create other partitions on the system, all objects that you or other users create automatically reside in partition Common. If you create other partitions later, you cannot move an object in Common to one of the new partitions. Instead, you must delete the object from Common and recreate it in the new partition. With respect to permissions, all users on the system except those with a user role of No Access have read access to objects in the Common partition, and by default, the Common partition is their current partition. (For information on the current partition, see The current partition, following.) Some users, such as those with the user role of Administrator, can also create, update, and delete objects in the Common partition. No user can delete the Common partition itself. For information about the permissions of each user role with respect to viewing and managing objects in partition Common, see Chapter 13, BIG-IP User Accounts. One of the objects that the BIG-IP system creates in partition Common during installation is a route domain with an ID of 0. Route domain 0 is the default route domain on the BIG-IP system. For more information about route domains, see the guide titled BIG-IP® TMOS: IP Routing Administration.

The current partition The current partition is the specific partition to which a logged-in user currently has access, as determined by the properties of that user’s account. Whenever a user performs an action on the BIG-IP system, the system automatically performs that action within the current partition. As described in Chapter 13, BIG-IP User Accounts, a user account grants permission to access either a single partition (other than partition Common) or all partitions. If a user has permission to access one partition only, the user cannot select the current partition. Instead, the BIG-IP system establishes the user’s current partition at login time, based on the particular partition access that is specified in the properties of that user account. Users who have permission to access all partitions can actively select the current partition, that is, the specific partition they want to view or manage.

12 - 2


Administrative Partitions and Folders

For example, suppose user rsmith has a role of Manager, and a user with an Administrator role has given user rsmith access to all partitions on the system (for example, partitions A, B, C, and Common). In this case, before creating or managing any object on the BIG-IP system, user rsmith must select the partition (A, B, or C) that she wants to be the current partition. After selecting the current partition, any object that she creates will reside in that partition, and she can modify or delete only those objects that reside in the current partition. If she fails to select partition A, B, or C, the current partition is Common, by default. User rsmith selects a partition using either the Configuration utility or a command line interface. Conversely, if user rsmith has the role of Manager and she is granted access to partition A only, then any object that she creates while logged into the BIG-IP system automatically becomes a member of partition A. Although she can view objects in partition Common, she cannot select Common as her current partition because she has read access only for that partition. For user rsmith, partition A is automatically her current partition, and she cannot change the current partition to create objects in another partition. For more information about user roles and the relationship of user roles to partitions, see Partitions and user accounts, on page 12-5.

Referencing objects in partitions Certain BIG-IP system objects, such as virtual servers, always reference other objects. Examples of objects that a virtual server can reference are pools, profiles, and iRules速. When you create objects, a referenced object must reside either in the same partition as the object that is referencing it, or in the Common partition. For example, if a virtual server such as my_vs resides in partition my_app and references the pool my_pool, then the object my_pool must reside either in partition my_app or in partition Common. Figure 12.2 shows an example of an allowed configuration, where a virtual server and the pool it references reside in the same partition my_app).

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

12 - 3


Chapter 12

Figure 12.2 A virtual server referencing a pool in the same partition

The other case in which one object can reference another is when the object resides in one partition, while the object it references resides in partition Common. Figure 12.3, shows an example of this configuration, where a virtual server in partition my_app references a pool in partition Common.

Figure 12.3 Allowed object referencing across partitions

Note in this illustration that direction is important; the referencing object (the virtual server) must be in a user-created partition (my_app), while the referenced object (the pool) must reside in partition Common. As shown in Figure 12.4, the virtual server cannot reside in partition Common and reference a pool that resides in partition my_app.

12 - 4


Administrative Partitions and Folders

Figure 12.4 Object referencing across partitions that is not allowed

Partitions and user accounts Partitions have a special relationship to user accounts. With respect to partitions and user accounts, you can: ◆

Assign partition access to user accounts You can assign an authorized partition (known as partition access) to a user account. A partition access assignment gives a user some level of authority over the specified partition. As an option, for all user roles you can assign universal access to partitions, which grants users permission to access all partitions instead of one non-Common partition only. Note that assigning partition access to a user does not make the user a member of that partition, nor does it necessarily give the user full access to all objects in the partition.

Create user accounts as partitioned objects As described earlier, when you create a user account, you assign partition access for that account as a way to define the scope of that user’s access control. However, like many other object types, user accounts also reside in partitions. This controls other users’ administrative access to those user accounts. Also like other object types, a BIG-IP system user account cannot belong to more than one partition simultaneously. Note that when you first install the BIG-IP system, every existing user account (root and admin) belongs to partition Common.

For detailed information on creating and managing user accounts and assigning user roles to them, see Chapter 13, BIG-IP User Accounts.

Partition summary To see the relationship of partitions to objects, consider the following example. This example shows how you can configure the BIG-IP system to grant a particular BIG-IP system administrator, Jane Smith, permission to

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

12 - 5


Chapter 12

manage all objects in a specific partition pertaining to the management of HTTP traffic. Note that to perform this task successfully, your own user account must have the role of Administrator assigned to it. 1. Create a new partition named vendor_appl. 2. Select the vendor_appl partition to be the current partition. 3. Create any HTTP-related objects that you want to reside in that partition, such as a virtual server, a load balancing pool, and an HTTP profile. 4. Select an existing partition in which you want Janeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s user account to reside, such as IT_users. This is now your current partition. 5. Create a user account for Jane as follows: a) Assign the name jsmith to the user account. Note that this account resides in the current partition, IT_users. b) Create a password for the jsmith user account. c) Assign the user role of Manager to the jsmith account. This role allows Jane to control all resources in the partition to which she is given access (see the following step). d) Designate the vendor_appl partition as the partition to which user jsmith has access. 6. Instruct Jane to log in to the BIG-IP system using her new user account jsmith.

When Jane logs into the system as jsmith, the system sets her current partition to vendor_appl because this is the partition you assigned to her when you created her user account (see step 5d). Because you assigned her a user role of Manager, Jane can fully manage all objects in partition vendor_appl, as well as create new objects. Note, however, that the user account object jsmith resides in partition IT_users. Important

As shown in this example, there is no relation between the partition in which the jsmith user account resides (IT_users) and the partition to which the jsmith account has access (vendor_appl).

12 - 6


Administrative Partitions and Folders

Implementation considerations When implementing the partitions feature, there are some specific aspects of the feature that you should consider, with corresponding recommendations. See Table 12.1 for more informationn. Considerations

Recommendations

An object can only reference another object if both objects are in the same partition, or if the referenced object is in partition Common.

When you create objects, ensure that the referencing object and its referenced object reside in the same partition, or that the referenced object resides in partition Common.

Users cannot move objects from one partition to another.

If you want to change the partition in which an object resides, delete the object from the old partition, and recreate the object in the new partition. Note that if the object you want to delete and recreate in another partition is a pool that resides in partition Common, you should not only delete the pool, but also delete any nodes associated with that pool. Otherwise, pools in other partitions can reference those nodes that are in partition Common.

The same BIG-IP system object cannot be a member of more than one partition simultaneously.

No recommendation needed.

If an authorized user modifies a parent object, the system propagates the changes to all child objects, regardless of the partition in which the child object resides.

Be aware that modifications to a child object that other administrators implemented might appear.

If a user with permission to manage objects in partition Common disables a monitor that is designated as the default monitor for nodes (such as the icmp monitor), this affects all nodes on the system.

Ensure that a default monitor for nodes is enabled and always resides in partition Common.

An iRule can reference any object, regardless of the partition in which the referenced object resides. For example, an iRule that resides in partition A can contain a pool statement that specifies a pool residing in partition B.

No recommendation needed.

For objects that cannot reside in partitions (such as packet filters), only users with the Administrator or Resource Administrator role have full access to these objects. Users with a role other than Administrator, Resource Administrator can view these objects, but they cannot create, modify, or delete them.

Verify that each user account has the appropriate user role assigned to it.

When attempting to create an object, the user might see an error message stating that the object already exists, even though the object name does not appear on the list screen. This is because the existing object resides in a partition that the user has no permission to access.

Every object on the system must have a unique name, regardless of the partition in which the object resides.Therefore, when creating an object on the system, be sure to assign a unique name to the object.

Table 12.1 Considerations and recommendations for implementing administrative partitions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

12 - 7


Chapter 12

About folders For every partition on the BIG-IP system, there is an equivalent folder. In the context of the BIG-IP system, a folder is a container for BIG-IP system objects. Folders resemble standard directories, in that the system includes a root folder (represented by the / symbol) that is the parent for other folders on the system. You can use folders to set up granular synchronization and failover of BIG-IP configuration data in a device group. Instead of synchronizing or failing over all configuration data on a BIG-IP device to the same device group, the BIG-IP system can synchronize or fail over objects within a specific folder only to a different device group. You can implement granular synchronization and failover in two ways: ◆

You can use tmsh to set a folder’s device group to the name of the device group to which you want to synchronize the contents of that folder. You can also set the folder’s traffic group attribute to the name of the traffic group that you want to associate with the contents of that folder.

You can use the BIG-IP Configuration utility to associate a device and traffic group with an administrative partition. This sets the device and traffic group attributes on the corresponding folder.

Folders have important characteristics: • The root folder The BIG-IP system includes a root folder. When you assign a device group to the root folder, all configuration data on the device, by default, is synchronized to the devices in that device group. • Folder-partition association A high-level folder exists on the system within the root folder for each administrative partition. For example, for the Common partition, there is a corresponding high-level folder named /Common. If you create another administrative partition, such as partition App_A, the BIG-IP system automatically creates another high-level folder named /App_A. • Folders and the current partition The close association of administrative partitions to folders means that when you use the BIG-IP Configuration utility to create objects on a BIG-IP device, the system puts those objects in the folder corresponding to the current partition. For example, if your current partition is partition Common, any objects you create reside in folder /Common. Examples of BIG-IP objects that reside in folders are virtual servers, pools, and self IP addresses. • BIG-IP object names The folder in which an object resides becomes part of the name of that object. For example, if you create a pool in partition Common and name the pool my_pool, the complete name of the pool on the system is /Common/my_pool. If you create the pool in partition App_A, the complete name of the pool on the system is /App_A/my_pool.

12 - 8


Administrative Partitions and Folders

• Sub-folders You can create sub-folders within a high-level folder, using tmsh. For example, if you have a high-level folder (partition) within the root folder named Customer1, you can use tmsh to create a sub-folder, such as App_B, within Customer1. If you create a pool named my_pool within the sub-folder, the name of the pool is /Customer1/App_B/my_pool. • Viewing folder contents When you use tmsh to view the contents of any folder on the system, the system also shows the objects in folder /Common.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

12 - 9


Chapter 12

12 - 10


13 BIG-IP User Accounts

• Introduction to user account management • Managing local user accounts • Managing remote user accounts • Auditing user access to the system


BIG-IP User Accounts

Introduction to user account management An important part of managing the BIG-IP® system is creating and managing user accounts for BIG-IP system administrators. By creating user accounts for system administrators, you provide additional layers of security. User accounts ensure that the system: • Verifies the identity of users logging into the system (authentication) • Controls user access to system resources (authorization) To enable user authentication and authorization, you assign passwords and user roles to your user accounts. Passwords allow you to authenticate your users when they attempt to log in to the BIG-IP system. User roles allow you to control user access to BIG-IP system resources. You can create and store your BIG-IP administrative accounts either locally on the BIG-IP system, or remotely on a separate authentication server. If you want your user accounts to reside locally on the BIG-IP system, you create those user accounts on the BIG-IP system and assign user roles to them. If you want your user accounts to reside remotely on a separate authentication server, you do not use the BIG-IP system to create the accounts. Instead, you use the mechanism provided by the server vendor, and you use the BIG-IP system strictly to assign user roles to those remote accounts and to maintain those user role assignments over time. The types of servers that you can use to remotely store BIG-IP system user accounts are: • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) servers • Active Directory servers • Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS) servers To manage user accounts, including user roles, on the BIG-IP system, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Users. Important

For information on managing remote user accounts, see Managing remote user accounts, on page 13-14, and the guide titled BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations.

Understanding user account types There are two types of user accounts on the BIG-IP system: The system maintenance account and a set of standard user accounts. ◆

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

The system maintenance account The system maintenance account is a user account that you maintain using the Setup utility. The name of the system maintenance account is root. This account resides locally on the BIG-IP system and grants full access to BIG-IP system resources. You configure and maintain this account using the Setup utility and the Configuration utility, respectively. 13 - 1


Chapter 13

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

Standard user accounts Standard user accounts are user accounts that you create for other BIG-IP system administrators to use. Standard user accounts can reside either locally on the BIG-IP system, or remotely on a remote authentication server. You create and maintain these accounts using the browser-based Configuration utility or the command line interface. Creating standard user accounts allows you to assign various user roles to those accounts as a way to control system administrator access to BIG-IP system resources. A special standard user account is the admin account, which automatically exists on any BIG-IP system. For more information on the admin account, see Configuring the admin account, on page 13-8. For more information on user roles, see Understanding user roles, on page 13-4. Note

Excluding the admin account, the entire set of standard user accounts that you create for BIG-IP system administrators must reside either locally on the BIG-IP system, or remotely on another type of authentication server. You are not required to have any user accounts other than the root and admin accounts, but F5 NetworksÂŽ recommends that you create other user accounts, as a way to intelligently control administrator access to system resources. The tools you use to create and maintain user accounts vary according to the type of account you are managing. Table 13.1 lists the various user accounts for the BIG-IP system and the tools you use to manage them.

Account Name

Creation/Configuration Tools

The admin account

Setup utility

Maintenance Tools Configuration utility (Users screen) Command line interface

Other user accounts

Configuration utility Command line interface

Configuration utility (Users screen) Command line interface

Table 13.1 Tools for managing user accounts

Understanding administrative partitions When you create configurable objects for the BIG-IP system, you have the option of putting those objects into administrative partitions. An administrative partition is a logical container of BIG-IP system objects such as virtual servers, pools, and monitors. When you first install the BIG-IP system, a default partition already exists named Common.

13 - 2


BIG-IP User Accounts

By putting objects into partitions, you establish a finer granularity of access control. Rather than having control over all resources on the BIG-IP system or no resources whatsoever, users with certain permissions can control resources within a designated partition only. For example, users with the role of Operator can mark nodes up or down, but can only mark those nodes that reside within their designated partition. User accounts are another type of object that you can put into a partition. You put user accounts into administrative partitions strictly for the purpose of giving other users administrative access to those accounts. For example, you can put user accounts into partition B, and then assign a set of permissions (known as a user role) to user Jane so that she is allowed to modify user accounts in partition B. Each user account on the BIG-IP system has a property known as Partition Access. The Partition Access property defines the partitions that the user can access. A user account can have access to either one partition or all partitions. Access to all partitions is known as universal access. Figure 13.1, on page 13-3, shows how partition access can differ for different user accounts on the BIG-IP system.

Figure 13.1 The Partition Access property for user accounts

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

13 - 3


Chapter 13

In this example, the BIG-IP system objects reside in multiple partitions. Note that user accounts are also a type of BIG-IP system object, and as such, reside in a partition named Users. (Although you are not required to group user accounts together in a separate partition, for security purposes we highly recommend that you do so.) To continue with the example, each user account in partition Users has access to specific, but different, partitions. Note that user accounts sjones, cjohnson, and gnelson can access one partition only, while the tbrown account has universal access. To summarize, an administrative partition defines a set of objects, including user accounts, that other administrative users can potentially manage. This gives computing organizations greater control over user access to specific objects on the BIG-IP system.

Understanding user roles To use the powerful user-roles feature, you should understand the available user roles and the ways that a user role affects a userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s access to objects residing within partitions.

What are user roles? User roles are a means of controlling user access to BIG-IP system resources. You assign a user role to each administrative user, and in so doing, you grant the user a set of permissions for accessing BIG-IP system resources. The BIG-IP system offers several different user roles that you can choose from when assigning a role to an administrative user. Valid user roles are listed in Table 13.2, on page 13-5. A user role is a property of a user account. Each user role grants a different set of permissions. More specifically, a user role defines:

13 - 4

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

The resources that a user can manage User roles define the types of resources, or objects, that a user can manage. For example, a user with the role of Operator can enable or disable nodes and pool members only. By contrast, a user with the Guest role cannot manage any BIG-IP system resources.

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

The tasks that a user can perform For example, a user with the role of Operator can enable or disable nodes and pool members, but cannot create, modify, or delete them. Conversely, a user with the Manager role can perform all tasks related to partitioned objects (except for user accounts), including nodes and pool members.


BIG-IP User Accounts

Table 13.2, on page 13-5, lists and describes the various user roles that you can assign to a user account. Important

A role defines the type of objects that a user can manage and the tasks that a user can perform on those object types. A role does not define the set of specific, existing objects that the user can access. For information on defining user access to specific objects on the system, see Effect of user roles on objects within partitions, on page 13-7.

User Role

Description

Administrator

This role grants users complete access to all partitioned and non-partitioned objects on the system. In addition, accounts with the Administrator role can change their own passwords.

Resource Administrator

This role grants users complete access to all partitioned and non-partitioned objects on the system, except user account objects. In addition, accounts with the Resource Administrator role can change their own passwords.

User Manager

Users with the User Manager role that have access to all partitions can create, modify, delete, and view all user accounts except those that are assigned the Administrator role, or the User Manager role with different partition access. Accounts with the User Manager role that have access to all partitions can also change their own passwords. Users with the User Manager role that have access only to a single partition can create, modify, delete, and view only those user accounts that are in that partition and that have access to that partition only. For example, if your user account has a User Manager role and has access to Partition A only, then you can manage only those user accounts that both reside in and have access to Partition A only. User accounts with the User Manager role can change their own passwords.

Manager

This role grants users permission to create, modify, and delete virtual servers, pools, pool members, nodes, custom profiles, custom monitors, and iRules®. These users can view all objects on the system and change their own passwords.

Certificate Manager

This role grants users permission to manage device certificates and keys, as well as perform Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) operations.

iRule Manager

This role grants users permission to create, modify, and delete iRules. Users with this role cannot affect the way that an iRule is deployed. For example, a user with this role can create an iRule but cannot assign it to a virtual server or move the iRule from one virtual server to another. A user with this role can be assigned universal access to administrative partitions.

Application Editor

This role grants users permission to modify nodes, pools, pool members, and monitors. These users can view all objects on the system and change their own passwords.

Acceleration Policy Editor

This role allows users to view, create, modify, and delete all WebAccelerator™ policy objects in all administrative partitions. Users can also view, create, update, and delete LTM Web Acceleration and HTTP Class profiles.

Table 13.2 The various roles for user accounts

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 5


Chapter 13

User Role

Description

Web Application Security Administrator

This role grants users access to Application Security Manager™ security policy objects, in one or all administrative partitions. These users can modify HTTP Class profiles, but cannot create or delete them. More specifically, these users can access LTM objects in these ways: • Ability to enable or disable application security from within an HTTP Class profile. • Read-only permission for these profile types: HTTP, FTP, and SMTP. These users have no access to other LTM objects, nor to any TMOS objects. They can, however, change their own passwords. With respect to security policy objects, this role is similar to the Administrator role. You can assign this role only when the BIG-IP system includes the Application Security Manager component.

Web Application Security Editor

This role allows a user to configure or view most parts of the ASM module, in a specified administrative partition only. Specifically, these users have limited access to LTM objects, namely read-only permission for these profile types: HTTP, FTP, SMTP, and HTTP Class. These users have no access to other LTM objects, nor to any TMOS objects. They can, however, change their own passwords. You can assign this role only when the BIG-IP system includes the Application Security Manager component.

Operator

This role grants users permission to enable or disable nodes and pool members. These users can view all objects and change their own passwords.

Auditor

This role grants users permission to view all configuration data on the system, including logs and archives. Users with this role cannot create, modify, or delete any data, nor can they view SSL keys or user passwords.

Guest

This role grants users permission to view all objects on the system except for sensitive data such as logs and archives. Users with this role can change their own passwords.

No Access

This role prevents users from accessing the system.

Table 13.2 The various roles for user accounts

Understanding default user roles The BIG-IP system automatically assigns a user role to an account when you create that account. The user role that the system assigns to a user account by default depends on the type of account:

13 - 6

root and admin accounts The BIG-IP system automatically assigns the Administrator user role to the system maintenance root account and the admin account. You cannot change this user-role assignment. Thus, any user who successfully logs into the BIG-IP system using the root or admin account has full access to system resources and can perform all administrative tasks.

Other user accounts The BIG-IP system automatically assigns the No Access user role to all standard user accounts other than the root and admin accounts. If the user account you are using has the Administrator role assigned to it, you are allowed to change another account’s user role from the default No Access role to any other user role, including Administrator. For remote user accounts, if you know that most of your administrative users need


BIG-IP User Accounts

some amount of access to BIG-IP system resources, you can configure the BIG-IP system to use a role other than No Access as the default user role.

Effect of user roles on objects within partitions A user role defines the access level that a user has for each object in the user’s assigned partition. An access level refers to the type of task that a user can perform on an object. Possible access levels are: ◆

Write Grants full access, that is, the ability to create, modify, enable and disable, and delete an object.

Update Grants the ability to modify, enable, and disable an object.

Enable/disable Grants the ability to enable or disable an object.

Read Grants the ability to view an object.

Managing local user accounts Managing local user accounts refers to the tasks of creating, viewing, modifying, and deleting user accounts that reside on the BIG-IP system, using the browser-based Configuration utility. The Configuration utility stores local user accounts (including user names, passwords, and user roles) in a local user-account database. When a user logs into the BIG-IP system using one of these locally-stored accounts, the BIG-IP system checks the account to determine the user role assigned to that user account. You assign a user role to an account at the time that you create the account, or by changing the properties of an existing account. Important

Only users with the role of Administrator and User Manager can create and manage local user accounts. However, users with any role can change their own passwords. Also, if a user with a local user account is logged on to the BIG-IP system, and you subsequently switch the system from local authentication to remote authentication, the local user remains authenticated until the user’s logon session terminates.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 7


Chapter 13

Configuring the admin account A user account called admin resides on every BIG-IP system. Although the BIG-IP system creates this account automatically, you must still assign a password to the account before you can use it. To initially set the password for the admin account, you must run the Setup utility. To change its password later, you use the Configuration utility’s Users screens. The admin account resides in the local user account database on the BIG-IP system. By default, the BIG-IP system assigns the Administrator user role, which gives the user of this account full access to all BIG-IP system resources. You cannot change the user role on this account. For detailed on user roles, see Understanding user roles, on page 13-4.

Configuring a secure password policy The BIG-IP system includes an optional administrative feature: a security policy for creating passwords for local BIG-IP system user accounts. A secure password policy ensures that BIG-IP system users that have local user accounts create and maintain passwords that are as secure as possible. The secure password policy feature includes two distinct types of password restrictions: ◆

Enforcement restrictions These are, specifically, character restrictions that you can enable or disable. They consist of the minimum password length and the required character types (numeric, uppercase, lowercase, and other kinds of characters). When enabled, the BIG-IP system never enforces restrictions on user accounts that have the Administrator role assigned to them. Consequently, a user with Administrator permissions does not need to adhere to these restrictions when either changing his or her own password, or changing the passwords of other user accounts.

Policy restrictions These restrictions represent the minimum and maximum lengths of time that passwords can be in effect. Also included in this type of policy restriction are the number of days prior to password expiration that users are warned, and the number of previous passwords that the BIG-IP system should store, to prevent users from re-using former passwords. When you have configured policy restrictions using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, policy restrictions apply to all user accounts, regardless of user role, except for user accounts with the Administrator role assigned to them. These restrictions are always enabled, although using the default values provides a minimal amount of restriction. Note

The value of the Maximum Duration setting determines when users receive warning messages to change their passwords. If you change the value of this setting, any subsequent warning messages that users receive indicate the

13 - 8


BIG-IP User Accounts

previous maximum duration value, rather than the new value. Once a user changes the password, however, subsequent reminder messages show the new value. The password policy feature affects passwords for local user accounts only. Passwords for remotely-stored user accounts are not subject to this local password policy, but might be subject to a separate password policy defined on the remote system. Important

You must have the user role of Administrator assigned to your account to configure this feature. Table 13.3, on page 13-10, shows the settings that you can configure, along with their descriptions and default values.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

13 - 9


Chapter 13

Setting

Description

Default Value

Secure Password Enforcement

Enables or disables character restrictions, that is, a policy for minimum password length and required characters. When you enable this setting, the Configuration utility displays the Minimum Length and Required Characters settings.

Disabled

Minimum Length

Specifies the minimum number of characters required for a password, and the allowed range of values is 6 to 255. This setting appears only when you enable the Secure Password Enforcement setting.

6

Important: When enabled, the BIG-IP system enforces this setting on user accounts with the Guest and Operator roles assigned to them; any user account with the Administrator role assigned to it (including the root and admin accounts) is not subject to the restrictions imposed by this setting. Required Characters

Specifies the number of numeric, uppercase, lowercase, and other characters required for a password. The allowed range of values is 0 to 127. This setting appears only when you enable the Secure Password Enforcement setting.

0

Important: Any user account with the Administrator role assigned to it (including the root and admin accounts) is not subject to the restrictions imposed by this setting. Password Memory

Specifies, for each user account, the number of former passwords that the BIG-IP system retains to prevent the user from re-using a recent password. The range of allowed values is 0 to 127. This setting applies to all user accounts.

0

Minimum Duration

Specifies the minimum number of days before a user can change a password. The range of allowed values is 0 to 255. This setting applies to all user accounts.

0

Maximum Duration

Specifies the maximum number of days that a user's password can be valid. The range of allowed values is 1 to 99999. This setting applies to all user accounts. For more information, see the note on the previous page.

99999

Expiration Warning

Specifies the number of days prior to password expiration that the system sends a warning message to a user. The range of allowed values is 1 to 255. This setting applies to all user accounts.

7

Maximum Login Failures

Denies access to a user after the specified number of failed authentication attempts. The administrator can then reset the lock to re-enable access for the user.

0

Table 13.3 Configuration settings for a secure password policy

Note

Whenever you change the secure password policy, the new configuration values, such as password expiration, do not apply to passwords that were created prior to the policy change. However, the new password policy takes effect the next time that the user changes his or her password. 13 - 10


BIG-IP User Accounts

User authentication lockout You can deny access to a user after a configured number of failed authentication attempts. You can then reset the lock to re-enable access for the user. To configure the maximum number of failures before user lockout, use the BIG-IP Configuration utility to locate the Users screen and then navigate to the Authentication screen. You can then specify a value for the Maximum Login Failures setting. If a user becomes locked out, you can use the Unlock button on the User List screen to unlock the user.

Configuring local user accounts A local user account stored on the BIG-IP system has several properties. Table 13.4 lists and describes these properties, along with their default values. Property

Description

Default Value

User Name

Specifies the name of the user account. The BIG-IP system is case-sensitive, which means that names such as JONES and Jones are treated as separate user accounts.

No default value

Partition

When viewing the properties of an existing user account, displays the name of the partition in which the user account resides. All partitionable BIG-IP system objects (including user account objects) have the Partition property. Note that you cannot edit the value of this setting.

No default value

Password

Specifies a password that the user will use to log in to the BIG-IP system.

No default value

Role

Specifies the user role that you want to assign to the user account. For more information on these user roles, see Table 13.2, on page 13-5.

No Access

Partition Access

Specifies the partition to which the user has access when logged on to the BIG-IP system. If you have permission to do so, you can assign this value to a new user account, or change this value on an existing user account.

All

This setting appears only when the user role for the account is not Administrator. (Accounts with the Administrator role always have universal partition access, that is, access to all partitions.) Terminal Access

Specifies the level of access to the BIG-IP system command line interface. Possible values are: Disabled and Advanced shell.

Disabled

Users with the Administrator or Resource Administrator role assigned to their accounts can have advanced shell access, that is, permission to use all BIG-IP system command line utilities, as well as any Linux commands.

Table 13.4 Properties of a local BIG-IP system user account

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

13 - 11


Chapter 13

Depending on the user role assigned to your account (other than the No Access role), you can either create, view, modify, or delete local user accounts. Users with the Administrator user role assigned to their own accounts can perform all of these tasks with respect to user account objects.

Creating local user accounts When you create a local user account, you must give the account a name and a password. You must also set the user role, either by retaining the default user role or by assigning a new one. The default user role for local, non-system maintenance accounts is No Access. Only users who have been granted the Administrator or User Manager role can create user accounts. If the user role assigned to your account is Administrator, you can create a user account in any partition on the system. If the user role assigned to your account is User Manager, you can create a user account in any partition to which you have access. Note

User accounts on the BIG-IP system are case-sensitive. Thus, the system treats user accounts such as JONES and Jones as two separate user accounts. Note, however, that certain user names, such as admin, are reserved, and are therefore exempt from case-sensitivity. For example, you cannot create a user account named Admin, aDmin, or ADMIN.

Viewing local user accounts Using the Configuration utility, you can easily display a list of existing local user accounts and view the properties of an individual account. Only users who have been granted the Administrator or User Manager roles can view the settings of other user accounts. If the user role assigned to your account is Administrator, you can view any user account on the BIG-IP system, in any partition. If the user role assigned to your account is User Manager, you can view any user account in any partition to which you have access on the BIG-IP system. To summarize, depending on their own partition access, users with a User Manager role can do some or all of the following: • Change another user’s password • Change another user’s user role • Change the partition in which the user can access objects (applies only to users who have both a User Manager role and access to all partitions) • Enable or disable terminal access

Modifying local user accounts You use the Configuration utility to modify the properties of any existing local user account, other than the root account. When modifying user accounts, consider the following:

13 - 12


BIG-IP User Accounts

• Only users who have been granted either the Administrator or User Manager role can modify user accounts other than their own account. • A user with the User Manager role can modify only those accounts that reside in the partition to which that user has access. For example, if user nelson has a User Manager role and has access to partition B only, he can modify only those user accounts that reside in partition B. Even in this case, however, for user accounts in partition B, user nelson cannot modify a user’s Partition Access property. If, however, user nelson has a User Manager role and has access to all partitions, he can modify all user accounts on the system. This includes changing another user’s Partition Access property. • Users with any role but No Access can modify their own user accounts to change the password. These users cannot modify any other properties of their own user accounts. Note: When a user changes their own password, the system automatically logs the user off of the Configuration utility. The system then requires the user to use the new password for subsequent logons. This behavior applies even when the new password matches the old password. • Users with the role of User Manager can modify all of the properties of their own user accounts, except their user role and partition access. If you have an Administrator user role, you can also change some properties of the root account. Specifically, you can change the password of the root account, and you can enable or disable access to the BIG-IP system through SSH. WARNING

The Administrator user role provides access to the BIG-IP system prompt. If a user with the Administrator user role is currently logged on to the system and you change the user role to a role other than Administrator or Resource Administrator, the user can still run commands at the BIG-IP system prompt until he or she logs off of the system.

Deleting local user accounts If the account you are using has the Administrator or User Manager user role, you can delete other local user accounts. A user with the Administrator role can delete any user account on the BIG-IP system in any partition. A user with the User Manager role can delete user accounts on the BIG-IP system in only those partitions to which she has access.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 13


Chapter 13

When you delete a local user account, you remove it permanently from the local user-account database on the BIG-IP system. Note

You cannot delete the admin user account, nor can you delete the user account with which you are logged on. WARNING

The Administrator user role provides access to the BIG-IP system prompt. If a user with the Administrator user role is currently logged on to the system and you delete the user account, the user can still run commands at the BIG-IP system prompt until he or she logs off of the system.

Managing remote user accounts Rather than store user accounts locally on the BIG-IP system, you can store them on a remote authentication server. In this case, you create all of your standard user accounts (including user names and passwords) on that remote server, using the mechanism supplied by that server’s vendor. Once you have created each user account on the remote server, you can then use the BIG-IP system to assign authorization properties (user role, partition access, and terminal access) for each account, for the purpose of controlling user access to BIG-IP system resources. Important

You can assign authorization properties to remotely-stored user accounts on a group basis. You can then use the single configuration file (SCF) feature to propagate those properties to other BIG-IP devices on the network. For more information, see Assigning authorization for groups of user accounts, on page 13-18, and the guide titled BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™: Implementations. The Configuration utility stores all local and remote access control information in the BIG-IP system’s local user-account database. When a user whose account information is stored remotely logs into the BIG-IP

13 - 14


BIG-IP User Accounts

system and is granted authentication, the BIG-IP system then checks its local database to determine the access control properties that you assigned to that user. Note

The Configuration utility refers to remote user accounts as external users. An external user is any user account that is stored on a remote authentication server. Important

Only users with the role of Administrator can manage user roles for remote user accounts. Also, if a user with a local user account is logged on to the BIG-IP system, and you subsequently switch the system from local authentication to remote authentication, the local user remains authenticated until the user’s logon session terminates.

Specifying a remote user-account server One of the tasks you perform with the Configuration utility is to specify the type of remote user-account server that currently stores your remote user accounts. The available server types that you can specify are: • Active Directory or Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) • Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) • Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System Plus (TACACS+) When you specify the type of remote server, you can also configure some server settings. For example, you can specify the user role you would like the BIG-IP system to assign to a remote account if you do not explicitly assign one. Once you have configured the remote server, if you want any of the remote accounts to have a non-default user role, you can explicitly assign a user role to those accounts. For more information on user roles, see Understanding user roles, on page 13-4. If the remote authentication server is an Active Directory or LDAP server and is set up to authenticate SSL traffic, there is an additional feature that you can enable. You can configure the BIG-IP system to perform the server-side SSL handshake that the remote server would normally perform when authenticating client traffic. In this case, there are some preliminary steps you must perform to prepare for remote authentication using SSL.

Configuring authorization for remote accounts You create BIG-IP system user accounts on your remote server using the mechanism provided by the vendor of your remote server. Then, as described in Specifying a remote user-account server, on page 13-15, you use the Configuration utility to specify the remote authentication server that BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 15


Chapter 13

you are using to store those BIG-IP system user accounts. (Valid remote authentication servers for storing BIG-IP system user accounts are Active Directory, LDAP, RADIUS, and TACACS+.) Once you have used the Configuration utility to specify the remote authentication server, you can configure authorization properties for the remote BIG-IP system user accounts. Specifically, you can do the following: • Assign a single set of default authorization properties to all remotely-stored user accounts. For more information, see Understanding default remote-account authorization, on page 13-16. • Assign unique authorization properties to an individual remote user account by creating a corresponding local user account, with the same user name, on the BIG-IP system and assigning access-control properties to it. For more information, see Assigning authorization to an individual user account, on page 13-17. • Change the authorization properties of an individual remote account. For more information, see Changing authorization for an individual user account, on page 13-18. • Assign access-control properties on a group basis (that is, based on groups of users defined on a remote authentication server). For more information, see Assigning authorization for groups of user accounts, on page 13-18. For descriptions of the user roles that you can assign to accounts, see Understanding user roles, on page 13-4.

Understanding default remote-account authorization The Authentication screen that you used to specify the type of remote authentication server also includes some default authorization values (for the Role, Partition Access, and Terminal Access settings). Therefore, if you do not explicitly configure these authorization settings for an individual BIG-IP system user account, the BIG-IP system assigns the default values to that account. This ensures that all remote user accounts have valid authorization settings assigned to them. The default values for the Role, Partition Access, and Terminal Access settings are as follows: • Role--No Access • Partition Access--All • Terminal Access--Disabled When you use these default values for a user account, the user account appears in the list of BIG-IP user accounts as Other External Users. You can change the values that the BIG-IP system automatically uses as the default values for the Role, Partition Access, and Terminal Access settings.

13 - 16


BIG-IP User Accounts

To change the default authorization properties for remote user accounts, you configure the Role, Partition Access, and Terminal Access settings on the same Authentication screen that you used to specify the type of remote authentication server you are using. Important

For the Other External Users user account, you can modify the Role, Partition Access, and Terminal Access settings only when your current partition on the BIG-IP system is set to Common. If you attempt to modify these settings when your current partition is other than Common, the system displays an error message. Note that you can sometimes inadvertently affect your own user account, if the BIG-IP system is configured to perform remote user authentication, and you or another system administrator changes the default role or partition assigned to all external user accounts: ◆

If you log on to the BIG-IP system using one of these remotely-authenticated Administrator accounts, and you or another Administrator user modifies the default role of all external accounts from Administrator to a lesser role, the system modifies the user role of your own account to the lesser role. However, the change to your own account does not actually occur until you log off and log on again to the BIG-IP system, thus allowing you to complete any tasks you initiated that still require the Administrator role.

Similarly, your user account can be affected if the BIG-IP system is configured to perform remote user authentication, and the default partition assigned to all external user accounts is a specific partition. In this case, if you are logged on to the BIG-IP system through the command line using one of the remotely-authenticated accounts, and another user who is logged on through the Configuration utility modifies the default partition for external users, the BIG-IP system immediately logs you off when you attempt to issue another command. Important

If a BIG-IP system administrator changes the user role or partition assignment (or both) for any remote user account, the BIG-IP system logs off all users immediately. (A remote user account in this case refers to Other External Users.)

Assigning authorization to an individual user account As stated in the previous section, you do not use the Configuration utility to create remote user accounts (user name and password) for the BIG-IP system. Instead, you create those user accounts on the remote server, using the mechanism provided by the remote server vendor. For authorization

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 17


Chapter 13

(access control) data, however, if you have the Administrator role assigned to your own user account, you can use the Configuration utility to explicitly assign access control properties to existing remote accounts. Note

The BIG-IP system automatically assigns a default user role and other authorization properties to an existing remote account if you do not explicitly do so. Remote user account names do not appear in the Configuration utility on the User List screen. Therefore, to assign non-default authorization properties to an existing remote account, you must simulate the creation of a new account on the BIG-IP system, configuring the User Name setting with the precise name of the existing remote account. You then configure the other properties on the Create screen as well. In this way, you assign authorization properties to an existing remote user account. Use the following procedure to assign non-default authorization properties to an existing remote user account. (If you have already configured authorization properties of an individual account and want to change them again, see Changing authorization for an individual user account, on page 13-18.) Important

If you want to assign non-default access-control properties to remote user accounts on a group-wise basis, see Assigning authorization for groups of user accounts, on page 13-18.

Changing authorization for an individual user account Sometimes you might want to change the user role, partition access, and terminal access that you previously assigned to a remote account. To do so, you must change the properties of that account by clicking the account name on the User List screen. Only those remote user accounts to which you have explicitly assigned a user role appear in the list of user accounts. Remote user accounts that simply inherit the default user role (configured when you specified the remote authentication server) appear in the list of remote user accounts under the name Other External Users. For more information about default authorization properties, see Understanding default remote-account authorization, on page 13-16.

Assigning authorization for groups of user accounts If you want to assign the same non-default access control properties to a group of remotely-stored user accounts, you can use the remote role groups feature. This feature stores all access control information on a group-wide basis for remotely-stored user accounts. After using the remote role groups feature, you can propagate that access-control information to all BIG-IP devices on the network, using the single configuration file (SCF) feature. The remote role groups feature,

13 - 18


BIG-IP User Accounts

combined with the SCF feature, removes the need to manually assign access control properties to each individual BIG-IP user within a group, on each BIG-IP device on your network.

Granting partition access When you initially configure a remote server for authentication of BIG-IP system users, all remote user accounts have access to the Common partition. If you want a specific remote account to have access to a partition other than Common, you can specify a different partition when you configure the authorization properties for that account. Remote accounts that have the Administrator user role assigned to them automatically have full access to all partitions on the BIG-IP system,

Viewing remote user accounts Using the Configuration utility, you can display a list of those remote user accounts to which you explicitly assigned a non-default user role. If a remote user account has the default role assigned to it, you cannot see that account in the list of remote user accounts. Any users who have access to a partition in which remote accounts reside can view a list of remote user accounts.

Deleting authorization for an individual user account When you use the Configuration utility to delete a remote user account, you are not actually deleting the account from the remote server. Instead, you are changing the values of the user’s authorization properties back to the default values. For more information on default authorization values, see Understanding default remote-account authorization, on page 13-16.

Auditing user access to the system The BIG-IP system generates a log message whenever a user or an application attempts to log on to or log off of the system. The system logs both successful and unsuccessful logon attempts. The system stores these log messages in the /var/log/secure file. When the system logs an authentication message in the /var/log/secure file, the message can contain the following types of information: • The connecting user's ID • The IP address or host name of the user's interface • The time of each logon attempt • Successful logon attempts for command line interface sessions only • Failed logon attempts for command line interface, Configuration utility, and iControl sessions

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

13 - 19


Chapter 13

â&#x20AC;˘ The time of the logoff for command line interface sessions only Figure 13.2 shows examples of log messages for both successful and failed logon attempts made by user jsmith.

May 10 16:25:25 jsmith-dev sshd[13272]: pam_audit: user: jsmith(jsmith) from: /dev/pts/10 at jsmith-dev attempts: 1 in: [Thu May 10 16:25:23 2007 ] out: [Thu May 10 16:25:25 2007 ] May 10 16:14:56 jsmith-dev sshd[716]: pam_audit: User jsmith from ssh at jsmith-dev failed to login after 1 attempts (start: [Thu May 10 16:14:53 2007 ] end: [Thu May 10 16:14:56 2007 ]).

Figure 13.2 Sample log messages related to logon attempts

13 - 20


14 Event Logging

• Introducing BIG-IP system logging • Understanding log types • Setting log levels • Configuring encrypted remote logging


Event Logging

Introducing BIG-IP system logging Viewing and managing log messages is an important part of maintaining a BIG-IP® system. Log messages inform you on a regular basis of the events that are happening on the system. Some of these events pertain to general events happening within the operating system, while other events are specific to the BIG-IP system, such as the stopping and starting of BIG-IP system services. The mechanism that the BIG-IP system uses to log events is the Linux utility syslog-ng. The syslog-ng utility is an enhanced version of the standard UNIX and Linux logging utility syslog. The types of events that the BIG-IP system logs are: ◆

System events System event messages are based on Linux events, and are not specific to the BIG-IP system.

Packet filter events Packet filter messages are those that result from the implementation of packet filters and packet-filter rules.

Local traffic events Local-traffic event messages pertain specifically to the local traffic management system.

Audit events Audit event messages are those that the BIG-IP system logs as a result of changes to the BIG-IP system configuration. Logging audit events is optional.

To configure and manage event logging, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, and click Logs.

Summarizing logging features The logging mechanism on a BIG-IP system includes several features designed to keep you informed of system events in the most effective way possible:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

One of the primary features of the logging feature is its ability to log different types of events, ranging from Linux system events, to packet filtering events, to local traffic events. Through the BIG-IP system auditing feature, you can even track and report changes that users make to the BIG-IP system configuration, such as adding a virtual server. For more information, see Understanding log content, on page 14-2, and Understanding log types, on page 14-5.

When setting up logging on the BIG-IP system, you can customize the logs by designating the minimum severity level, or log level, that you want the BIG-IP system to report when a type of event occurs. The minimum log level indicates the minimum severity level at which the BIG-IP system logs that type of event. For example, you can specify that,

14 - 1


Chapter 14

for any change a user makes to the bigdb database, the minimum severity level for which the BIG-IP system logs messages is Warning. This means that the BIG-IP system logs Warning and more severe messages such as Error and Critical messages, but not less severe ones such as Notice, Informational, or Debug messages. For more information, see Setting log levels, on page 14-8. ◆

You can also use the Configuration utility to search for a string within a log event, that is, filter the display of the log messages according to the string you provide. For more information, see Viewing and filtering log messages, on page 14-3.

You can view historical logs using the Traffic Management shell (tmsh). For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

You can implement HTTP request logging, For more information, see the HTTP Request Logging profile from within BIG-IP® Local Traffic ManagerTM.

Finally, you can log BIG-IP system events to a remote logging server. You do this by identifying the IP address or host name of the remote logging server, and creating an encrypted network connection, or tunnel, for sending log information to that remote server. Tip

You can also configure the system to send email or activate pager notification based on the priority of the logged event.

Understanding log content The logs that the BIG-IP system generates include several types of information. For example, some logs show a timestamp, host name, and service for each event. Moreover, logs sometimes include a status code, while the audit log shows a user name and a transaction ID corresponding to each configuration change. All logs contain a 1-line description of each event. Table 14.1 lists the categories of information contained in the logs and the specific logs in which the information is displayed. Information Type

Explanation

Log Type

Timestamp

The time and date that the system logged the event message.

System Packet Filter Local Traffic Audit

Host name

The host name of the system that logged the event message. Because this is typically the host name of the local machine, the appearance of a remote host name could be of interest.

System Packet Filter Local Traffic

Table 14.1 Log information categories and their descriptions 14 - 2


Event Logging

Information Type

Explanation

Log Type

Service

The service that generated the event.

System Packet Filter Local Traffic

Status code

The status code associated with the event. Note that only events logged by BIG-IP system components, and not Linux system services, have status codes.

Packet Filter Local Traffic

Description

The description of the event that caused the system to log the message.

System Packet Filter Local Traffic

User Name

The name of the user who made the configuration change.

Audit

Transaction ID

The identification number of the configuration change.

Audit

Event

A description of the configuration change that caused the system to log the message.

Audit

Table 14.1 Log information categories and their descriptions

Viewing and filtering log messages Use the Configuration utility for an easy way to view the log files that the system generates. You can also control which messages the Configuration utility displays, by typing a search string. Note

An alternate way to view and filter log messages is to use tmsh. For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

14 - 3


Chapter 14

Viewing standard log messages On the BIG-IP system, you can use the Configuration utility to view standard system, packet filter, local traffic, or audit messages.

To view standard log messages 1. On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System, and click Logs. The Logs screen opens. 2. On the menu bar, click System, Packet Filter, Local Traffic, or Audit, depending on the type of log messages you want to view. This displays a list of this type of log message. 3. If you want to advance to another screen of messages, first locate the page list at the lower-right corner of the screen. You can either: â&#x20AC;˘ Display the list and select a page number or Show All. â&#x20AC;˘ Click the right arrow to advance to the next page of messages.

Expanding codes in log messages The BIG-IP system log messages contain codes that provide information about the system. You can run the Linux zcat command at the system prompt to expand the codes in log messages to provide more information. In Figure 14.1, the bold text is the expansion of the log code 012c0012. Jun 14 14:28:03 sccp bcm56xxd [ 226 ] : 012c0012 : (Product=BIGIP Subset=BCM565XXD) : 6: 4.1 rx [ OK 171009 Bad 0 ] tx [ OK 171014 Bad 0 ]

Figure 14.1 Example of an expanded code in a log message

To expand a code in a log message At the BIG-IP system prompt, type the Linux zcat command, using this syntax: zcat /var/log/<log_file> | bigcodes | less

For example, the following command sequences show two ways to expand a code in a local traffic log message: zcat /var/log/ltm | bigcodes | less zcat /var/log/ltm.1.gz | bigcodes | less

The system displays the log file with the codes expanded.

Viewing historical log files You can view log files for a specific range of dates. To do this, you use the show log command within the sys module of the Traffic Management shell (tmsh). For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

14 - 4


Event Logging

Viewing the command audit log You can view the command audit log by date range, using the Traffic Management shell (tmsh). For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

Filtering log messages By supplying a text string, you can filter the log messages to suit your needs.

To filter log messages based on a search string 1. On the Main tab of the navigation pane, expand System, and click Logs. The Logs screen opens. 2. On the menu bar, click System, Packet Filter, Local Traffic, or Audit, depending on the type of log messages you want to view. This displays log messages of the type you selected. 3. In the Search box (directly above the Timestamp column), type a string, optionally using the asterisk as a wildcard character. 4. Click Search. This displays only those messages containing the string you specified.

Understanding log types As described in Introducing BIG-IP system logging, on page 14-1, the BIG-IP system automatically logs four main event types: system, packet filter, local traffic, and configuration changes (audit). Each type of event is stored in a separate log file, and the information stored in each log file varies depending on the event type. All log files for these event types are in the directory /var/log.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

14 - 5


Chapter 14

Logging system events Many events that occur on the BIG-IP system are Linux-related events, and do not specifically apply to the BIG-IP system. Using the Configuration utility, you can display these system messages. Table 14.2 shows some sample system log entries. Timestamp

Host

Service

Event

Mon Feb 14 03:34:45 PST 2005

bigip3

syslog-ng[5494]

new configuration initialized

Mon Feb 14 03:35:06 PST 2005

bigip3

syslog-ng[5494]

kjournald starting. Commit interval 5 seconds.

Mon Feb 14 04:38:06 PST 2005

bigip3

EXT3-fs

mounted filesystem with ordered data mode.

Table 14.2 Sample system log entries

Logging packet filter events Some of the events that the BIG-IP system logs are related to packet filtering. The system logs the messages for these events in the file /var/log/pktfilter. Using the Configuration utility, you can display these packet filter messages.

Logging local traffic events Many of the events that the BIG-IP system logs are related to local area traffic passing through the BIG-IP system. The BIG-IP system logs the messages for these events in the file /var/log/ltm. Using the Configuration utility, you can display these local-traffic messages. Table 14.3 shows some sample local-traffic log entries.

Timestamp

Host

Service

Status Code

Event

Mon Feb 14 03:34:45 PST 2005

bigip2

bcm56xxd(785)

00010013

Starting packet registry event timer

Mon Feb 14 03:35:06 PST 2005

bigip2

bcm56xxd(785)

00010013

Starting HA heartbeat timer tick

Mon Feb 14 04:38:06 PST 2005

bigip2

bcm56xxd(785)

00010013

Successful start. Entering main message loop

Mon Feb 14 o4:36:06 PST 2005

bigip2

bcm56xxd(785)

00010012

Link 2.5 is up

Table 14.3 Sample local-traffic log entries

14 - 6


Event Logging

Some of the specific types of events that the BIG-IP system displays on the Local Traffic logging screen are: • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) packet and ARP cache events • bigdb database events (such as populating and persisting bigdb variables) • HTTP protocol events • HTTP compression events • IP packet discard events due to exceptional circumstances or invalid parameters (such as a bad checksum) • Layer 4 events (events related to TCP, UDP, and Fast L4 processing) • MCP/TMM configuration events • Monitor configuration events • Network events (Layers 1 and 2) • Packet Velocity® ASIC (PVA) configuration events • iRule events related to run-time iRule processing • SSL traffic processing events • General TMM events such as TMM startup and shutdown Note

For information on setting a minimum log level on each of these event types, see Setting log access, on page 14-8.

Auditing configuration changes Audit logging is an optional feature that logs messages whenever a BIG-IP system object, such as a virtual server or a load balancing pool, is configured (that is, created, modified, or deleted). The BIG-IP system logs the messages for these auditing events in the file /var/log/ltm. Using the Configuration utility, you can display audit log messages. Table 14.4 shows a sample audit log entry. This example shows that user janet enabled the audit logging feature.

Timestamp

User Name

Transaction ID

Event

Mon Feb 14 03:34:45 PST 2005

janet

79255-1

DB_VARIABLE modified: name="config.auditing"

Table 14.4 Sample audit log entries

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

14 - 7


Chapter 14

There are three ways that objects can be configured: • By user action • By system action • By loading configuration data Whenever an object is configured in one of these ways, the BIG-IP system logs a message to the audit log.

Setting log levels Using the Configuration utility, you can set log levels on both local traffic and auditing events. For each type of local traffic event, you can set a minimum log level. The minimum log level indicates the minimum severity level at which the BIG-IP system logs that type of event. For more information, see Setting log access, following. For auditing events, you can set a log level that indicates the type of event that the system logs, such as the user-initiated loading of BIG-IP system configurations, or system-initiated configuration changes. For more information, see Setting log levels for auditing events, on page 14-10. Note

An alternate way to set log levels is to use tmsh. For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide.

Setting log access You can control a user’s access to the logs by setting the user’s user role to either Allow or Deny. On the Main tab, expand System, click Logs, and on the menu bar, click Options.

Setting log levels for local traffic events For local traffic events, you can set a minimum log level. Thus, for different kinds of local traffic events, such as bigdb configuration events or events related to HTTP compression, you can set different minimum log levels. The log levels that you can set on certain types of events, ordered from highest severity to lowest severity, are: • Emergency • Alert • Critical • Error • Warning

14 - 8


Event Logging

• Notice • Informational • Debug For example, if you set the minimum log level for bigdb events to Error, then the system only logs messages that have a severity of Error or higher for those events. If you retain the default minimum log level (Informational), then the system logs all messages that have a severity of Informational or higher (that is, all messages except Debug messages). There are many different types of local traffic events for which you can set a minimum log level. Table 14.5, on page 14-9, shows the types of local traffic events and the minimum log levels that you can configure for them. Because not all log levels are available for every local-traffic event type, the table shows the specific log levels you can set on each event type. Following the table is the procedure for setting the minimum log level on a local traffic event type.

Local-Traffic Event Type

Available Minimum Log Levels

Default Value

ARP/NDP

Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Warning

HTTP

Error, Debug

Error

HTTP Compression

Error, Debug

Error

IP

Warning, Notice

Warning

Layer 4

Notice, Informational, Debug

Notice

MCP

Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Notice

Network

Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Warning

Packet Velocity® ASIC

Informational, Debug

Informational

iRules®

Error, Informational, Debug

Informational

SSL

Error, Warning

Warning

Traffic Management OS

Emergency, Critical, Error, Notice, Informational

Notice

LIND

Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Notice

CSYNCD

Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Notice

CLUSTERD

Emergency, Alert, Critical, Error, Warning, Notice, Informational, Debug

Notice

Table 14.5 Local-traffic event types and their available log levels BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

14 - 9


Chapter 14

Note

For more information on local traffic event types, see Logging local traffic events, on page 14-6.

Setting log levels for auditing events An optional type of logging that you can enable is audit logging. Audit logging logs messages that pertain to configuration changes that users or services make to the BIG-IP system configuration. This type of audit logging is known as MCP audit logging. (For more information, see Auditing configuration changes, on page 14-7.) Optionally, you can set up audit logging for any tmsh commands that users type on the command line. For both MCP and tmsh audit logging, you can choose one of four log levels. In this case, the log levels do not affect the severity of the log messages; instead, they affect the initiator of the audit event. The log levels for MCP and tmsh audit logging are: ◆

Disable This turns audit logging off. This is the default value.

Enable This causes the system to log messages for user-initiated configuration changes only.

Verbose This causes the system to log messages for user-initiated configuration changes and any loading of configuration data.

Debug This causes the system to log messages for all user-initiated and system-initiated configuration changes. Note

For more information on local traffic event types, see Logging local traffic events, on page 14-6.

Viewing and searching the audit log You can view the contents of the audit log, or you can search an audit log based on user name, time period, or specific content. On the Main tab, expand System, click Logs, and on the menu bar, click Audit.

14 - 10


Event Logging

Configuring encrypted remote logging You can configure the syslog-ng utility on the BIG-IP system to send BIG-IP system log information to a remote logging host, using an encrypted network connection. To do this, you create a port-forwarding SSH tunnel to the remote logging host, and configure the syslog-ng utility on the BIG-IP system to send log messages through the SSH tunnel.

Before you begin Before you attempt to configure encrypted remote logging, you must meet the following conditions on the BIG-IP system and your remote logging host: ◆

On the BIG-IP system You must have a console with root access to the BIG-IP system.

On the remote logging host You must have a console with root access to the remote logging host, the IP address, or the host name of the remote logging host.

For both systems You must have both systems connected to the same subnetwork. WARNING

Attempt this configuration only if you understand the risks associated with making changes to daemon startup scripts.

Creating the remote encrypted logging configuration When creating an encrypted remote logging configuration, you must complete the following tasks: • Review the SSH syntax required to create this configuration. • Create a unique SSH identity key to identify and authorize the BIG-IP system. • Edit the syslog-ng utility startup script to create and destroy the SSH tunnels. • Edit the remote logging host to accept syslog-ng messages through the SSH tunnel. • Copy the unique SSH identity key to the remote logging host and append it to the authorized key file. • Verify the logging configuration and restart the syslog-ng utility.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

14 - 11


Chapter 14

Reviewing the SSH syntax required to create this configuration This configuration requires that the BIG-IP system is able to establish an SSH connection to the remote logging host. On the BIG-IP system, use the ssh command to create the tunnel. Figure 14.2 is an example of the syntax required to create an SSH tunnel. $ ssh -L <local tunnel port>:<remote log hostname>:<remote tunnel port> \ <remote user>@<remote log hostname> \ -nNCxf \ -i <key identity file>

Figure 14.2 Syntax to establish an SSH tunnel from the BIG-IP system Table 14.6 contains detailed descriptions of the ssh syntax elements shown in Figure 14.2. SSH syntax

Description

<local tunnel port>

The port SSH listens on for connections in order to forward them to <remote log hostname>:<remote tunnel port>.

<remote log hostname>

The IP address or FQDN of the remote logging server.

<remote tunnel port>

The port to which you want the SSH daemon on the remote logging server to forward connections.

<remote user>

The user name that SSH attempts to authenticate, as on <remote log hostname>.

<key identity file>

A file name from which the identity (private key) for authentication is read.

Table 14.6 Detailed syntax elements for configuring SSH

Creating an SSH key to identify and authorize the BIG-IP system After you have reviewed the ssh command syntax, use the ssh command to create the encrypted tunnel on the BIG-IP system. You must create a unique key on the BIG-IP system. The unique key is used to identify and authorize the BIG-IP system to the remote logging host. To create the file syslog_tunnel_ID and syslog_tunnel_ID.pub, use the following command sequence: $ ssh -b 2048 -f syslog_tunnel_ID -t rsa -N "" -P ""

To make syslog_tunnel_ID readable only by the root account, use the following command sequence: $ chmod 600 syslog_tunnel_ID

14 - 12


Event Logging

To make the public portion of the unique SSH ID named syslog_tunnel_ID.pub readable by all accounts, use the following command sequence: $ chmod 644 syslog_tunnel_ID.pub

Copy syslog_tunnel_ID and syslog_tunnel_ID.pub into /var/ssh with the following command: $ cp syslog_tunnel_ID* /var/ssh

Editing the syslog-ng start script to open and close the tunnel Next, you must change the syslog-ng utility startup script, /etc/init.d/syslog-ng, so that the encrypted tunnel is opened when the syslog-ng script starts up, and is closed when the script is restarted or stopped. Before you edit the syslog-ng utility startup script, save a backup copy to the root directory. Use the following command to save the backup to the root directory: $ cp /etc/init.d/syslog-ng /root/syslog-ng.backup

After you save a backup of the syslog-ng utility startup script, /etc/init.d/syslog-ng, edit it to automatically create SSH tunnels when the syslog-ng utility is started, or close the SSH tunnels when the syslog-ng utility is restarted or stopped. The example configuration in this document demonstrates how to create a tunnel to a host using the following IP addresses and ports: • IP address of 10.0.0.100 • Local tunnel port of 5140 • Remote tunnel port of 5140 • User name logger on host 10.0.0.100 Start by adding syntax below the line that reads start). Figure 14.3 is an example of what the section of the syslog-ng start script looks like after you add the new syntax. In this example, the syntax you need to add is shown with bold text. start) ssh -L 5140:10.0.0.100:5140 \ logger@10.0.0.100 -nNCxf \ -i var/ssh/syslog_tunnel_ID echo -n "Starting $INIT_NAME: " daemon --check $INIT_PROG "$INIT_PROG $INIT_OPTS"

Figure 14.3 The syntax to add below the start) line

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

14 - 13


Chapter 14

Next, add syntax below the line that reads stop). Figure 14.4 shows the syntax you need to add in bold text. stop) for sshTunnel in \ `ps -ewo "%p!%a" | \ grep ssh | \ grep syslog_tunnel_ID | \ grep -v grep | \ cut -f 1 -d !`; do if [ -n "$sshTunnel" -a $sshTunnel -gt 10 ]; then echo " -- Shutting down SSH tunnel with process $sshTunnel" kill -TERM $sshTunnel fi done echo -n "Stopping $INIT_NAME: "

Figure 14.4 The syntax to add below the stop) line

Setting up message logging on a remote logging host After you add the syntax to open and close SSH tunnels, you can modify the configuration of the syslog-ng utility to log messages to a remote syslog-ng server. To do this, you can use either the BIG-IP Configuration utility or the tmsh command line interface.

Logging to a remote logging server using the Configuration utility 1. From the Main tab, expand System, and click Logs. 2. From the Configuration menu, choose Remote Logging. The Remote Logging screen appears. 3. In the Remote IP box, type the IP address of the remote logging server. 4. In the Remote Port box, retain the default port number or type a different port number. 5. In the Local IP box, type the IP address of the local BIG-IP system that is sending the log messages. This step is optional. 6. Click Add. 7. Repeat steps 3 through 6 for each remote logging server to which you want the BIG-IP system to send log messages. 8. Click Update.

14 - 14


Event Logging

Logging to a remote logging server using tmsh To send log messages to a remove logging server, use the following command at the tmsh prompt: modify sys syslog remote-servers add{ remotesyslog1 { host <host> remote-port <port> local-ip <local-ip> } }

Note

The syslog-ng daemon on the local BIG-IP system automatically restarts whenever you update the remote server configuration. This restart occurs whether you perform the update through the Configuration utility or tmsh.

Copying the SSH identity to the remote logging host After you have used the syslog command to set up the remote logging host to log messages, you must copy the unique SSH identity to the remote logging host. To do this, copy the syslog_tunnel_ID.pub identity to the remote syslog server, and append this key to the authorized_keys file found in the .ssh folder under the home directory of the user that you want to use to capture remote log messages. $ cat syslog_tunnel_ID.pub >> ~logger/.ssh/authorized_keys

Verify that the logging facility is configured and ready to receive syslog-ng messages on the <remote tunnel port>. If the remote logging host uses the syslog-ng utility, you need to add a source configuration block such as the example shown in Figure 14.5. source remote { tcp(ip(10.0.0.100) port(5140)); };

Figure 14.5 Remote logging host source identification block In addition to the source identification block, you also need to add filter, destination, and log configuration blocks to use the data from the source remote as required by your application.

Verifying the logging configuration and restarting syslog-ng Finally, verify that the SSH connection is functional and restart the syslog-ng utility.

To verify the configuration and restart the syslog-ng utility 1. Log on as root to the BIG-IP system. 2. Make an SSH connection to the remote logging host using the new identity key you created. # ssh logger@10.0.0.100 -i /var/shh/syslog_tunnel_ID

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

14 - 15


Chapter 14

If everything is configured correctly, you should be able to get shell access to the remote logging host without being challenged for a password. (When you add the new identity key to the remote host's authorized_keys file, the key is used to authenticate the BIG-IP system.) 3. Exit from the SSH session to the BIG-IP system command line. 4. Restart the syslog-ng utility by typing the following command: $ /etc/init.d/syslog-ng restart

The BIG-IP system should now be sending log messages to your remote host.

14 - 16


15 Interfaces

• Introduction to BIG-IP system interfaces • Interface properties • LLDP • Interface statistics • Related configuration tasks


Interfaces

Introduction to BIG-IP system interfaces A key task of the BIG-IP® system configuration is the configuration of BIG-IP system interfaces. The interfaces on a BIG-IP system are the physical ports that you use to connect the BIG-IP system to other devices on the network. These other devices can be next-hop routers, Layer 2 devices, destination servers, and so on. Through its interfaces, the BIG-IP system can forward traffic to or from other network devices. Note

Throughout this guide, the term interface refers to the physical ports on the BIG-IP system. Every BIG-IP system includes multiple interfaces. The exact number of interfaces that you have on the BIG-IP system depends on the platform type. For information on BIG-IP platform types, see the relevant platform guide. A BIG-IP system has two types of interfaces: • A management interface The management interface is a special interface dedicated to performing a specific set of system management functions. • TMM switch interfaces TMM switch interfaces are those interfaces that the BIG-IP system uses to send or receive application traffic, that is, traffic slated for application delivery. Each of the interfaces on the BIG-IP system has unique properties, such as the MAC address, media speed, duplex mode, and support for Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). In addition to configuring interface properties, you can implement a feature known as interface mirroring, which you can use to duplicate traffic from one or more interfaces to another. You can also view statistics about the traffic on each interface. Once you have configured the properties of each interface, you can configure several other features of the BIG-IP system that control the way that interfaces operate. For example, by creating a virtual local area network (VLAN) and assigning interfaces to it, the BIG-IP system can insert a VLAN ID, or tag, into frames passing through those interfaces. In this way, a single interface can forward traffic for multiple VLANs. To configure and manage BIG-IP system interfaces, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Interfaces.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

15 - 1


Chapter 15

About Link Layer Discovery Protocol The BIG-IP system supports Link Layer Discovery Protocol (LLDP). LLDP is a Layer 2 industry-standard protocol (IEEE 802.1AB) that enables a network device such as the BIG-IP system to advertise its identity and capabilities to multi-vendor neighbor devices on a network. The protocol also enables a network device to receive information from neighbor devices. LLDP transmits device information in the form of LLDP messages known as LLDP Data Units (LLDPDUs). In general, this protocol: ◆

Advertises connectivity and management information about the local BIG-IP device to neighbor devices on the same IEEE 802 LAN.

Receives network management information from neighbor devices on the same IEEE 802 LAN.

• Operates with all IEEE 802 access protocols and network media. Using the BIG-IP Configuration utility or tmsh, you can configure the BIG-IP system interfaces to transmit or receive LLDPDUs. More specifically, you can: ◆

Specify the exact content of LLDPDUs that a BIG-IP system interface transmits to a neighbor device. You specify this content by configuring the LLDP Attributes setting on each individual interface.

Globally specify the frequencies of various message transmittal properties, and specify the number of neighbors from which each interface can receive messages. These properties apply to all interfaces on the BIG-IP system.

Figure 15.1 shows a local LLDP-enabled BIG-IP system, configured to both transmit and receive LLDP messages from neighbor devices on a LAN.

Figure 15.1 A local BIG-IP system that transmits and receives LLDPUs

15 - 2


Interfaces

Interface properties Each interface on the BIG-IP system has a set of properties that you can configure, such as enabling or disabling the interface, setting the requested media type and duplex mode, and configuring flow control. Configuring the properties of each interface is one of the first tasks you do after running the Setup utility on the BIG-IP system. While you can change some of these properties, such as media speed and duplex mode, you cannot change other properties, such as the media access control (MAC) address. Note

You can configure STP-related properties on an interface by configuring one of the Spanning Tree protocols. Before configuring interface properties, it is helpful to understand interface naming conventions. Note

Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can create and manage interfaces.

Understanding interface naming conventions By convention, the names of the interfaces on the BIG-IP system use the format <s>.<p> where s is the slot number of the network interface card (NIC), and p is the port number on the NIC. Examples of interface names are 1.1, 1.2, and 2.1. BIG-IP system interfaces already have names assigned to them; you do not explicitly assign them. An exception to the interface naming convention is the management interface, which has the special name MGMT.

Viewing interface information and media properties Using the Configuration utility, you can display a screen that lists all of the BIG-IP system interfaces, as well as their current status (UP or DOWN). You can also view other information about each interface: • MAC address of the interface • Interface availability • Media type • Media speed • Active mode (such as full)

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

15 - 3


Chapter 15

This information is useful when you want to assess the way that a particular interface is forwarding traffic. For example, you can use this information to determine the specific VLANs for which an interface is currently forwarding traffic. You can also use this information to determine the speed at which an interface is currently operating.

Interface state You can either enable or disable an interface on the BIG-IP system. By default, each interface is set to Enabled, where it can accept ingress or egress traffic. When you set the interface to Disabled, the interface cannot accept ingress or egress traffic.

Fixed Requested Media The Fixed Requested Media property shows that the interface auto-detects the duplex mode of the interface.

Flow control You can configure the Flow Control property to manage the way that an interface handles pause frames for flow control. Pause frames are frames that an interface sends to a peer interface as a way to control frame transmission from that peer interface. Pausing a peer’s frame transmissions prevents an interface’s First-in, First-out (FIFO) queue from filling up and resulting in a loss of data. Possible values for this property are: ◆

Pause None Disables flow control.

Pause TX/RX Specifies that the interface honors pause frames from its peer, and also generates pause frames when necessary. This is the default value.

Pause TX Specifies that the interface ignores pause frames from its peer, and generates pause frames when necessary.

Pause RX Specifies that the interface honors pause frames from its peer, but does not generate pause frames.

LLDP The LLDP property is one of two properties related to LLDP that you can configure for a specific interface. The possible values for this setting are: • Disabled When set to this value, the interface neither transmits (sends) LLDP messages to nor receives LLDP messages from neighboring devices.

15 - 4


Interfaces

• Transmit Only When set to this value, the interface transmits LLDP messages to neighbor devices but does not receive LLDP messages from neighbor devices. • Receive Only When set to this value, the interface receives LLDP messages from neighbor devices but does not transmit LLDP messages to neighbor devices. • Transmit and Receive When set to this value, the interface transmits LLDP messages to and receives LLDP messages from neighboring devices.

LLDP Attributes The LLDP Attributes setting is one of two settings related to LLDP that you can configure for a specific interface. You use this interface setting to specify the content of an LLDP message being sent or received. Each LLDP attribute that you specify with this setting is optional and is in the form of Type, Length, Value (TLV). Table l15.1 lists and describes the optional TLVs that the interface can send or receive in an LLDP message. Note that there are three mandatory TLVs, which are not listed here: Chassis ID, Port ID, and Time-to-Live (TTL).

Port Description

Contains an alpha-numeric string that describes the interface. If RFC 2863 is implemented, use the ifDescr object for this field.

System Name

Contains an alpha-numeric string that indicates the system’s administratively-assigned name. The system name should be the system’s fully qualified domain name (FQDN). If implementations support IETF RFC 3418, use the sysName object for this field.

System Description

Contains an alpha-numeric string that is the textual description of the network entity. The system description should include the full name and version identification of the system's hardware type, software operating system, and networking software. If implementations support IETF RFC 3418, use the sysDescr object for this field.

System Capabilities

Identifies the primary functions of the system and whether these primary functions are enabled. This field is optional.

Management Address

Identifies an address associated with the local LLDP agent used to reach higher layer entities, to assist discovery by network management. This TLV also provides room for the inclusion of the system interface number that is associated with this management address, if known.

Port VLAN ID (untagged VLAN ID)

Allows a VLAN bridge port to advertise the port’s VLAN identifier (PVID) that is associated with untagged or priority tagged frames (see IEEE 802.1Q-1998, 8.4.4). This field is an optional, fixed-length TLV.

Table 15.1 Optional LLDP TLVs for an interface

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

15 - 5


Chapter 15

Port and protocol VLAN ID

Allows a bridge port to advertise a port and protocol VLAN ID. The port and protocol VLAN ID field shall contain the PPVID number for this IEEE 802 LAN station. If the port is not capable of supporting port and protocol VLANs and/or the port is not enabled with any port and protocol VLAN, the PPVID number should be zero. This field is optional.

VLAN Name (complete list of tagged/untagged VLANs)

Allows an IEEE 802.1Q-compatible IEEE 802 LAN station to advertise the assigned name of any VLAN with which it is configured. The VLAN name field must contain the VLAN’s name. If implementations support IETF RFC 2674, use the dot1QVLANStaticName object for this field. This field is optional.

Protocol Identify

Allows an IEEE 802 LAN station to advertise particular protocols that are accessible through the port. The protocol identity field must contain the first n octets of the protocol after the Layer 2 addresses (for example, starting with the Ethertype field) that the sender needs to advertise. The value of n is determined by the need for the protocol to disambiguate itself. The protocol information string must include enough octets to allow the receiver to correctly identify the protocol and its version. To advertise Spanning Tree protocols, for example, the Protocol Identity field must include at least eight octets: IEEE 802.3 length (two octets), LLC addresses (two octets), IEEE 802.3 control (one octet), Protocol ID (two octets), and the protocol version (one octet). This field is optional.

MAC/PHY Configuration Status

Identifies the following information:

Link Aggregation

Contains a bit map of the link aggregation capabilities and the current aggregation status of the link.

Maximum Frame Size

Indicates the maximum frame size capability of the implemented MAC and PHY. The maximum frame size field must contain an integer value indicating the maximum supported frame size in octets, as determined by the following:

• The duplex and bit-rate capability of the sending IEEE 802.3 LAN node that is connected to the physical medium. • The current duplex and bit-rate settings of the sending IEEE 802.3 LAN node. • Whether these settings are the result of auto-negotiation during link initiation or of manual set override action. This field is optional.

• If the MAC/PHY supports only the basic MAC frame format as defined in 3.1.1 of IEEE Std 802.3-2002, set the maximum frame size field to 1518. • If the MAC/PHY supports an extension of the basic MAC frame format for tagged MAC frames as defined in IEEE 802.3-2002, set the maximum frame size field to 1522. • If the MAC/PHY supports an extension of the MAC frame format that is different from either of the above, set the maximum frame size field to the maximum value supported. Product model

[TBD]

Table 15.1 Optional LLDP TLVs for an interface

15 - 6


Interfaces

Interface mirroring For reliability reasons, you can configure a feature known as interface mirroring. When you configure interface mirroring, you cause the BIG-IP system to copy the traffic on one or more interfaces to another interface that you specify. By default, the interface mirroring feature is disabled. The settings you configure to implement the interface mirroring feature are shown in Table 15.2.

Setting

Description

Interface Mirroring State

Enables or disables interface mirroring.

Destination Interface

Specifies the interface on which traffic from other interfaces is to be mirrored.

Mirrored Interfaces

Specifies one or more interfaces for which you want to mirror traffic on the destination interface.

Table 15.2 Configuration settings for enabling interface mirroring

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

15 - 7


Chapter 15

LLDP In addition to the LLDP-related settings that you can configure per interface, you can configure some global LLDP settings that apply to all interfaces on the system. Moreover, you can view statistics pertaining to any neighbor devices that have transmitted LLDP messages to the local BIG-IP system. To configure these settings using the BIG-IP Configuration utility, locate the Main tab, expand Network, and click Interfaces. Then from the LLDP menu item, choose General or Neighbors.

General settings To control the frequency of LLDP messages, you can configure the following settings. Note that these settings are global settings that apply to all interfaces on the system. Table 15.3 lists and describes general settings that apply to all LLDP-enabled interfaces on the BIG-IP system.

LLDP

The control to enable or disable LLDP for all interfaces on the BIG-IP system. The default value is Disabled.

Message Transmit Interval

The interval in seconds between successive transmit cycles.

Message Transmit Hold

A multiplier on the value of the Message Transmit Interval setting, used to compute the TTL value of txTTL.

Reinit Delay

The delay in seconds, after adminStatus becomes disable, before re-initialization is attempted.

Transmit Delay

The minimum delay in seconds between successive LLDP frame transmissions.

Maximum Neighbors per Port

The maximum number of neighbors from which each interface can receive messages. If the BIG-IP receives messages from more than 10 neighbors on one port, the system discards the messages, thus protecting the system from flooding (whether accidental or malicious)

Table 15.3 LLDP settings that apply to all LLDP-enabled interfaces

15 - 8


Interfaces

Neighbor settings When a BIG-IP system interface receives LLDP messages from neighbor devices, the BIG-IP system displays chassis, port, and system information about the content of those messages. Specifically, the system displays values for the standard TLVs for each neighbor. These TLVs are: • Chassis ID Identifies the chassis containing the IEEE 802 LAN station associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. • Port ID Identifies the port component of the media service access point (MSAP) identifier associated with the transmitting LLDP agent. • Port description An alpha-numeric string that describes the interface. • System name An alpha-numeric string that indicates the administratively-assigned name of the neighbor device. • System description An alpha-numeric string that is the textual description of the network entity. The system description should include the full name and version identification of the hardware type, software operating system, and networking software of the neighbor device. • System capabilities The primary functions of the system and whether these primary functions are enabled. • Management address An address associated with the local LLDP agent used to reach higher layer entities. This TLV might also include the system interface number that is associated with the management address, if known. Note that you can use the Auto Refresh setting to either automatically or manually refresh TLV information that the BIG-IP system receives from neighbor devices.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

15 - 9


Chapter 15

Interface statistics You can display a variety of statistics about the interfaces on the BIG-IP system. Tip

For descriptions of each type of statistic, see the online help.

Related configuration tasks After you have configured the interfaces on the BIG-IP system, one of the primary tasks you perform is to assign those interfaces to the virtual LANs (VLANs) that you create. A VLAN is a logical subset of hosts on a local area network (LAN) that reside in the same IP address space. When you assign multiple interfaces to a single VLAN, traffic destined for a host in that VLAN can travel through any one of these interfaces to reach its destination. Conversely, when you assign a single interface to multiple VLANs, the BIG-IP system can use that single interface for any traffic that is intended for hosts in those VLANs. Another powerful feature that you can use for BIG-IP system interfaces is trunking, with link aggregation. A trunk is an object that logically groups physical interfaces together to increase bandwidth. Link aggregation, through the use of the industry-standard Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP), provides regular monitoring of link status, as well as failover if an interface becomes unavailable. Finally, you can configure your BIG-IP system interfaces to work with one of the spanning tree protocols (STP, RSTP, and MSTP). Spanning tree protocols reduce traffic on your internal network by blocking duplicate routes to prevent bridging loops. Chapter 20, Spanning Tree Protocols, describes the spanning tree protocols and the procedure for configuring these protocols on the BIG-IP system. The chapter also includes information on setting spanning tree-related properties on individual interfaces.

15 - 10


16 Self IP Addresses

• Introduction to self IP addresses • Types of self IP addresses • Self IP addresses and MAC addresses • Self IP addresses for SNATs • Self IP address properties


Self IP Addresses

Introduction to self IP addresses A self IP address is an IP address on the BIG-IP® system that you associate with a VLAN, to access hosts in that VLAN. By virtue of its netmask, a self IP address represents an address space, that is, a range of IP addresses spanning the hosts in the VLAN, rather than a single host address. You can associate self IP addresses not only with VLANs, but also with VLAN groups. Self IP addresses serve two purposes: • First, when sending a message to a destination server, the BIG-IP system uses the self IP addresses of its VLANs to determine the specific VLAN in which a destination server resides. For example, if VLAN internal has a self IP address of 10.10.10.100, with a netmask of 255.255.255.0, and the destination server’s IP address is 10.10.10.20 (with a netmask of 255.255.255.255), the BIG-IP system recognizes that the server’s IP address falls within the range of VLAN internal’s self IP address, and therefore sends the message to that VLAN. More specifically, the BIG-IP system sends the message to the interface that you assigned to that VLAN. If more than one interface is assigned to the VLAN, the BIG-IP system takes additional steps to determine the correct interface, such as checking the Layer2 forwarding table. • Second, a self IP address can serve as the default route for each destination server in the corresponding VLAN. In this case, the self IP address of a VLAN appears as the destination IP address in the packet header when the server sends a response to the BIG-IP system. You normally assign self IP addresses to a VLAN when you initially run the Setup utility on a BIG-IP system. More specifically, you assign one static self IP address and one floating self IP address to each of the default VLANs (internal and external). Later, using the Configuration utility, you can create self IP addresses for other VLANs that you create. Self IP addresses reside in administrative partitions/folders and are associated with traffic groups. The self IP addresses that you create when you run the Setup utility reside in partition Common (that is folder /Common). To configure and manage self IP addresses, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Self IPs.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

16 - 1


Chapter 16

Types of self IP addresses There are two types of self IP addresses that you can create: • A static self IP address is an IP address that the BIG-IP system does not share with another BIG-IP system. Any self IP address that you assign to the default traffic group traffic-group-local-only is a static self IP address. • A floating self IP address is an IP address that two BIG-IP systems share. Any self IP address that you assign to the default traffic group traffic-group-1 is a floating self IP address.

Self IP addresses and MAC addresses For each self IP address that you create for a VLAN, the BIG-IP system automatically assigns a media access control (MAC) address. By default, the BIG-IP system assigns the same MAC address that is assigned to the lowest-numbered interface of the VLAN. As an alternative, you can globally configure the BIG-IP system to assign the same MAC address to all VLANs. This feature is useful if your network includes a type of switch that does not keep a separate Layer 2 forwarding table for each VLAN on that switch. To configure a global MAC address for VLANs, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand System, click Configuration, and click Local Traffic.

Self IP addresses for SNATs When you configure the BIG-IP system to manage local area traffic, you can implement a feature known as a secure network address translation (SNAT). A SNAT is an object that causes the BIG-IP system to translate the original source IP address of a packet to an IP address that you specify. A SNAT ensures that the target server sends its response back through the BIG-IP system rather than to the original client IP address directly. When you create a SNAT, you can configure the BIG-IP system to automatically choose a translation address. This ability of the BIG-IP system to automatically choose a translation address is known as SNAT automapping, and in this case, the translation address that the system chooses is always an existing self IP address. Thus, for traffic going from the BIG-IP system to a destination server, configuring SNAT automapping ensures that the source IP address in the header of a packet is a self IP address. When you create an automapped SNAT, the BIG-IP system actually creates a SNAT pool consisting of the system’s internal self IP addresses, and then uses an algorithm to select and assign an address from that SNAT pool. 16 - 2


Self IP Addresses

Self IP address properties As stated previously, it is when you initially run the Setup utility on a BIG-IP system that you normally create any static and floating self IP addresses and assign them to VLANs. However, if you want to create additional self IP addresses later, you can do so using the Configuration utility. Note

Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator user role can create and manage self IP addresses. Note

A self IP address can be in either IPv4 or IPv6 format.

IP address As described in Introduction to self IP addresses, on page 16-1, a self IP address, combined with a netmask, typically represents a range of host IP addresses in a VLAN. If you are assigning a self IP address to a VLAN group, the self IP address represents the range of self IP addresses assigned to the VLANs in that group.

Netmask When you specify a netmask for a self IP address, the self IP address can represent a range of IP addresses, rather than a single host address. For example, a self IP address of 10.0.0.100 can represent several host IP addresses if you specify a netmask of 255.255.0.0.

VLAN/Tunnel assignment You assign a unique self IP address to a specific VLAN or a VLAN group:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Assigning a self IP address to a VLAN The self IP address that you assign to a VLAN should represent an address space that includes the self IP addresses of the hosts that the VLAN contains. For example, if the address of one destination server in a VLAN is 10.0.0.1 and the address of another server in the VLAN is 10.0.0.2, you could assign a self IP address of 10.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.0.0, to the VLAN.

Assigning a self IP address to a VLAN group The self IP address that you assign to a VLAN group should represent an address space that includes the self IP addresses of the VLANs that you assigned to the group. For example, if the self IP address of one VLAN in a VLAN group is 10.0.20.100 and the address of the other VLAN in a VLAN group is 10.0.30.100,you could assign an address of 10.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.0.0, to the VLAN group.

16 - 3


Chapter 16

The VLAN/Tunnel list in the BIG-IP Configuration utility displays the names of all existing VLANs and VLAN groups.

Port lockdown Each self IP address has a feature known as port lockdown. Port lockdown is a security feature that allows you to specify particular UDP and TCP protocols and services from which the self IP address can accept traffic. By default, a self IP address accepts traffic from these protocols and services: â&#x20AC;˘ For UDP, the allowed protocols and services are: DNS (53), SNMP (161), RIP (520) â&#x20AC;˘ For TCP, the allowed protocols and services are: SSH (22), DNS (53), SNMP (161), HTTPS (443), 4353 (iQuery) If you do not want to use the default setting (Allow Default), you can configure port lockdown to allow either all UDP and TCP protocols and services (Allow All), no UDP protocols and services (Allow None), or only those that you specify (Allow Custom).

Traffic groups If you want the self IP address to be a floating IP address, that is, an address shared between two or more BIG-IP devices in a device group, you can assign a floating traffic group to the self IP address. A floating traffic group causes the self IP address to become a floating self IP address. A floating self IP address ensures that application traffic reaches its destination. More specifically, a floating self IP address enables a source node to successfully send a request, and a destination node to successfully send a response, when the relevant BIG-IP device is unavailable. If you want the self IP address to be a static (non-floating) IP address (used mostly for standalone devices), you can assign a non-floating traffic group to the self IP address. A non-floating traffic group causes the self IP address to become a non-floating self IP address. An example of a non-floating self IP address is the address that you assign to the default VLAN named HA, which is used strictly to process failover communications between BIG-IP devices, instead of processing application traffic.

16 - 4


17 Traffic Groups

• Traffic group overview • Types of traffic groups • For more information


Traffic Groups

Traffic group overview A traffic group is a collection of related configuration objects that run on a BIG-IP device. Together, these objects process a particular type of traffic on that device. When a BIG-IP device becomes unavailable, a traffic group can float to another device in a device group to ensure that the traffic for that application continues to be processed with little to no interruption in service. In general, a traffic group ensures that when a device becomes unavailable, all of the failover objects in the traffic group fail over to any one of the devices in the device group, based on the current workload of those devices. Only certain types of configuration objects can belong to a traffic group. Examples of traffic group objects are floating self IP addresses and floating virtual IP addresses. Another example of a type of object in a traffic group is an iAppsTM application service. If a device with this traffic group is a member of a device group and the device becomes unavailable, the traffic group floats, or fails over, to another member of the device group, and that member becomes the device that processes the application traffic. When a traffic group fails over to another device in the device group, the device that the system selects to run the traffic group is normally the device that is most available from a workload perspective. However, when you initially create the traffic group on a device, you can specify the device in the group that you prefer that traffic group to run on whenever possible. Note

You can assign a unique MAC masquerade address to each traffic group that you create. Assigning a MAC masquerade address reduces the risk of dropped connections or additional ARP messages during failover.

Types of traffic groups There are two types of traffic groups, floating and non-floating: ◆

A default floating traffic group exists on every BIG-IP device. With a floating traffic group, the associated failover objects float to another device in a Sync-Failover device group whenever the device becomes unavailable. Every BIG-IP device contains a default floating traffic group named traffic-group-1 that contains all eligible configuration objects. Configuration objects that belong to a floating traffic group are known as failover objects. Note

Whenever you assign a floating traffic group to a self IP address, a virtual IP address, or a SNAT translation address, those addresses become floating addresses.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

17 - 1


Chapter 17

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

A default non-floating traffic group named traffic-group-local-only exists on every BIG-IP device. With a non-floating traffic group, the associated configuration objects do not float because the device is not part of a device group. Note

Whenever you assign a non-floating traffic group to a self IP address, a virtual IP address, or a SNAT translation address, those addresses become non-floating addresses.

For more information To configure and manage traffic groups, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Traffic Groups. For detailed information on traffic groups and device groups, see the BIG-IPÂŽ Redundant Systems Configuration Guide.

17 - 2


18 Packet Filters

• Introduction to packet filtering • Global settings • Packet filter rules


Packet Filters

Introduction to packet filtering Packet filters enhance network security by specifying whether a BIG-IP® system interface should accept or reject certain packets based on criteria that you specify. Packet filters enforce an access policy on incoming traffic. They apply to incoming traffic only. You implement packet filtering by creating packet filter rules, using the BIG-IP® Configuration utility. The primary purpose of a packet filter rule is to define the criteria that you want the BIG-IP system to use when filtering packets. Examples of criteria that you can specify in a packet filter rule are: • The source IP address of a packet • The destination IP address of a packet • The destination port of a packet You specify the criteria for applying packet filter rules within an expression. When creating a packet filter rule, you can instruct the BIG-IP system to build an expression for you, in which case you need only choose the criteria from predefined lists, or you can write your own expression text, using the syntax of the tcpdump utility. For more information on the tcpdump utility, see the online man page for the tcpdump command. Note

Packet filter rules are unrelated to iRules®. You can also configure global packet filtering that applies to all packet filter rules that you create. The following sections describe how to use the Configuration utility to set global packet filtering options, as well as create and manage individual packet filters rules. To configure and manage packet filtering, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Packet Filters.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

18 - 1


Chapter 18

Global settings Global settings for packet filtering are divided into two categories: Properties and Exemptions. The BIG-IP system applies global settings to all packets coming into the BIG-IP system. Important

Note that one of the global settings, Packet Filtering, enables packet filtering. When you disable this setting, no packet filter settings or packet filter rules operate, and the BIG-IP system allows all traffic by default.

Global properties You can configure three specific global properties for packet filtering.

Packet filter enabling Before you can implement packet filtering on the BIG-IP system, you must enable the packet filter feature. You do this by changing the Packet Filtering setting to Enabled. The default setting for packet filtering is Disabled.

Control of unhandled packets Sometimes a packet does not match any of the criteria that you have specified in the packet filter rules that you have created. For this reason, you must configure the Unhandled Packet Action property, which specifies the action that the BIG-IP system should take when the packet does not match packet filter rule criteria. Possible values for this setting are Accept, Discard, and Reject. The default value is Accept. WARNING

Changing the default value of the Unhandled Packet Action property can produce unwanted consequences. Before changing this value to Discard or Reject, make sure that any traffic that you want the BIG-IP system to accept meets the criteria specified in your packet filter rules.

Other options Using the Options property, you can configure two other options: â&#x2014;&#x2020;

18 - 2

Filter established connections When you enable (check) this option, the BIG-IP system filters all ingress packets, even if the packets are part of an existing connection. The default setting is disabled (unchecked). Note that checking this option does not typically enhance security, and can impact system performance.


Packet Filters

Send ICMP error on packet reject When you enable (check) this option, the system sends, an ICMP type 3 (destination unreachable), code 13 (administratively prohibited) packet when an ingress packet is rejected. When you disable (uncheck) this option, the BIG-IP system sends an ICMP reject packet that is protocol-dependent. The default setting for this option is disabled (unchecked).

Global exemptions There are a number of exemptions you can set for packet filtering. When filtering packets, the BIG-IP system always applies these exemptions, effectively overriding certain criteria you might have previously set within an individual packet filter rule.

Protocols With the Protocols setting, you can specify whether ARP and certain ICMP messages are exempt from packet filtering. The individual settings are: ◆

Always accept ARP When you enable (check) this setting, the system automatically accepts all ARP packets and therefore does not subject them to packet filtering. The default setting is enabled (checked).

Always accept important ICMP When you enable (check) this setting, the system automatically accepts the following ICMP packet types for IPv4, and therefore does not subject them to packet filtering: • UNREACH • SOURCEQUENCH • REDIRECT • TIMEXCEED

The default setting is enabled.

MAC addresses You can use the MAC Addresses setting to exempt traffic from certain MAC addresses from packet filtering. Possible values are:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Always Accept When you select this value, a MAC Address List setting appears. You can then specify one or more MAC addresses from which traffic should be exempt from packet filtering.

None When you select this value, traffic from all MAC addresses is subject to packet filtering, according to existing packet filter rule criteria. This is the default value. 18 - 3


Chapter 18

IP addresses You can use the IP Addresses setting to exempt traffic from certain IP addresses from packet filtering. Possible values are: ◆

Always Accept When you select this value, an IP Address List setting appears. You can then specify one or more IP addresses from which traffic should be exempt from packet filtering.

None When you select this value, traffic from all IP addresses is subject to packet filtering, according to existing packet filter rule criteria. This is the default value.

VLANs Using the VLANs setting, you can configure the BIG-IP system so that traffic from one or more specified VLANs is exempt from packet filtering. In this case, the system does not attempt to match packets from the specified VLAN or VLANs to any packet filter rule. Instead, the BIG-IP system always accepts traffic from the specified VLAN or VLANs. For example, if you specify VLAN internal, then no incoming packets from VLAN internal are subject to packet filtering, even if a packet matches the criteria of a packet filter rule. Possible values are: ◆

Always Accept When you select this value, a VLAN List setting appears. You can then specify one or more VLANs from which traffic should be exempt from packet filtering.

None When you select this value, traffic from all VLANs is subject to packet filtering, according to existing packet filter rule criteria. This is the default value.

Packet filter rules Packet filter rules are criteria statements that the BIG-IP system uses for filtering packets. The BIG-IP system attempts to match packet filter rules with an incoming packet, and if a match exists, determines whether or not to accept or reject the packet. When you create a packet filter rule, you configure several settings, and then you define the criteria that you want the BIG-IP system to use to filter the traffic.

18 - 4


Packet Filters

Configuring settings for packet filter rules You can configure a number of different settings when you create a packet filter rule. Specifying a name.

Order of packet filter rules You use the Order setting to specify the order in which you want the BIG-IP system to apply existing packet filter rules. This setting is required. Possible values for this setting are: ◆

First Select this value if you want this packet filter rule to be the first rule that the BIG-IP system applies.

Last Select this value if you want this packet filter rule to be the last rule that the BIG-IP system applies.

After Select this value, and then select a packet filter rule from the list, if you want the system to apply this packet filter after the packet filter that you select from the list. Note that this setting is most useful when you have more than three packet filter rules configured.

Action When a packet matches the criteria that you have specified in a packet filter rule, the BIG-IP system can take a specific action. You define this action using the Action setting.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

18 - 5


Chapter 18

You can choose one of these actions: ◆

Accept Select Accept if you want the system to accept the packet, and stop processing additional packet filter rules, if any exist. This is the default setting.

Discard Select Discard if you want the system to drop the packet, and stop processing additional packet filter rules, if any exist.

Reject Select Reject if you want the system to drop the packet, and also send a rejection packet to the sender, indicating that the packet was refused. Note that the behavior of the system when you select the Reject action depends on how you configured the general packet filter Options property Send ICMP Error on Packet Reject.

Continue Select Continue if you simply want the system to acknowledge the packet for logging or statistical purposes. Setting the Action value to Continue does not affect the way that the BIG-IP system handles the packet; the system continues to evaluate traffic matching a rule, starting with the next packet filter rule in the list.

Rate class assignment Using the Rate Class setting, you can assign a rate class to traffic that matches the criteria defined in a packet filter rule. Note that this setting applies only when you have the rate shaping feature enabled. The default value for this setting is None. If you previously created rate classes using the rate shaping feature, you can choose one of those rate classes from the Rate Class list. For more information on rate shaping, see the Configuration Guide for BIG-IP® Local Traffic Manager™.

One or more VLANs You use the Apply to VLAN setting to display a list of VLANs and then select a VLAN or VLAN group name. Selecting a VLAN from the list means that the packet filter rule filters ingress traffic from that VLAN only. For example, if you select the value *All VLANS, the BIG-IP system applies the packet filter rule to all traffic coming into the BIG-IP system. Similarly, if you select the VLAN internal, the BIG-IP system applies the packet filter rule to traffic from VLAN internal only. The default value is *All VLANS. If you select the name of a VLAN group instead of an individual VLAN, the packet filter rule applies to all VLANs in that VLAN group.

18 - 6


Packet Filters

Logging If you want to generate a log message each time a packet matches a rule, you can enable logging for the packet filter rule. With this configuration, you can then display the Logging screen in the Configuration utility and view events related to packet filtering. For more information about logging packet filter events, see Chapter 14, Event Logging.

Creating a filter expression To match incoming packets, the BIG-IP system must use a filter expression. A filter expression specifies the criteria that you want the BIG-IP system to use when filtering packets. For example, the BIG-IP system can filter packets based on the source or destination IP address in the header of a packet. Using the Configuration utility, you can create a filter expression in either of two ways: • You can write your own expression, using a Filter Expression box. • You can specify a set of criteria (such as source or destination IP addresses) that you want the BIG-IP system to use when filtering packets. When you use this method, the BIG-IP system builds a filter expression for you. You can have as many rules as you want, limited only by the available memory. Of course, the more statements you have, the more challenging it is to understand and maintain your packet filters.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

18 - 7


Chapter 18

18 - 8


19 Rate Shaping

• Introduction to rate shaping • About rate classes • Rate class properties


Rate Shaping

Introduction to rate shaping The BIG-IP速 system includes a feature called rate shaping. Rate shaping allows you to enforce a throughput policy on incoming traffic. Throughput policies are useful for prioritizing and restricting bandwidth on selected traffic patterns. Rate shaping can be useful for an e-commerce site that has preferred clients. For example, the site might want to offer higher throughput for preferred customers, and lower throughput for other site traffic. The rate shaping feature works by first queuing selected packets under a rate class, and then dequeuing the packets at the indicated rate and in the indicated order specified by the rate class. A rate class is a rate-shaping policy that defines throughput limitations and a packet scheduling method to be applied to all traffic handled by the rate class. You configure rate shaping by creating one or more rate classes and then assigning the rate class to a packet filter or to a virtual server. You can also use the iRules速 feature to instruct the BIG-IP system to apply a rate class to a particular connection. You can apply a rate class specifically to traffic from a server to a client or from a client to a server. If you configure the rate class for traffic that is going to a client, the BIG-IP system does not apply the throughput policy to traffic destined for the server. Conversely, if you configure the rate class for traffic that is going to a server, the BIG-IP system does not apply the throughput policy to traffic destined for the client. To configure and manage ARP entries, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Rate Shaping.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

19 - 1


Chapter 19

About rate classes A rate class defines the throughput limitations and packet scheduling method that you want the BIG-IP system to apply to all traffic that the rate class handles. You assign rate classes to virtual servers and packet filter rules, as well as through iRules®. If the same traffic is subject to rate classes that you have assigned from more than one location, the BIG-IP system applies the last-assigned rate class only. The BIG-IP system applies rate classes in the following order: • The first rate class that the BIG-IP system assigns is from the last packet filter rule that matched the traffic and specified a rate class. • The next rate class that the BIG-IP system assigns is from the virtual server; if the virtual server specifies a rate class, the rate class overrides any rate class that the packet filter selects. • The last rate class assigned is from the iRule; if the iRule specifies a rate class, this rate class overrides any previously-selected rate class. Note

Rate classes cannot reside in partitions. Therefore, a user’s ability to create and manage rate classes is defined by user role, rather than partition-access assignment. You can create a rate class using the BIG-IP Configuration utility. After you have created a rate class, you must assign it to a virtual server or a packet filter rule, or you must specify the rate class from within an iRule.

Rate class properties When you create a rate class, the BIG-IP system assigns some default settings to the rate class. You can retain these default settings or modify them to suit your needs.

Rate class name The first setting you configure for a rate class is the rate class name. Rate class names are case-sensitive and may contain letters, numbers, and underscores (_) only. Reserved keywords are not allowed. Each rate class that you define must have a unique name. This setting is required. To specify a rate class name, locate the Name box on the New Rate Class screen and type a unique name for the rate class.

19 - 2


Rate Shaping

Base rate The Base Rate setting specifies the base throughput rate allowed for traffic that the rate class handles. The sum of the base rates of all child rate classes attached to a parent rate class, plus the base rate of the parent rate class, cannot exceed the ceiling of the parent rate class. For this reason, F5 Networks速 recommends that you always set the base rate of a parent rate class to 0 (the default value). You can specify the base rate in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps). The default unit is bits per second. This setting is required. Note

These numbers are powers of 10, not powers of 2.

Ceiling rate The Ceiling Rate setting specifies the absolute limit at which traffic is allowed to flow when bursting or borrowing. You can specify the ceiling in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps), or gigabits per second (Gbps). The default unit is bits per second. If the rate class is a parent rate class, the value of the ceiling defines the maximum rate allowed for the sum of the base rates of all child rate classes attached to the parent rate class, plus the base rate of the parent rate class. Note

A child rate class can borrow from the ceiling of its parent rate class. For more information, see Parent class, on page 19-6.

Burst size You use the Burst Size setting when you want to allow the rate of traffic flow that a rate class controls to exceed the base rate. Exceeding the base rate is known as bursting. When you configure a rate class to allow bursting (by specifying a value other than 0), the BIG-IP system saves any unused bandwidth and uses that bandwidth later to enable the rate of traffic flow to temporarily exceed the base rate. Specifying a burst size is useful for smoothing out traffic patterns that tend to fluctuate or exceed the base rate, such as HTTP traffic. The value of the Burst Size setting defines the maximum number of bytes that you want to allow for bursting. Thus, if you set the burst size to 5,000 bytes, and the rate of traffic flow exceeds the base rate by 1,000 bytes per second, then the BIG-IP system allows the traffic to burst for a maximum of five seconds.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

19 - 3


Chapter 19

When you specify a burst size, the BIG-IP system creates a burst reservoir of that size. A burst reservoir stores bandwidth that the BIG-IP system uses for bursting later. The burst reservoir becomes depleted as the rate of traffic flow exceeds the base rate, and is replenished as the rate of traffic falls below the base rate. The Burst Size value that you configure in a rate class thus represents: • The maximum number of bytes that the rate class is allowed to transmit when the traffic-flow rate exceeds the base rate • The maximum number of bytes that the BIG-IP system can replenish into the burst reservoir • The amount of bandwidth initially available for bursting beyond the base rate The burst size is measured in bytes. For example, a value of either 10000 or 10K equals 10,000 bytes. The default value is 0.

Depleting the burst reservoir When the rate of traffic flow exceeds the base rate, the BIG-IP system automatically depletes the burst reservoir, at a rate determined by the number of bytes per second that the traffic flow exceeds the base rate. Continuing with our previous example in which traffic flow exceeds the base rate by 1,000 bytes per second, if the traffic-flow rate only exceeds the base rate for two seconds, then 2,000 bytes are depleted from the burst size and the maximum bytes available for bursting decreases to 3,000.

Replenishing the burst reservoir When the rate of traffic flow falls below the base rate, the BIG-IP system stores the unused bandwidth (that is, the difference between the base rate and the actual traffic-flow rate) in the burst reservoir. Later, the BIG-IP system uses this bandwidth when traffic flow exceeds the base rate. Thus, the BIG-IP system replenishes the burst reservoir whenever it becomes depleted due to traffic flow exceeding the base rate. The size of the burst reservoir cannot exceed the specified burst size. For this reason, the BIG-IP system replenishes the reservoir with unused bandwidth only until the reservoir reaches the amount specified by the Burst Size setting. Thus, if the burst size is set to 5,000, then the BIG-IP system can store only 5,000 bytes of unused bandwidth for later use when the rate of traffic flow exceeds the base rate. Note

Specifying a burst size does not allow the rate class to exceed its ceiling.

Specifying a non-zero burst size The following example illustrates the behavior of the BIG-IP system when you set the Burst Size setting to a value other than 0.

19 - 4


Rate Shaping

This example shows throughput rates in units of bytes-per-second instead of the default bits-per-second. This is only to simplify the example. You can derive bytes-per-second from bits-per-second by dividing the bits-per-second amount by 8. Suppose you configure the rate class settings with these values: • Base rate: 1,000 bytes per second • Ceiling rate: 4,000 bytes per second • Burst size: 5,000 bytes Consider the following scenario: ◆

If traffic is currently flowing at 800 bytes per second No bursting is necessary because the rate of traffic flow is below the base rate defined in the rate class. Because the traffic is flowing at 200 bytes per second less than the base rate, the BIG-IP system can potentially add 200 bytes of unused bandwidth to the burst reservoir. However, because no bursting has occurred yet, the reservoir is already full at the specified 5,000 bytes, thus preventing the BIG-IP system from storing the 200 bytes of unused bandwidth in the reservoir. In this case, the BIG-IP system simply discards the unused bandwidth.

If traffic climbs to 1,000 bytes per second (equal to the base rate) Still no bursting occurs, and there is no unused bandwidth.

If traffic jumps to 2,500 bytes per second For each second that the traffic continues to flow at 2,500 bytes per second, the BIG-IP system empties 1,500 bytes from the burst reservoir (the difference between the traffic flow rate and the base rate). This allows just over three seconds of bursting at this rate before the burst reservoir of 5,000 bytes is depleted. Once the reservoir is depleted, the BIG-IP system reduces the traffic flow rate to the base rate of 1,000 bytes per second, with no bursting allowed.

If traffic drops back down to 800 bytes per second No bursting is necessary, but now the BIG-IP system can add the 200 bytes per second of unused bandwidth back into the burst reservoir because the reservoir is empty. If traffic continues to flow at 800 bytes per second, the burst reservoir becomes fully replenished from 0 to 5,000 bytes in 25 seconds (at a rate of 200 bytes per second). If traffic stops flowing altogether, creating 1,000 bytes per second of unused bandwidth, then the BIG-IP system adds 1,000 bytes per second into the burst reservoir, thus replenishing the reservoir from 0 to 5,000 bytes in only 5 seconds.

Borrowing bandwidth In some cases, a rate class can borrow bandwidth from the burst reservoir of its parent class. For more information, see Parent class, following.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

19 - 5


Chapter 19

Direction Using the Direction setting, you can apply a rate class to client or server traffic. Thus, you can apply a rate class to traffic going to a client, to a server, or to both client and server. Possible values are Any, Client, and Server. The default value is Any. Specifying direction is useful in cases where the nature of the traffic is directionally-biased. For example, if you offer an FTP service to external clients, you might be more interested in limiting throughput for those clients uploading files to your site than you are for clients downloading files from your site. In this case, you would select Server as the direction for your FTP rate class, because the Server value only applies your throughput restriction to traffic going from the client to the server.

Parent class When you create a rate class, you can use the Parent Class setting to specify that the rate class has a parent class. This allows the child rate class to borrow unused bandwidth from the ceiling of the parent class. A child class can borrow unused bandwidth from the ceiling of its parent, but a parent class cannot borrow from a child class. Borrowing is also not possible between two child classes of the same parent class or between two unrelated rate classes. You specify a parent class by displaying the New Rate Class screen and selecting Advanced, and then selecting a rate class name in the Parent Class setting. A parent class can itself have a parent, provided that you do not create a circular dependency. A circular dependency is a relationship where a rate class is a child of itself, directly or indirectly. If a rate class has a parent class, the child class can take unused bandwidth from the ceiling of the parent class. The process occurs in this way: • If the rate of traffic flow to which the child class is applied exceeds its base rate, the child class begins to deplete its burst reservoir as described previously. • If the reservoir is empty (or no burst size is defined for the rate class), then the BIG-IP system takes unused base-rate bandwidth from the ceiling of the parent class and gives it to the child class. • If the unused bandwidth from the parent class is depleted, then the child class begins to use the reservoir of the parent class. • If the reservoir of the parent class is empty (or no burst size is defined for the parent class), then the child class attempts to borrow bandwidth from the parent of the parent class, if the parent class has a parent class. • This process continues until there is no remaining bandwidth to borrow or there is no parent from which to borrow.

19 - 6


Rate Shaping

Borrowing only allows the child to extend its burst duration; the child class cannot exceed the ceiling under any circumstance. Note

Although the above description uses the term “borrowing”, bandwidth that a child class borrows is not paid back to the parent class later, nor is unused bandwidth of a child class returned to its parent class.

Shaping policy Specifies a shaping policy that includes customized values for drop policy and queue method. The default value is None. You can create additional shaping policies using the Traffic Management shell (tmsh).

Queue method The Queue Method setting determines the method and order in which the BIG-IP system dequeues packets. A rate class supports two queue methods: ◆

Stochastic Fair Queue Stochastic Fair Queueing (SFQ) is a queueing method that queues traffic under a set of many lists, choosing the specific list based on a periodically-changing hash of the connection information. This results in traffic from the same connection always being queued in the same list. SFQ then dequeues traffic from the set of the lists in a round-robin fashion. The overall effect is that fairness of dequeueing is achieved because one high-speed connection cannot monopolize the queue at the expense of slower connections.

Priority FIFO The Priority FIFO (PFIFO) queueing method queues all traffic under a set of five lists based on the Type of Service (ToS) field of the traffic. Four of the lists correspond to the four possible ToS values (Minimum delay, Maximum throughput, Maximum reliability, and Minimum cost). The fifth list represents traffic with no ToS value. The PFIFO method then processes these five lists in a way that attempts to preserve the meaning of the ToS field as much as possible. For example, a packet with the ToS field set to Minimum cost might yield dequeuing to a packet with the ToS field set to Minimum delay.

Drop policy The BIG-IP system drops packets whenever the specified rate limit is exceeded. A drop policy specifies the way that you want the system to drop packets. The default value is tail.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

19 - 7


Chapter 19

Possible values are: ◆

fred Specifies that the system drops packets according to the type of traffic in the flow.

red Specifies that the system randomly drops packets.

tail Specifies that the system drops the end of the traffic stream.

You can create additional drop policies using the Traffic Management shell (tmsh).

19 - 8


20 Spanning Tree Protocols

• Introduction to spanning tree protocols • Global spanning tree properties • Management of spanning tree instances • Interfaces for spanning tree


Spanning Tree Protocols

Introduction to spanning tree protocols On networks that contain redundant paths between Layer 2 devices, a common problem is bridging loops. Bridging loops occur because Layer 2 devices do not create boundaries for broadcasts or packet floods. Consequently, Layer 2 devices can use redundant paths to forward the same frames to each other continuously, eventually causing the network to fail. To solve this problem, the BIG-IP速 system supports a set of industry-standard, Layer 2 protocols known as spanning tree protocols. Spanning tree protocols block redundant paths on a network, thus preventing bridging loops. If a blocked, redundant path is needed later because another path has failed, the spanning tree protocols clear the path again for traffic. The spanning tree protocols that the BIG-IP system supports are Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP). Central to the way that spanning tree protocols operate is the use of bridge protocol data units (BPDUs). When you enable spanning tree protocols on Layer 2 devices on a network, the devices send BPDUs to each other, for the purpose of learning the redundant paths and updating their L2 forwarding tables accordingly, electing a root bridge, building a spanning tree, and notifying each other about changes in interface status. To configure and manage spanning tree protocols, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Spanning Tree. Note

Throughout this chapter, the term bridge refers to a Layer 2 device such as a switch, bridge, or hub.

Spanning tree protocol types The BIG-IP system supports three different spanning tree protocols: STP, RSTP, and MSTP. Table 20.1 lists the protocols and their IEEE specifications. Following the table is a brief summary of each protocol. Protocol Name

IEEE Specification

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)

802.1D-1998

Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)

802.1w, 802.1t, and 802.1D-2004

Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)

802.1s

Table 20.1 The spanning tree protocols that the BIG-IP system supports

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

20 - 1


Chapter 20

The STP protocol STP is the original spanning tree protocol, designed to block redundant paths as a way to prevent bridging loops. The STP algorithm creates one, and only one, spanning tree for the entire network. A spanning tree is a logical tree-like depiction of the bridges on a network and the paths that connect them. Because STP is unable to recognize VLANs and usually exhibits poor performance overall, STP is not the preferred spanning tree protocol to use in VLAN-rich environments. However, all participating interfaces in the spanning tree must use the same spanning tree protocol at any given time. Thus, when you have legacy bridges in your environment that are running STP, interfaces on the BIG-IP system must have the ability to automatically degrade to STP. For more information on protocol degradation, see Using spanning tree with legacy bridges, on page 20-3. Because STP has no knowledge of VLANs, you can have only one spanning tree instance on the BIG-IP system when using STP. For more information on spanning tree instances, see Management of spanning tree instances, on page 20-8.

The RSTP protocol RSTP is an enhancement to STP, and was designed specifically to improve spanning tree performance. Like STP, RSTP can create only one spanning tree (instance 0), and therefore cannot take VLANs into account when managing redundant paths. However, RSTPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance improvements generally make it preferable to STP in non-VLAN environments. In the case where legacy RSTP bridges are on the network, BIG-IP system interfaces running MSTP can degrade to RSTP, just as they can degrade to STP. For more information on protocol degradation, see Using spanning tree with legacy bridges, on page 20-3. Like STP, RSTP allows only one spanning tree instance on the BIG-IP system. For more information on spanning tree instances, see Management of spanning tree instances, on page 20-8.

The MSTP protocol MSTP is an enhancement to RSTP and is the preferred spanning tree protocol for the BIG-IP system. MSTP is specifically designed to understand VLANs and VLAN tagging (specified in IEEE 802.1q). Unlike STP and RSTP, which allow only one spanning tree instance per system, MSTP allows multiple spanning tree instances. Each instance corresponds to a spanning tree, and can control one or more VLANs that you specify when you create the instance. Thus, for any BIG-IP system interface that you assigned to multiple VLANs, MSTP can block a path on one VLAN, while still keeping a path in another VLAN open for traffic. Neither STP nor RSTP has this capability. A unique feature of MSTP is the concept of spanning tree regions. A spanning tree region is a logical set of bridges on the network that share the same values for certain MSTP configuration settings. These configuration 20 - 2


Spanning Tree Protocols

settings are: The MSTP configuration name, the MSTP configuration number, the instance numbers, and the VLAN members of each instance. When the values of these settings are identical on two or more bridges, the spanning tree algorithm considers these bridges to constitute an MSTP region. An MSTP region indicates to the spanning tree algorithm that it can use MSTP for all bridges in that region, and thus take VLANs into account when blocking and unblocking redundant paths. You do not explicitly create a region. The spanning tree algorithm automatically groups bridges into regions, based on the values you assign to the MSTP configuration name, revision number, instance numbers, and instance members. MSTP can only operate on bridges that are within a region. However, if the BIG-IP system connects to a bridge in a different MSTP region or outside of an MSTP region, the system still participates in spanning tree. In this case, the system is part of the spanning tree instance 0, also known as the Common and Internal Spanning Tree (CIST). Note

BIG-IP systems released prior to version 9.0 do not support MSTP.

Using spanning tree with legacy bridges A key concept about spanning tree protocols on the BIG-IP system is the concept of protocol degradation. Protocol degradation occurs when the spanning tree mode on the BIG-IP system is set to MSTP or RSTP, but the system detects legacy bridges (that is, bridges running an older protocol type) on the network. In this case, the BIG-IP system automatically degrades the spanning tree protocol that is running on each applicable interface to match the protocol running on the legacy device. For example, suppose you set the BIG-IP system to run in MSTP mode. Later, if a bridge running STP is added to the network, the BIG-IP system will detect the legacy device and automatically degrade the protocol running on the BIG-IP system interfaces from MSTP to STP. The mode is still set to MSTP, but the interfaces actually run STP. If the legacy device is later removed from the network, you can choose, for each BIG-IP system interface, to manually reset the spanning tree protocol back to MSTP. The basic principle of protocol degradation is that each BIG-IP system interface in a spanning tree runs the oldest protocol that the system detects on the Layer 2 devices of the network. Thus, if a legacy bridge running STP is added to the network, BIG-IP system interfaces running MSTP or RSTP degrade to STP. Similarly, if a legacy bridge is running RSTP (and no bridges are running STP), interfaces running MSTP degrade to RSTP. Note that when a bridge running MSTP must degrade to RSTP, the spanning tree algorithm automatically puts the degraded bridge into a separate MSTP region.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

20 - 3


Chapter 20

Configuration overview Regardless of which spanning tree protocol you choose to use, the BIG-IP速 Configuration utility offers a complete set of default configuration settings. Except for choosing a preferred spanning tree protocol to use, there are very few configuration settings that you need to modify to use the spanning tree feature effectively. Note

An alternate way to configure spanning tree protocols is to use tmsh. For more information, see the Traffic Management Shell (tmsh) Reference Guide. When you configure spanning tree on a BIG-IP system, you must first decide which protocol, or mode, you want to enable. Because MSTP recognizes VLANs, using MSTP is preferable for the BIG-IP system. However, all bridges in a network environment that want to use spanning tree must run the same spanning tree protocol. If a legacy bridge running RSTP or STP is added to the network, the BIG-IP system must switch to that same protocol. Fortunately, you do not need to continually reconfigure the BIG-IP system spanning tree mode whenever a legacy bridge is added to the network. Instead, a BIG-IP system interface can detect the addition of a legacy bridge and automatically fall back to either RSTP or STP mode. If the legacy bridge is later removed from the network, you can use the Configuration utility to manually reset the interface back to running MSTP. For more information on legacy bridges, see Using spanning tree with legacy bridges, on page 20-3. Once you have enabled a spanning tree mode, you can configure a set of global options. These options are the same options that are defined in the IEEE standards for the spanning tree protocols. While you can use the default settings in most cases, a few settings require user input. For more information, see Global spanning tree properties, on page 20-5.

20 - 4


Spanning Tree Protocols

Global spanning tree properties There are several properties you can configure on the BIG-IP system that affect the behavior of all spanning tree protocols. These global properties apply to all spanning instances and all network interfaces. In most cases, you can use the default values for these properties.

Spanning tree mode The Mode option specifies the particular spanning tree protocol that you want to use on the BIG-IP system. The default value is Pass Through. The possible values are: ◆

Disabled Specifies that when the BIG-IP system receives spanning tree frames (BPDUs), it discards the frames.

Pass Through Specifies that when the BIG-IP system receives spanning tree frames (BPDUs), it forwards them to all other interfaces. This is the default setting. When you use Pass Through mode, the BIG-IP system is transparent to spanning tree BPDUs. When set to Pass Through mode, the BIG-IP system is not part of any spanning tree. Note that Pass Through mode is not part of the IEEE spanning tree protocol specifications.

STP Specifies that the BIG-IP system handles spanning tree frames (BPDUs) in accordance with the STP protocol. This mode allows for legacy systems on the network. For more information on STP, see Introduction to spanning tree protocols, on page 20-1.

RSTP Specifies that the BIG-IP system handles spanning tree frames (BPDUs) in accordance with the RSTP protocol. For more information on RSTP, see Introduction to spanning tree protocols, on page 20-1.

MSTP Specifies that the BIG-IP system handles spanning tree frames (BPDUs) in accordance with the MSTP protocol. For more information on MSTP, see Introduction to spanning tree protocols, on page 20-1.

When you set the mode to MSTP or RSTP, and a legacy bridge running STP is subsequently added to the spanning tree, the applicable BIG-IP system interface automatically changes to running STP. However, you can manually reset an interface to resume operation in RSTP or MSTP mode if the legacy bridge is later removed from the spanning tree.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

20 - 5


Chapter 20

Global timers All three spanning tree protocols, have the same three global timer values that you can specify: Hello Time, Maximum Age, and Forward Delay.

Specifying the Hello Time option When you change the value of the Hello Time option, you change the time interval, in seconds, that the BIG-IP system transmits spanning tree information (through BPDUs) to adjacent bridges in the network. The default value for this option is 2. WARNING

Although valid values are in the range of 1 to 10 seconds, we highly recommend that you use the default value (2 seconds). This value is optimal for almost all configurations. Note that when running RSTP, you must maintain the following relationship between the Maximum Age and Hello Time options: Maximum Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1)

Specifying the Maximum Age option When you change the value of the Maximum Age option, you change the amount of time, in seconds, that spanning tree information received from other bridges is considered valid. The default value is 20, and the valid range is 6 to 40. Note that when running RSTP, you must maintain the following relationships between the Maximum Age and the Hello Time and Forward Delay options: Maximum Age >= 2 * (Hello Time + 1) Maximum Age <= 2 * (Forward Delay - 1)

Specifying the Forward Delay option Primarily used for STP, the Forward Delay option specifies the amount of time, in seconds, that the system blocks an interface from forwarding network traffic when the spanning tree algorithm reconfigures a spanning tree. The default value is 15, and the valid range is 4 to 30. This option has no effect on the BIG-IP system when running in RSTP or MSTP mode, as long as all bridges in the spanning tree use the RSTP or MSTP protocol. However, if the addition of legacy STP bridges causes neighboring bridges to fall back to running the STP protocol, then the spanning tree algorithm uses the Forward Delay option when reconfiguring the spanning tree. Note that when running RSTP, you must maintain the following relationship between the Forward Delay and Maximum Age options: Maximum Age <= 2 * (Forward Delay - 1)

20 - 6


Spanning Tree Protocols

Transmit Hold Count option When you change the value of the Transmit Hold Count option, you change the maximum number of spanning tree frames (BPDUs) that the system can transmit on a port within the Hello Time interval. This setting ensures that the spanning tree frames do not overload the network, even in unstable network conditions. The default value is 6, and the valid range is 1 to 10.

MSTP-specific global properties If you are running MSTP, you can configure three additional global properties: An MSTP configuration name, an MSTP configuration revision, and a maximum hop number.

MSTP configuration name Applicable to MSTP only, the MSTP Configuration Name setting represents a global name that you assign to all bridges in a spanning tree region. A spanning tree region is a group of bridges with identical MSTP configuration names and MSTP configuration revision levels, as well as identical assignment of VLANs to spanning tree instances. All bridges in the same region must have this same configuration name. The name must contain from 1 to 32 characters. This option only appears on the screen when you set the Mode property to MSTP. For more information on MSTP regions, see The MSTP protocol, on page 20-2.

MSTP configuration revision Applicable to MSTP only, the MSTP Configuration Revision setting represents a global revision number that you assign to all bridges in a spanning tree region. All bridges in the same region must have this same configuration revision number. The default value is 0. You can type any value between 0 and 65535. This option only appears on the screen when you set the Mode property to MSTP. For more information on MSTP regions, see The MSTP protocol, on page 20-2.

Maximum hop number Applicable to MSTP only, this global property specifies the maximum number of hops that a spanning tree frame (BPDU) can traverse before it is discarded. The default value is 20. You can specify a value between 1 and 255. This option only appears on the screen when you set the Mode property to MSTP.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

20 - 7


Chapter 20

Management of spanning tree instances By default, the spanning tree protocol STP is enabled on all of the interfaces of the BIG-IP system. The default spanning tree configuration includes a single spanning tree instance, named 0. A spanning tree instance is a discrete spanning tree for a network. While STP and RSTP allow only one spanning tree instance (instance 0), MSTP allows you to create multiple spanning tree instances, to manage redundant paths for specific VLANs on the network. When running MSTP, instances that you create have instance members. An instance member is a VLAN that you assign to an instance when you create that instance. You can assign as many or as few members to an instance as you deem necessary. By default, all VLANs on the BIG-IP system are members of instance 0. If you create an instance and attempt to add a VLAN that is already a member of another instance, the BIG-IP system deletes the VLAN from the existing instance and adds the VLAN to the new instance. Each instance name must be a numeric value that you assign when you create the instance. Note

Only users with either the Administrator or Resource Administrator role can manage spanning tree instances.

Viewing a list of spanning tree instances You can view a list of existing spanning tree instances using the Configuration utility. For STP and RSTP, the only instance in the list is instance 0. For MSTP, the list shows instance 0, plus any other instances that you have explicitly created. For information on creating a spanning tree instance, see Interfaces for spanning tree, on page 20-12. When you view a list of instances, you can see the following information for each instance: • The name of the instance • The bridge priority number • The MAC address of the root bridge • The MAC address of the regional root bridge • The number of instance members

Creating a spanning tree instance (MSTP-only) The STP and RSTP protocols allow only one spanning tree instance, instance 0, which the BIG-IP system creates automatically when you enable spanning tree. When running STP or RSTP, you can modify the properties of instance 0, but you cannot create additional instances. For information on 20 - 8


Spanning Tree Protocols

modifying the properties of an instance, see Viewing and modifying a spanning tree instance, on page 20-12. When you are running MSTP, however, the MSTP algorithm can explicitly create instances. The reason that you can create instances is that MSTP recognizes VLANs. By creating an instance and assigning one or more VLANs to it, you can control bridge loops and redundant paths within those VLANs. For example, suppose you have two interfaces. One interface is assigned to VLAN A, while the other interface is assigned to VLANs A and B. If you are using the STP or RSTP protocol, both of which disregard VLANs, the protocol might block traffic for both VLANs, as shown in Figure 20.1.

Figure 20.1 Using STP or RSTP to block redundant paths

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

20 - 9


Chapter 20

By contrast, the MSTP protocol can make blocking decisions on a per-VLAN basis. In our example, on the interface that carries traffic for two VLANs, you can block traffic for VLAN A, but leave a path open for VLAN B traffic. This is shown in Figure 20.2.

Figure 20.2 Using MSTP to block redundant paths

Because all BPDUs exchanged within a region always reference instance 0, instance 0 is active on all interfaces. This, in turn, can cause blocking problems. To avoid this, make sure that each VLAN on a BIG-IP system is a member of an instance that you explicitly create, rather than a member of instance 0 only. For example, suppose you create the following: â&#x20AC;˘ Instance 1 with VLAN A as a member, where VLAN A is associated with interface 1.2 â&#x20AC;˘ Instance 2 with VLAN B as a member, where VLAN B is associated with interface 1.4 In this case, neither interface will be blocked, because the BPDUs sent from each interface reference a unique instance (either instance 1 or instance 2). Tip

Because all BPDUs exchanged within a region always reference instance 0, thereby causing instance 0 to be active on all interfaces, unwanted blocking problems can occur. To avoid this, make sure that each VLAN on a BIG-IP system is a member of an instance that you explicitly create, rather than a member of instance 0 only.

20 - 10


Spanning Tree Protocols

Instance ID assignment When you configure the Instance ID setting, you specify a numeric value for the instance, in the range of 1 to 255. The reason that instance names must be numeric is to handle the requirement that all cooperating bridges agree on the assignment of VLANs to instance IDs. Using numeric values instead of names makes this requirement easier to manage.

Bridge priority The bridge in the spanning tree with the lowest relative priority becomes the root bridge. A root bridge represents the root of a spanning tree, and is responsible for managing loop resolution on the network. F5 Networks速 recommends that you configure this setting so that the BIG-IP system never becomes the root bridge. For this reason, the default value for the Bridge Priority setting is 61440, the highest value that you can select. Note that a bridge priority must be in increments of 4096.

VLAN assignment If you are running MSTP, you can add members to a spanning tree instance. An instance member is a VLAN. You add members to an instance by associating one or more VLANs with the instance. The interfaces or trunks associated with each VLAN automatically become part of the spanning tree corresponding to that instance. For two or more bridges to operate in the same spanning tree, all of those bridges must be in the same region, and therefore must have the same instance numbers, instance members, and VLAN tags. For example, if a bridge has instance 1, with two VLAN members whose tags are 1000 and 2000, then any other bridges that you want to operate in that spanning tree must also have instance 1 with two VLAN members whose tags are 1000 and 2000. For more information on MSTP regions, see The MSTP protocol, on page 20-2. A particular VLAN cannot be associated with more than one spanning tree instance. For example, if you have two instances named 0 and 1, you can only associate VLAN external with one of those instances, not both. Therefore, before creating an instance, verify that each VLAN you intend to associate with the instance is not a member of another instance. Tip

If no VLANs appear in the Available box when creating an instance, it is likely that all VLANs on the BIG-IP system are members of other instances. You can verify this by viewing the members of other instances.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

20 - 11


Chapter 20

Viewing and modifying a spanning tree instance Using the Configuration utility, you can view and modify properties of any instance, including instance 0. If you are running MSTP, you can modify the Bridge Priority and VLANs properties. If you are running RSTP or STP, you can modify only the Bridge Priority property. In no case can you modify the instance ID.

Deleting a spanning tree instance or its members (MSTP-only) If you are running MSTP, you might have explicitly created some spanning tree instances. If so, you can delete any spanning tree instance except instance 0. You can also remove VLAN members from an instance. When you remove a VLAN from an instance, the VLAN automatically becomes a member of instance 0. (By default, instance 0 includes any VLAN that is not a member of another instance.) If you remove all members from an instance, the BIG-IP system automatically deletes the instance. Note

If you are running RSTP or STP, you cannot delete instance 0 or remove members from it.

Interfaces for spanning tree Some of the configuration tasks you perform when managing a spanning tree protocol pertain to BIG-IP system interfaces. The interface-related tasks you perform are: â&#x20AC;˘ Configuring settings on each interface that is to be part of the spanning tree â&#x20AC;˘ Managing interfaces per spanning tree instance

Configuring spanning tree settings on an interface For each interface on the BIG-IP system, there are several STP-related settings that you can configure. Note

There are additional interface properties and settings that apply to specific spanning tree instances only.

20 - 12


Spanning Tree Protocols

Enabling and disabling Spanning Tree When you check the box for the STP setting, you are specifying that the interface can become part of a spanning tree. Once the interface becomes part of the spanning tree, the spanning tree protocol takes control of all learning and frame forwarding on that interface. If you disable this setting, the spanning tree protocol treats the interface as non-existent, and does not send BPDUs to that interface. Also, the interface, and not the spanning tree protocol, controls all learning and frame forwarding for that interface. Note that you can also enable or disable spanning tree for a trunk. If spanning tree is enabled on the reference link of a trunk (that is, the lowest-numbered interface of the trunk), then spanning tree is automatically enabled on that trunk. To disable spanning tree for a trunk, simply disable spanning tree on the reference link.

STP link type When you specify an STP link type, you ensure that STP uses the correct optimizations for the interface. Possible values are: ◆

auto When you set the STP link type to auto, the BIG-IP system determines the spanning tree link type, which is based on the Active Duplex interface property.

p2p When you set the STP link type to p2p, the BIG-IP system uses the optimizations for point-to-point spanning tree links. Point-to-point links connect two spanning tree bridges only. For example, a point-to-point link might connect a 10 Gigabit link to another bridge. For point-to-point links, the Active Duplex property interface should be set to full. Note that p2p is the only valid STP link type for a trunk.

shared When you set the STP link type to shared, the BIG-IP system uses the optimizations for shared spanning tree links. Shared links connect two or more spanning tree bridges. For example, a shared link might be a 10 Megabit hub. Note that for shared links, the Active Duplex interface property should be set to half.

STP edge port When you enable the STP Edge Port setting, you are explicitly designating the interface as an edge port. An edge port is an interface that connects to an end station rather than to another spanning tree bridge. The default setting is disabled (not checked). If you would rather have the system automatically designate the interface as an edge port, you can enable the STP Edge Port Detection setting instead, described in the following section.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

20 - 13


Chapter 20

If you enable (check) the STP Edge Port setting and the interface subsequently receives STP, RSTP, or MSTP frames (BPDUs), the system disables the setting automatically, because only non-edge interfaces receive BPDUs.

Detection of an STP edge port When you enable the STP Edge Port Detection setting, the system determines whether the interface is an edge port, and if so, automatically designates the interface as an edge port. The system determines edge port status by monitoring the interface and verifying that it does not receive any incoming STP, RSTP, or MSTP frames (BPDUs). If the system determines that the interface is not an edge port, but you enabled the STP Edge Port setting to explicitly designate the interface as an edge port, the system removes the edge port designation from the interface. No interface that receives BPDUs from a bridge can have edge port status, despite the values of the STP Edge Port and STP Edge Port Detection settings.

Spanning tree protocol reset As described in Global spanning tree properties, on page 20-5, the spanning tree algorithm automatically detects the presence of legacy STP bridges on the network, and falls back to STP mode when communicating with those bridges. Because legacy STP bridges do not send spanning tree BPDUs periodically in all circumstances, the BIG-IP system cannot detect when a legacy STP bridge has been removed from the network. Therefore, it is necessary to manually notify the BIG-IP system that the algorithm can switch to the RSTP or MSTP protocol again, whenever a legacy bridge has been removed.

Managing interfaces for a specific instance When you manage an interface for a specific spanning tree instance, you can: • View a list of interfaces for an instance • View instance-specific properties of an interface • Configure instance-specific settings for an interface

Viewing a list of interface IDs for an instance Using the Configuration utility, you can view a list of the interface IDs associated with a specific spanning tree instance. If you are using MSTP, the interface IDs that appear in the list are the interfaces assigned to the VLANs that you specified when you created the instance. If you are using STP or RSTP, the interface IDs in the list are those that the BIG-IP system automatically assigned to instance 0.

20 - 14


Spanning Tree Protocols

The list of interface IDs also displays the following information for each interface: • The STP instance ID • The priority • The external path cost • The port role

Viewing instance-specific properties of an interface Once you have used the previous procedure to view the list of interfaces associated with a particular spanning tree instance, you can view the properties associated with that interface. Some of these properties are those that you configured using the Interfaces screen.

Understanding the port roles The Port Role property of a per-instance interface specifies the interface’s role in the spanning tree instance. You cannot specify a value for this property; the BIG-IP system automatically assigns a role to the interface. The BIG-IP system can assign one of the following roles to an instance interface: ◆

Disabled The interface has no active role in the spanning tree instance.

Root The interface provides a path to a root bridge.

Alternate The interface provides an alternate path to a root bridge, if the root interface is unavailable.

Designated The interface provides a path away from the root bridge.

Backup The interface provides an alternate path away from the root bridge, if an interface with a port role of Designated is unavailable. The Backup role assignment is rare.

Understanding port states The Port State property of an interface specifies the way that the interface processes normal data packets. You cannot specify a value for this property; the BIG-IP system automatically assigns a state to the interface. An interface can be in one of the following states at any given time:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Blocking The interface disregards any incoming frames, and does not send any outgoing frames.

Forwarding The interface passes frames as needed.

20 - 15


Chapter 20

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

Learning The interface is determining information about MAC addresses, and is not yet forwarding frames.

Configuring instance-specific settings for an interface There are a few settings that you configure for an interface that only pertain to a specific instance.

Selecting an interface priority Each interface has an associated priority within a spanning tree instance. The relative values of the interface priorities affect which interfaces the system chooses to carry network traffic. Using the Interface Priority setting, you can select the interface's priority in relation to the other interfaces that are members of the spanning tree instance. Typically, the system is more likely to select interfaces with lower numeric values to carry network traffic. A priority value that you assign to an interface can be in the range of 0 to 240, in increments of 16. Thus, the value you assign to an interface can be 0, 16, 32, 64, and so on, up to 240. The default priority for an interface is 128, the middle of the valid range.

Specifying path cost Each interface has an associated path cost within a spanning tree instance. The path cost represents the relative cost of sending network traffic through that interface. When calculating the spanning tree, the spanning tree algorithm attempts to minimize the total path cost between each point of the tree and the root bridge. By manipulating the path costs of different interfaces, you can steer traffic toward paths that are either faster, more reliable, more economical, or have all of these qualities. The value of a path cost can be in the range of 1 to 200,000,000, unless you have legacy STP bridges. In that case, because some legacy implementations support a range of only 1 to 65535, you should use this more restricted range when setting path costs on interfaces. The default path cost for an interface is based on the maximum speed of the interface rather than the actual speed, as shown in Table 20.2.

Maximum Interface Speed

Default Path Cost

10 Gb/s

2,000

1 Gb/s

20,000

100 Mb/s

200,000

10 Mb/s

2,000,000

Table 20.2 Default path costs based on interface speeds

20 - 16


Spanning Tree Protocols

For example, an interface that has a maximum speed of 1000 Mb/s (1 Gb/s), but is currently running at a speed of 10 Mb/s, has a default path cost of 20,000. Link aggregation does not affect the default path cost. For example, if a trunk has four 1 Gb/s interfaces, the default path cost is 20,000. For MSTP, you can set two kinds of path costs, external and internal. For STP and RSTP, you can set an external path cost only. ◆

External Path Cost The External Path Cost setting is used to calculate the cost of sending spanning tree traffic through the interface to reach an adjacent spanning tree region. The spanning tree algorithm tries to minimize the total path cost between each point of the tree and the root bridge. The external path cost applies only to those interfaces (and trunks) that are members of instance 0.

Internal Path Cost The Internal Path Cost setting allows you to specify the relative cost of sending spanning tree traffic through the interface to adjacent bridges within a spanning tree region. Note that the internal path cost applies only to bridges that support the MSTP mode. The internal path cost applies to those interfaces (and trunks) that are members of any instance, including instance 0.

To summarize, STP and RSTP use external path costs only, and the costs apply to instance 0 interfaces only. MSTP uses both external and internal path costs, and the internal costs apply to interfaces in all spanning tree instances, including instance 0.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

20 - 17


Chapter 20

20 - 18


21 Trunks

â&#x20AC;˘ Introduction to trunks â&#x20AC;˘ Trunk properties


Trunks

Introduction to trunks A trunk is a logical grouping of interfaces on the BIG-IP速 system. When you create a trunk, this logical group of interfaces functions as a single interface. The BIG-IP system uses a trunk to distribute traffic across multiple links, in a process known as link aggregation. With link aggregation, a trunk increases the bandwidth of a link by adding the bandwidth of multiple links together. For example, four fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) links, if aggregated, create a single 400 Mbps link. With one trunk, you can aggregate a maximum of eight links. For optimal performance, you should aggregate links in powers of two. Thus, you ideally aggregate two, four, or eight links. The purpose of a trunk is two-fold: To increase bandwidth without upgrading hardware, and to provide link failover if a member link becomes unavailable. You can use trunks to transmit traffic from a BIG-IP system to another vendor switch. Two systems that use trunks to exchange frames are known as peer systems. To configure and manage trunks, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click Trunks.

How do trunks work? In a typical configuration where trunks are configured, the member links of the trunk are connected through Ethernet cables to corresponding links on a peer system. Figure 21.1 shows an example of a typical trunk configuration with two peers and three member links on each peer.

Figure 21.1 Example of a trunk configured for two switches

A primary goal of the trunks feature is to ensure that frames exchanged between peer systems are never sent out of order or duplicated on the receiving end. The BIG-IP system is able to maintain frame order by using the source and destination addresses in each frame to calculate a hash value, and then transmitting all frames with that hash value on the same member link.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

21 - 1


Chapter 21

The BIG-IP system automatically assigns a unique MAC address to a trunk. However, by default, the MAC address that the system uses as the source and destination address for frames that the system transmits and receives (respectively), is the MAC address of the lowest-numbered interface of the trunk. The BIG-IP system also uses the lowest-numbered interface of a trunk as a reference link. The BIG-IP system uses the reference link to take certain aggregation actions, such as implementing the automatic link selection policy. For frames coming into the reference link, the BIG-IP system load balances the frames across all member links that the BIG-IP system knows to be available. For frames going from any link in the trunk to a destination host, the BIG-IP system treats those frames as if they came from the reference link. Finally, the BIG-IP system uses the MAC address of an individual member link as the source address for any LACP control frames. For more information on LACP, see Overview of LACP, following.

Overview of LACP A key aspect of trunks is Link Aggregation Control Protocol, or LACP. Defined by IEEE standard 802.3ad, LACP is a protocol that detects error conditions on member links and redistributes traffic to other member links, thus preventing any loss of traffic on the failed link. On a BIG-IP system, LACP is an optional feature that you can configure. You can also customize LACP behavior. For example, you can specify the way that LACP communicates its control messages from the BIG-IP system to a peer system. You can also specify the rate at which the peer system sends LACP packets to the BIG-IP system. If you want to affect the way that the BIG-IP system chooses links for link aggregation, you can specify a link control policy. For more information, see Trunk properties, on page 21-2.

Trunk properties You can configure several properties related to trunks.

Trunk name You can use the Name setting to specify a unique name for the trunk. This setting is required.

21 - 2


Trunks

Interfaces for a trunk Using the Interfaces setting, you specify the interfaces that you want the BIG-IP system to use as member links for the trunk. Once you have created the trunk, the BIG-IP system uses these interfaces to perform link aggregation. Tip

To optimize bandwidth utilization, F5 Networks速 recommends that, if possible, the number of links in the trunk be a power of 2 (for example, 2, 4, or 8). This is due to the frame balancing algorithms that the system uses to map data streams to links. Regardless of the hashing algorithm, a trunk that has 2, 4, or 8 links prevents the possibility of skewing, which can adversely affect data throughput. The BIG-IP system uses the lowest-numbered interface as the reference link. The system uses the reference link to negotiate links for aggregation. The interfaces that you specify for the trunk must operate at the same media speed, and must be set at full-duplex mode. Otherwise, the BIG-IP system cannot aggregate the links. Because these media properties are dynamic rather than static (due to auto-negotiation), the lacpd service routinely monitors the current status of these properties and negotiates the links for aggregation accordingly. Thus, when the status of these properties qualifies a link to become a working member link, the system adds the link to the aggregation, and the link can begin accepting traffic. For information on setting media properties for an interface, see Platform Guide: 1500, 3400, 6400, and 6800 or Platform Guide: 8400 and 8800. Any interface that you assign to a trunk must be an untagged interface. Furthermore, you can assign an interface to one trunk only; that is, you cannot assign the same interface to multiple trunks. Because of these restrictions, the only interfaces that appear in the Interfaces list in the Configuration utility are untagged interfaces that are not assigned to another trunk. Therefore, before creating a trunk and assigning any interfaces to it, you should verify that each interface for the trunk is an untagged interface. After creating the trunk, you assign the trunk to one or more VLANs, using the same VLAN screen that you normally use to assign an individual interface to a VLAN. If you are using one of the spanning tree protocols (STP, RSTP, or MSTP), the BIG-IP system sends and receives spanning tree protocol packets on a trunk, rather than on individual member links. Likewise, use of a spanning tree protocol to enable or disable learning or forwarding on a trunk operates on all member links together, as a single unit.

Enabling LACP As an option, you can enable LACP on a trunk. Containing a service called lacpd, LACP is an IEEE-defined protocol that exchanges control packets over member links. The purpose of LACP is to detect link error conditions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

21 - 3


Chapter 21

such as faulty MAC devices and link loopbacks. If LCAP detects an error on a member link, the BIG-IP system removes the member link from the link aggregation and redistributes the traffic for that link to the remaining links of the trunk. In this way, no traffic destined for the removed link is lost. LACP then continues to monitor the member links to ensure that aggregation of those links remains valid. By default, the LACP feature is disabled, to ensure backward compatibility with previous versions of the BIG-IP system. If you create a trunk and do not enable the LACP feature, the BIG-IP system does not detect link error conditions, and therefore cannot remove the member link from link aggregation. The result is that the system cannot redistribute the traffic destined for that link to the remaining links in the trunk, thereby causing traffic on the failed member link to be lost. Important

To use LACP successfully, you must enable LACP on both peer systems.

LACP mode The LACP Mode setting appears on the Trunks screen only when you check the LACP setting. You use the LACP mode setting to specify the method that LACP uses to send control packets to the peer system. The two possible modes are: â&#x2014;&#x2020;

Active mode You specify Active mode if you want the system to periodically send control packets, regardless of whether the peer system has issued a request. This is the default setting.

â&#x2014;&#x2020;

Passive mode You specify Passive mode if you want the system to send control packets only when the peer system issues a request, that is, when the LACP mode of the peer system is set to Active.

If you set only one of the peer systems to Active mode, the BIG-IP system uses Active mode for both systems. Also, whenever you change the LACP mode on a trunk, LACP renegotiates the links that it uses for aggregation on that trunk. Tip

We recommend that you set the LACP mode to Passive on one peer system only. If you set both systems to Passive mode, LACP does not send control packets.

21 - 4


Trunks

LACP timeout The LACP Timeout setting appears on the Trunks screen only when you check the LACP setting. You use the LACP Timeout setting to indicate to the BIG-IP system the interval in seconds at which the peer system should send control packets. The timeout value applies only when the LACP mode is set to Active on at least one of the switch systems. If both systems are set to Passive mode, LACP does not send control packets. If LACP sends three consecutive control packets without receiving a response from the peer system, LACP removes that member link from link aggregation. The two possible timeout values are: ◆

Short When you set the timeout value to Short, the peer system sends LACP control packets once every second. If this value is set to Short and LACP receives no peer response after sending three consecutive packets, LACP removes the link from aggregation in three seconds.

Long When you set the timeout value to Long, the peer system sends LACP control packets once every 30 seconds. A timeout value of Long is the default setting. If set to Long and LACP receives no peer response after sending three consecutive packets, LACP removes the link from aggregation in ninety seconds.

Whenever you change the LACP timeout value on a trunk, LACP renegotiates the links that it uses for aggregation on that trunk.

Link selection policy In order for the BIG-IP system to aggregate links, the media speed and duplex mode of each link must be the same on both peer systems. Because media properties can change dynamically, the BIG-IP system monitors these properties regularly, and if it finds that the media properties of a link are mismatched on the peer systems, the BIG-IP system must determine which links are eligible for aggregation. The way the system determines eligible links depends on a link selection policy that you choose for the trunk. When you create a trunk, you can choose one of two possible policy settings: Auto and Maximum Bandwidth. Note

The link selection policy feature represents an F5 Networks enhancement to the standard IEEE 802.3ad specification for LACP.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

21 - 5


Chapter 21

Automatic link selection When you set the link selection policy to Auto (the default setting), the BIG-IP system uses the lowest-numbered interface of the trunk as a reference link. (A reference link is a link that the BIG-IP system uses to make a link aggregation decision.) The system then aggregates any links that have the same media properties and are connected to the same peer as the reference link. For example, using Figure 21.1, on page 21-1, suppose that you created a trunk to include interfaces 1.2 and 1.3, each with a media speeds of 100 Mbps, and interface 1.4, with a different media speed of 1 Gbps. If you set the link selection policy to Auto, the BIG-IP system uses the lowest-numbered interface, 1.2, as a reference link. The reference link operates at a media speed of 100 Mbps, which means that the system aggregates all links with that media speed (interfaces 1.2 and 1.3). The media speed of interface 1.4 is different (1 Gbps), and therefore is not considered for link aggregation. Only interfaces 1.2 and 1.3 become working member links and start carrying traffic. If the media speed of interface 1.4 changes to 100 Mbps, the system adds that interface to the aggregation. Conversely, if the media speed of interface 1.4 remains at 1 Gbps, and the speed of the reference link changes to 1 Gbps, then interfaces 1.2 and 1.4 become working members, and 1.3 is now excluded from the aggregation and no longer carries traffic.

Maximum bandwidth link selection When you set the link selection policy to Maximum Bandwidth, the BIG-IP system aggregates the subset of member links that provide the maximum amount of bandwidth to the trunk. Continuing with our previous example, if interfaces 1.2 and 1.3 each operate at a media speed of 100 Mbps, and interface 1.4 operates at speed of 1 Gbps, then the system selects only interface 1.4 as a working member link, providing 1 Gbps of bandwidth to the trunk. If the speed of interface 1.4 drops to 10 Mbps, the system then aggregates links 1.2 and 1.3, to provide a total bandwidth to the trunk of 200 Mbps. The peer system detects any non-working member links and configures its aggregation accordingly. Tip

To ensure that link aggregation operates properly, make sure that both peer systems agree on the link membership of their trunks.

21 - 6


Trunks

Frame distribution hash When frames are transmitted on a trunk, they are distributed across the working member links. The distribution function ensures that the frames belonging to a particular conversation are neither mis-ordered nor duplicated at the receiving end. The BIG-IP system distributes frames by calculating a hash value based on the source and destination addresses (or the destination address only) carried in the frame, and associating the hash value with a link. All frames with a particular hash value are transmitted on the same link, thereby maintaining frame order. Thus, the system uses the resulting hash to determine which interface to use for forwarding traffic. The Frame Distribution Hash setting specifies the basis for the hash that the system uses as the frame distribution algorithm. The default value is Source/Destination IP address. Possible values for this setting are:

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Source/Destination MAC address This value specifies that the system bases the hash on the combined MAC addresses of the source and the destination.

Destination MAC address This value specifies that the system bases the hash on the MAC address of the destination.

Source/Destination IP address This value specifies that the system bases the hash on the combined IP addresses of the source and the destination.

21 - 7


Chapter 21

21 - 8


22 VLANs and VLAN Groups

• Introduction to virtual LANs • VLANs on a BIG-IP system • VLAN groups • VLAN association with a self IP address • VLAN assignment to route domains


VLANs and VLAN Groups

Introduction to virtual LANs A VLAN is a logical subset of hosts on a local area network (LAN) that operate in the same IP address space. Grouping hosts together in a VLAN has distinct advantages. For example, with VLANs, you can: • Reduce the size of broadcast domains, thereby enhancing overall network performance. • Reduce system and network maintenance tasks substantially. Functionally-related hosts no longer need to physically reside together to achieve optimal network performance. • Enhance security on your network by segmenting hosts that must transmit sensitive data. The way that you group hosts into VLANs is by using the Configuration utility to create a VLAN and associate physical interfaces with that VLAN. In this way, any host that sends traffic to a BIG-IP® system interface is logically a member of the VLAN or VLANs to which that interface belongs. To configure and manage VLANs and VLAN groups, log in to the BIG-IP Configuration utility, and on the Main tab, expand Network, and click VLANs.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

22 - 1


Chapter 22

VLANs on a BIG-IP system The BIG-IP system is a port-based switch that includes multilayer processing capabilities. These capabilities enhance standard VLAN behavior, in these ways: • You can associate physical interfaces on the BIG-IP system directly with VLANs. In this way, you can associate multiple interfaces with a single VLAN, or you can associate a single interface with multiple VLANs. • You do not need physical routers to establish communication between separate VLANs. Instead, the BIG-IP system can process messages between VLANs. • You can incorporate a BIG-IP system into existing, multi-vendor switched environments, due to the BIG-IP system’s compliance with the IEEE 802.1q VLAN standard. • You can combine two or more VLANs into an object known as a VLAN group. With a VLAN group, a host in one VLAN can communicate with a host in another VLAN using a combination of Layer 2 forwarding and IP routing. This offers both performance and reliability benefits.

Understanding the default VLAN configuration By default, the BIG-IP system includes two VLANs, named internal and external. When you initially ran the Setup utility, you assigned the following to each of these VLANs: • A static and a floating self IP address • A VLAN tag • One or more BIG-IP system interfaces A typical VLAN configuration is one in which you create the two VLANs external and internal, and one or more BIG-IP system interfaces assigned to each VLAN. You then create a virtual server, and associate a default load balancing pool with that virtual server. Figure 22.1, on page 22-3, shows a typical configuration using the default VLANs external and internal.

22 - 2


VLANs and VLAN Groups

Figure 22.1 A typical configuration using the default VLANs

Note

VLANs internal and external reside in partition Common. Every VLAN must have a static self IP address associated with it. The self IP address of a VLAN represents an address space, that is, the range of IP addresses pertaining to the hosts in that VLAN. When you ran the Setup utility earlier, you assigned one static self IP address to the VLAN external, and one static self IP address to the VLAN internal. When sending a request to a destination server, the BIG-IP system can use these self IP addresses to determine the specific VLAN that contains the destination server. For example, suppose the self IP address of VLAN external is 12.1.0.100, and the self IP address of the VLAN internal is 11.1.0.100, and both self IP addresses have a netmask of 255.255.0.0. If the IP address of the destination server is 11.1.0.20, then the BIG-IP system can compare the self IP addresses to the host’s IP address to determine that the destination server is BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

22 - 3


Chapter 22

in the VLAN internal. This process, combined with checking the ARP cache and a VLANâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s L2 forwarding table, ensures that the BIG-IP system successfully sends the request to the destination server. Note

By default, the MAC address that the BIG-IP system assigns to a VLAN self IP address is the MAC address of the lowest-numbered interface associated with that VLAN. You can change this behavior by configuring the bigdb configuration key Vlan.MacAssignment. VLANs reside in administrative partitions. To create a VLAN, first set the current partition to the partition in which you want the VLAN to reside. Important

In addition to configuring VLAN properties, you must also assign a self IP address to the VLAN.

VLAN name When creating a VLAN, you must assign it a unique name. Once you have finished creating the VLAN, the VLAN name appears in the list of existing VLANs.

VLAN tags A VLAN tag is a unique ID number that you assign to a VLAN. If you do not explicitly assign a tag to a VLAN, the BIG-IP system assigns a tag automatically. The value of a VLAN tag can be between 1 and 4094. Once you or the BIG-IP assigns a tag to a VLAN, any message sent from a host in that VLAN includes this VLAN tag as a header in the message. A VLAN tag is useful when an interface has multiple VLANs associated with it; that is, when the interfaces you assigned to the VLAN are assigned as tagged interfaces. In this case, the BIG-IP system can read the VLAN tag in the header of a message to determine the specific VLAN in which the source or destination host resides. For more information on tagged interfaces, see Tag-based access to VLANs, on page 22-5. Important

If the device connected to a BIG-IP system interface is another switch, the VLAN tag that you assign to the VLAN on the BIG-IP system interface must match the VLAN tag assigned to the VLAN on the interface of the other switch.

22 - 4


VLANs and VLAN Groups

Interface assignments For each VLAN that you create, you must assign one or more BIG-IP system interfaces to that VLAN, using the Interfaces setting. When you assign an interface to a VLAN, you indirectly control the hosts from which the BIG-IP system interface sends or receives messages. Tip

You can assign not only individual interfaces to the VLAN, but also trunks. For example, if you assign interface 1.11 to VLAN A, and you then associate VLAN A with a virtual server, then the virtual server sends its outgoing traffic through interface 1.11, to a destination host in VLAN A. Similarly, when a destination host sends a message to the BIG-IP system, the host’s VLAN membership determines the BIG-IP system interface that should receive the incoming traffic. Each VLAN has a MAC address. The MAC address of a VLAN is the same MAC address of the lowest-numbered interface assigned to that VLAN. The BIG-IP system supports two methods for sending and receiving messages through an interface that is a member of one or more VLANs. These two methods are port-based access to VLANs and tag-based access to VLANs. The method used by a VLAN is determined by the way that you add a member interface to a VLAN.

Port-based access to VLANs With port-based access to VLANs, the BIG-IP system accepts frames for a VLAN simply because they are received on an interface that is a member of that VLAN. With this method, an interface is an untagged member of the VLAN. Frames sent out through untagged interfaces contain no tag in their header. Port-based access to VLANs occurs when you add an interface to a VLAN as an untagged interface. In this case, the VLAN is the only VLAN that you can associate with that interface. This limits the interface to accepting traffic only from that VLAN, instead of from multiple VLANs. If you want to give an interface the ability to accept and receive traffic for multiple VLANs, you add the same interface to each VLAN as a tagged interface. The following section describes tagged interfaces.

Tag-based access to VLANs With tag-based access to VLANs, the BIG-IP system accepts frames for a VLAN because the frames have tags in their headers and the tag matches the VLAN identification number for the VLAN. An interface that accepts frames containing VLAN tags is a tagged member of the VLAN. Frames sent out through tagged interfaces contain a tag in their header. Tag-based access to VLANs occurs when you add an interface to a VLAN as a tagged interface. You can add the same tagged interface to multiple VLANs, thereby allowing the interface to accept traffic from each VLAN with which the interface is associated.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

22 - 5


Chapter 22

When you add an interface to a VLAN as a tagged interface, the BIG-IP system associates the interface with the VLAN identification number, or tag, which becomes embedded in a header of a frame. Note

Every VLAN has a tag. You can assign the tag explicitly when creating the VLAN, or the BIG-IP system assigns it automatically if you do not supply one. Each time you add an interface to a VLAN, either when creating a VLAN or modifying its properties, you can designate that interface as a tagged interface. A single interface can therefore have multiple tags associated with it. The result is that whenever a frame comes into that interface, the interface reads the tag that is embedded in a header of the frame. If the tag in the frame matches any of the tags associated with the interface, the interface accepts the frame. If the tag in the frame does not match any of the tags associated with the interface, the interface rejects the frame.

Example Figure 22.2, on page 22-6, shows the difference between using three untagged interfaces (where each interface must belong to a separate VLAN) versus one tagged interface (which belongs to multiple VLANs).

Figure 22.2 Solutions using untagged (left) and tagged interfaces (right)

The configuration on the left shows a BIG-IP system with three internal interfaces, each a separate, untagged interface. This is a typical solution for supporting three separate customer sites. In this scenario, each interface can accept traffic only from its own VLAN.

22 - 6


VLANs and VLAN Groups

Conversely, the configuration on the right shows a BIG-IP system with one internal interface and an external switch. The switch places the internal interface on three separate VLANs. The interface is configured on each VLAN as a tagged interface. In this way, the single interface becomes a tagged member of all three VLANs, and accepts traffic from all three. The configuration on the right is the functional equivalent of the configuration on the left. Important

If you are connecting another switch into a BIG-IP system interface, the VLAN tag that you assign to the VLAN on the BIG-IP system must match the VLAN tag on the interface of the other switch.

Source checking When you enable source checking, the BIG-IP system verifies that the return path for an initial packet is through the same VLAN from which the packet originated. Note that the system only enables source checking if the global setting Auto Last Hop is disabled.

Maximum transmission units The value of the maximum transmission unit, or MTU, is the largest size that the BIG-IP system allows for an IP datagram passing through a BIG-IP system interface. The default value is 1500.

VLAN-based fail-safe VLAN fail-safe is a feature you enable when you want to base redundant-system failover on VLAN-related events. To configure VLAN fail-safe, you specify a timeout value and the action that you want the system to take when the timeout period expires.

Auto last hop When you create a VLAN, you can designate the VLAN as the last hop for TMM traffic.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

22 - 7


Chapter 22

Maintaining the L2 forwarding table Layer 2 forwarding is the means by which frames are exchanged directly between hosts, with no IP routing required. This is accomplished using a simple forwarding table for each VLAN. The L2 forwarding table is a list that shows, for each host in the VLAN, the MAC address of the host, along with the interface that the BIG-IP system needs for sending frames to that host. The intent of the L2 forwarding table is to help the BIG-IP system determine the correct interface for sending frames, when the system determines that no routing is required. The format of an entry in the L2 forwarding table is: <MAC address> -> <if>

For example, an entry for a host in the VLAN might look like this: 00:a0:c9:9e:1e:2f -> 2.1

The BIG-IP system learns the interfaces that correspond to various MAC entries as frames pass through the system, and automatically adds entries to the table accordingly. These entries are known as dynamic entries. You can also add entries to the table manually, and these are known as static entries. Entering static entries is useful if you have network devices that do not advertise their MAC addresses. The system does not automatically update static entries. The BIG-IP system does not always need to use the L2 forwarding table to find an interface for frame transmission. For instance, if a VLAN has only one interface assigned to it, then the BIG-IP system automatically uses that interface. Occasionally, the L2 forwarding table does not include an entry for the destination MAC address and its corresponding BIG-IP system interface. In this case, the BIG-IP system floods the frame through all interfaces associated with the VLAN, until a reply creates an entry in the L2 forwarding table.

22 - 8


VLANs and VLAN Groups

VLAN groups A VLAN group is a logical container that includes two or more distinct VLANs. VLAN groups are intended for load balancing traffic in a Layer 2 network, when you want to minimize the reconfiguration of hosts on that network. Figure 22.3 shows an example of a VLAN group.

Figure 22.3 Example of a VLAN group

A VLAN group also ensures that the BIG-IP system can process traffic successfully between a client and server when the two hosts reside in the same address space. Without a VLAN group, when the client and server both reside in the same address space, the client request goes through the virtual server, but instead of sending its response back through the virtual server, the server attempts to send its response directly to the client, bypassing the virtual server altogether. As a result, the client cannot receive the response, because the client expects the address of the response to be the virtual server IP address, not the server IP address. Tip

You can configure the behavior of the BIG-IP system so that it always creates a proxy for any ARP requests between VLANs. When you create a VLAN group, the two existing VLANs become child VLANs of the VLAN group.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

22 - 9


Chapter 22

VLAN groups reside in administrative partitions. To create a VLAN group, you must first set the current partition to the partition in which you want the VLAN group to reside. Note

Only users with the Administrator user role can create and manage VLAN groups.

VLAN group name When creating a VLAN group, you must assign it a unique name. Once you have finished creating the VLAN group, the VLAN group name appears in the list of existing VLANs groups.

VLAN group ID A VLAN group ID is a tag for the VLAN group. Every VLAN group needs a unique ID number. If you do not specify an ID for the VLAN group, the BIG-IP system automatically assigns one. The value of a VLAN group ID can be between 1 and 4094. For more information on VLAN tags, see Tag-based access to VLANs, on page 22-5.

Transparency mode The BIG-IP system is capable of processing traffic using a combination of Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding, that is, switching and IP routing. When you set the transparency mode, you specify the type of forwarding that the BIG-IP system performs when forwarding a message to a host in a VLAN. The default setting is translucent, which means that the BIG-IP system uses a mix of Layer 2 and Layer 3 processing. Table 22.1 lists the allowed values.

Value

Description

opaque

A proxy ARP with Layer 3 forwarding.

Table 22.1 Modes for VLAN group forwarding

22 - 10


VLANs and VLAN Groups

Value

Description

translucent

Layer 2 forwarding with a locally-unique bit, toggled in ARP response across VLANs. This is the default setting. When you choose this value and you have a virtual server that references a Fast L4 profile, the BIG-IP system automatically changes the PVA Acceleration setting to None.

transparent

Layer 2 forwarding with the original MAC address of the remote system preserved across VLANs. When you choose this value and you have a virtual server that references a Fast L4 profile, the BIG-IP system automatically changes the PVA Acceleration setting to None.

Table 22.1 Modes for VLAN group forwarding

Traffic bridging When you enable this option, you are instructing the VLAN group to forward all non-IP traffic. Note that IP traffic is bridged by default. The default value for this setting is disabled (unchecked).

Traffic bridging with standby units When enabled, the Bridge in Standby setting ensures that the VLAN group can forward packets when the system is the standby device of a redundant system configuration. Note that this setting applies to non-IP and non-ARP frames only, such as Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). This setting is designed for deployments in which the VLAN group is defined on a redundant system. You can use the Bridge in Standby setting in transparent or translucent modes, or in opaque mode when the global variable Failover.Standby.LinkDownTime is set to 0. WARNING

This setting can cause adverse effects if the VLAN group exists on more than one device in a device group. The setting is intended for configurations where the VLAN group exists on one device only. The default setting is enabled (checked).

Host exclusion from proxy ARP forwarding A host in a VLAN cannot normally communicate to a host in another VLAN. This rule applies to ARP requests as well. However, if you put the VLANs into a single VLAN group, the BIG-IP system can perform a proxied ARP request. A proxied ARP request is an ARP request that the BIG-IP system can send, on behalf of a host in a VLAN, to hosts in another VLAN. A proxied ARP request requires that both VLANs belong to the same VLAN group. BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

22 - 11


Chapter 22

In some cases, you might not want a host to forward proxied ARP requests to a specific host, or to other hosts in the configuration. To exclude specific hosts from receiving forwarded proxied ARP requests, you use the Configuration utility and specify the IP addresses that you want to exclude. WARNING

Although hosts on an ARP exclusion list are specified using their IP addresses, this does not prevent the BIG-IP system from routing traffic to those hosts. A more secure way to prevent traffic from passing between hosts in separate VLANs is to create a packet filter for each VLAN.

VLAN association with a self IP address After you create a VLAN or a VLAN group, you must associate it with a self IP address. You associate a VLAN or VLAN group with a self IP address using the New Self IPs screens of the Configuration utility: ◆

Associating a VLAN with a self IP address The self IP address with which you associate a VLAN should represent an address space that includes the IP addresses of the hosts that the VLAN contains. For example, if the address of one host is 11.0.0.1 and the address of the other host is 11.0.0.2, you could associate the VLAN with a self IP address of 11.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.255.0.

Associating a VLAN group with a self IP address The self IP address with which you associate a VLAN group should represent an address space that includes the self IP addresses of the VLANs that you assigned to the group. For example, if the address of one VLAN is 10.0.0.1 and the address of the other VLAN is 10.0.0.2, you could associate the VLAN group with a self IP address of 10.0.0.100, with a netmask of 255.255.255.0.

VLAN assignment to route domains If you explicitly create route domains, you should consider the following: • You can assign VLANs (and VLAN groups) to route domain objects that you create. Traffic pertaining to that route domain uses those assigned VLANs, • During BIG-IP system installation, the system automatically creates a default route domain, with an ID of 0. Route domain 0 has two VLANs assigned to it, VLAN internal and VLAN external. • If you create one or more VLANs in an administrative partition other than Common, but do not create a route domain in that partition, then the VLANs you create in that partition are automatically assigned to route domain 0.

22 - 12


A Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

â&#x20AC;˘ Understanding F5-specific traps


Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

Understanding F5-specific traps The alert system and the SNMP agent on the BIG-IP® system can send a number of notifications about the current operation of the BIG-IP system. The definitions of these notifications are known as traps, and are contained in the MIB file F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt. The types of notifications that the BIG-IP system can send to an SNMP manager are: • General traps • Hardware-related traps • License-related traps • Traffic management operating system® (TMOS®)-related traps • Authentication-related traps • Denial of Service (DoS)-related traps • Network-related traps • Logging-related traps • Application Security ManagerTM-related traps • Global Traffic Manager™-related traps • Other traps The remainder of this appendix contains tables that list the trap names contained in the MIB file F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt, their descriptions, and the recommended action to take if you receive one of these notifications on your SNMP manager system.

General traps The general notifications that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.1. Trap Name

Description

bigipAgentStart

The SNMP agent on the BIG-IP system has been started.

bigipAgentShutdown

The SNMP agent on the BIG-IP system is in the process of being shut down.

bigipAgentRestart

The SNMP agent on the BIG-IP system has been restarted.

Recommended Action

For your information only. No action required.

This trap is for future use only.

Table A.1 General traps and recommended actions

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

A-1


Appendix A

Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipDiskPartitionWarn

Free space on the disk partition is limited, that is, less than a specified limit. By default, the limit is set to 30% of total disk space.

Increase the available disk space.

bigipDiskPartitionGrowth

The disk partition use exceeds the specified growth limit. By default, the limit is set to 5% of the total disk space.

Table A.1 General traps and recommended actions

Hardware-related traps The hardware-related notifications that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.2. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipCpuTempHigh

The CPU temperature is too high.

Check the CPU and air temperatures. For BIG-IP platforms C36, D39, D44, D45, D50, D51, D51C, and D62, the threshold is 75 degrees Celsius. For the BIG-IP platform C62, the threshold is 80 degrees Celsius. If the condition persists, contact F5 Networks速 technical support.

bigipCpuFanSpeedLow

The CPU fan speed is too low.

Check the CPU temperature. If the CPU temperature is normal, the condition is not critical. For BIG-IP platforms C36, C62, D39, D44, D45, D50, D51, D51C, and D62, the threshold is 3000 RPM.

bigipCpuFanSpeedBad

The CPU fan is not receiving a signal.

Check the CPU temperature and verify that the CPU fan is plugged in and receiving power. If the CPU temperature is normal, the condition is not critical.

bigipChassisTempHigh

The temperature of the chassis is too high.

Check the chassis and air temperatures. For BIG-IP platforms C36, D39, D44, D45, D50, D51, D51C, D62, and C62 switchboard, the threshold is 75 degrees Celsius. For the BIG-IP platform C62 non-switchboard, the threshold is 95 degrees Celsius for one chassis and 80 degrees Celsius for the other chassis. If the condition persists, contact F5 Networks technical support.

bigipChassisFanBad

The chassis fan is not operating properly.

Check the chassis temperature. Also check that the fan is receiving power, or replace the fan.

Table A.2 Hardware-related traps and recommended actions

A-2


Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipChassisPowerSupplyBad

The chassis power supply is not functioning properly.

Verify that the power supply is plugged in, or contact F5 Networks technical support. For a dual-power-supply system, one power supply might not be plugged in.

bigipHardDiskFailure

The hard disk is failing.

Power off the system and replace the hard disk. Contact F5 Networks technical support.

Table A.2 Hardware-related traps and recommended actions

License-related traps The notifications related to licensing that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.3. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipLicenseFailed

Validation of a BIG-IP system license has failed, or the dossier has errors. Occurs only when first licensing the system or adding a module key (such as HTTP compression) to an existing system.

If using automatic licensing, verify connectivity to the outside world, fix the dossier if needed, and try again.

bigipLicenseExpired

The BIG-IP license has expired.

Call F5 Networks technical support.

Table A.3 License traps and recommended actions

TMOS-related traps The TMOS-related notifications that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.4. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipServiceDown

A BIG-IP system health monitor has detected a service on a node to be stopped and has therefore marked the node as down.

Restart the service on the node.

bigipServiceUp

A BIG-IP system health monitor has detected a service on a node to be running and has therefore marked the node as up.

For your information only. No action required./

bigipNodeDown

A BIG-IP system health monitor has marked a node as down.

Check the node and the cable connection.

Table A.4 TMOS-related traps and recommended actions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

A-3


Appendix A

Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipNodeUp

A BIG-IP system health monitor has marked a node as up.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipStandby

The BIG-IP system has switched to standby mode.

Review the log files in the /var/log directory and then search for core files in the /var/core directory. If you find a core file, or find text similar to fault at location xxxx stack trace:, contact F5 Networks technical support.

bigipStandByFail

In failover condition, this standby system cannot become active.

Investigate failover condition on the standby system.

bigipActive

The BIG-IP system has switched to active mode.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipActiveActive

The BIG-IP system is in active-active mode.

bigipFeatureFailed

A high-availability feature has failed.

View high-availability processes and their current status.

bigipFeatureOnline

A high-availability feature is responding.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipPacketRejected

The BIG-IP system has rejected some packets.

Check the detailed message within this trap and act accordingly.

bigipInetPortExhaustion

Signifies that the TMM has run out of source ports and cannot open new communications channels with other machines.

Either increase the number of addresses available for SNAT automapping or SNAT pools, or lower the idle timeout value if the value is excessively high.

Table A.4 TMOS-related traps and recommended actions

Authentication-related traps The notifications related to authentication that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.5. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipTamdAlert

More than 60 authentication attempts have failed within one second, for a given virtual server.

Investigate for a possible intruder.

bigipAuthFailed

A login attempt failed.

Check the user name and password.

Table A.5 Authentication traps and recommended actions

A-4


Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

DoS-related traps The notifications related to denial of service that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.6. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipAggrReaperStateChange

The state of the aggressive reaper has changed, indicating that the BIG-IP system is moving to a distress mode.

We recommend that you use our default Denial of Service settings. However, you can add rate filters to survive the attack.

Table A.6 Denial of Service traps and recommended actions

Network-related traps The network-related notifications that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.7. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipARPConflict

The BIG-IP system has detected an ARP advertisement for any of its own ARP-enabled addresses. This can occur for a virtual server address or a self IP address.

Check IP addresses and routes.

bigipNetLinkDown

An interface link is down. This applies to L1 and L2, which are internal links within the box connecting the CPU and Switch subsystems. These links should never be down. If this occurs, the condition is serious.

Contact F5 Networks technical support.

Table A.7 Network traps and recommended actions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

A-5


Appendix A

Logging-related traps The notifications related to logging that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.8. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipLogEmerg

The BIG-IP system is unusable. This notification occurs when the system logs a message with the log level LOG_EMERG.

Check the detailed message within this trap and within the /var/log files to determine which process has the emergency. Then act accordingly.

bigipLogAlert

bigipLogCrit

You must take action immediately for the BIG-IP system to function properly. This notification occurs when the system logs a message with the log level LOG_ALERT.

Check the detailed message within this trap and within the /var/log files to determine which process has the alert situation.

The BIG-IP system is in a critical condition. This notification occurs when the system logs a message with the log level LOG_CRIT.

Check the detailed message within this trap and within the /var/log files to determine which process has the critical situation.

Then act accordingly.

Then act accordingly. bigipLogErr

The BIG-IP system has some error conditions. This notification occurs when the system logs a message with the log level LOG_ERR.

Check the detailed message within this trap and within the /var/log files to determine which processes have the error conditions. Then act accordingly.

bigipLogWarning

The BIG-IP system is experiencing some warning conditions. This notification occurs when the system logs a message with the log level LOG_WARNING.

Check the detailed message within this trap and within the /var/log files to determine which processes have the warning conditions. Then act accordingly.

Table A.8 Logging-related traps and recommended actions

Note

You can also view logging information using the Logs screen of the Configuration utility.

A-6


Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

Application Security Manager-related traps The notifications related to Application Security Manager that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.9. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipAsmRequestBlocked

The system blocked an HTTP request because the request contained at least one violation to the active security policy.

Check the HTTP request to determine the cause of the violation.

bigipAsmRequestViolation

The system issued an alert because an HTTP request violated the active security policy.

Check the HTTP request to determine the cause of the violation.

Table A.9 Application Security Manager traps and recommended actions

Global Traffic Manager-related traps The notifications related to BIG-IP Global Traffic Manager that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.10. Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipGtmBoxAvail

A Global Traffic Manager system (which equals an iquery connection to a server box) has gone UP.

For your information only.

bigipGtmBoxNotAvail

A Global Traffic Manager system (which equals an iquery connection to a server box) has gone DOWN.

For your information only.

bigipGtmBig3dSslCertExpired

The certificate /config/big3d/client.crt has expired.

Replace the certificate.

bigipGtmBig3dSslCertWillExpire

The certificate /config/big3d/client.crt will expire soon.

Replace the certificate.

bigipGtmSslCertExpired

The certificate /config/gtm/server.crt has expired.

Replace the certificate.

bigipGtmSslCertWillExpire

The certificate /config/gtm/server.crt will expire soon.

Replace the certificate.

bigipGtmPoolAvail

A pool is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmPoolNotAvail

A pool is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the pool, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

Table A.10 Global Traffic Manager traps and recommended actions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

A-7


Appendix A

Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipGtmPoolDisabled

A pool is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the pool.

bigipGtmPoolEnabled

A pool is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmLinkAvail

A link is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmLinkNotAvail

A link is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the link, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmLinkDisabled

A link is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the link.

bigipGtmLinkEnabled

A link is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmWideIpAvail

A wide IP is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmWideIpNotAvail

A wide IP is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the wide IP, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmWideIpDisabled

A wide IP is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the wide IP.

bigipGtmWideIpEnabled

A wide IP is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmPoolMbrAvail

A pool member is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmPoolMbrNotAvail

A pool member is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the pool member, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmPoolMbrDisabled

A pool member is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the pool member.

bigipGtmPoolMbrEnabled

A pool member is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmServerAvail

A server is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmServerNotAvail

A server is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the server, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmServerDisabled

A server is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the server.

Table A.10 Global Traffic Manager traps and recommended actions

A-8


Troubleshooting SNMP Traps

Trap Name

Description

bigipGtmServerEnabled

A server is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Recommended Action

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmVsAvail

A virtual server is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmVsNotAvail

A virtual server is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the virtual server, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmVsDisabled

A virtual server is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the virtual server.

bigipGtmVsEnabled

A virtual server is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmDcAvail

A data center is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmDcNotAvail

A data center is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the data center, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmDcDisabled

A data center is disabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the data center.

bigipGtmDcEnabled

A data center is enabled in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmAppObjAvail

An application object is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

bigipGtmAppObjNotAvail

An application object is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the application object, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmAppAvail

An application is becoming available in the Global Traffic Manager module.

For your information only. No action required.

bigipGtmAppNotAvail

An application is becoming unavailable in the Global Traffic Manager module.

Check the status of the application, as well as the relevant detailed log message.

bigipGtmJoinedGroup

The Global Traffic Manager module joined a sync group.

bigipGtmLeftGroup

For your information only. No action required.

The Global Traffic Manager module left a sync group.

Table A.10 Global Traffic Manager traps and recommended actions

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

A-9


Appendix A

Other traps Other notifications that you might receive on an SNMP manager system are listed and described in Table A.11.

Trap Name

Description

Recommended Action

bigipCompLimitExceeded

The compression license limit is exceeded.

Purchase additional compression licensing from F5 Networks.

bigipSslLimitExceeded

The SSL license limit is exceeded, either for transactions per second (TPS) or for megabits per second (MPS).

Purchase additional SSL licensing from F5 Networks.

bigipExternalLinkChange

The status of an external interface link has changed to either DOWN or UP. This occurs when network cables are added or removed, and the network is reconfigured.

Determine whether the link should be down or up, and then take the appropriate action.

Table A.11 Other traps and recommended actions

A - 10


Glossary


Glossary

active bonus An active bonus is an amount that the BIG-IP system automatically adds to the overall score of the active device. An active bonus ensures that the active device remains active when the device’s score would otherwise cause failover because the score temporarily fell below the score of the standby device. See also HA group. active device In a redundant system configuration, an active device is a BIG-IP device on which at least one traffic group is in an active state. advanced routing module This is an industry-standard routing protocol, designed to automatically update a routing table. The three advanced routing modules are BGP, RIP, and OSPF. See also BGP (Border Gateway Protocol), RIP (Routing Information Protocol), OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). archive An archive is a backup copy of the BIG-IP system configuration data. This archive is in the form of a user configuration set, or UCS. See also UCS (user configuration set). ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ARP is an industry-standard protocol that determines a host’s Media Access Control (MAC) address based on its IP address. ARP cache The ARP (address resolution protocol) cache is the mechanism that a device on a network uses to determine the MAC address of another device, when only the IP address of that other device is known. authentication Authentication is the process of verifying a user’s identity when the user is attempting to log on to a system. authentication iRule An authentication iRule is a system-supplied or user-created iRule that is necessary for implementing a PAM authentication module on the BIG-IP system. See also iRule, PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module). authentication module An authentication module is a PAM module that you create to perform authentication or authorization of client traffic. See also PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module).

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Glossary - 1


Glossary

authentication profile An authentication profile is a configuration tool that you use to implement a PAM authentication module. Types of authentication modules that you can implement with an authentication profile are: LDAP, RADIUS, TACACS+, SSL Client Certificate LDAP, and OCSP. See also PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module). authorization Authorization is the process of identifying the level of access that a logged-on user has been granted to system resources. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) A dynamic routing protocol for external networks. See also advanced routing module. bigtop The bigtop utility is a statistical monitoring utility that ships on the BIG-IP system. This utility provides real-time statistical information. BIND (Berkeley Internet Name Domain) BIND is the most common implementation of the Domain Name System (DNS). BIND provides a system for matching domain names to IP addresses. For more information, refer to http://www.isc.org/products/BIND. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) See BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). BPDU (bridge protocol data unit) A BPDU is a special packet that a spanning tree protocol sends between Layer 2 devices to determine redundant paths, and provide loop resolution. See also STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol), MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol). bridge A bridge is a Layer 2 networking device that defines a collision domain. bursting Bursting is an aspect of rate shaping and occurs when the rate of traffic flow exceeds the base rate defined. certificate A certificate is an online credential signed by a trusted certificate authority and used for SSL network traffic as a method of authentication.

Glossary - 2


Glossary

certificate authority (CA) A certificate authority is an external, trusted organization that issues a signed digital certificate to a requesting computer system for use as a credential to obtain authentication for SSL network traffic. certificate revocation list (CRL) See CRL (certificate revocation list). Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point (CRLDP) See CRLDP (Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point). certificate verification Certificate verification is the part of an SSL handshake that verifies that a client’s SSL credentials have been signed by a trusted certificate authority. chain A chain is a series of filtering criteria used to restrict access to an IP address. The order of the criteria in the chain determines how the filter is applied, from the general criteria first, to the more detailed criteria at the end of the chain. chunking See HTTP chunking. cipher A cipher is an encryption/decryption algorithm that computer systems use when transmitting data using the SSL protocol. client-side SSL profile A client-side SSL profile is an SSL profile that controls the behavior of SSL traffic going from a client system to the BIG-IP system. clone pool This feature causes a pool to replicate all traffic coming into it and send that traffic to a duplicate pool. CMP (clustered multi-processing) CMP is an internal performance-enhancement feature available on certain multi-processor BIG-IP systems. With CMP, the BIG-IP system creates multiple instances of the TMM service to process application traffic simultaneously.

BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Glossary - 3


Glossary

configuration object A configuration object is a user-created object that the BIG-IP system uses to implement a PAM authentication module. There is one type of configuration object for each type of authentication module that you create. See also PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module). configuration synchronization Configuration synchronization is the task of duplicating a BIG-IP systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s configuration data onto a peer device in a redundant system. Configuration utility The Configuration utility is the browser-based application that you use to configure the BIG-IP system. connection mirroring Connection mirroring is a feature that causes all connections coming through the active device of a redundant system to be replicated on the standby device. This prevents any interruption in service when failover occurs. connection persistence Connection persistence is an optimization technique whereby a network connection is intentionally kept open for the purpose of reducing handshaking. connection pooling Connection pooling is an optimization feature that pools server-side connections for re-use by other client requests. Connection pooling reduces the number of new connections that must be opened for server-side client requests. content switching Content switching is the ability to select a pool based on data contained within a packet. cookie persistence Cookie persistence is a mode of persistence where the BIG-IP system stores persistent connection information in a cookie. CRL (certificate revocation list) A certificate revocation list is an industry-standard technology. An authenticating system checks a CRL to see if the SSL certificate that the requesting system presents for authentication has been revoked.

Glossary - 4


Glossary

CRLDP (Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point) CRLDP is an industry-standard protocol designed to manage SSL certificate revocation on a network of systems. CRLDP authentication module A CRLDP authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on an BIG-IP system to authenticate client traffic using the CRLDP protocol. The purpose of a CRLDP authentication module is to manage the revocation of SSL certificates on a network. custom profile A custom profile is a profile that you create. A custom profile can inherit its default settings from a parent profile that you specify. See also parent profile, profile. data group A data group is a group of related elements, such as a set of IP addresses for AOL clients. When you specify a data group along with the matchclass command or the contains operator, you eliminate the need to list multiple values as arguments in an iRule expression. default profile A default profile is a profile that the BIG-IP system supplies with default setting values. You can use a default profile as is, or you can modify it. You can also specify it as a parent profile when you create a custom profile. You cannot create or delete a default profile. See also profile, custom profile. default route A default route is the route that the system uses when no other route specified in the routing table matches the destination address or network of the packet to be routed. default route domain A default route domain is a route domain that the system administrator designates as the default route domain within an administrative partition. When creating IP addresses that are associated with a default route domain, users do not need to include the %ID route domain notation in those addresses. See also route domain 0. default VLAN The BIG-IP system is configured with two default VLANs, one for each interface. One default VLAN is named internal and one is named external. See also VLAN (virtual local area network).

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 5


Glossary

default wildcard virtual server A default wildcard virtual server has an IP address and port number of 0.0.0.0:0. or *:* or "any":"any". This virtual server accepts all traffic that does not match any other virtual server defined in the configuration. destination address affinity persistence Also known as sticky persistence, destination address affinity persistence supports TCP and UDP protocols, and directs session requests to the same server based solely on the destination IP address of a packet. device certificate A device certificate is an SSL certificate that a BIG-IP system presents to another device on the network, for authentication purposes. A device certificate can be either a self-signed certificate or a CA-signed certificate. domain name A domain name is a unique name that is associated with one or more IP addresses. Domain names are used in URLs to identify particular Web pages. For example, in the URL http://www.siterequest.com/index.html, the domain name is siterequest.com. Dynamic Ratio load balancing method Dynamic Ratio mode is like Ratio mode (see Ratio method), except that ratio weights are based on continuous monitoring of the servers and are therefore continually changing. Dynamic Ratio load balancing can be implemented on RealNetworks速 RealServer platforms, on Microsoft速 Windows速 platforms equipped with Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI), or on a server equipped with either the UC Davis SNMP agent or Windows 2000 Server SNMP agent. dynamic route A dynamic route is a route that an advanced routing protocol such as RIP adds dynamically to a routing table. See also static route. dynamic routing Dynamic routing is the automatic updating of a routing table that advanced routing modules can perform. See also advanced routing module. EAV (Extended Application Verification) EAV is a health check that verifies an application on a node by running that application remotely. EAV health check is only one of the three types of health checks available on an BIG-IP system. See also health check, health monitor, external monitor.

Glossary - 6


Glossary

ECV (Extended Content Verification) ECV is a health check that allows you to determine if a node is up or down based on whether the node returns specific content. ECV health check is only one of the three types of health checks available on an BIG-IP system. See also health check. external authentication External authentication refers to the process of using a remote server to store data for the purpose of authenticating users or applications attempting to access the BIG-IP system. external monitor An external monitor is a user-supplied health monitor. See also health check, health monitor. external VLAN The external VLAN is a default VLAN on the BIG-IP system. In a basic configuration, this VLAN has the administration ports locked down. In a normal configuration, this is typically a VLAN on which external clients request connections to internal servers. failback Failback is the process whereby an active device relinquishes processing to a previously-failed device that is now available. failover Failover is the process whereby a standby device in a redundant system takes over when a software failure or a hardware failure is detected on the active device. failover cable The failover cable directly connects the two units together in a redundant system. Fastest method The Fastest load balancing method is a load balancing method that passes a new connection based on the fastest response of all currently active nodes. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) FDDI is a multi-mode protocol used for transmitting data on optical-fiber cables at speeds up to 100 Mbps. floating self IP address A floating self IP address is an additional self IP address for a VLAN that serves as a shared address by both units of a BIG-IP redundant system.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 7


Glossary

forwarding virtual server A forwarding virtual server is a virtual server that has no pool members to load balance. The virtual server simply forwards the packet directly to the destination IP address specified in the client request. See also virtual server. gateway pool A gateway pool is a pool of routers that you can create to forward traffic. After creating a gateway pool, you can specify the pool as a gateway, within a TMM routing table entry. HA group An HA group is a group of objects that the BIG-IP system uses to calculate a health score for each device in a redundant system configuration. The system compares the scores of the two units to determine which device should be the active device. See also active bonus. hard-wired failover Hard-wired failover is the process whereby a device of a redundant system configuration uses a serial connection to its peer to initiate failover. See also network failover. hash persistence Hash persistence allows you to create a persistence hash based on an existing iRule. health check A health check is an BIG-IP system feature that determines whether a node is up or down. Health checks are implemented through health monitors. See also health monitor, ECV (Extended Content Verification), EAV (Extended Application Verification), external monitor. health monitor A health monitor checks a node to see if it is up and functioning for a given service. If the node fails the check, it is marked down. Different monitors exist for checking different services. See also health check, EAV (Extended Application Verification), ECV (Extended Content Verification), and external monitor. host virtual server A host virtual server is a virtual server that represents a specific site, such as an Internet web site or an FTP site, and it load balances traffic targeted to content servers that are members of a pool.

Glossary - 8


Glossary

HTTP chunking HTTP chunking refers to the HTTP/ 1.1 feature known as chunked encoding, which allows HTTP messages to be broken up into several parts. Chunking is most often used by servers when sending responses. HTTP redirect An HTTP redirect sends an HTTP 302 Object Found message to clients. You can configure a pool with an HTTP redirect to send clients to another node or virtual server if the members of the pool are marked down. HTTP transformation When the BIG-IP system performs an HTTP transformation, the system manipulates the Connection header of a server-side HTTP request, to ensure that the connection stays open. See also connection persistence. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ICMP is an Internet communications protocol used to determine information about routes to destination addresses. i-mode i-mode速 is a service created by NTT DoCoMo, Inc., that allows mobile phone users access to the Internet. intelligent SNAT An intelligent SNAT is the mapping of one or more original client IP addresses to a translation address from within an iRule. Before writing an iRule to create an intelligent SNAT, you must create a SNAT pool. See also SNAT pool. interface A physical port on a BIG-IP system is called an interface. internal VLAN The internal VLAN is a default VLAN on the BIG-IP system. In a basic configuration, this VLAN has the administration ports open. In a normal configuration, this is a network interface that handles connections from internal servers. IPsec IPsec (IP Security) is a communications protocol that provides security for the network layer of the Internet without imposing requirements on applications running above it.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 9


Glossary

iRule An iRule is a user-written script that controls the behavior of a connection passing through the BIG-IP system. iRules速 are an F5 Networks速 feature and are frequently used to direct certain connections to a non-default load balancing pool. However, iRules can perform other tasks, such as implementing secure network address translation and enabling session persistence. IS-IS (intermediate system to intermediate system) IS-IS is a dynamic routing protocol used by routers to determine the best way to forward datagrams through a packet-switched network. See also advanced routing module. JAR file A JAR file is a file in JavaTM Archive (JAR) file format that enables you to bundle multiple files into a single archive file. Typically, a JAR file contains the class files and auxiliary resources associated with applets and applications. JDBC JDBC is a JavaTM technology. It is an application programming interface that provides database management system (DBMS) connectivity across a wide range of SQL databases, as well as access to other tabular data sources, such as spreadsheets or flat files. Kilobytes/Second mode The Kilobytes/Second mode is a dynamic load balancing mode that distributes connections based on which available server currently processes the fewest kilobytes per second. LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol) LACP is an industry-standard protocol that aggregates links in a trunk, to increase bandwidth and provide for link failover. last hop A last hop is the final hop a connection takes to get to the BIG-IP system. You can allow the BIG-IP system to determine the last hop automatically to send packets back to the device from which they originated. You can also specify the last hop manually by making it a member of a last hop pool. Layer 1 through Layer 7 Layers 1 through 7 refer to the seven layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model. Thus, Layer 2 represents the data-link layer, Layer 3 represents the IP layer, and Layer 4 represents the transport layer (TCP and UDP). Layer 7 represents the application layer, handling traffic such as HTTP and SSL.

Glossary - 10


Glossary

Layer 2 forwarding table A Layer 2 forwarding table correlates MAC addresses of network devices to the BIG-IP system interfaces through which those devices are accessible. On a BIG-IP system, each VLAN has its own Layer 2 forwarding table. LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) LDAP is an Internet protocol that email programs use to look up contact information from a server. LDAP authentication module An LDAP authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on an BIG-IP system to authenticate client traffic using a remote LDAP server. LDAP client certificate SSL authentication module An LDAP client certificate SSL authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on an BIG-IP system to authorize client traffic using SSL client credentials and a remote LDAP server. Least Connections method The Least Connections method is a load balancing method that bases connection distribution on which server currently manages the fewest open connections. link aggregation Link aggregation is the process of combining multiple links in order to function as though it were a single link with higher bandwidth. Link aggregation occurs when you create a trunk. See also trunk and LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol). Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) See LACP (Link Aggregation Control Protocol). load balancing method A load balancing method is a particular algorithm that the BIG-IP system uses for determining how to distribute connections across a load balancing pool. load balancing pool See pool. local traffic management Local traffic management is the process of managing network traffic that comes into or goes out of a local area network (LAN), including an intranet.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 11


Glossary

loopback adapter A loopback adapter is a software interface that is not associated with an actual network card. The nPath routing configuration requires you to configure loopback adapters on servers. MAC (Media Access Control) MAC is a protocol that defines the way workstations gain access to transmission media, and is most widely used in reference to LANs. For IEEE LANs, the MAC layer is the lower sublayer of the data link layer protocol. MAC address A MAC address is used to represent hardware devices on an Ethernet network. management interface The management interface is a special port on the BIG-IP system, used for managing administrative traffic. Named MGMT, the management interface does not forward user application traffic, such as traffic slated for load balancing. See also TMM switch interface. management route A management route is a route that forwards traffic through the special management (MGMT) interface. MCPD service The Master Control Program Daemon (MCPD) service manages the configuration data on a BIG-IP system. MindTerm SSH MindTerm SSH is the third-party application on 3-DNS Controllers that uses SSH for secure remote communications. SSH encrypts all network traffic (including passwords) to effectively eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other network-level attacks. SSH also provides secure tunneling capabilities and a variety of authentication methods. minimum active members The minimum active members is the number of members that must be active in a priority group in order for the BIG-IP system to send its requests to that group. If the number of active members falls below this number, requests are sent to the next highest priority group (the priority group with the next lowest priority number).

Glossary - 12


Glossary

monitor The BIG-IP system uses monitors to determine whether nodes are up or down. There are several different types of monitors and they use various methods to determine the status of a server or service. See also node, pool, pool member. monitor association A monitor association is an association that a user makes between a health or performance monitor and a pool, pool member, or node. monitor instance You create a monitor instance when a health monitor is associated with a pool member or node. It is the monitor instance that actually performs the health check, not the monitor. monitor template A monitor template is an internal mechanism that the BIG-IP system uses to provide default values for a custom monitor when no pre-configured monitor exists. MSRDP persistence MSRDP persistence tracks sessions between clients and servers running the Microsoft速 Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) service. MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) Defined by IEEE, MSTP is an enhanced spanning tree protocol. Unlike STP and RSTP, MSTP is VLAN-aware and therefore incorporates the concept of MSTP regions. See also STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol). MSTP region An MSTP region is a group of Layer 2 devices that have identical values for certain configuration settings. When devices constitute a region, the spanning tree algorithm takes VLANs into account when blocking and unblocking redundant paths. name resolution Name resolution is the process by which a name server matches a domain name request to an IP address, and sends the information to the client requesting the resolution. NAT (Network Address Translation) A NAT is an alias IP address that identifies a specific node managed by the BIG-IP system to the external network.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 13


Glossary

network failover Network failover is the process whereby a device of a redundant system configuration uses the network to initiate failover. See also hard-wired failover. network virtual server A network virtual server is a virtual server whose IP address has no bits set in the host portion of the IP address (that is, the host portion of its IP address is 0). There are two kinds of network virtual servers: those that direct client traffic based on a range of destination IP addresses, and those that direct client traffic based on specific destination IP addresses that the BIG-IP system does not recognize. node A node is a logical object on the BIG-IP system that identifies the IP address of a physical resource on the network. Nodes are directly associated with pool members and monitors. See also pool member and monitor. node address A node address is the IP address associated with one or more nodes. This IP address can be the real IP address of a network server, or it can be an alias IP address on a network server. See also pool member, monitor. node alias A node alias is a node address that the BIG-IP system uses to verify the status of multiple nodes. When the BIG-IP system uses a node alias to check node status, it pings the node alias. If the BIG-IP system receives a response to the ping, it marks all nodes associated with the node alias as up. If the BIG-IP system does not receive a response to the ping, it marks all nodes associated with the node alias as down. node port A node port is the port number or service name that is hosted by a specific node. node status Node status indicates whether a node is up and available to receive connections, or down and unavailable. The BIG-IP system uses the node ping and health check features to determine node status. Observed method The Observed load balancing method bases connection distribution on a combination of two factors: the server that currently hosts the fewest connections and also has the fastest response time.

Glossary - 14


Glossary

OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) OCSP is a protocol that authenticating systems can use to check on the revocation status of digitally-signed SSL certificates. The use of OCSP is an alternative to the use of a certificate revocation list (CRL). See also CRL (certificate revocation list). OCSP authentication module An OCSP authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on an BIG-IP system to authenticate client traffic using a remote OCSP responder. The purpose of an OCSP authentication module is to check on the revocation status of a client SSL certificate. OCSP responder An OCSP responder is an external server used for communicating SSL certificate revocation status to an authentication server such as the BIG-IP system. OCSP responder object A responder object is a software application on the BIG-IP system that communicates with an OCSP responder, for the purpose of checking revocation status of a client or server SSL certificate. OneConnectTM The F5 Networks速 OneConnectTM feature optimizes the use of network connections by keeping server-side connections open and pooling them for re-use. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) See OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). optimization profile An optimization profile is a custom profile that the BIG-IP system creates for you automatically during installation. Optimization profiles have default settings that are ideal for satisfying specific TCP and HTTP traffic-management requirements such as caching and data compression. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) OSPF is a dynamic routing protocol for internal networks, based on a link-state algorithm. OSPF is generally considered to be more suitable than RIP for large-scale, complex internal networks. See also advanced routing module. packet rate The packet rate is the number of data packets per second processed by a server.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 15


Glossary

PAM (Pluggable Authentication Module) PAM is a software module that a server application uses to authenticate client traffic. The modular design of PAM allows an organization to add, replace, or remove that authentication mechanism from a server application with minimal impact to that application. An example of PAM is an application that uses a remote Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server to authenticate client traffic. See also LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol). parent profile A parent profile is a profile that can propagate its values to another profile. A parent profile can be either a default profile or a custom profile. See also profile. partition A partition is a logical container that you create, containing a defined set of BIG-IP system objects. You use partitions to control user access to the BIG-IP system. See also user role. partition default route domain See default route domain. performance monitor A performance monitor gathers statistics and checks the state of a target device. persistence See connection persistence or session persistence. persistence profile A persistence profile is a configuration tool for implementing a specific type of session persistence. An example of a persistence profile type is a cookie persistence profile. pipelining Pipelining is a feature of HTTP/1.1 that allows clients to make requests even when prior requests have not yet received a response from the server. pool A pool is composed of a group of network devices (called members). The BIG-IP system load balances requests to the nodes within a pool based on the load balancing method and persistence method you choose when you create the pool or edit its properties.

Glossary - 16


Glossary

pool member A pool member is a logical object that represents a node IP address and a service. A pool member is a member of a load balancing pool. See also node, pool. port A port can be represented by a number that is associated with a specific service supported by a host. Refer to the Services and Port Index for a list of port numbers and corresponding services. port lockdown Port lockdown is a security feature that allows you to specify particular UDP and TCP protocols and services from which the self IP address can accept traffic. port mirroring Port mirroring is a feature that allows you to copy traffic from any port or set of ports to a single, separate port where a sniffing device is attached. port-specific wildcard virtual server A port-specific wildcard virtual server is a wildcard virtual server that uses a port number other than 0. See wildcard virtual server. pre-configured monitor A pre-configured monitor is a system-supplied health or performance monitor. You can use a pre-configured monitor as is, but you cannot modify or delete one. See also monitor. Predictive method The Predictive method is a load balancing method similar to the Observed method. However, with the Predictive method, the BIG-IP system analyzes the trend of the ranking over time, determining whether a nodeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance is currently improving or declining. The nodes with better performance rankings that are currently improving, rather than declining, receive a higher proportion of the connections. profile A profile is a configuration tool containing settings for defining the behavior of network traffic. The BIG-IP system contains profiles for managing Fast L4, HTTP, FTP, UDP, and SSL traffic, as well as for implementing session persistence, server-side connection pooling, and remote application authentication. profile setting A profile setting is a configuration attribute within a profile that has a value associated with it. You can configure a profile setting to customize the way that the BIG-IP system manages a type of traffic. BIG-IPÂŽ TMOSÂŽ: Concepts

Glossary - 17


Glossary

profile type A profile type is a category of profile that you use for a specific purpose. An example of a profile type is an HTTP profile, which you configure to manage HTTP network traffic. protocol profile A protocol profile is a profile that you create for controlling the behavior of FastL4, TCP, UDP, OneConnect, and RTSP traffic. Quality of Service (QoS) level The Quality of Service (QoS) level is a means by which network equipment can identify and treat traffic differently based on an identifier. Essentially, the QoS level specified in a packet enforces a throughput policy for that packet. RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service) RADIUS is a service that performs remote user authentication and accounting. Its primary use is for Internet Service Providers, though it can also be used on any network that needs a centralized authentication and/or accounting service for its workstations. RADIUS authentication module A RADIUS authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on a BIG-IP system to authenticate client traffic using a remote RADIUS server. RAM cache A RAM cache is a cache of HTTP objects stored in the BIG-IP systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s RAM that subsequent connections reuse to reduce the amount of load on the back-end servers. rate class You create a rate filter from the Configuration utility or command line utility. When you assign a rate class to a rate filter, a rate class determines the volume of traffic allowed through a rate filter. See also rate shaping. rate shaping Rate shaping is a type of extended IP filter. Rate shaping uses the same IP filter method but applies a rate class, which determines the volume of network traffic allowed. See also rate class. ratio A ratio is a parameter that assigns a weight to a virtual server for load balancing purposes.

Glossary - 18


Glossary

Ratio method The Ratio load balancing method distributes connections across an array of virtual servers in proportion to the ratio weights assigned to each individual virtual server. receive string A receive string is the text string that the BIG-IP system looks for in the web page returned by a web server during an extended content verification (ECV) health check. redundant system Redundant system refers to a group of devices that are configured for failover. If an active device fails, another device processes connection requests. reference link A reference link is the lowest-numbered interface in a trunk and is used for link aggregation. remote administrative IP address A remote administrative IP address is an IP address from which a BIG-IP system allows shell connections, such as Telnet or SSH. responder object See OCSP responder object. RFC 1918 addresses An RFC 1918 address is an address that is within the range of private class IP addresses described in the IETF RFC 1918. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) RIP is a dynamic routing protocol for internal networks, based on a distance-vector algorithm (number of hops). See also advanced routing module. Round Robin mode Round Robin mode is a static load balancing mode that bases connection distribution on a set server order. Round Robin mode sends a connection request to the next available server in the order. route domain A route domain is a BIG-IP system object that provides the capability to segment network traffic and define separate routing paths for different network objects and applications. Because route domains segment the network traffic, they also provide the capability to have separate IP networks on the same device, where each route domain uses the same IPv4 BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 19


Glossary

address space. See also default route domain and route domain 0. route domain 0 Route domain 0 is a special route domain that the BIG-IP system creates during installation. Route domain 0 resides in partition Common and functions as the default route domain when no other route domains exist on the system. See also default route domain and route domain. router A router is a Layer 3 networking device. If no VLANs are defined on the network, a router defines a broadcast domain. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) See RIP (Routing Information Protocol). RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) Defined by IEEE, RSTP is an enhanced version of STP (Spanning Tree Protocol). RSTP provides faster spanning tree performance compared to STP. See also STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol). Secure Network Address Translation (SNAT) See SNAT (Secure Network Address Translation). See also intelligent SNAT. self IP address Self IP addresses are the IP addresses owned by the BIG-IP system that you use to access devices in VLANs. You assign self IP addresses to VLANs. send string A send string is the request that the BIG-IP system sends to the web server during an extended content verification (ECV) health check. server-side SSL profile A server-side SSL profile is an SSL profile that controls SSL traffic going between an BIG-IP system and a destination server system. service Service refers to services such as TCP, UDP, HTTP, and FTP. services profile A services profile is a configuration tool on the BIG-IP system for managing either HTTP or FTP network traffic.

Glossary - 20


Glossary

session persistence Session persistence is a series of related connections received from the same client, having the same session ID. When persistence is enabled, an BIG-IP system sends all connections having the same session ID to the same node, instead of load balancing the connections. Session persistence is not to be confused with connection persistence. Setup utility The Setup utility guides you through the initial system configuration process. You can run the Setup utility from the Configuration utility start page. simple persistence See source address affinity persistence. single configuration file (SCF) An SCF is a file that you create using the tmsh. The purpose of this file is to store an entire BIG-IP system configuration that you can then easily replicate on another BIG-IP system. SIP persistence SIP persistence is a type of persistence used for servers that receive Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) messages sent through UDP. SIP is a protocol that enables real-time messaging, voice, data, and video. SNAT (Secure Network Address Translation) A SNAT is a feature you can configure on the BIG-IP system. A SNAT defines a routable alias IP address that one or more nodes can use as a source IP address when making connections to hosts on the network. See also standard SNAT and intelligent SNAT. SNAT pool A SNAT pool is a pool of translation addresses that you can map to one or more original IP addresses. Translation addresses in a SNAT pool are not self-IP addresses. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) SNMP is the Internet standard protocol, defined in STD 15, RFC 1157, developed to manage nodes on an IP network. source address affinity persistence Also known as simple persistence, source address affinity persistence supports TCP and UDP protocols, and directs session requests to the same server based solely on the source IP address of a packet.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 21


Glossary

source processing Source processing means that the interface rewrites the source of an incoming packet. spanning tree A spanning tree is a logical tree structure of Layer 2 devices on a network, created by a spanning tree protocol algorithm and used for resolving network loops. spanning tree instance A spanning tree instance is a specific, named spanning tree that a spanning tree protocol creates. See also spanning tree protocols. spanning tree protocols Spanning tree protocols are the IEEE-specified set of protocols known as Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP), and Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP). The BIG-IP system includes support for all of these protocols. See also STP (Spanning Tree Protocol), RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol), and MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol). SSH SSH is a protocol for secure remote login and other secure network services over a non-secure network. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) SSL is a network communications protocol that uses public-key technology as a way to transmit data in a secure manner. SSL persistence SSL persistence is a type of persistence that tracks non-terminated SSL sessions, using the SSL session ID. SSL profile An SSL profile is a configuration tool that you use to terminate and initiate SSL connections from clients and servers. standard SNAT A standard SNAT is a SNAT that you implement by using the SNAT screens of the Configuration utility. See also SNAT (Secure Network Address Translation), intelligent SNAT. standby device A standby device in a redundant system configuration is a BIG-IP device on which all traffic groups are in a standby state.

Glossary - 22


Glossary

state mirroring State mirroring is a feature on the BIG-IP system that preserves connection and persistence information in a redundant system. static route A static route is a route that you must explicitly configure on a Layer 3 device in its routing table. See also dynamic route. static self IP address A static self IP address is a self IP address that is not shared between two units of a redundant system. sticky persistence See destination address affinity persistence. STP (Spanning Tree Protocol) Defined by IEEE, STP is a protocol that provides loop resolution in configurations where one or more external switches are connected in parallel with the BIG-IP system. See also RSTP (Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol) and MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol). subdomain A subdomain is a sub-section of a higher level domain. For example, .com is a high level domain, and F5.com is a subdomain within the .com domain. TACACS (Terminal Access Controller Access Control System) TACACS is an older authentication protocol common to UNIX systems. TACACS allows a remote access server to forward a user’s logon password to an authentication server. TACACS+ TACACS+ is an authentication mechanism designed as a replacement for the older TACACS protocol. There is little similarity between the two protocols, however, and they are therefore not compatible. TACACS+ authentication module A TACACS+ authentication module is a user-configured module that you implement on an BIG-IP system to authenticate client traffic using a remote TACACS+ server. tagged interface A tagged interface is an interface that you assign to a VLAN in a way that causes the system to add a VLAN tag into the header of any frame passing through that interface. Tagged interfaces are used when you want to assign a single interface to multiple VLANs. See also VLAN (virtual local area network). BIG-IP® TMOS®: Concepts

Glossary - 23


Glossary

Tcl Tcl (Tools Command Language) is an industry-standard scripting language. On the BIG-IP system, users use Tcl to write iRules速. threshold A threshold is a value that specifies the number of object members in an HA group that must be available to prevent failover. See also HA group. TMM (Traffic Management Microkernel) service The TMM service is the process running on the BIG-IP system that performs most traffic management for the product. TMM switch interface A TMM switch interface is an interface that the BIG-IP system uses to forward user application traffic such as HTTP or SSL traffic. Thus, when load balancing application traffic, the BIG-IP system uses TMM switch interfaces. See also management interface. TMM switch route A Traffic Management Microkernel (TMM) switch route is a route that forwards traffic through the TMM switch interfaces and not the management interface. TMOS速 (Traffic Management Operating System速) The Traffic Management Operating System is the internal mechanism within the BIG-IP system that is responsible for all traffic-management functions. traffic group A traffic group is a collection of related configuration objects that run on a BIG-IP device. When a BIG-IP device becomes unavailable, a traffic group can float to another device in a device group to ensure that the traffic for that application continues to be processed. transparent node A transparent node appears as a router to other network devices, including the BIG-IP system. trunk A trunk is a logical group of BIG-IP system interfaces. When you create a trunk, the BIG-IP system can aggregate the corresponding links as a way to increase bandwidth.

Glossary - 24


Glossary

trusted CA file A trusted CA file is a file containing a list of certificate authorities that an authenticating system can trust when processing client requests for authentication. A trusted CA file resides on the authenticating system and is used for authenticating SSL network traffic. trusted device certificate The BIG-IP system uses a trusted device certificate or a certificate chain to authenticate another system. Type of Service (ToS) level The Type of Service (ToS) level is another means, in addition to the Quality of Service (QoS) level, by which network equipment can identify and treat traffic differently based on an identifier. Universal Inspection Engine (UIE) The Universal Inspection Engine (UIE) is a feature that offers universal persistence and universal content switching, to enhance your load balancing capabilities. The UIE contains a set of rule variables and functions for building expressions that you can specify in pool definitions and rules. universal persistence Universal persistence gives you the ability to persist on any string found within a packet. Also, you can directly select the pool member to which you want to persist. user configuration set (UCS) A user configuration set is a backup file that you create for the BIG-IP system configuration data. When you create a UCS, the BIG-IP system assigns a .ucs extension to the file name. See also archive. user role A user role is a type and level of access that you assign to a BIG-IP system user account. By assigning user roles, you can control the extent to which BIG-IP system administrators can view or modify the BIG-IP system configuration. See also partition. virtual address A virtual address is an IP address associated with one or more virtual servers managed by the BIG-IP system. virtual port A virtual port is the port number or service name associated with one or more virtual servers managed by the BIG-IP system. A virtual port number should be the same port number to which client programs expect to connect.

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 25


Glossary

virtual server A virtual server is a traffic-management object on the BIG-IP system that is represented by an IP address and a service. Clients on a network can send application traffic to a virtual server, which then directs the traffic according to your configuration instructions. The primary use of a virtual server is to balance traffic load across a pool of servers on an internal network. VLAN (virtual local area network) A VLAN is a logical grouping of interfaces connected to network devices. You can use a VLAN to logically group devices that are on different network segments. Devices within a VLAN use Layer 2 networking to communicate and define a broadcast domain. VLAN group A VLAN group is a logical container that includes two or more distinct VLANs. VLAN groups are intended for load balancing traffic in a Layer 2 network, when you want to minimize the reconfiguration of hosts on that network. See also VLAN (virtual local area network). VLAN name A VLAN name is the symbolic name used to identify a VLAN. For example, you might configure a VLAN named marketing, or a VLAN named development. See also VLAN (virtual local area network). VLAN tag An IEEE standard, a VLAN tag is an identification number inserted into the header of a frame that indicates the VLAN to which the destination device belongs. VLAN tags are used when a single interface forwards traffic for multiple VLANs. WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) WAP is an application environment and set of communication protocols for wireless devices designed to enable manufacturer-, vendor-, and technology-independent access to the Internet and advanced telephony services. watchdog timer card A watchdog timer card is a hardware device that monitors the BIG-IP system for hardware failure. Weighted Least Connections method Weight Least Connections method is a load balancing method that bases connection distribution on which server currently manages the fewest number of active connections, while also factoring in server capacity. A server with more active connections can therefore receive the next connection if that server has greater capacity than a server with fewer connections but smaller capacity. See also Least Connections method. Glossary - 26


Glossary

wildcard virtual server A wildcard virtual server is a virtual server that uses an IP address of 0.0.0.0, * or "any". A wildcard virtual server accepts connection requests for destinations outside of the local network. Wildcard virtual servers are included only in Transparent Node Mode configurations. WKS (well-known services) Well-known services are protocols on ports 0 through 1023 that are widely used for certain types of data. Some examples of some well-known services (and their corresponding ports) are: HTTP (port 80), HTTPS (port 443), and FTP (port 20).

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

Glossary - 27


Glossary

Glossary - 28


Index


Index

.ucs files defined 9-1 downloading and uploading 9-3 /etc/init.d/syslog-ng script 14-13 /var/local/ucs directory 9-2 /var/log/ltm directory 14-6 /var/log/messages directory 14-6 /var/log/pktfilter directory 14-6

A access control on multiple devices 13-18 through user accounts 13-14 to SNMP data 11-2 access levels managing 11-3, 13-7 account names 13-12 accounts creating and storing 13-14 managing 13-7 actions at failover 8-2 for traps A-1 active bonus defined 8-6, 0-1 example of 8-6 active connection statistics 11-7, 11-8 active devices and HA scores 8-5 Active Directory authentication servers 13-15 active/standby status and HA scores 8-5 address space 16-1, 22-9 admin account and partitions 12-5 and user roles 13-5, 13-6 configuring and managing 13-8 described 13-2 administrative partitions and folders 12-8 See partitions. Administrator user role and non-partitioned objects 12-7 and partition Common 12-2 and passwords 13-8, 13-13 and system services 10-1 described 13-5, 13-8 for account modification 13-12 for system and other accounts 13-6 for user accounts 13-6, 13-12, 13-15 managing archives with 9-2 viewing accounts with 13-12, 13-19 alarm RMON group 11-6 Alert log level 14-8

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

alert system A-1 Alternate port role 20-15 Application Editor user role 13-5 application-specific MIB files 11-1 See also enterprise MIB files. archive storage location 9-2 archives purpose of 9-1 saving and restoring 9-2, 9-3 uploading and downloading 9-3 ARP forwarding 22-11 ARP logging events 14-7 assignments See object referencing. audit events defined 14-1 audit logging and /var/log/ltm directory 14-7 enabling and disabling 14-10 audit logs user access to 14-8 viewing and searching 14-10 auditing events and log levels 14-10 authentication 13-1 authentication server types 13-1 authentication-related traps A-4 authorization defined 13-1 remote 13-15 authorization properties 13-16 authorized_keys file 14-15 auto link type 20-13 automatic link selection 21-6

B Backup port role 20-15 bandwidth borrowing 19-5, 19-6, 19-7 increasing 15-10, 21-1 maximum 21-6 replenishing 19-4 saving 19-4 base packet rates 19-3, 19-6 Base Rate setting, configuring 19-3 base throughput rate 19-3 bigdb logging events 14-7 BIG-IP alert system 11-2 BIG-IP system information 11-2 BIND forwarder server list 4-3 Blocking port state 20-15 BPDUs and interfaces 20-13 defined 20-1

Index - 1


Index

maximum transmittal of 20-7 receiving 20-14 bridge priorities 20-11 bridge protocol data units See BPDUs. bridging loops preventing 20-1 burst reservoirs 19-4 Burst Size setting, configuring 19-3 bursting restrictions 19-4

C calculations 11-7 for HA scoring 8-5 Ceiling Rate setting, configuring 19-3 ceiling rates 19-4, 19-7 certificate chains 5-2 Certificate Manager user role 13-5 character restrictions for passwords 13-10 child rate classes 19-6 client access allowing 11-2 configuring 11-2 client traffic and rate classes 19-6 Common partition and default monitor 12-7 and partition access 12-5 contents of 12-2 communities and access levels 11-3 company-specific MIB files 11-1 configuration loading from SCF 3-2 saving to an SCF 3-2 configuration data backing up 9-2 defined 9-1 loading 2-2 propagating to multiple devices 3-1 saving 2-1 configuration data loads logging of 14-10 configuration settings, global 20-5 configuration states 2-1 configuration task summary 11-2 Configuration utility about online help 1-4 and configuration storage 2-1 and Welcome screen 1-4 connection queueing 19-7 connection statistics 11-7, 11-9 console access 13-12 control packets 21-4, 21-5

Index - 2

CPU use statistics 11-7, 11-15 criteria for packet filtering 18-5 Critical log level 14-8 current partition defined 12-2 selecting 12-2

D daemons See services. data backing up 9-2 data access control, SNMP 11-2 data backup 9-1 data group files 6-1 data groups 4-6 data loads logging 14-10 data object values, SNMP 11-1 data objects in MIB files 11-4 modifying 11-3 See also access levels. data restore 9-1 data validity 20-6 data, MIB files 11-6 Debug log level 14-9 default access levels modifying 11-3 default configuration 3-3 restoring 3-2 default monitor 12-7 default partition access 13-19 default routes and ARP requests 8-3 for management ports 7-1 default user authorization deleting 13-19 default user roles and Administrator role 13-6 for local accounts 13-12 for remote accounts 13-16 defined 8-5 Designated port role 20-15 destination IP addresses and packet filtering 18-7 and persistence 4-6 device group inheritance 7-3 device groups and root folder 12-8 and traffic groups 17-1 device scores calculating 8-5 Direction setting, configuring 19-6


Index

Disabled mode, for spanning tree 20-5 Disabled port role 20-15 DNS (Domain Name System) 4-3 DNS lookup server list 4-3 DNS proxy services 4-3 duplex modes 21-3 duration of passwords 13-10 dynamic l2 forwarding entries 22-8

E edge ports 20-13, 20-14 email, sending 14-2 Emergency log level 14-8 encrypted remote logging prerequisites and tasks 14-11 encrypted tunnels, opening and closing 14-13 enterprise MIB files and Configuration utility 11-1 content of 11-5 defined 11-1 downloading 11-2, 11-5 Error log level 14-8 error messages and object creation 12-7 event notifications, SNMP 11-2 event RMON group 11-6 events, redundant systems 8-1 expiration of passwords 13-10 external file management 6-1 external monitor files 6-1 external path cost 20-17

F F5-BIGIP-COMMON-MIB.txt file 11-5, A-1 F5-BIGIP-GLOBAL-MIB.txt file 11-5 F5-BIGIP-LOCAL-MIB.txt file 11-5 F5-BIGIP-SYSTEM-MIB.txt file 11-5, 11-6 factory settings restoring 3-2 failover initiating 8-1, 8-3 preventing 8-5 triggering 8-1 failover actions 8-2 fail-safe 8-1, 22-7 fail-safe timeout period 8-3 failure detections for switch board components 8-2 for VLANs 8-3 Fast L4 logging events 14-7 Fastest load balancing mode 4-5 file management 6-1

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

filter expressions defined 18-7 flapping and HA scores 8-6, 0-1 defined 8-6 flat file for configuration data 3-1 floating self IP addresses and traffic groups 16-4 defined 16-2 floods 20-1 flow control 15-4 folder inheritance 7-3 folders about 12-8 formatting conventions 1-3 Forward Delay option 20-6 Forwarding port state 20-15 frame control 15-4 frame order 21-1

G general traps A-1 global statistics data 11-6 graphs, SNMP 11-7 group-based accounts and privileges 13-14 Guest user role 13-5, 13-6, 13-13

H HA group defined 8-4 HA group weights specifying 8-5 HA scores adding to 8-6, 0-1 calculating 8-4, 8-5 HA threshold 8-5 hardware components 8-1 hardware-related traps A-2 heartbeat failures 8-2 Hello Time option 20-6 help, online 1-4 history RMON group 11-6 host IP addresses 7-1 host names as general property 7-1 in logs 14-2 hosts and VLANs 22-5 HTTP logging events 14-7 HTTP request logging profile 14-2 HTTP request statistics 11-7, 11-12

Index - 3


Index

I IDs for Spanning Tree instances 20-11 for transactions 14-2 for VLANs 22-6 IEEE specifications 20-1 information collection 11-2 Information log level 14-9 information polling 11-2 information validity 20-6 information, SNMP 11-2 inheritance 7-3 and partitions 12-7 instance IDs 20-11 instance members defined 20-8 deleting 20-12 instances and protocol types 20-2 creating and modifying 20-8 defined 20-8 viewing interfaces for 20-14 viewing, modifying, and deleting 20-12 interface access methods 22-5 interface cards 8-3 interface costs 20-16 interface mirroring 15-7 interface naming conventions 15-3 interface priorities 20-16 interface state 15-4 interface statistics 15-10 interfaces and frames 15-4 and instance settings 20-16 and multiple VLANs 22-5 and VLAN traffic 15-10 as edge ports 20-13 assigning 22-5 blocking 20-6 choosing for traffic 20-16 configuring for spanning tree 20-12 defined 15-1 enabling and disabling 20-13 enabling STP on 20-8 for trunks 21-1, 21-3 monitoring 11-6 viewing per instance 20-14 internal path cost 20-17 interruptions detecting 8-1 IP addresses as filtering criterion 18-4 IP logging events 14-7 IPv4 addressing format 7-1 iRule logging events 14-7

Index - 4

iRules and partitions 12-7

L L2 forwarding See Layer 2 forwarding. L2 forwarding entries 22-8 LACP control packets 21-2, 21-4 LACP protocol 21-2 LACP timeout values 21-5 last hops 4-4 Layer 1 logging events 14-7 Layer 2 forwarding 22-8 Layer 2 forwarding tables 4-5 Layer 2 logging events 14-7 Layer 2 protocols 20-1 Layer 4 logging events 14-7 LDAP authentication servers 13-1, 13-15 LDAP database 13-8 learning port state 20-16 legacy bridges and BPDUs 20-14 and MSTP 20-2 and STP 20-2 length of passwords 13-10 license-related traps A-3 link aggregation and path costs 20-17 defined 15-10, 21-1 Link Aggregation Control Protocol See LACP protocol. link aggregation policy 21-5 link selection policy 21-5 link types, for STP 20-13 Linux-related events logging 14-6 load sys config default command 3-2 load sys config file command 3-2 local application traffic 11-5 local traffic events defined 14-1 logging 14-6 local traffic management information 11-5 local traffic types and log levels 14-9 local user accounts and password policy 13-9 managing 13-1, 13-7 log contents 14-2 log information, sending 14-11 log levels defined 14-8 setting 14-8


Index

log messages viewing and filtering 14-3 logging of monitor events 14-7 logging event types 14-7 logging feature summarized 14-1 logging-related traps A-6 logs viewing and searching 14-10 long timeout value 21-5 loops 20-1

M MAC addresses as filtering criterion 18-3 assigning 16-2 for trunks 21-2 for VLANs 22-5 MAC masquerade addresses 17-1 maintenance mode 4-4 management information base (MIB) See also MIB. See MIB-II MIB. management interface defined 15-1 management port route 7-1 Manager user role 13-5 Maximum Age option 20-6 MCP logging events 14-7 media properties monitoring 21-5 media speed 21-3 member availability and score calculation 8-4 members, MSTP 20-12 memory use 4-5 memory use statistics 11-7, 11-8, 11-13 messages and VLANs 22-5 logging to remote machine 14-14 viewing and filtering 14-3 metrics collection 11-7 MGMT interface defined 15-1 MIB and device management 11-1 defined 11-1 See also MIB-II MIB. MIB file contents 11-5 MIB file locations 11-1 MIB file types 11-4

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

MIB files defined 11-4 described 11-1 downloading 11-2 MIB files location 11-4 MIB-II MIB 11-1 minimum log levels defined 14-8 setting 14-8 mirroring See also interface mirroring. 15-7 modes, duplex 21-3 monitor events logging 14-7 MSTP and VLANs 20-2, 20-9 defined 20-2 MSTP Configuration Name setting 20-7 MSTP Configuration Revision setting 20-7 MSTP Maximum Hop Number setting 20-7 MSTP mode, for spanning tree 20-5 MSTP regions 20-2, 20-7 MTUs 4-4 Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol See MSTP.

N name resolution 4-3 named service 4-3 naming conventions, interfaces 15-3 netmasks 16-3 Net-SNMP package 11-1 network failure 20-1 network information 11-6 network monitoring 8-1 Network Time Protocol (NTP) 4-3 network traffic and packet filters 18-1 monitoring 8-3 network-related traps A-5 new connection statistics 11-7, 11-9 No Access user role 12-2, 13-5, 13-6 nodes and default monitor 12-7 non-floating self IP addresses and traffic groups 16-4 Notice log level 14-9 notification messages 11-2 See also traps. notification types A-1 notifications, SNMP 11-5 NOTIFICATION-TYPE designation 11-5 NTP protocol 4-3 ntpd service 10-1

Index - 5


Index

O object creation and error messages 12-7 object data, SNMP 11-2 object ID definitions, RMON 11-6 object membership 12-7 object presentation 11-1 object referencing and iRules 12-7 and partitions 12-3, 12-7 object values, SNMP 11-1 objects and user roles 12-7 moving 12-7 OIDs 11-7, 11-8 online help 1-4 opaque mode 22-10 Operator user role 13-5, 13-6, 13-13 order, of packets 19-1

P p2p link type 20-13 packet filter events defined 14-1 logging 14-6 packet filter rules creating 18-4 logging of 18-7 ordering 18-5 packet filters controlling packet access 18-1 packet floods 20-1 packet forwarding 4-5, 18-1 packet order 19-1, 19-7 packet rate limit, specifying 19-3 packet rate, exceeding 19-3 packet rejection 18-1, 18-4 packet scheduling methods 19-2 packet throughput, enforcing 19-1 packets and access to VLANs 22-5 packets, queuing and dequeuing 19-1, 19-7 pager notifications, activating 14-2 Parent Class setting, configuring 19-6 parent rate classes 19-5 parent-child propagation 12-7 partition access and current partition 12-2 defined 12-5 partition objects moving 12-2 partitions and folders 12-8 and iRules 12-7 and object referencing 12-3

Index - 6

and rate classes 19-2 and user accounts 12-5 defined 12-1 example of 12-5 Pass Through mode, for spanning tree 20-5 password duration 13-10 password expiration 13-8, 13-10 password length 13-10 password policy 13-8 password restrictions 13-8, 13-10 passwords assigning 13-8, 13-12 changing 13-12 defined 13-1 previous 13-10 path costs 20-16 paths blocking and clearing 20-1 Pause frames 15-4 performance improvements for RSTP protocol 20-2 performance metrics, SNMP 11-2, 11-7 permissions and local accounts 13-7 and partition access 12-2 persistence table 4-6 PFIFO, defined 19-7 platform information 11-6 policy for passwords 13-8 pool member thresholds 8-3 pool members losing 8-4 pools and HA group 8-4 port lockdown 16-4 port roles 20-15 port states 20-15 ports and VLANs 22-5 postfix service 10-1 Priority FIFO See PFIFO. privileges on multiple devices 13-18 propagating to other devices 13-18 properties, local traffic 4-4 protocol degradation legacy bridges 20-3 protocol versions 20-3 protocols accepting traffic from 16-4 proxied ARP requests 22-11 proxy IP addresses 4-6 PVA logging events 14-7


Index

Q Queue Discipline setting, configuring 19-7

R RADIUS authentication servers 13-1, 13-15 rate class assignment 18-6 rate class example 19-5 rate class settings 19-2 rate classes and direction 19-6 assigning 19-2 defined 19-1, 19-2 naming 19-2 rate shaping, defined 19-1 rate statistics 11-10, 11-19 rate, of packets 19-1 read access 12-2 reaper high-water mark 4-5 reaper low-water mark 4-5 redundant paths blocking and clearing 20-1 redundant system configuration about 7-3 redundant systems See also fail-safe. reference links 21-2 referencing See object referencing. regions 20-2 remote authentication server types 13-1 remote authentication servers 13-14 remote authorization 13-18 remote hosts, and logging 14-11 remote logging tasks 14-11 remote logging, encrypted 14-11 Remote Network Monitoring (RMON) See RMON implementation. remote server types 13-15 remote systems using for backup and restore 9-2 remote user accounts and group-wide privileges 13-18 and password policy 13-9 assigning privileges to 13-14 assigning user roles to 13-15 creating and storing 13-14 viewing 13-19 remote user authorization changing 13-18 configuring 13-18 deleting 13-19 remote user roles assigning 13-15 changing 13-18 remoterole command 13-18

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

reservoirs See burst reservoirs. Resource Administrator user role 13-5 restrictions for passwords 13-8 RMON groups 11-6 RMON implementation 11-6 RMON-MIB.txt file 11-6 root account and partitions 12-5 and user roles 13-6 modifying 13-12 root account requirements 13-2 root bridges 20-11 root folder about 12-8 and redundancy 7-3 Root port role 20-15 routes blocking 15-10 RSTP mode, for spanning tree 20-5 RTSP protocol described 20-2 running configurations defined 2-1

S save sys config file command 3-2 saving an SCF 3-2 SCFs benefits of 3-3 comparing 3-3 defined 3-1 for configuring other systems 3-3 for data propagation 9-1 for propagation of privileges 13-18 using to restore a system 3-3 scores calculating for HA 8-5 search strings for logging 14-3 secure password policy 13-8 security and passwords 13-8 security restrictions 13-8 security, adding 13-1 self IP addresses and traffic groups 16-4 assigning to VLANs 22-4, 22-12 defined 16-1 for SNATs 16-2 self-signed certificates 5-1 server availability 0-26 server traffic, and rate classes 19-6

Index - 7


Index

service names in logs 14-2 services monitoring 8-2 starting and stopping 10-1 user role for 10-1 Setup utility and user accounts 13-1 severity log levels defined 14-8 setting 14-8 SFQ queueing method defined 19-7 shared link type 20-13 shared MAC addresses 4-5 short timeout value 21-5 single configuration files See SCFs. SNAT automapping 16-2 SNAT information 11-5 SNAT packet forwarding 4-5 SNAT pools 16-2 SNATs defined 16-2 SNMP and syslog 11-4 See also SNMP agent. See also SNMP managers. SNMP agent and trap notifications A-1 configuring 11-2 defined 11-1 SNMP commands for collecting statistics 11-7 using 11-2, 11-5 SNMP data access control 11-2 SNMP manager functions 11-2 SNMP managers defined 11-1 SNMP MIB files See MIB files. SNMP object data 11-2 SNMP tasks 11-1, 11-2 SNMP traps handling 11-2 See also traps. SNMP users 11-3 snmpd service 10-1 snmpget command 11-7 source IP addresses and packet filtering 18-7 spanning tree instances defined 20-8 viewing, modifying, and deleting 20-12 Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) See STP protocol.

Index - 8

spanning tree protocols and trunks 21-3 changing 20-5 resetting 20-14 spanning tree regions See MSTP regions. spanning trees 20-2 SSH 7-3 SSH access 13-12 ssh command 14-12 SSH connection, establishing 14-12 SSH identity, copying 14-15 ssh syntax 14-12 SSH tunnel, and logging 14-11 sshd service listed 10-1 SSL authentication 5-1 SSL certificate files 6-1 SSL certificates and BIG-IP systems 5-1 and levels 5-2 SSL logging events 14-7 static l2 forwarding entries 22-8 static self IP addresses and traffic groups 16-4 defined 16-2 statistical data 11-6 statistics 15-10 statistics RMON group 11-6 statistics, SNMP 11-6 status codes in logs 14-2 Stochastic Fair Queueing See SFQ queueing method. stored configuration, defined 2-1 STP mode, for spanning tree 20-5 STP protocol 20-2 style conventions 1-3 support account and partitions 12-5 requiring 13-2 switch board monitoring 8-2 SYN Check 4-5 syslog-ng script editing 14-13 syslog-ng service restarting 14-15 syslog-ng utility configuring 14-11 system access control 13-2, 13-14 system account management 13-8 system data, SNMP 11-5 system events defined 14-1 system fail-safe and hardware components 8-1


Index

system information configuring 11-2 polling for 11-5 system interface monitoring 11-6 system location 11-2 System maintenance account types 13-2 system maintenance accounts 13-1 system monitoring 8-1 system operation, SNMP A-1 system restoration 3-3 system services monitoring 8-1, 8-2 restarting 8-3 See services. system time 4-3 system-initiated changes logging 14-10

T tagged interfaces, defined 22-5 tags embedding in packet headers 22-6 See VLAN tags. task summary for SNMP 11-2 TCP logging events 14-7 text file for configuration data 3-1 threshold for HA scores 8-5 thresholds 8-3 throughput enforcing 19-1 throughput limitations 19-1, 19-2 throughput policies 19-1 throughput policy, enforcing 19-1 throughput rate statistics 11-7, 11-10, 11-19 throughput rates 19-3 throughput restrictions, applying 19-6 time interval, changing 20-6 time protocol 4-3 time zones 7-1 timeout periods, fail-safe 8-3 timer values 20-6 timestamps in logs 14-2 TMM logging events 14-7 TMOS-related traps A-3 tmsh utility and configuration storage 2-1 and SCFs 3-2 ToS field and queueing 19-7

BIG-IP速 TMOS速: Concepts

traffic blocking 20-6 queueing 19-7 restricting through tagged interfaces 22-5 restricting through untagged interfaces 22-5 traffic direction, and rate classes 19-1 traffic distribution 21-1 traffic flow limits 19-3 traffic flow rates 19-3, 19-4, 19-6 traffic group inheritance 7-3 traffic groups and self IP addresses 16-4 defined 17-1 traffic queueing 19-7 traffic rates, bursting 19-3 transaction IDs in logs 14-2 translucent mode 22-10 Transmit Hold Count option 20-7 transparency mode 22-10 transparent mode 22-10 trap destinations configuring 11-3 trap locations 11-5 trap names A-1 traps and recommended actions A-1 configuring 11-3 defined 11-2 handling 11-2 identifying 11-5 See also notification types. tree structure 11-1 trunk members losing 8-4 trunk names 21-2 trunks and configuration synchronization 8-4 and failover 8-4 and HA group 8-4 and spanning tree protocols 21-3 and VLANs 22-5 defined 15-10, 21-1 enabling and disabling 20-13 Type of Service field See ToS field.

U UCD-SNMP package 11-1 UCS See user configuration sets. UDP logging events 14-7 unit weights for HA group 8-5 universal partition access 12-5

Index - 9


Index

untagged interfaces 21-3, 22-5 unused bandwidth borrowing 19-6 replenishing 19-4 saving 19-3 user access 12-2 user account configuration tools 13-2 user account location 13-2 user account properties viewing 13-19 user account types 13-1, 13-2 user accounts and partition access 12-5 and passwords 13-8 and tools 13-2 as partitioned objects 12-5 assigning privileges to 13-14 changing 13-18 creating 13-2, 13-14 defined 13-2 managing 13-7 purpose of 13-1 See also local user accounts. See also remote user accounts. storing 13-14 user authorization configuring 13-18 user changes logging 14-10 user configuration sets defined 9-1 See also .ucs files. User Manager user role 13-5 user names for user accounts 13-12 in logs 14-2 user privileges on multiple devices 13-18 user role categories 13-4 user roles and account creation 13-7 and audit log access 14-8 and non-partitioned objects 12-7 and passwords 13-8 and rate classes 19-2 and read access 12-2 and user accounts 13-2 as authorization 13-4 assigning 13-15 changing 13-12, 13-18 defined 13-1, 13-4 deleting 13-19 described 13-5 for remote accounts 13-14

Index - 10

users See SNMP users. See also user accounts.

V virtual server information 11-5 virtual servers and destination addresses 4-4 defined 0-26 VLAN access methods 22-5 VLAN fail-safe 8-3 VLAN failure 8-4, 8-5 VLAN group IDs defined 22-10 VLAN groups and self IP addresses 16-3 defined 22-2, 22-9 VLAN IDs 22-6 VLAN members adding 20-8 removing 20-12 VLAN names 8-3 VLAN tags 20-11, 22-5 VLAN traffic 15-10 VLAN-keyed connections 4-4 VLANs adding as instance members 20-11 and connections 4-4 and fail-safe 8-3 and failure detection 8-3 and interfaces 15-1 and MSTP 20-2 and self IP addresses 16-3 and STP 20-2 and trunks 21-3 as filtering criterion 18-4 benefits of 22-1 defined 22-1 example of 22-3

W Warning log level 14-8 Web Application Security Administrator user role 13-6 weights for an HA group 8-5 Welcome screen 1-4


Tmos concepts 11 2 0