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Š University Publication Centre (UPENA), UiTM 2009 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, copied, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise; without prior permission in writing from the Director of University Publication Centre (UPENA), Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. e-mail:upena@salam.uitm.edu.my Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Offerings by design (Architecture monographs. 1) ISBN 978-967-305-410-7 1. Architectural design. 2. Design. I. Series. 729 Chief Editor: Syed Sobri Zubir Editors: Rashidah Abdul Rahman Fairuz Reza Razali Wan Azhar Sulaiman Artwork & Design: Fairuz Reza Razali & Hafiz Amirrol Photography: Liyana Hasnan & Syed Sobri Zubir - cover Syed Sobri Zubir - pages 1 & 106 Liyana Hasnan - pages 6, 11, 12, 23, 24, 32 & 112 Hafiz Amirrol - pages 104 & 109 Printed in Malaysia by: Ampang Press Sdn Bhd 6, jalan 6/91, taman shamelin perkasa batu 31/2, jalan cheras 56100 kuala lumpur e-mail: ampress@streamyx.com


CONTENTS 2 PREFACE 8 INTRODUCTION 12 PART ONE: CULTURE OF THE OFFERINGS 20 PART TWO: COMPARATIVE DESIGN ATTRIBUTES AND METHODS 28 PART THREE: THE PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS 30 MOHD ZAINUDDIN MD NOOR Reflecting Contemporary Design and Ideas 44 MOHD HAFIZ AMIRROL Walkscapes 56 FAIZ ISMAIL Spaces of Flows 68 MOHD FAIZUL AZHAR HARUN Metronomic 78 ZAIN AZRAAI ARIFIN Urban Legitimacy 90 ZUL AZRI ABDULLAH Nature’s Equilibrium 100 DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION 106 REFERENCES 108 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS OFFERINGS BY DESIGN

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PREFACE

This publication entitled Offerings by Design is an attempt to generate alternative schemes of urban form in a locality where much contestation of cultural continuity has been debated. In the past three decades or so, time and space have undergone a tremendous transformation. This era of globalization has seen the city as a place where economic, cultural, technological and political forces interact in a continuous state of fluctuation. The ready access of telecommunications and the increasing speed of transportation have shrunk our space first into a ‘global village’ and latter into ‘informational cities’ of Manuel Castell’s. According to Paul Virilio, rapid movement in the interests of capital has made us lose our memory. Today, the city becomes an intersection of this compression of space and time that we tend to detach from the essence of Aldo Rossi’s Architecture of the City. The urban fabric is reshaping and colonising the fringes at the same time as they are transforming and partly destroying their historical hubs. Lefebvre categorises the process of urbanization as a simultaneous implosion and explosion or the equivalent of Edward Soja’s ‘exopolis’, a city that turns inside out, and outside in at the same time. 2


As global growth of cities tends to increase, the value of humanity tends to decrease. By 2050 an estimated four billion people will be urbanized. Meanwhile between 60 and 90 percent of urban growth takes place in slums and ghettoes, affecting not least the homeless. Surprisingly, these places are self-regulating and selfsustaining with minimal component cost. Concepts on sustainable development could be derived from the succinct investigation of these ‘indigenous’ places since it has already been conceded that the growth of cities is driven progressively more complicated through selfregulating forces, most of which are completely beyond the control of scientists, politicians or planners, let alone architects. David Harvey’s analysis of city politics has clearly shown the disruptive implications on the political economic climate. Not every city has undergone the ways in which time and space are perceived. Will this unbridled urbanization equal the rampant growth of cities? Most of the answers to the problem have been delineated but many have not been executed to the extent that the terms ‘urban’ and ‘problem’ are synonymously equated and interchangeable. Even though Arnold Toynbee mentioned

inventions, but as an age in which human society dared to think of the welfare of the whole human race as practical objective”, problems with humanity still persist in the divided world. There is evidence of a growing sensitivity to problems of urbanism. Increasingly designers and others are injecting interesting works with bold and creative thinking that have readdressed social and cultural issues, questioning how we visualize and use forms to make them innovative and invigorating. The majority of their works is not simply visual tour de force but is concrete testimony to the act of the time. Design is ephemeral and must respond to constraints. Great design always develops from this condition and the students’ design laboratory could be the place to initiate these constraints. The design studio is the place to encapsulate the idea that nothing is timeless and that are more human-centered. Educators must accept the fact that the

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION [2]. “Some scholars and practitioners see value in integrated view of

Despite the current brouhaha over problems of carbon emission, carbon footprints, etc, the issue of sustainability is not just limited to matters of earth, water, air and the environment. This monograph asserts

sustainability-as a concept interweaving environmental,

Integral to this is their day-to-day attitudes that also form the culture of the society [2]. Hence, the cultural habits vis their cultural longevity will

social, economic and cultural strands. Of these, the cultural aspect is perhaps the most critical and yet the least considered of the four aspects… So social, economic and environmental sustainability reinforce one another, and all three are girded by cultural sustainability” (Nitish Jha, 2007, p.1).

foreign contents is always a challenge to any traditional society. As Soeters (2005:69) laments, “If we look at history, we could say that the norm was for the poor man to help himself by forming his own dwelling, his village and his town, all the while praying to the gods, with an appropriate humility, that what he made would please them as well as himself. But then, in the early twentieth century, architects took upon themselves not the role of people trying to make their own place in the best way they could, but of being gods themselves. Whereas the gods of the past had sanctioned the creations of men, these new gods determined that nothing was properly ordered and set out rearranging it all for the better. By means of the tabula rasa, a completely new order could be created”. Bali is not untouched by this phenomenon of starting-from-a-clean-slate approach to development. It is experiencing dramatic cultural, economic and social changes via global market driven economies that have transformed the traditionally strong communities to accommodating new typologies of urban form. Made Wijaya, a permanent resident of Bali disapproves of the new breed of housing schemes, which are devastating the island not unlike the tsunami of 2004, branding them as Bali’s New Asian Zen McVillas for their identical architecture. “What concerns me most about Bali at the moment…[is] the genuine threat of real-estate brokers smothering the important aspect of the Balinese culture remains intact – the ritual art of offerings. This monograph looks at this ritual practiced among the Balinese as a form of cultural sustainability that moulds and gives life to their built environment. The ritual art of offerings provides the Balinese with a sense of coherence that would aid the community’s survival in a modern world

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PART 1: THE CULTURE OF OFFERINGS

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PART 2: COMPARATIVE DESIGN ATTRIBUTES AND METHODS

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From this principle of contextualism and cultural sustainability, students of the urban design research laboratory at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) were encouraged to see the urban design process based on a synoptic method. This way, rational strategies or synectic approaches could be realized and transformed into a reflexive program for the urban intervention. This research and design project made use of multiple sources of evidence and so a mixed-methodology was adopted. It combined historical-interpretative strategy and qualitative strategies. The intention of the project was to expose students to spatial planning and design issues, with special emphasis on social and cultural phenomena in producing alternative models relevant to contemporary and future urban forms. By zeroing into the components of place making as complete entities in themselves, the hidden dimensions of Bali could be appreciated. What was introduced in the research laboratory is a way of thinking, a way of approaching problems by identifying them rather than inventing them. Only then does one look for specific data that are needed in order to solve the problems. Also important is the logic of the argument - how the various sections of the study work together and are linked to the main problem. In this process of identifying problems and solutions, students were guided to categorizing and analyzing typologies of existing built forms. The aim was to give birth to fresh ideas which would have a strong characteristic in its design approach - a type of specific architecture and urban form with strong cultural elements which would not be able to be represented elsewhere. In any urban design problems, it is generally true that a number of alternative solutions appear possible. The use of urban morphology as the preferred method of analysis investigates both the physical and spatial components of urban form. As identified by Gosling (1984:25), urban morphology was defined by Carlo Aymomino as the study of built form considered from the point of its production in relation to the urban structure. The physical components constitutes the plots, buildings, streets and open spaces, while the components which define the spatial structure are derived from the specific land use and patterns of activities generated from the context. In the past, significant criticisms have been leveled against the study of urban morphology highlighting that the approach was of limited use as it only describes and explains historical phenomena but could not prescribe future design of urban form. In recent times, this approach has found a firm ground in urban design research and practice.

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The heritage of traditional Balinese architecture is also a form of hybridization. It is a mixture of old and new features, long associated with its local community’s lifestyle and religious belief. This mixture is a product of the migration of Hindu and Buddhist communities from East Java to Bali Island. Their existence on the island soon dominated the political and cultural scenario of the island, resulting in changes to the older traditional architectural features of the existing community, which mostly exist along the lower areas of the deltas surrounding the island. Traditional Balinese housing types can be generally classified into two; (1) cluster houses of the Bali community, and (2) traditional Bali Aga houses. These two types of houses are usually a group of small buildings, arranged according to their functions in clusters (kuren), enclosed within four fence-type walls, similar to the types of houses that can be found in Java (Figure 1).

Fig.1: The Balinese House Cluster (Dumarcay:1987)

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Seven separated elements made up the house cluster; (1) entrance gate, (2) kitchen area, (3) storage area for harvested rice, (4) bedroom for unmarried girls, (5) living/sleeping area, which usually is made up of open verandah, (6) area for religious procession and rituals, and (7) working space, (Dumarcay:1987; Kamaratih:2007). These elements are arranged in such a way as to respect the most sacred area, such as the area for religious activity and private areas. These are located at the most upper end of the cluster, towards the sacred mountain-view. Other areas, which are least spiritual or considered ‘dirty’ are located at the lower end, directed towards the sea. This arrangement is applied the other way around for houses in Northern Bali as the main mountain (Mount Agung) forms the spinal range of the island (Samadhi:2004, Waterson:1990). As has been explained earlier, this idea of balance is central to Balinese philosophy and way of life. Nature and Man complement each other in an order of hymn of beauty addressed to the God of Supreme (Sang Hyang Widdhi). This philosophy is translated clearly in the form of physical planning and landscapes of their living environment. The traditional villages (desa), which is the basic Balinese territorial unit, are an ordering space. The desa co-exists with its surrounding, usually covering both the wetland of the rice fields and the dry land of the housing compounds, which connects to gardens, temples and small roads. The Balinese desa is also usually host to a set of three village temples (the Kahyangan Tiga), each not only functioning as spaces for religious activities, but also as an important node of the village symbolic life and other community based activities. The territory itself has the village temple (pura desa), situated in the center of the village, where meetings and other ritual activities take place. Other temples that also mark the existence of a territory include the temple of the dead (pura dalem), temples for each group of families (pura banjar) and various temples of the local sub-clans (pura panti).

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PART 3: THE PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS

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The site for the proposed urban design intervention exercise is an empty land of more than 400 acres to be developed in supporting a community of 20,000 people on the Island of Serangan, Bali. This island is supposedly the miniature of Bali and is home to the second holiest temple in the land, i.e. the Pura Sakenan. Symbolically, this project parallels the inter-relation between microcosmic to macrocosmic conceptions of the universe among the Balinese by linking the minor island to the greater context. The minor island is connected to the main island of Bali by a bridge that caters for the regular religious processions to the temple. This sagment will present six models of the proposed new urban structure that portray diverse and varied approaches in designing the new urban structure for Serangan Island. The proposed interventions will be discussed individually, deliberating each design intention to achieve the prescribed goals and to reflect aspects of sustainability. These theoretical exercises will culminate in design guidelines and proposals that assimilate the ritual art of offerings that is endemic and responsive to the context of the place. OFFERINGS BY DESIGN

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REFLECTING CONTEMPORARY IDEAS AND DESIGN by Mohd Zainuddin Md Noor

It can be said that almost all cities throughout the world are faced with a multitude of problems, ranging from urban disorder and violence, pollution and congestion, lack of open spaces and public amenities, to over population. In simpler terms, this in fact, represents the fallacy of progress brought about by the universal spirit of modern development. Few would be willing to admit that the problems facing us today come not from the so-called “under-development” but from “over-development”. Some have equated the terms “city” and “problem” to be synonymous while others, to some extent, have identified urban problems incorrectly, and as such the real problem is a global one stressing the fact that it has resulted from social injustice [8].

[8]. Markham (2009) for example, highlighted Said Nursi’s view about globalization through four main themes, the second of which emphasised that “society must accommodate in a just way the inequalities of wealth”. Whilst Nursi does assume the inevitability of inequality to a degree, he maintains however the need for balance.

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WALKSCAPES by Hafiz Amirrol

Even though Serangan Island is home to the second holiest temple in Bali, the place can be considered neglected from mainstream development due to its physical detachment from the main island. This has resulted in poverty with high illiteracy rate, inadequate habitable spaces, and abandoned tourism projects on the island. The dependence on fishing is further deteriorated due to excessive environmental pollution that affected the marine ecosystem. In order for this island to survive the onslaught of the free market economy, the development content of the island needs to readdress the sensitive issues not only relating to the typical approaches that are evidenced on Bali itself but also of their cultural roots and landscape.

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The daily ritual of walking in religious procession is translated through assembling and sorting of fragmented urban spaces as layers of abstracted elements. The proposed scheme therefore is an assemblage of fractured parts of the traditional walking city comprising and not unlike districts of modernist reform projecting capitalistconsumerist ‘experiences’. Simultaneity, fragmentation, and ephemerality characterize this post-modern condition with intertwined pedestrianized paths and networks that create places which enhance aesthetics and social awareness. It is hoped that the permeable streetscapes will expose the cultural myriads of the ordinary people and channel the opportunities for intentionally entering, manoeuvring and exploring the spatial and physical repertoire of the proposal.

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SPACES OF FLOWS by Faiz Ismail

This scheme explored the natural landscape formations of the island. The advantages of doing so offered an original walkable urban fabric and identifiable panorama from outside and on the island. Emphasis on walkability interweaves the design conception with the pedestrian-based processions within the ritual of offerings. The rich diversity of built forms - squares, streets, alleys and landmarks culminated in a unique sense of place within the various localities.

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METRONOMIC by Mohd Faizul Azhar Harun

Metronomic derivatives or elements based on measured time, and thus aligned to historicism, usually culminate in regimented and boring urban places. In response, this scheme proposes a resistance to the homogenization of the visual environment through the particularities of mediating local cultural traditions with contemporary ideas. This project dwells into the vernacular landscape of the island by taking the peripatetic approach [10] towards understanding a site that will cognitively map the surrounding context in order to anchor it to the place. The general idea of the project is that the reinterpretation of culture and context cannot be discarded totally as it can generate innovative schemes.

[10].Again, inter-relating it closely to the ritual art of offerings and processions.

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URBAN LEGITIMACY by Zain Azraai Arifin

Perhaps, one approach to counter the prospect of our built environment becoming archaeological museums of so many dismembered architectural artifacts produced by the elementary, institutional and mechanistic typologies of the past, is by stressing the importance of being constantly reminded of the full potential of understanding the history of architectural forms. To be more precise, by observing the evolution of architecture through the “science of form�, we might learn to create a more responsive and meaningful environment. We believe that the most effective tool for this analysis is that of urban morphology.

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SCHEMATIC LAY-OUT PLAN

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NATURE’S EQUILIBRIUM by Zul Azri Abdullah

The prevailing architectural polemic in Bali is that it is in a state of ambiguity. Architects with a wide range of approaches towards developing a responsive architecture derived from the local traditions have failed to comprehend the essence and virtues of its intrinsic values. Furthermore, the differences in views and attitudes have made contemporary built forms susceptible to the influences of non-regional images of modern architecture. These have been a threat to the survival and continuity of the local traditional and cultural heritage of Bali.

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This may be due to the fact that western society itself gave rise to the modern and industrial city. However in Bali, where the prevails, it is the society that has made and molded the city. It is pertinent to highlight that the process of secularization has established a worldview that places man in control over nature, rather than emphasizing them in harmony with the physical and the natural environment. This environment from which nature has been excluded to the greatest extent of its spiritual dimensions and hence led to the disappearance of traditional cultures. This modern worldview nonetheless contradicts the way of life of the Balinese, of which the ritualistic offerings and attitudes to living are bound by nature within a hierarchical order. In the effort to reduce the exacerbating qualities to further degrade the security, tranquility and sanctity of the Island of Serangan, this scheme tries to generate alternative built form that portrays a strong sense of regional identity of the place by considering the following principles derived from the philosophy of Tri Hita Kirana.

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Denpasar (Area 2)

Kuta (Area 1)


Commercial Areas Figure Ground Study

Kuta (Area 2)

Kuta (Area 3)

Kuta (Area 4)

Nusa Dua

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DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

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Perhaps it is true that most built forms of traditional cultures of the world have been based on a close rapport with the natural environment to create an organic link between spaces in which man works, sleeps, prays and relaxes. These are ideals that many designers are seeking to realize, even if not all of them understand that the organic unity of traditional form is possible only in the presence of sacred science and art, an organically unified society, and the unifying spiritual principles, which lie at the heart of all traditions. The Balinese practice can be said to ‘treat nature as something sacred’ (Tabanli:2009) and this awareness of the sacred holds promise for longevity of not only their culture but also the natural environment. It is therefore sad and disturbing when one observes in many countries of the Third World that urban monstrosities are being built which not only stand against the living built traditions of the country in question but also are opposed to all that are trying to cure the maladies of urbanism in the West.

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REFERENCES Bostock, W. W., (2008), ‘Collective Aspects of Mental State, memory and Psychic Capital: Their Role in Coherent Functioning of a Community’, in Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vol.2, issue 1, 2008. Brinkgreve, F., (1992), OFFERINGS The Ritual Art of Bali, Image Network, Indonesia. Dumarcay, J., (1987), The House in South-East Asia, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Eiseman, F. B. Jr., (1990), Bali: Sekala & Niskala, vol.I: Essays on Religion, Ritual, and Art, Periplus Editions, (HK) Ltd. Esposito, J., (2009), ‘Culture as Ecosystem: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Deterritorialization’, in International Journal of the Humanities, vol. 6, issue 6, pp. 43-52. Foucault, M. (1972) Power/Knowledge (Brighton, Harvester) Frampton, K. (1983) ‘Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for Architecture of Resistance’, in Hal Foster (Ed.) The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture, Port Townsend, WA, Bay Press. Frampton, K. (1996a) ‘On Reading Heidegger’, in Theorising a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, edited by C. Nesbitt, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, pp. 440-446. (1996b) ‘Prospect for a Critical Regionalism’ in Theorising a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995, edited by C. Nesbitt, Princeton Architectural Press, New York, pp. 468-482. Gehl, J. and Gemzoe, L. (1996), Public Spaces and Public Life, Danish Architectural Press, Copenhagen. International Journal of the Humanities, vol. 6, issue 9, pp. 61-70. Gosling, D. & Maitland, B. (1984) Concepts of Urban Design, St. Martin’s Press: New York. Heidegger, M. (1971), ‘Building, Dwelling Thinking’ in Poetry, Language, Thought. Trans. By A. Hofstadter, Harper & Row, London, pp. 143-61 Holl, S, “Locus Soulles” in P. Noever (ed) (1993), The End of Architecture, Prestel-Verlage, Munich. Jha, N. (2007), ‘Enabling Sustainability in Water Users’ Association: Or, What Balinese Irrigation Communities Can Tell Us About Village Water Supply Committees In South Africa and India’, in The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Cultural Sustainability, vol. 3, no.6, 2007, pp.1-10. Kamaratih, D., et al, (2007), Ekskursi Bali 2007 (Bali Excursion 2007), Program Studi Arsitektur, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia. Kemmochi, T., (2008), ‘Environmental Values and Surrounding Landscapes: Indicators for Sustainable Human-nature Interrelation’, in The International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Cultural Sustainability, vol. 4, no.5, 2008, pp.45-55. Lefavre, L. and A. Tzonis (2003) Critical Regionalism: Architecture and Identity in a Globalized World, Prestel, Munich. Marcuse, H. (1964), One-Dimensional Man, Routledge & Kegan Ltd, London. Markham, I., (2009), ‘Rethinking Globalization’ in Fountain Magazine, www.fountainmagazine.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS B. ARCH (HONS) 01 STUDENTS January-May 2007 AFNAN B. ARIFF AHMAD SYAHID B. AHMAD AMAL WAHDI BT. OTHMAN FAIZ B. ISMAIL FATANAH BT. MUHAMAD HANIZAH BT. MUSTAFFA INTAN SYAZWANI BT. SAZALI MOHD. DEDE ELLANNE B. ZAINUDDIN MOHD. FAIRUS B. SALEHEN MOHD. FAIZUL AZHAR B. HARUN MOHD. HAFIZ B. MOHD AMIRROL MOHD. ZAINUDDIN B. MD. NOOR MUHAMAD HADRI B. ABDUL MANAN MUHAMMAD HARITH MUHAIMIN MARTYR MUHAMMAD SHAWAL SUFIYAN MAT AMIN MUZHAFFAR B. MD. ISA NAZRULHAIRI B. MODIN NIK ZAIDAH BT. NIK ARIF NOOR FADILA HASWANI BT. M. MOKHTAR NOR HAZWANI BT. MOHD. HARUN NOR SALMI BT HUSSAIN NORAZMAN B. MOHD. KHAFID NORIZAH BT. MD. SAMRY NUR IZZA BT. MOHD. EZANI PUTERI SHAHFURA BT. RAMLEE SAYED ABD. RAHIM B. SAYED ABD. RAHMAN SITI NURUL BALQIAS BT. MUHAMAD SYAHRIZAN B. SAMSUDIN TEH RAFEAH BT. AHMAD WIDYAZLIN BT. NORDIN ZAIN AZRAAI B. ARIFIN ZUL AZRI B. ABDULLAH STUDIO TUTORS SYED SOBRI ZUBIR ABDUL MUTALIB MD. ALI SABARINAH SHEIKH AHMAD

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Offerings by Design_Architectural Monograph 1  
Offerings by Design_Architectural Monograph 1  

UDRL Publication, FSPU, UiTM Shah Alam, Malaysia. Year: 2009. Size: 160mm x 230mm, 108 pages, Soft cover: ’Artcard’ paper 260gsm, Hot Stampi...

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