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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 1

Rebuilding the American dream machine 重建美国梦机器 Jan 19th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition FOR America's colleges, January is a month of reckoning. Most applications for the next academic year beginning in the autumn have to be made by the end of December, so a university's popularity is put to an objective standard: how many people want to attend. One of the more unlikely offices to have been flooded with mail is that of the City University of New York (CUNY), a public college that lacks, among other things, a famous sports team, bucolic campuses and raucous parties (it doesn't even have dorms), and, until recently, academic credibility. 对美国的大学而言,一月是一个清算的月份。大多数要进入将于秋季开学的下一学年学习的申请必须在 12 月底前完成,因此一所大学的声望就有了客观依据:申请人的多少。纽约城市大学,一所公立学院, 与其他学校相比,它没有一支声名显赫的运动队,没有田园诗一般的校园,也没有喧嚣嘈杂的派对——甚 至连宿舍都没有,而且,直到最近也没取得学术上的可信度,可就是这所大学的办公室塞满了学生们寄来 的申请函,这简直有些令人难以置信。 A primary draw at CUNY is a programme for particularly clever students, launched in 2001. Some 1,100 of the 60,000 students at CUNY's five top schools receive a rare thing in the costly world of American colleges: free education. Those accepted by CUNY's honours programme pay no tuition fees; instead they receive a stipend of $7,500 (to help with general expenses) and a laptop computer. Applications for early admissions into next year's programme are up 70%. 城市大学主要吸引人的地方在于它为从 2001 年开始为聪明过人的学生所设立的培养计划。6 万名城市大 学的五所顶尖学院学生中,约有 1100 人能得到“免费教育”,这在花费巨大的美国大学界可是一件稀罕事。 被纳入城市大学荣誉计划的学生无需支付学费,相反,他们还获得一份 7500 美元的定期生活津贴(用于 补助日常开销)以及一本笔记本电脑。这所学校申请尽早被批准进入下一学年计划的学生达到了 70%。 Admission has nothing to do with being an athlete, or a child of an alumnus, or having an influential sponsor, or being a member of a particularly aggrieved ethnic group—criteria that are increasingly important at America's elite colleges. Most of the students who apply to the honours programme come from relatively poor families, many of them immigrant ones. All that CUNY demands is that these students be diligent and clever. 批准与否跟学生是不是一名运动员,或者是不是校友子弟,或者有没有颇具影响力的后台,或者是不是某 个爱打抱不平的民族社团成员,都毫无干系——而这些在美国的知名学府中已经日益成为重要标准。申请 加入荣誉计划的学生大多数来自相对贫困的家庭,其中许多人都是移民。城市大学唯一需要的就是这些学 生必须勤奋并且聪颖。 Last year, the average standardised test score of this group was in the top 7% in the country. Among the rest of CUNY's students averages are lower, but they are now just breaking into the top third (compared with the bottom Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong third in 1997). CUNY does not appear alongside Harvard and Stanford on lists of America's top colleges, but its recent transformation offers a neat parable of meritocracy revisited. 去年,城市大学学生的标准化考试平均分位居全美最高分的 7%之列。城市大学其他学生平均分较低,但 是他们即将冲进前三名(相比 1997 年的倒数前三名)。城市大学无法与哈佛和斯坦福这样的美国顶尖学校 比肩,然而他们新近的转变让我清楚地领略到实力主义的再现。(这一段请高手参详) Until the 1960s, a good case could be made that the best deal in American tertiary education was to be found not in Cambridge or Palo Alto, but in Harlem, at a small public school called City College, the core of CUNY. America's first free municipal university, founded in 1847, offered its services to everyone bright enough to meet its gruelling standards. 20 世纪 60 年代以前,有一个很好的例子可以拿来说一说,那就是美国高等教育管理最好的并不在剑桥大 学或者是 Palo Alto 大学,而是在哈莱姆(黑人住宅区),在一所名叫城市大学的公立学校里,也就是纽约 城市大学的核心地。美国第一所市立免费大学创建于 1847 年,它为任何聪明才智足以应付其严格入学标 准的人提供服务。 City's golden era came in the last century, when America's best known colleges restricted the number of Jewish students they would admit at exactly the time when New York was teeming with the bright children of poor Jewish immigrants. In 1933-54 City produced nine future Nobel laureates, including the 2005 winner for economics, Robert Aumann (who graduated in 1950); Hunter, its affiliated former women's college, produced two, and a sister branch in Brooklyn produced one. City educated Felix Frankfurter, a pivotal figure on the Supreme Court (class of 1902), Ira Gershwin (1918), Jonas Salk, the inventor of the polio vaccine (1934) and Robert Kahn, an architect of the internet (1960). A left-wing place in the 1930s and 1940s, City spawned many of the neo-conservative intellectuals who would later swing to the right, such as Irving Kristol (class of 1940, extra-curricular activity: anti-war club), Daniel Bell and Nathan Glazer. 城市大学的黄金时代开始于上个世纪,那时美国最知名的大学都限制犹太人学生入学,当时纽约到处都是 贫苦的犹太移民的聪明孩子。1933 年到 1954 年之间,城市大学培养出了 9 个后来获得诺贝尔奖的人,其 中包括 2005 年经济学奖获得者罗伯特•奥曼(毕业于 1950 年)。城市大学前附属女子学院则培养出两名诺 贝尔奖获得者,而其在布鲁克林的一所分校也培养出一名。城市大学还培养出了最高法院的关键人物费利 克斯•法兰克福(1902 届) 、埃拉•格什温(1918 届)、天花疫苗发明者乔纳斯•索尔克(1934 届)以及互 联网设计者罗伯特•卡恩(1960 届)等人。20 世纪三、四十年代,城市大学作为左翼分子活动区,城市大 学孕育了许多新保守主义知识分子,他们后来都转向了右翼,比如欧文•克里斯托(1940 届,校外活动积 极分子,参加过反战俱乐部)、丹尼尔•贝尔和内森•格雷泽。 What went wrong? Put simply, City dropped its standards. It was partly to do with demography, partly to do with earnest muddleheadedness. In the 1960s, universities across the country faced intense pressure to admit more minority students. Although City was open to all races, only a small number of black and Hispanic students passed the strict tests (including a future secretary of state, Colin Powell). That, critics decided, could not be squared with City's mission to “serve all the citizens of New York”. At first the standards were tweaked, but this was not enough, and in 1969 massive student protests shut down City's campus for two weeks. Faced with upheaval, City scrapped its admissions standards altogether. By 1970, almost any student who graduated from New York's high schools could attend. 哪里出问题了呢?简单点说,就是城市大学降低了它的标准。这一部分与人口统计有关,一部分与憨头憨 脑的热忱有关。20 世纪 60 年代,全美的大学都面临着招收少数民族学生的强大压力。尽管城市大学对各 色人种都敞开校门,但也只有少数黑人和拉丁美洲裔学生能通过严格的测试(其中包括后来成为国务卿的 科林•鲍威尔)。持批评意见的人士断定,这不符合城市大学“服务于全纽约市民”的宗旨。起初,入学标 Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 准作了调整,但仍不够。1969 年,学生大规模的抗议让城市大学停课两周。面对突如其来的变化,城市 大学彻底废除了所有入学标准。到 1970 年,几乎所有纽约高等中学毕业的学生都可以进入城市大学学习。 The quality of education collapsed. At first, with no barrier to entry, enrolment climbed, but in 1976 the city of New York, which was then in effect bankrupt, forced CUNY to impose tuition fees. An era of free education was over, and a university which had once served such a distinct purpose joined the muddle of America's lower-end education. 可是,教育质量却因此骤然下降。一开始,由于没有入学限制,报名上学的人数不断攀升,但到了 1976 年,实际上已经陷入破产困境的纽约市,逼迫城市大学征收学费。免费教育的时代终结了,一所曾经有如 此独特办学取向的大学从此成了美国低端教育的乌合之众。 By 1997, seven out of ten first-year students in the CUNY system were failing at least one remedial test in reading, writing or maths (meaning that they had not learnt it to high-school standard). A report commissioned by the city in 1999 concluded that “Central to CUNY's historic mission is a commitment to provide broad access, but its students' high drop-out rates and low graduation rates raise the question: ‘Access to what?’ ” 直到 1997 年,城市大学系统的新生十之有七未能通过阅读、写作和数学中至少一门加试(亦即他们还未 达到高中标准)。1999 年纽约市府发布的一项报告总结认为,“纽约城市大学历史性使命的核心是承担面 对大众的教育义务,但是学生的高退学率和低毕业率引发了这样一个问题:‘提供什么教育?’ ”。 Using the report as ammunition, profound reforms were pushed through by New York's then mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, and another alumnus, Herman Badillo (1951), America's first Puerto Rican congressman. A new head of CUNY was appointed. Matthew Goldstein, a mathematician (1963), has shifted the focus back towards higher standards amid considerable controversy. 纽约市当时的市长鲁道夫•丘里安尼以及同样是城市大学校友(1951 届)的美国第一名波多黎各裔议员赫 尔曼•巴蒂洛,利用该报告为导火索,对城市大学进行了深入改革。一名新校长上任,他叫马修•高德斯坦, 是一名数学家。他把争议的焦点重新引回到了更高的入学标准之上。 For instance, by 2001, all of CUNY's 11 “senior” colleges (ie, ones that offer full four-year courses) had stopped offering remedial education. This prompted howls from the teaching faculty, who said it would “create a ghetto-like separation between levels of colleges”, keeping black and Hispanic students out of the best schools. In fact, the racial composition of the senior schools, monitored obsessively by critics, has remained largely unchanged: one in four students at the senior colleges is black, one in five is Latino. A third have ties to Puerto Rico, Jamaica, China and the Dominican Republic. 例如,到 2001 年,所有城市大学的“高级学院” (亦即提供全部四年培养课程的学院)停止提供加试教育, 随即引起了教师们的强烈不满,他们认为这将“造成学院不同水平学生之间如犹太人区一般的分裂”,并 将黑人和拉丁美裔学生拒之门外。事实上,批评家们一直关注着,高级学院学生的种族构成大部分保持不 变:高级学院学生中黑人占四分之一,拉丁美裔人占五分之一,还有三分之一是波多黎各、牙买加、中国 和多米尼加人后裔。 Admissions standards have been raised. Students applying to CUNY's senior colleges now need respectable scores on either a national, state or CUNY test, and the admissions criteria for the honours programme are the toughest in the university's history. Contrary to what Mr Goldstein's critics predicted, higher standards have attracted more students, not fewer: this year, enrolment at CUNY is at a record high. There are also anecdotal signs that CUNY is once again picking up bright locals, especially in science. One advanced biology class at City now has twice as many students as it did in the late 1990s. Last year, two students, both born in the Soviet Union, Page 3 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong won Rhodes scholarships, and a Bronx native who won the much sought-after Intel Science Prize is now in the honours programme. 入学标准提高了,申请进入城市大学高级学院学习的学生如今需要在全国、州或者城市大学考试中取得优 异成绩,而荣誉计划的纳入标准则成为该大学有史以来最为严厉的一项标准。与高德斯坦先生预期的恰恰 相反,更高的入学标准吸引了更多的学生,而非更少:今年,报名人数又创新高。也有小道消息称,城市 大学正在再一次挑选聪明的当地居民,尤其是在科学方面。它的一门高级生物学目前上课人数是 20 世纪 90 年代末期的两倍。去年,两名均出生于前苏联的学生荣获罗兹奖学金(译者注:一个获得按塞西尔•罗兹 的遗嘱设立的奖学金的学生,该奖允许他在牛津大学入学攻读两或三年的时期),一名布朗克斯区(译者 注:美国纽约市的行政区,位于曼哈顿北部大陆,纽约东南部。曾为荷兰西印度公司工作的一个丹麦人, 琼纳斯•布朗克最早定居,该地区于 1898 年成为大纽约的一部分。)出生的学生则荣获许多人梦寐以求的 因特尔科学奖,现已获准进入荣誉计划。 All this should not imply that CUNY is out of the woods. Much of it looks run down. CUNY's annual budget of $1.7 billion has stayed largely unchanged, even as student numbers have risen. With New York City's finances still precarious, city and state support for the university has fallen by more than one-third since 1991 in real terms. It has, however, begun to bring in private money. 如此种种,并不表示纽约城市大学已经走出泥潭。很多方面都在每况愈下。即便学生人数增加了,该大学 每年 17 亿美元的预算仍未能得到较大改观。由于纽约市财政仍旧不稳定,市府和州府资助自 1991 年以来 已经下降了超过三分之一。然而,学校已经开始从私人那里赚取资金。 A new journalism school will open in the autumn, helped by a $4m grant from the Sulzberger family, who control the New York Times, and led by Business Week's former editor, Steve Shepard (class of 1961). Efforts to raise a $1.2 billion endowment have passed the half-way mark, helped by (formerly estranged) alumni. Intel's former chairman, Andrew Grove, who graduated from City in 1960 as a penniless Hungarian immigrant, donated $26m (about 30% of City's operating budget) to the engineering school, calling his alma mater “a veritable American dream machine”. 由于得到《纽约时报》老板苏尔兹伯格家族 400 万美元的赞助,在《商业周刊》前任编辑史蒂夫•谢巴德 (1961 届学生)的牵头下,一所新办的新闻学院将于秋季开学。在一些校友(此前与学校较为疏远)的 帮助下,募集 12 亿美元捐赠的行动已经成功了一半。1960 年毕业、曾经身无分文的匈牙利移民、因特尔 公司前任主席安德鲁•格罗夫向工程学院捐赠了 2600 万美元(约相当于大学预算的 30%) ,并称赞他的母 校是“一部真正的美国梦机器”。 There are broader lessons to draw from CUNY, especially to do with creating opportunities in higher education for the poor. Currently, only 3% of the students in America's top colleges come from families in the lowest income quartile and only 10% from the bottom half, according to a study by Anthony Carnevale and Stephen Rose for the Century Foundation. Most students are relatively well-off, and their numbers include plenty of racial minorities who receive preferential status independent of their economic circumstances. 纽约城市大学还有很多的经验值得我们学习,尤其是关于在高等教育中为穷人创造机遇方面。根据安东尼 •卡内瓦和斯蒂芬•罗斯的一项“世纪基金”研究,目前美国顶尖大学的学生中仅有大约 3%来自低收入家 庭,而且仅有 10%来自中等收入以下的家庭。大多数学生家境相对较好,其中包括许多不受经济条件约束、 享受特权的许多少数民族学生。 For all its imperfections, CUNY's model of low tuition fees and high standards offers a different approach. And its recent history may help to dispel the myth that high academic standards deter students and donors. “Elitism”, Mr Goldstein contends, “is not a dirty word.” Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 对城市大学所有不完善的方面而言,它关于低学费和高标准的模式为我们展示了一个与众不同的教育方 法,而且,该大学新近发展进程也许有助于打破这样一个谬论,那就是学校高标准会让学生以及捐助者们 望而却步。高德斯坦先生坚持认为, “杰出人物统治论这个词并不难听。 ”

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 2

Here be dragons 龙来了 Jan 26th 2006 From The Economist print edition Google, the internet search engine that has grown into a corporate giant, began operations in China on January 25th. Though critics suggest it has betrayed its own motto - “don't be evil” - by agreeing to censor certain sites, Google maintains it will do more good than harm 已经成为公司巨人的国际互联网搜索引擎——Google,1 月 25 日启动了在中国的业务。尽管评论家认为, Google 违背了自己的箴言——“别干坏事”,因为它同意对一些特定的站点进行审查,但 Google 公司坚 持认为这样一来将利大于弊。 IN 2001 human-rights activists in China crowed that a little-known search engine called Google was the most important tool ever created to skirt state censors. Users could retrieve content that Beijing banned by clicking to call up a “cached” copy of the web page, stored by Google. Soon, however, Google itself was being sporadically blocked. The firm was instructed to deactivate that particular feature, and for a short time its web address was even re-routed by Chinese network operators to the website of a local rival. 2001 年,一种鲜为人知的、名叫 Google 的搜索引擎成为那时被用来避开国家审查的最重要工具。中国人 权激进分子为此而幸灾乐祸。用户可以通过点击打开由 Google 存储的“缓冲存储”网页备份,从而重新 获得被政府封杀的相关内容。不过,Google 公司自己很快也被不定期关闭。该公司接到通知,要求它取 消那种特定功能,并且中国网络运营者甚至曾一度将该公司的网址链接改到一家中国本地搜索引擎 (google 的竞争对手)上。 The continual cat-and-mouse game ended this week when Google, now a corporate giant, entered the dragon’s den. On January 25th the search engine “Google.cn” began operations. It is a first step towards beefing up the company’s local presence, which will also mean placing computer-servers in the country. This will speed up service for mainland users, who otherwise must penetrate the great firewall of China, which dramatically slows down access to Google.com. 本周,当现已成为公司巨人的 Google 进入了“中国龙潭”,长久以来的猫捉老鼠游戏也就结束了。1 月 25 日,中文搜索引擎“Google.cn”开始运行。这是公司为加强本地化实力所迈出的第一步,也意味着公司 即将把计算机服务器放到中国了,如此一来可以加快为中国大陆用户的服务速度,此外也必然会穿越中国 巨大的防火墙——这面防火墙大大减慢了用户登录 Google 的速度。 Having local infrastructure gives an advantage to Google’s search-engine rivals, such as China’s Baidu.com (which enjoys around 40% of the Chinese search market, compared with Google’s 30%), and Yahoo! and Microsoft’s MSN, which have local Chinese operations. China’s internet market, with more than 100m users, is one of the fastest-growing and most lucrative in the world. Can Google—with its motto “don’t be evil”—do business in China without betraying its soul? 中国地方政府部门倾向于支持 Google 在搜索引擎方面的竞争对手,比如中国百度(大约占中国搜索业市 场的 40%份额,而 Google 为 30%),以及在中国内地都有业务的雅虎、微软的 MSN。拥有 1 亿用户的中 国互联网市场是全球发展最快、最富利润的市场之一。以“别干坏事”自诫的 Google 公司,用不着自食 其言,能在中国做成生意吗? Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong The company is making a concerted effort to do just that. It has reached an agreement with the Chinese authorities that allows it to disclose to users, at the bottom of a list of search results, whether information has been withheld. This is similar to what the company does in other countries where it faces content restrictions, such as France and Germany (where Nazi sites are banned), and America (where it removes material that is suspected of copyright infringement). Although the disclosure is more prominent on these western sites, putting such a message on its Chinese site is an important step towards transparency and, furthermore, is something its rivals do not do. Google 公司正齐心协力,就是为了“自食其言” 。他们已经与中国政府达成共识,允许其搜索结果列表底 部信息向用户开放,无论是否属于禁止范围。这类似于该公司在其他一些同样面临内容限制的国家中的做 法,比如法国和德国(禁止纳粹站点)以及美国(疑似侵犯版权的有关材料将被删除)。尽管在这些西方 国家信息公开化要更为突出,但在 Google 中国站点上出现这一讯息是其向透明化迈出的重要一步,更为 甚者,这也是某种其中国对手无法办到的事情。 Furthermore, Google is tiptoeing into the country with only a handful of services. It is not offering e-mail, blogging or social-networking services, because it worries that it will not be able to ensure users’ privacy. It wishes to avoid the situation in which MSN and Yahoo! find themselves, whereby they are forced to obey the Chinese government’s orders in censoring content and revealing users’ identities. Rather than be placed in a position where it may have to compromise its values, Google instead is narrowing what it offers (although its news service will contain only government-approved media sources). 而且,Google 只须提供很有限的服务,就悄悄地进入了中国市场。由于担心无法确保可以保护用户隐私, 该公司并不提供电子邮件、博客以及社交网络服务。Google 公司希望自己不会落入 MSN 和雅虎如今的境 地——这两家公司不得不遵守中国政府关于内容审查和泄露用户身份方面的规定。Google 公司目前的处 境并不损及其自身利益,相反还缩减了支出费用(虽然其提供的新闻服务内容来源仅限于政府认可的新闻 媒体) 。 Google believes that entering China, even with restraints on content, lets it offer more information than if it remained outside. Yet the decision comes as American internet firms such as Yahoo! and MSN duck criticism that they are complicit with the Chinese authorities. Google 相信,进入中国,无论诸多内容限制,仍令其能提供比以往更多的信息。不过,当雅虎、MSN 这 些美国互联网公司纷纷回避那些指责他们与中国政府串通一气的言论时,Google 公司终于下了决心。 Meanwhile in America For Google, taking the higher road happens to also be a way to differentiate its service. This month America’s Department of Justice went to court to force Google to comply with a subpoena seeking more than 1m web addresses and a weeks’ worth of all users’ searches (down from an original demand of every web address it holds and two months of searches), albeit without any information that would identify individual users. The government wants the data in order to examine the effectiveness of software filters to block pornography, for a case involving a law prohibiting the content, which the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional. 美国国内反响 对于 Google 而言,向更高目标进发恰好也是一种让服务多样化的途径。1 月,美国司法部通过法庭勒令 Google 公司履行之前法院发出的传票,提供一百多万个网址以及所有用户数周的使用搜索引擎记录(亦 即……和两个月的搜索情况),不过不需要确认个人用户身份的相关信息。美政府之所以要这些数据,是 想要检验一下打击网络色情的软件滤过性能,

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong The government requested, and received, information from Yahoo!, MSN and AOL—all of which initially stonewalled about whether they disclosed the data. Yet Google resisted, arguing that “acceding to the request would suggest it is willing to reveal information about those who use its services. This is not a perception that Google can accept.” The day the subpoena was made public, Google’s shares dropped almost 9%, its largest single-day decline since it began trading in 2004. 美政府要求并业已收到了来自雅虎、MSN 以及 AOL 提交的材料,这些公司起初对是否公布有关数据有些 举棋不定。不过,Google 公司最终还是予以了拒绝,并称“谁要是同意按要求去做,就表面谁愿意泄露 其用户的隐私。Google 对此感到不可思议。”传票公布于众的当天,Google 的股价几乎下跌了 9%,创下 2004 年上市以来最大单日跌幅。 Google’s stance could put commercial pressure on its rivals to adopt more customer-friendly policies, and may serve as a warning to other internet firms to treat customers’ data with more care. Yet such high-mindedness will be tested as Google enters China. Keeping its options open, the company is not shutting down the Chinese-language version of Google.com. It will remain available, for those willing to wait a bit longer for their uncensored search results. 从商业上看,Google 公司这一态度有可能迫使其竞争对手采取更有益于用户的政策,并且会提醒其他互 联网公司在对待用户数据时要更为谨慎。然而,在 Google 进驻中国后,它的这种高尚品格将受到考验。 Google 并未关闭 Google.com 的中文界面,仍然保持着其可选性,如此一来,对于那些想搜索到未经审查 的信息而宁愿网速慢一些的用户而言,仍然有路可寻。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 3

Food firms and fat-fighters 食品公司与减肥斗士 Feb 9th 2006 From The Economist Global Agenda Five leading food companies have introduced a labelling scheme for their products in the British market, in an attempt to assuage critics who say they encourage obesity. But consumer groups are unhappy all the same. Is the food industry, like tobacco before it, about to be *engulfed[1] by a wave of lawsuits brought on health grounds? 五家业内领先的食品公司采取了一项方案,就是在其投入英国市场的食品上作出标注,力图堵住那些说他 们鼓励肥胖的批评人士的嘴。不过,消费者团体仍然不开心。食品业会像之前的烟草一样,被卷入一场关 乎健康的诉讼之中吗? KEEPING fit requires a combination of healthy eating and regular exercise. On the second of these at least, the world’s food companies can claim to be setting a good example: they have been working up quite a sweat in their attempts to fend off assaults by governments, consumer groups and lawyers who accuse them of peddling products that encourage obesity. This week saw the unveiling of another industry initiative: five leading food producers—Danone, Kellogg, Nestlé, Kraft and PepsiCo—introduced a labelling scheme for the British market which will show “guideline daily amounts” for calories, fats, sugar and salt on packaging. The new labels will start to appear on the firms’ crisps, chocolate bars, cheese slices *and the like[2] over the next few months. A number of other food giants, such as Cadbury Schweppes and Masterfoods, have already started putting guideline labels on their products. 将健康的饮食习惯和经常性的锻炼二者结合才可以让身体保持健康。至少就第二点而言,全球的食品公司 可以说是树立了一个很好的典范:为了避开政府、消费者团体以及律师们的抨击——指责食品公司四处兜 售促进肥胖的产品,他们已经累得大汗淋漓了。本周,食品业的另一举措也公诸于世:五家业内领先的食 品厂商——Danone, Kellogg, Nestlé, Kraft 以及 PepsiCo——在英国市场实施了一项商品标注计划,即在包 装上标明卡路里(热量) 、脂肪、糖和盐的“每日摄入量指南” 。在接下来的几个月里,这些食品公司的土 豆条、巧克力棒、干酪片等等包装上将开始出现这类新标注。其它许多食品业巨头如 Cadbury Schweppes 和 Masterfoods 也已经着手在其产品上加入指导性标记。 The food companies say doing this will empower consumers, allowing them to make informed decisions about which foods are healthy. (1)But consumer groups have cried foul. They point out that the Food Standards Agency, a government watchdog, is due to recommend a different type of labelling scheme next month: a “traffic light” system using colours to tell consumers whether products have low, medium or high levels of fat, salt and the like. The food firms, they say, have rushed to introduce their own, fuzzier guidelines first in a cynical attempt to undermine the government’s plan—which they fear might hurt their sales. In consumer tests, the traffic light performed better than rival labelling schemes. 这些食品公司说,这么做可以让消费者在确定何种食品为健康食品时心知肚明。但是消费者团体大声疾呼 食品公司此举纯属犯规,他们指出,作为政府监督机构,食品标准局应该在下个月推出一项不同的标注措 施——“红绿灯”方法,亦即应用不同颜色,提醒消费者食品的脂肪、糖、盐分等含量是低、中等还是高。 他们说,食品公司突然率先采用他们自定的那些模糊指南,是对政府计划的恣意破坏,他们害怕政府的计 划会让他们的产品卖不出去。对消费者进行调查后显示, “红绿灯”方法比食品公司的标注方案效果要好。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Nevertheless, the food companies argue that the traffic-light system is too simplistic and likely to scare people away from certain products that are fine if consumed in moderation, or in conjunction with plenty of exercise—which most observers, including the medical profession, agree is crucial for anyone wanting to stay in shape. They also point out that they have competitors to worry about—namely the big supermarket chains with their own-label products. Last April, Tesco, the biggest of these, announced that it was rejecting the traffic-light system in favour of a less stark “signposting” approach. Its rivals fear that adopting colour-coding could put them at a competitive disadvantage. 然而,食品公司辩称,“红绿灯”方法过于简单,某些产品会因此吓跑消费者,而这些产品如果食用适量 或者结合充分锻炼,对人都是十分有益���,而且包括医学专家在内的大多数观察人士都认为,这些食品对 于任何想要保持好体形的人而言都至关重要。同时,他们还指出,他们要顾及一些竞争者,也就是那些对 产品加上各自标注的大型超市连锁店的做法。去年四月,最大一家超市连锁店 Tesco 宣布,他们反对采用 “红绿灯”方法,取而代之的是一种更为灵活的“路标”法。因此,食品公司担心,若采用颜色编码(也 就是红绿灯法),会令他们在竞争中处于劣势。 Better labelling has become an important weapon of the food giants’ armoury as they fight back against their critics. In October 2005 McDonald’s, the world’s largest fast-food company, said it would start printing nutritional facts on the packaging of its burgers and fries, including the fat, salt, calorie and carbohydrate content. Before that, information about (2)big-sellers such as the Big Mac, which contains 30g of fat, could only be found on the firm’s website or in leaflets. 在食品业巨头们回击批评意见的过程中,更好的标注方式已经成为他们“武器库”中的一个“杀手锏”。 2005 年 10 月 1 日,世界最大快餐公司麦当劳称,公司将在汉堡包和炸薯条包装上印上营养常识,包括脂 肪、盐分、热量以及碳水化合物含量。此前,人们只能从食品公司的网站或宣传品上看到一些销路好的食 品有关信息,比如含有 30 克脂肪的 Big Mac。 But labelling is not enough; the food firms know they must also offer healthier fare. McDonald's has introduced salads and fruit to its menus. Kraft and others have brought out low-carbohydrate ranges. Last year, McDonald’s even announced a sporty makeover for Ronald McDonald, its mascot clown, in a bid to encourage children to be more active. But some in the industry suspect that consumers are keener on seeing (3)lighter, healthier meals on the menu than they are on actually buying and eating them; such products are not what the industry calls “ (4) business builders”. That said, some of Nestlé’s more nutritional products, like its PowerBar range for athletes, enjoy higher margins and growth than its traditional fare. 不过,标注还不够;食品公司清楚,他们还必须生产出更加健康的食品。麦当劳公司已将沙拉和水果引入 了它的点餐单之中,Kraft 跟其它公司也制造出了一系列低碳水化合物食品。去年,麦当劳甚至还宣布要 对它的小丑吉祥物——麦当劳叔叔进行翻新改造,使其具有运动型外表,以鼓励孩子们更为活泼。但是某 些业内人士对此提出质疑,认为消费者更渴望在点餐单上看到不加色素、比较健康的膳食,而不会真地去 买来吃;这类食品并非是产业中所谓的“商业增洁剂”。这么说来,雀巢公司生产的某些更富营养的食品, 比如运动员专用的 PowerBar 系列,要比其传统食品能带来更高的利润及增长。 Wobbling all over the world 全球食品业正经受震荡 The pressure on the industry is most acute in America, which leads the world in obesity. The proportion of Americans characterised as overweight has risen steadily from 47% ((5)bad enough in itself) in the late 1970s to around two-thirds, including over 30% who are clinically obese. Fast-food chains’ American sales grew from about $6 billion in 1970 to an estimated $134 billion in 2005. Eric Schlosser, author of “Fast Food Nation”, an influential book attacking the industry, has pointed out that Americans spend more on fast food than they do on Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong higher education, PCs or new cars—worrying, when a single meal at a KFC of less than a pound-weight of food plus a large Pepsi can top 1,600 calories, not far short of the daily intake recommended by the government for adults doing only “light physical activity”. 肥胖人数居世界首位的美国食品业承受的压力最大。上世纪 70 年代末期,美国人中超重人口所占比例从 47%(这个数字本身已经糟糕透了)逐步增长到大约三分之二,其中包括 30%以上临床肥胖症患者,而美 国快餐连锁店的销售额则从 1970 年的 60 亿美元增加到 2005 年的大约 1340 亿美元。旨在抨击快餐业、颇 具影响力的《快餐国度》一书作者埃里克•施罗瑟曾指出,美国人吃快餐花的钱要比花在高等教育、个人 电脑或者买新汽车上的钱多。令他感到担忧的是,在肯德基快餐店光吃一顿不到一磅重的餐点,再喝一大 杯百事可乐,摄入热量就可能超过 1600 卡路里,这比美国政府为仅从事“轻度体力活动”的成人所推荐 的每日摄取量并不低多少。(言下之意,一餐就摄取如此多热量,况乎一日三餐?) (6)Where the United States leads, others are following. In the European Union, up to 27% of men are considered to be obese, and almost a quarter of all children are deemed overweight. Britain, with its love of burgers and packaged meals, is seen as following closest on America’s heels, but the rate of obesity has started to swell on the continent too. Some 11% of the adult population of France were obese in 2003, up from 8% in 1997 (the actual level may be higher still since the figures are based on polls asking people if they are fat, and (7) self-reporting produces underestimates). France has *latched on to[3] the fast-food culture: it is one of the biggest and most profitable European markets for McDonald’s. 凡是有美国带头的地方,别国都会亦步亦趋。在欧盟国家,高达 27%的男性被认为患有肥胖症,几乎四分 之一的儿童则被认为体重超常。爱吃汉堡包和打包食物的英国被看作是跟美国最贴近的“跟屁虫”,不过 其“肥胖队伍”同样开始日益壮大。在法国,成人患肥胖症的比率从 1997 年的 8%一下子增加到 2003 年 的 11%(由于统计数主要基于问卷调查,因此实际水平可能更高——自己说自己的情况往往导致低估实际 水平嘛)。法国已经领悟了快餐文化的真谛:它就是麦当劳公司在欧洲最大、最赚钱的市场之一。 No wonder, then, that the past few years have been bad for food companies (8)in image terms—and terrible for the fast-food lot. Attacks on the industry have changed the psychological climate in which it operates, and they may yet change the legislative climate too. So far, lawsuits brought on health-and-safety grounds have been more of a warning than a general threat. In 2003 a New York judge dismissed a lawsuit claiming that McDonald’s had misled customers into believing that its food was healthy (though the suit was later partially reinstated). A number of American states have passed “common-sense consumption laws” aimed at deterring obesity cases in local courts. 那么,过去这几年食品公司的日子不太好过,而快餐业就更加糟糕。对食品业的抨击,已经带来了人们消 费心理上的变化,或许也还将改变立法。迄今为止,基于健康安全的诉讼更多的是一种警醒,而没有对食 品业形成真正的威胁。2003 年,纽约一名法官驳回了一项诉讼,该诉讼声称麦当劳公司误导了消费者, 让他们相信其食品是健康的(尽管该诉讼后来又受到部分复议) 。美国一些州还通过了《消费常识法》,旨 在让地方法庭拒绝受理肥胖诉讼案例。 Nevertheless, some lawyers still see a similarity between the position of food companies now and that of tobacco companies in the 1960s and 1970s, when private lawsuits paved the way for a co-ordinated attack on “big tobacco” by attorneys-general. Worries about rising obesity rates among children, and fear of subsequent legal actions, have caused companies to (9)scale back their marketing of fatty food and soft drinks to minors. 不过,有的律师仍然察觉到目前食品公司的处境与上世纪六、七十年代时的烟草公司有一定的相似之处。 当时,众多个人诉讼为后来各州首席检察官针对“烟草业巨头”发动“协同攻击”铺平了道路。各家食品 公司关注到儿童肥胖比例正日益增长,并担心被起诉,已经开始逐步缩减针对未成年人的高脂食品和软饮 料的销售。 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong In several countries, government pronouncements and actions have added to the pressure on the industry. The British government’s push to introduce traffic-light labelling comes in the wake of a hard-hitting report from the House of Commons Health Select Committee, whose chairman said: “The devastating consequences of the epidemic of obesity are likely to have a profound impact over the next century.” In France, a law has been passed to impose a 1.5% tax on the advertising budgets of food companies if they do not encourage healthy eating. The industry may claim, with some justification, that ultimate responsibility for bad diet *rests with[4] the individual, and that the amount of exercise you do is just as important as the amount of food you eat. But as long as governments, lawyers and health campaigners continue to pile on the pressure, it will have to work hard to convince them it is (10)doing its bit to stop people piling on the pounds. 有几个国家政府已经发布有关声明并采取了一些举措,这让食品业感到压力倍增。英国国会下院健康特别 委员会一份掷地有声的报告,迫使英国政府开始全力引入“红绿灯”标识方案。该委员会主席说: “肥胖 症的流行所引发的破坏性后果很可能会对下个世纪产生深远影响。”法国也已通过一项法律,拟对不宣扬 健康饮食的食品公司征收 1.5%的广告预算税。食品业也许会略显理直气壮地申辩,不良饮食的根本责任 应由消费者个人承担,每个人的运动量同进食多少同样重要。不过,只要政府、律师以及健康饮食倡议人 士不停止施压,食品业就必须努力让他们确信,为了不让人们变得越来越胖,它正在尽自己的一份绵薄之 力。 注释: [1]engulf:席卷、吞没、吞噬 [2]and the like: 等等,诸如此类 [3]latch on to: 明白,了解。latch 的本义为“抓住,占有,插上插销”。 [4]rest with: 在于,归属于,取决于 抛砖引玉: (1) 本句中 cried foul 应该如何翻译合适?这句话笔者译为“大声疾呼食品公司此举纯属犯规”妥当否? 难道这里 cry foul 就是比赛场上裁判“喊犯规叫停”? (2) big-sellers 中的 seller 是销售商还是销售商品?big 是指大型的还是销路好的或者其它? (3) light 在这个句子里的意思不应该是“轻的”吧?我猜想应该是“原色的,基色的,浅色的”,您认 为呢? (4) builder 是“建造者”还是“增洁剂”?比较专业,请指教。 (5) 我思来想去,也找不出比“这个数字本身就已经糟糕透顶”更好的译法了,或许还真有更好的? (6) Come on, guys! 谁能把这句翻译更为贴切、更为通达呢? (7) 越译越晕,我心里明白这个 self-reporting 的意思,可是到底怎么表达出来才准确呢? (8) in image terms,啥意思?我就不抛砖了,免得砸着自己,呵呵! (9) scale up 按比例增加;scale down 按比例缩减,那么 scale back 呢?我想,应该跟 scale down 差不多 吧? (10) do one’s bits 我在词典上没有查到相应的短语,不过“bit”一词本身是“少许”之意,我想译为 “尽……绵薄之力”应当不坏,您看呢?

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 4

A question of standards 一个关乎标准的问题 Feb 9th 2006 From The Economist Global Agenda More suggestions of bad behaviour by tobacco companies. Maybe 也许,烟草公司对那些不良行为应多提点建议 ANOTHER round has just been fought in the battle between tobacco companies and those who regard them as spawn of the devil. In a paper just published in the Lancet, with the provocative title “Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity”, David Hammond, of *Waterloo University[1] in Canada and Neil Collishaw and Cynthia Callard, two members of Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada, a lobby group, criticise the behaviour of British American Tobacco (BAT). They say the firm considered manipulating some of its products in order to (1)make them low-tar in the eyes of officialdom while they actually delivered high tar and nicotine levels to smokers. 烟草公司与那些视其为“魔鬼之子”的人之间刚刚又进行了新一轮的交锋。新近出版的《柳叶刀》刊登了 一篇题目颇具煽动性的论文《秘密科研——烟草业开展对吸烟行为和香烟毒性的研究》,作者是加拿大沃 特鲁大学的戴维•哈蒙德以及加拿大一个名为“无烟加拿大医师”游说团的两名成员尼尔•科里肖和辛西娅 •加拉德。他们对英美烟草公司的行为提出了批评,称该公司拟对某些烟草产品进行处理,企图让监督部 门误以为其焦油含量低,而实际上这些产品仍会使得烟民吸收高浓度的焦油和尼古丁。 It was and is no secret, as BAT points out, that people smoke low-tar cigarettes differently from high-tar ones. The reason is that they want a decent dose of the nicotine which tobacco smoke contains. They therefore *pull[2] a larger volume of air through the cigarette when they *draw on[3] a low-tar rather than a high-tar variety. (2) The extra volume makes up for the lower concentration of the drug. 正如英美烟草公司所指出,人们吸低焦油含量香烟的感觉不同于高焦油含量香烟,这在过去和现在都不是 什么秘密。这是因为他们需要烟草中含有适量尼古丁,抽低焦油品种的香烟时所吸入的空气含量也因此比 抽高焦油品种的香烟时高, (译者注:也就是说,尼古丁含量过高,烟就很难吸,不容易抽得动。)而这高 出来的空气含量也弥补了瘾性物质(尼古丁)的不足。 But a burning cigarette is a complex thing, and that extra volume has some unexpected consequences. In particular, a bigger draw is generally a faster draw. (3)That pulls a higher proportion of the air inhaled through the burning tobacco, rather than through the paper sides of the cigarette. This, in turn, means more smoke per unit volume, and thus more tar and nicotine. The nature of the nicotine may change, too, with more of it being in a form that is easy for the body to absorb. 不过,一支点燃的卷烟可是一个复杂的玩意儿,并且空气量增加也会带来意想不到的结果,特别是当我们 大口吸烟时往往会很快抽完一支烟,此时所吸入的空气更多来自于燃烧的烟草而非卷烟纸侧。因而,这就 意味着每多吸一口空气,就会多吸一口焦油和尼古丁。多数尼古丁都以一种易被人体吸收的形式存在,因 此尼古丁的性质也可能发生改变。 According to Dr Hammond and his colleagues, a series of studies conducted by BAT's researchers between 1972 and 1994 quantified much of this. The standardised way of analysing cigarette smoke, as *laid down[4] by the Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), which regulates everything from computer code to greenhouse gases, uses a machine to make 35-millilitre puffs, drawn for two seconds once a minute. The firm's researchers, by contrast, found that real smokers draw 50-70ml per puff, and do so twice a minute. (4)Dr Hammonds's conclusion is drawn from the huge body of documents disgorged by the tobacco industry as part of various legal settlements that have taken place in the past few years, mainly as a result of disputes with the authorities in the United States. 据哈蒙德医生及其同事们称,英美烟草公司的研究员已于 1972 年到 1994 年间通过一系列研究对上述大部 分问题进行了定量检测。卷烟烟尘分析的标准方法,是由国际标准化组织(ISO,该组织可对包括计算机 代码和温室气体在内的所有问题作出规定)制定的,此法利用一台机器喷发出 35 毫升的烟雾,受试者每 分钟吸一次、每次持续 2 秒即可吸完。以此为对照,英美公司研究员发现,真正的烟民每分钟 2 次即可吸 完 50 至 70 毫升烟雾。哈蒙德医生是从烟草业提供的大量文献中得出这一结论的。过去几年烟草业与美国 当局一直僵持不下,遂签署了各类法律协议。作为其中的一项内容,烟草业被迫拱手交出这些文献。 Dr Hammond suggests, however, the firm went beyond merely investigating how people smoked. A series of internal documents from the late 1970s and early 1980s shows that BAT at least thought about applying this knowledge to cigarette design. A research report from 1979 puts it thus: “There are three major design features which can be used either individually or in combination to manipulate delivery levels; filtration, paper permeability, and filter-tip ventilation.” A conference paper from 1983 says, “The challenge would be to reduce the mainstream nicotine determined by standard smoking-machine measurement while increasing the amount that would actually be absorbed by the smoker”. Another conference paper, from 1984, says: “(5)We should strive to achieve this effect without appearing to have a cigarette that cheats the league table. Ideally it should appear to be no different from a normal cigarette...It should also be capable of delivering up to 100% more than its machine delivery.” 不过哈蒙德医生表示,英美公司所调查的不仅仅人们的吸烟方式。英美公司上世纪 70 年代末、80 年代初 的一系列内部文献表明,该公司至少曾考虑过将这一知识用于卷烟设计。1979 年的一份研究报告上这样 说道: “可分别或联合应用与设计有关的三个要素,即过滤、烟卷包装纸的通透性以及过滤嘴的通气效果, 来控制焦油和尼古丁的释放水平。”1983 年一份会议论文也提到,“关键在于,要在提高吸烟者尼古丁实 际吸收量的同时,减少可被标准检测方法测定到的含量。”1984 年另一份会议论文说:“我们应当努力达 到这一效果并能在检测中蒙混过关。理想化的结果是,这种香烟看上去应与一般香烟无任何差异…… 并 且释放的尼古丁及焦油量要比机器释放的高出 100%。” None of the documents discovered by the three researchers shows that BAT actually did redesign its cigarettes in this way, and the firm denies that it did. However, BAT's own data show that some of its cigarettes delivered far more nicotine and tar to machines which had the characteristics of real smokers than to those which ran on ISO standards. In the most extreme example, in a test carried out in 1987, the “real smoking” machine drew 86% more nicotine and 114% more tar from Player's Extra Light than the ISO machine detected, although smoke intake was only 27% higher. 三名研究人员发现的文献中没有一篇表明英美公司确曾采用这种方法对其生产的卷烟进行了改良,而且该 公司也矢口否认这么干过。英美公司内部资料显示,其生产的某些卷烟向机器(具有实际吸烟者特征)释 放的尼古丁和焦油量远远超出 ISO 标准。最为极端的例子是,在 1987 年进行的一项实验中, “真吸烟”机 器从 Player's Extra Light 牌卷烟中吸收的尼古丁和焦油量比 ISO 仪器实际检测到的量分别高出 86%和 114%,而烟雾摄入量仅高 27%。 (6)Regardless of how this [b][color=#0000FF]*came about[5], the irony is that low-tar brands may have ended up causing more health problems than high-tar ones.[/color][/b] As one of BAT's medical consultants put it as Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong early as 1978, “Perhaps the most important determinant of the risk to health or to a particular aspect of health is the extent to which smoke is inhaled by smokers. If so, then deeply inhaled smoke from low-tar-delivery cigarettes might be more harmful than uninhaled smoke from high-tar cigarettes.” The firm, meanwhile, points out that the ISO test has been regarded as unreliable since 1967, and says its scientists have been part of a panel that is working on a new ISO standard. 不管事实真相是怎样的,具有讽刺意味的是,低焦油卷烟竟然比高焦油卷烟可能更有损于健康。正如一名 英美公司医学顾问 1978 年所言, “也许,吸烟者吸烟时的深浅度是危及健康或者健康某一特定方面的最重 要决定性因素。若果真如此,从低焦油卷烟中深深吸入的烟对人的危害可能比高焦油卷烟中未被吸入的烟 更大。 ”与此同时,英美公司指出,自 1967 年以来,ISO 的试验一直都被认为是不可靠的。并且言称其公 司的科学家们已加入某评估委员会,正在研究制定新的 ISO 标准。 注释: [1]Waterloo:在比利时中部靠近布鲁塞尔的城镇,为拿破仑 1815 年 6 月 18 日遭到决定性失败的“滑铁卢”; 而在加拿大安达略省东南部和美国衣阿华州东北部各有一座城市,一般译名为“沃特鲁”,以示区分。 [2]pull: 深吸; 对烟或饮料大口的吸或喝 [3]draw on: 吸收 [4]lay down: 规定,制定 [5]come about: 发生 抛砖引玉——请对文中划线短句给出您的译法(对应序号) : (1) make them low-tar in the eyes of officialdom (2) The extra volume makes up for the lower concentration of the drug. (3) That pulls a higher proportion of the air inhaled through the burning tobacco, rather than through the paper sides of the cigarette. (4) Dr Hammonds's conclusion is drawn from the huge body of documents disgorged by the tobacco industry as part of various legal settlements that have taken place in the past few years, mainly as a result of disputes with the authorities in the United States. (5) We should strive to achieve this effect without appearing to have a cigarette that cheats the league table. (6) Regardless of how this came about, the irony is that low-tar brands may have ended up causing more health problems than high-tar ones.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 5

Stuff of dreams 梦想的精粹 Feb 16th 2006 | CORK AND LONDON From The Economist print edition (译者注:本文是关于画展的评论。 ) Two exhibitions show how a pair of 18th-century painters, James Barry and Henry Fuseli, inspired the modern visual ★romance with[1] the gothic 两个画展展示的是,两位 18 世纪画家——詹姆斯•巴里和亨利•富塞利——如何唤起了现代人从视觉上对 哥特式艺术的憧憬。 THIS spring the bad boys of British art are ★ making a comeback[2]. Not Damien Hirst and his friends, but the original ★ enfants terribles[3]— ★ Henry Fuseli[4] (1741-1825) and James Barry (1741-1806)—who aimed, above all, to depict extremes of passion and terror in what they called the new art of the Sublime. 今春,英国艺术界的坏孩子再次粉墨登场了。 我们说的不是达米恩•赫斯特和他的朋友们, 而是亨利•富塞利(1741-1825)和詹姆斯• 巴里(1741-1806),这两位“莽撞少年”的 始作俑者,他们的首要目标就是要用所谓的 “新派高尚艺术”去描绘极度激情与恐怖。 Barry and Fuseli are hardly household names; indeed since Victorian times they have been virtually ignored. But in the late 18th century, Fuseli, and for a short time Barry also, were prominent members of the young Royal Academy of Arts (RA) and influential professors of painting there. Barry's ★fall from grace[5] was the most dramatic, but there is much to admire in this irascible Irish artist who, like Fuseli, once taught William Blake. Barry's prolific historical paintings demonstrate his ambition to rival the painters of antiquity and the Renaissance and to practise what the then president of the RA, Sir Joshua Reynolds, always preached—that history painting was the noblest form of art.(1)But Barry found it hard to be bound by rules, and he turned history and myth into a series of ★tableaux[6] that were at once oddly expressionistic and deeply personal.巴里和富塞利这两个名字 算不上家喻户晓,实际上自维多利亚时代以来,世人对他们已经不闻不问。不过,在 18 世纪晚期,富塞 利曾经是早期皇家美术学院(RA)的杰出会员和颇具影响力的画师,巴里曾一度也是如此。巴里的失宠 于众最富于戏剧性,但跟富塞利一样曾给威廉•布莱克传授过技艺的这位性情暴躁的爱尔兰艺术家,还是 拥有许多让人敬佩的地方。他的众多历史性画作都表明,他热望与古代以及文艺复兴时期的画家相抗衡, 始终信奉历史画乃是最为尊贵的艺术形式,而这恰恰也是皇家美术学院当时的院长约书亚•雷诺兹爵士所 一直倡导的。但是历史画受制于过多约束让巴里感到难以接受,遂将史实与神话融为一体,并用一系列舞 台造型加以表现,随即成为与主流格格不入的表现派,并打上了深深的个人主义烙印。 His melodramatic “King Lear Weeping over the Body of Cordelia” and his sexually charged “★Jupiter and Page 1 of 6


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Juno on Mount Ida[7]”, now both part of a retrospective of the artist's work in Cork, (2)proved too full of feeling for a British audience raised on portraits and landscape paintings. His only loyal patron was Edmund Burke, who had ★coined[8] a theory of the Sublime. 巴里的情景画《泪洒科蒂利亚亡体的李尔王》以及他那幅洋溢着性爱的《艾达峰上的朱庇特和朱诺》,现 已成为科克城(爱尔兰南部港口城市)艺术家作品回顾展的一部分。这两幅画作表明英国观众对肖像画和 风景画投注了极大的热情。埃德蒙•伯克是唯一自始至终资助巴里的人,正是他创立了“高尚艺术”理论。 Barry felt he was a persecuted soul, and he painted himself as various ill-fated characters, most bizarrely ★ Philoctetes[9], the sailor whom Odysseus abandoned on the island of Lemnos because he smelled so bad. As if that weren't enough, Barry also incited his RA students to revolt and then allegedly accused Reynolds of financial impropriety. When he became too unbearable, Barry became the first artist to be expelled by the academy. 巴里认为自己的灵魂受到了戕害,便将自己画成形形色色充满晦气的人物,其中最为怪异的是菲罗克忒忒 斯,那位由于臭气熏天而被奥德修斯抛弃在利姆诺斯岛上的水手。似乎这还不够,巴里还鼓动他在皇家美 术学院的学生造反,而且据说后来甚至指控雷诺兹在财政上存在违法问题。巴里变得越来越让人忍无可忍, 于是成了第一个被学院开除的艺术家。 Barry knew Fuseli, and (3)he makes a minor appearance in “Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination”, the ★brainchild[10] of an engaging British ★polymath[11], Sir Christopher Frayling, who heads the Arts Council of England and the Royal College of Art. Sir Christopher has long been fascinated by the horror ★genre[12]—he once presented a popular television programme on the topic—and his favourite painting is Fuseli's “The Nightmare” (pictured above), an unsettling image of a sleeping maiden, with an ★ incubus[13] ★perched[14] on her stomach and a ★ghoulish[15] horse peering through a curtain. 巴里认识富塞利,作为特邀嘉宾参加了《哥特式梦魇——富塞利、布莱克和浪漫主义幻想》画展。那次画 展是由英格兰艺术理事会和皇家艺术学院主席、富于号召力的英国人克里斯托弗•弗雷林爵士策划的。克 里斯托弗爵士长期以来痴迷恐怖艺术——曾以此为主题推出一档颇受欢迎的电视节目——他最钟爱的画 作是富塞利的《梦魇》 (上图),画中描绘的是一位熟睡的女人,腹部上栖息着一个梦淫恶鬼,而布帘后面 一匹长得像食尸鬼一般的马正探头窥视,整幅画看了让人感到心神不宁。 Sir Christopher sees this painting, together with Fuseli's scenes from Milton and Shakespeare, as part of a search for national myths in the late 18th century. (4)Indeed, his interpretation illuminates an Enlightenment world that hovered between reason and ★bigotry[16], and where a quasi-scientific interest in the ★occult[17] and the emerging genre of the novel fed a public that was hungry for “tales of wonder”. 克里斯托弗爵士认为,富塞利的这幅画以及取材于密尔顿和莎士比亚作品的那些画作,乃是探寻 18 世纪 民族神话的一部分。事实上,他的这一评注为纠缠在理智与偏见之间的“教化世界”带来了曙光。在这样 一个“教化世界”中,对玄妙之事的半带科学性的热诚和涌现出的相关小说流派,让大众对“惊愕故事” 的渴求得到了极大满足。 Unlike Barry, Fuseli—a former preacher who was forced to leave his native Zurich—looked rationally at the London art scene. He saw that(5)the only way to compete for “wall power” at the all-important annual exhibition of the RA was to carve out his own niche, the more eye-catching and ★esoteric[18] the better. In 1782 Fuseli exhibited “The Nightmare” for the first time, drawing record crowds of up to 3,000 people a day. Perplexed critics asked what the painting was about. In an age when art was supposed to depict an actual person or event, (6)it came as a shock that this was a painting not of a nightmare, but of the nightmare as a generalized experience. 当过传教士后来被迫离开祖国瑞士的富塞利跟巴里不一样,他较为理智地看待伦敦艺术境况。他发现,要 Page 2 of 6


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 想在至关重要的皇家美术学院年度画展上争取到“支持力量”,只有标新立异,越引人注目、越生涩越好。 1782 年,富塞利首次展出《梦魇》一作,每天观摩者创纪录地达到 3000 人。批评家们对画中所要表现的 主题感到百思不得其解。在一个艺术被认为应该是描写真人真事的年代,这幅画的诞生让世人感到震惊: 它并不单单是对一般恶梦的简单描绘,而是对恶梦体验的一次真实再现。 Interestingly, it was not until 1793 that anyone suggested publicly that the painting of a scantily ★clad[19] woman stretched out on a bed might be about sex. In a post-Freud world, it is impossible to look at “The Nightmare” and see anything else.(7) There is a soft-porn ★perversity[20] about many of Fuseli's muscular super-heroes and ★nubile[21] ★nymphs[22], particularly his Titania from “A Midsummer Night's Dream”. The ★erotic[23] drawings and prints by him and his pupil Theodor von Holst are so explicit that the Tate has hung a veil between them and Fuseli's popular fairy paintings nearby, which are a favourite with children. 有意思的是,直到 1793 年才有人公开指出,这幅画上的女人几乎一丝不挂地躺在床上,因此可能与性有 关。在后弗洛伊德时代,盯着《梦魇》而又不想入非非是不可能的。富塞利画中肌肉结实的超级英雄和含 苞欲放的美丽少女,尤其是取材于《仲夏夜之梦》的泰坦尼亚,模糊的色情描绘让人多少有些心慌意乱。 由于富塞利及其学生霍尔斯特的素描和版画色情描绘过于直接,泰特美术馆就悬挂起一块幕布,将在这些 画与近旁富塞利那些迎合大众的、尤其是孩子们最爱看的仙女画隔开。 Unsurprisingly, Fuseli's work was ★vilified[24] by the Victorians, and he came back into favour only when the Surrealists—(8)★enthralled[25] by his weird mix of deviance, death and dreams—claimed him as a hero. Today, the artist who bred his own moths in order to depict them accurately in his fairy paintings hangs in the same gallery as those other attention-seekers, Mr Hirst and Tracey Emin; it is almost as if he were their long-lost ancestor. 富塞利的作品遭到了维多利亚女王时代艺术家们的非难,这是意料之中的事。直到超现实主义者――集反 社会、死亡、幻想等诡异元素于一身的富塞利令他们着迷――称之为英雄的时候,他这才重新受宠。如今, 这位为了准确描绘仙女画中的飞蛾而亲自养殖的艺术家,同其他那些万众瞩目的人如赫斯特、特雷西•艾 明一样,也进入了美术陈列室,看上去就像是这些人的鼻祖。 While Fuseli's rehabilitation is admirable, the Tate's obsession with inclusiveness dilutes Sir Christopher's ideas. (9)Viewers are overloaded with ★mawkish[26] pictures that the curators call “Gothic gloomth”, borrowing a phrase from Horace Walpole. Instead of rising to Sir Christopher's wide-ranging themes, which link Fuseli and Blake with other great European painters, including Goya and Caspar David Friedrich, the Tate has taken a ★ parochial[27] view, showing virtually every mediocre British artist who ever ★dabbled[28] in gothic fantasy. Thankfully James Gillray is also there, and his ★biting[29] caricatures lift the spirits. 虽然富塞利的重振旗鼓令人肃然起敬,但坚持包罗万象的泰特美术馆还是弱化了克里斯托弗的观念。众多 索然无味的绘画充斥着观众的视野,美术馆长们引用贺瑞斯•沃波尔的一条成语,把这些画称作“哥特式 晦暗” 。克里斯托弗爵士崇尚的主题广泛,将富塞利、布莱克同包括戈亚、卡斯帕•戴维•弗雷德里希在内 的欧洲其他杰出画家有机结合在一起,但泰特美术馆却反其道而行之,几乎展出了所有和哥特式幻想沾点 边、不入流的英国艺术家的作品,其眼界之狭窄可见一斑。令人欣慰的是,这里面也包括了詹姆斯•基尔 雷,他的讽刺画发人深省,令人精神振奋。 The last room is one of the best.(10) Here Sir Christopher has added his cross-cultural ★hallmark[30]: a series of horror film clips that invoke Fuseli's “The Nightmare” as the ultimate shock-horror icon. And at the exit, Angela Carter's words, “We live in gothic times”, are emblazoned on the wall. The spirit of Barry and Fuseli lives on. 最后一间是最好的展室之一,克里斯托弗爵士的“跨文化”印记在此得以展现,那就是一系列以富塞利《梦 Page 3 of 6


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 魇》为最终惊悚形象的恐怖电影短片。并且,在展室出口处的墙上,安吉拉•卡特的名言“我们生活在哥 特式时代”也赫然在目。巴里和富塞利的精神常驻人间。 ★★★注释★★★ [1]romance with:对……的迷恋、向往 如:a childhood romance with the sea 儿时对大海的浪漫向往(憧憬) [2]make a comeback: 恢复、复原(指名誉、地位、知名度、流行性) 如:The film star made an unexpected comeback. 这位电影明星出人意料地复出了。 [3]enfant terrible:莽汉(因其令人惊愕的不合传统的行为、工作或思想而使他人困窘或惊慌的人);复数 形式为 enfants terribles 如:The radical painter was the enfant terrible of the art establishment.激进派画家是艺术当权派的可怕莽汉 [4]亨利•富塞利,生于瑞士的英国画家,作品包括恶梦 (1781 年),风格怪诞恐怖,对 20 世纪二三十年 代的超现实主义者有一定影响 [5]fall from grace: 失去天恩,堕落(名誉、地位的贬低) [6]tableaux: 舞台造型,(由活人扮演的)静态画面、场面 [7]Jubiter:朱庇特(古罗马的保护神);另:木星 Juno::罗马万神庙里最主要的女神,朱庇特的妻子亦是其姐姐,主司婚姻和妇女的安康; Mount Ida:艾达峰,克里特岛中部一山峰,海拔 2,457.7m(8,058 英尺) 。它是该岛的最高点,在古代它与 人们对宙斯的崇拜有密切的相关。 [8]coin:设计,杜撰(新词语) 如:Do not coin terms that are intelligible to nobody.不要生造谁也不懂的词语。 [9]Philoctetes:菲罗克忒忒斯,希腊神话中人物,在特洛伊战争中用其父大力神 Hercules 所遗之弓和毒箭 杀死特洛伊王子 Paris 的英雄 [10]brainchild:指计划,想法,创作等脑力劳动的创造物 [11]polymath:学识渊博的人 [12]genre:类型,流派(文艺作品) [13]incubus:阴库巴斯恶鬼,梦淫妖(据说会趁女人熟睡压而在女人身上并与其交配的恶鬼);梦魇;沉 重负担 [14]perch:v. 栖息,栖止 如:Birds perched on the branch.鸟停在树枝上。 [15]ghoulish:adj.食尸鬼似的,残忍的 ghoul:n.食尸鬼;盗尸者 Page 4 of 6


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [16]bigotry:n.固执,顽固,偏见 [17]occult:n.神秘学,神秘之事,玄妙之事 [18]esoteric:adj.深奥的,秘传的,不公开披露的 如:Some words are really too esoteric for this dictionary. 有些单词实在太生僻了,未收入本词典内。 [19]clad:穿衣的,覆盖着的 如:The woods on the mountain sides were clad in mist.高山坡上的小树林都笼罩在一片薄雾中。 [20]perversity:n.反常;刚愎,任性;错乱 [21]nubile:adj.适于结婚的,到结婚年龄的;性成熟的 [22]nymph:n.美少女;居于山林水泽的仙女;罗马神话中宁芙女神 [23]erotic:adj.性欲的,好色的,色情的 [24]vilify:v.污蔑;诋毁;诽谤;辱骂 [25]enthrall:v.迷住,着迷 如:The boy was enthralled by the stories of adventure.这孩子被冒险故事迷住了。 [26]mawkish:adj.自作多情的,多愁善感的;令人作呕的,令人厌恶的 [27]parochial:adj.教区的;眼界狭窄的,地方性的 [28]dabble:v.涉水,涉足 dabble in:涉猎,涉足;不经意做…… 如:She just dabbles in chemistry.她只不过是随便搞一下化学。 [29]biting:adj.尖锐的,尖刻的;刺痛的 如:His remark has a biting edge to it.他的评语非常尖锐。 [30]hallmark:n.标记;特点 如:The sense of guilt is the hallmark of civilized humanity.犯罪感是文明人显而易见的特征。 [31]emblazon:v.用纹章装饰,醒目装饰;颂扬 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★(见文中划线部分) (1) But Barry found it hard to be bound by rules, and he turned history and myth into a series of tableaux that were at once oddly expressionistic and deeply personal. (2) proved too full of feeling for a British audience raised on portraits and landscape paintings. (3) he makes a minor appearance in “Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination” (4) Indeed, his interpretation illuminates an Enlightenment world that hovered between reason and bigotry, and Page 5 of 6


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong where a quasi-scientific interest in the occult and the emerging genre of the novel fed a public that was hungry for “tales of wonder”. (5) the only way to compete for “wall power” at the all-important annual exhibition of the RA was to carve out his own niche, the more eye-catching and esoteric the better. (6) it came as a shock that this was a painting not of a nightmare, but of the nightmare as a generalized experience. (7) There is a soft-porn perversity about many of Fuseli's muscular super-heroes and nubile nymphs, particularly his Titania from “A Midsummer Night's Dream”. (8) enthralled by his weird mix of deviance, death and dreams (9) Viewers are overloaded with mawkish pictures that the curators call “Gothic gloomth”, borrowing a phrase from Horace Walpole. (10) Here Sir Christopher has added his cross-cultural hallmark: a series of horror film clips that invoke Fuseli's “The Nightmare” as the ultimate shock-horror icon.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 6

Travelling with baggage 背着行囊去旅行 Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition (1)FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir ★Wilfred Thesiger[1], who died in 2003. Despising the “drab uniformity of the modern world”, Sir Wilfred ★slogged across [2] Africa and Asia, especially Arabia, on animals and on foot, immersing himself in tribal societies. He delighted in killing—lions in Sudan in the years before the second world war, Germans and Italians during it. He disliked “soft” living and “★intrusive[3]” women and revered murderous savages, to whom he gave guns. He thought educating the working classes a waste of good servants. He kicked his dog. His journeys were more notable as feats of ★ masochistic[4] endurance than as exploration. Yet his first two books, “Arabian Sands”, about his crossing of the Empty Quarter, and “The Marsh Arabs”, about southern Iraq, have a ★terse[5] brilliance about them. As records of ancient cultures on the ★cusp[6] of ★oblivion[7], they are unrivalled. 现代游记作家鲜有人能比 2003 年去世的威福瑞•塞西格爵士更令人敬畏。威福瑞爵士厌恶这个“单一乏味 的现代世界”,于是或兽力或徒步,长途跋涉,穿越非洲和亚洲,特别是阿拉伯半岛,完全将自己沉浸在 了部落社会中。在德国人和意大利人参加的二战前的那段岁月里,他住在苏丹,喜欢捕猎狮子。他讨厌“温 和”的生活,憎恶“不安本分”的女人,敬重残暴的原始人并向他们赠送枪支。在他看来,让工人阶级受 教育无异于优秀奴仆人才的浪费。他用脚踹自己的狗。他的旅行所以出名,与其说是因为探险历程,莫若 说是因为他那种“受虐狂”的表现。不过,他的头两本著作,一本叙述横穿阿拉伯半岛南部沙漠“空白之 地”的《阿拉伯沙地》和另一本描写南伊拉克的《沼地阿拉伯人》,简洁明了地记录了他光辉的旅程。相 比湮没于历史深处的那些古文化记载,这样的旅程同样无与伦比。 Sir Wilfred's critics invariably sing the same chorus. They accuse him of hypocrisy, noting that his part-time primitive lifestyle required a private income and good connections to obtain travel permits. They argue that he ★ deluded[8] himself about the motives of his adored tribal companions. In Kenya, where he lived for two decades towards the end of his life, his Samburu “sons” are calculated to have ★fleeced him of[9] at least $1m. (2) Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the photographs he took of beautiful youths. 非议威福瑞的人从来都异口同声地指责他是伪君子,说他的半原始生活方式少不了私人收入支持,而且要 想获得旅行批准,他还得处理好人际关系。他们坚持认为,威福瑞说自己旅行的动机是仰慕部落社会里的 同伴,这是自欺欺人。威福瑞晚年曾在肯尼亚生活了二十年,据估算,他在桑姆布鲁部落认养的几个“儿 子”至少从他那里骗取了 100 万美元。批评人士指着威福瑞拍摄的一些漂亮年轻人的照片,断定威福瑞的 所作所为完全因为他是同性恋,无论明不明显。 This may all be true, but it does not diminish his achievements. (3)Moreover, he admits as much himself in his autobiography and elsewhere. In 1938, before his main travels, for example, Sir Wilfred wrote of his efforts to adopt foreign ways: “(4)I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying.” 也许大家说的都没错,但是这并不会抹杀他的功绩。况且,在他的自传和别的地方,对这些话他并未作任 何辩解。比如,他曾写到,1938 年在一系列重要旅程开始前利用过外交途径, “到底成功与否,我不想欺 骗自己,但是趣味和快乐终究来之不易。”

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong In this authorised biography, Alexander Maitland adds a little colour to the picture, but no important details. He describes the beatings and sexual abuse the explorer suffered at his first boarding school. Quoting from Sir Wilfred's letters, he traces the ★craggy[10] traveller's devotion to his dead father, his mother and three brothers. At times, Sir Wilfred sounds more forgiving, especially of friends, and more playful than his reputation has suggested.(5)As for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers ★coyly [11] to occasional “★furtive[12] embraces and ★voyeuristic[13] encounters”, presumably with men. Wearisome as this topic has become, Mr Maitland achieves nothing by skirting it; and his allusion to Sir Wilfred's “almost-too precious” relationship with his mother is annoyingly vague. 在威福瑞授权出版的这本传记中,亚历山大•梅特兰也就此添油加醋说了一通,不过没什么引人注目的详 细描写。书中记述了这位探险家最初上寄宿学校时曾经遭受的责打和性虐待。梅特兰引用威福瑞信中的话 说,这位经历坎坷不平的旅行者热爱自己去世的父亲、母亲还有三个兄弟。威福瑞有的时候似乎要比传言 中说的更为宽容,尤其是对朋友,而且也更为顽皮。至于他的性取向,梅特兰只是蜻蜓点水地提到,威福 瑞大概曾和男人,偶尔“偷偷摸摸地拥抱一下或者有一点窥淫爱好”。尽管这一话题已经让人感到厌倦, 梅特兰若想回避,就只能一无所获。并且,他暗示威福瑞与其母亲的关系“几乎过于做作” ,也让人摸不 着头脑,厌烦不已。 There may be a reason why Mr Maitland struggles for critical ★distance[14] He writes that he and Sir Wilfred were long-standing friends, but he fails to mention that he collaborated with the explorer on four of his books and later inherited his London flat. If Mr Maitland found it so difficult to view his late friend and benefactor objectively, then perhaps he should not have tried. An earlier biography by Michael Asher, who ★scoured[15] the deserts to track down Sir Wilfred's former fellow travellers, was better; (6)Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. 梅特兰力求为威福瑞正名或许是有原因的。他在书中虽然说和威福瑞是多年好友,却对曾与这位探险家合 作出版四本书以及后来继承他在伦敦的一处寓所一事只字未提。设若梅特兰自觉难以实事求是地评价他的 这位已故至交和恩人,也许他就不应该多此一举。在梅特兰之前也有一篇威福瑞的传记,写得相对就好一 些。作者是迈克尔•阿舍,他曾到沙漠中四处寻觅威福瑞以前的旅行同伴,而梅特兰却好象几乎完全是闭 门造车。 His book is, however, (7)a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. Hopefully, it will also refer readers back to Sir Wilfred's two great books, and to sentences as lovely as this: “Memories of that first visit to the Marshes have never left me: (8)firelight on a half-turned face, the crying of geese, duck ★flighting[16] in to feed, a boy's voice singing somewhere in the dark, canoes moving in procession down a waterway, the setting sun seen crimson through the smoke of burning reed-beds, narrow waterways that wound still deeper into the Marshes.” 话说回来,梅特兰的这本书还是对威福瑞自传《我所选择的人生》起到了有益的助阵作用。但愿这本传记 也能让读者重新想起威福瑞那两本伟大著作,想起这些动人的语句:“沼泽地的第一次旅行始终萦怀:映 照在侧头而望的���上的火光,群鹅的鸣叫,结对飞入觅食的鸭子,黑暗某处男孩的歌声,顺水而行的独木 舟,透过芦苇垫燃烧发出的浓烟看到那绯红的落日,狭窄的河道蜿蜒而入沼泽深处。 ”

★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [1]Wilfred Thesiger:威福瑞•塞西格,毕业于牛津大学,既是一名冒险家,也是一名出色的军人。出生于 非洲,大学毕业后他回到了家乡。一生中到过世界上许多人们难以想象的,荒凉的地方,特别是非洲东部 地区和中东地区。他的自传《四分之一空间》 , 《阿拉伯沙地》,影响了一代代旅行作家。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [2]slog:v.艰难行进,长途跋涉;拼命苦干 如:slog across the swamp;沉重缓慢地走过沼泽地 slogged through both volumes. 缓慢吃力地读完了那两卷 slogged away at Latin.苦读拉丁文 [3]intrusive:adj.打扰的,插入的 [4]masochistic:adj.性受虐狂的,受虐狂的 [5]terse:adj.简洁的,简明的(brief and to the point) [6]cusp:n.尖顶,尖端,尖角 [7]oblivion:n.遗忘,忘却;湮没,埋没 如:to be buried in oblivion 被人遗忘 The city has long since passed into oblivion.该市早已湮没。 [8]delude:v.欺骗,蒙蔽(into)=deceive 如:fraudulent ads that delude consumers into sending in money.欺骗顾客花钱的虚假广告 附注——近义词比较: deceive, betray, mislead, beguile, delude,这些动词都有“通过狡诈的手段把他人导入错误、危险 或不利的位置”的意思。 1) Deceive 是有意隐瞒或歪曲真相的意思: “There is a moment of difficulty and danger at which flattery and falsehood can no longer deceive” (Letters of Junius). “在艰难和危险的时刻,奉承和欺骗不再能蒙蔽人” (朱尼厄斯的信)。 2)Betray 含有不忠或背叛的意思: “When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself” (Isaac Bashevis Singer). “你背叛别人的时候,你也背叛了你自己” (伊萨艾克•巴谢维丝•辛格)。 3)Mislead 意为引入错误的方向或引向错误的思维、行动: “My manhood, long misled by wandering fires,/Followed false lights” (John Dryden). 。 “游移的火焰长久地误导,我的成年时期跟随着虚妄的光” (约翰•德莱顿) 4)Beguile 含有通过友好的方法引诱、欺骗的意思: They beguiled unwary investors with tales of overnight fortunes. To 他们以一夜之间可以发大财的承诺,诱骗了掉以轻心的投资者。 5)Delude 指欺骗到一个程度,致使受骗人无法分辨真伪,或做出可靠的判断: The government deluded the public about the dangers of low-level radiation. 政府欺骗公众,关于低强度辐射的危险性。 [9]fleece:vt. (常与 of 连用)骗取,诈取(金钱) ;(原意是指剪羊毛,薅羊毛) 如:They fleeced us of $100 at that hotel.那家旅馆敲了我们一百美元。 [10]craggy:adj.陡峭的,崎岖不平的 [11]coyly:adj.羞怯地;害羞地 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [12]furtive: adj.偷偷的;秘密的 如:The man's furtive manner gave rise to the suspicion of the theft among the policemen."那个男人鬼鬼祟祟的 样子,引起警察怀疑盗窃案是他作的案。" [13]voyeuristic:adj.喜好窥阴的 [14]distance:n.分歧,不和,不同意: 如:The candidates could not be at a greater distance on this issue.在这个问题上,候选人之间分歧很大。 [15]scour:vt. 搜索;仔细或彻底的查看: 如:The detective scoured the scene of the crime for clues.那个侦探在犯罪现场仔细搜索线索 [16]flight:vi.成群飞行;迁徙

★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★ 请您试试文中划线语句的翻译: (1) FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir Wilfred Thesiger, who died in 2003. (2) Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the photographs he took of beautiful youths. (3) Moreover, he admits as much himself in his autobiography and elsewhere. (4) I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying. (5) As for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers coyly to occasional “furtive embraces and voyeuristic encounters”, presumably with men. (6) Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. (7) a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. (8) firelight on a half-turned face

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 7

Bridge across the Bosporus Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition MORE than 80 years after being ★supplanted[1] by the Turkish republic, the Ottoman empire will not die. Bloodshed in the Balkans; Arab and Kurdish nationalism across the Middle East; ★Turcophobia[2] in Armenia; (1)all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years▲ and whose dominions e____ ① ____ from the Danube through the Levant to Algiers. Few historians have dared compress the story of this extraordinary enterprise into a single volume. “Osman's Dream” shows why.

Osman led one of several Turcoman tribes, of Central Asian descent, that were competing for control of Anatolia at the beginning of the 14th century. (The dream in question was interpreted to mean that Osman would found an imperial house; (2) “Ottoman” is the European corruption of his name▲). By the mid-16th century, Osman's descendants had killed off the Byzantine Empire and t____ ② ____ its capital, Constantinople (renamed Istanbul), into the world's greatest mosque city. They also had control of the Muslim holy places, Mecca and Medina, in Arabia. The empire's expansion was driven in part by Islamic notions of a just war against the ★infidel[3], but the Ottomans were also notable for their relative tolerance. Jews fleeing the ★Spanish inquisition[4] were welcomed to Istanbul. Christian converts became key figures in the bureaucracy, armed forces and the ★ harem[5]. Even at the empire's peak, however, the tide of history was turning in Europe's f__ ③ .___ Challenged by the Europeans' intellectual and military ★prowess[6], hampered by the fiscal ineptitude of its leaders, and powerless to suppress the petty nationalisms that infected its Balkan possessions, (3)the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. ▲ With her doctorate in the ★fiendishly[7] complex discipline of Ottoman studies, (4)Ms Finkel is ideally placed to make sense of this. ▲But “Osman's Dream” leaves one with the impression that the author's scholarship— she includes a 30-page bibliography—could have been put to better use. Her apparent desire to record every event of significance sometimes r___ ④ ___ in a dispiriting succession of military campaigns and diplomatic intrigues; (5)one would have preferred a ★pruning[8] of the ★thicket[9] of events and more discussion of what it all means.▲ (6)The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. ▲She includes a suggestive aside on the blending of French and Persian inspirations in the Ottoman palace-building of the early 18th century—as good an emblem for the empire's strained multiculturalism as you could wish for. There are ★tantalising[10] allusions to both the fascination and the repulsion which animated the later Ottomans' ★ambivalence[11] t___ ⑤ ___ Europe. And one wishes that (7)Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward”▲, in the face of demands, on the part of ★impertinent[12] Europeans, that it reform internally. The limitations of Ms Finkel's approach are most apparent in her ★perfunctory[13] treatment of the empire's final, ★tumultuous[14] years. She deals no more than cursorily with the Armenian massacres during the first Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong world war, preferring to observe that scholarship has suffered from the highly-charged contemporary d___ ⑥ ___ over whether the killings constitute genocide. This point would have made a worthwhile ★footnote[15].(8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a ★cop-out[16].▲

★★★NOTES★★★ [1]supplant:vt.取代,排挤 如:The word processor has largely supplanted electric typewriters. Word 处理程序已很大程度上取代了电动打 字机。 It is my view that the new historical disciplines complement rather than supplant traditional history.我认为这些 新的历史学科对传统历史学起到了补充而非排挤作用。 ▲近义词辨析▲ replace, supplant, supersede 这些动词在用来指把某人或某物辞退或搬走并用他人或他物代替他、她或它时具可比性。 Replace 是指成为或提供代替他人或他物的物或人的相等物或替换物, 尤其是对已经丢失、耗尽、用竭 或被辞退: “A conspiracy was carefully engineered to replace the Directory by three Consuls” (H.G. Wells). “细心策划密谋以三个执政官取代督政府” (H.G,威尔斯)。 “I succeed him [Benjamin Franklin, as envoy to France] ; no one could replace him” (Thomas Jefferson). “我接替他[本杰明•富兰克林,作为派往法国的特使];没有人能够取代他” (托马斯•杰弗逊) 。 Supplant 通常指用阴谋诡计或卑鄙的手段来取代他人的位置: “The rivaling poor Jones, and supplanting him in her affections, added another spur to his pursuit” (Henry Fielding). “对抗的可怜的琼斯,以及用她的影响取代他的位置的举动进一步刺激了他的追求” (亨利• 费尔汀)。 Supersede 是指用另一个被认为更优秀、更有价值、更有用或者更年轻的人或物代替某人或某物: “In our island the Latin appears never to have superseded the old Gaelic speech” (Macaulay). “在我们的岛 上古老的盖尔语似乎永远被拉丁语所取代” (麦考利)。 “Each of us carries his own life-form—an indeterminable form which cannot be superseded by any other” (Carl Jung).我们每个人都有自己的生活方式-一种无法查明、不能被其它任何一种方式取代的方式” (卡尔•荣 格) [2]turcophobia:n.憎恶土耳其风俗习惯的人, 憎恶土耳其的人 -phobia:后缀;表示“对某一特定事物的强烈的、不正常的或不合逻辑的恐惧” : 如:xenophobia 仇外,惧外; Americanophobia 对美国(或美洲)文化的憎恶,美国(或美洲)文化仇视心理 Anglophobia 反英, 恐英病 technophobia 技术恐惧(指对技术对社会及环境造成不良影响的恐惧) thanatophobia [心]死亡恐怖(症),死亡恐惧(症) [3]infidel:adj. & n. 不信教的(人);异端的(人) [4]Spanish inquisition:西班牙宗教法庭,1480-1834 年的天主教法庭,以残酷迫害异端著称。1543 年将数 以万计再洗礼教派教徒在火刑柱上烧死。西班牙国王伊莎贝拉一世创建。 参考文献:http://www.pep.com.cn/200406/ca416233.htm Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [5]harem:n.(伊斯兰教国家中的)闺房,后宫;女眷们 [6]prowess:n. 卓越的技能;杰出的才能;本领 如:He is a football player of great prowess. 他是一名技能卓绝的足球选手。 The young student from the theatrical school showed great prowess at acting in the play.这个戏剧学校的学生在 这出戏中显示出了非凡的演技。 [7]fiendishly:adv.恶魔似地, 极坏地; fiendish:adj.极凶的,极大的;极为讨厌或糟糕的 如:a fiendish blizzard 极大的暴风雪 a fiendish problem 极大的难题 [8]prune:vt.(常与 down, off, away 连用)修剪(树、花木); (常与 of 连用)删改;删除 如:prune the slang from a speech 删去演说中的俚语 [9]thicket:n.密集生长的灌木或矮树;错综复杂,盘根错节 如: the thicket of unreality which stands between us and the facts of life 在我们和生活的现实之间存在着无 法穿越的虚幻 [10]tantalise: (美语 tantalize)vt.挑逗,逗弄 如:The very thought that a human being would deliberately starve herself for any reason provoked, intrigued, and tantalized the public.(“Psychobiology and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa” by Katherine A Halmi)有人认为,不管出于何故,一个人会故意忍饥挨饿。这种想法让公众既生气,又好奇, 还有点着急。 (凯瑟琳•A•哈尔米《神经性食欲缺乏和易饿病的精神生物学研究和治疗方法》) [11]ambivalence:n.矛盾心理,双重人格;摇摆,举棋不定(towards) ambivalent adj.(对人、事物)有矛盾心理的 如:There is an ambivalent feeling towards rural workers.人们对于民工的心情是复杂的。 [12]impertinent:adj.无关的,不切题的;无礼的,鲁莽的 如:He deemed all such inquiries on the part of a slave improper and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit. 他认为一个奴隶如此多嘴多舌,是不合礼仪的,很显然这个奴隶还很不安分。(“Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” by Frederick Douglass) ★近义词辨析★ irrelevant, extraneous, immaterial, impertinent 这些形容词共有的核心意思是“与所考虑的问题没有关系的” an irrelevant comment; 一句不相干的评语; a question extraneous to the discussion; 与讨论不相关的问题; an objection that is immaterial after the fact; 和该事实无关的反对意见; mentioned several impertinent facts before finally coming to the point.在最后谈到要点之前先说了几个不相关 的事实 [13]perfunctory:adj.草率的,敷衍的,马马虎虎的 如:The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.接线员接通电话,象征性的打了招呼 Page 3 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [14]tumultuous:adj.骚乱的,喧嚣的,吵闹的,无序的;狂暴的 如:These details have also had a tumultuous effect on the nation of Bolivia. ( “Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life” by Jon Lee Anderson)这些详细资料也引起了波利维亚的动乱。(乔恩•李•安德森《切•格瓦拉:革 命人生》) [15]footnote:n.(缩写 fn.)脚注(放在书或手稿的页底的注释,对文中的标明的一部分加以评论或引出参考 书目) ;无足轻重的事(与某一大的范畴或事件有关但不重要的事) 如:a political scandal that was but a footnote to modern history.一件对现代历史无足轻重的政治丑闻 [16] cop out:逃避,躲开;临阵退缩 cop-out n.逃避,自首,托词;违约者 如:You've got to take it up. Don't try to cop out of it by telling me you're too busy!"这件事你一定得做,不要推 诿说你忙不过来。" Jimmy was known to the team as a cop-out because he never showed up for important games.(A Concise Collection of College-student’s Slang) 队里都知道吉米是个喜欢临阵脱逃的人,凡是重要比赛都不见他人 影。 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★(参见文中带▲标记的部分) (1) all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years (2) “Ottoman” is the European corruption of his name (3) the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. (4) Ms Finkel is ideally placed to make sense of this. (5) one would have preferred a pruning of the thicket of events and more discussion of what it all means. (6) The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. (7) Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward”, in the face of demands, on the part of impertinent Europeans, that it reform internally. (8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a cop-out. 全部译文,欢迎指正,共同交流

博斯普鲁斯大桥 奥斯曼帝国虽已被土耳其共和国取代逾 80 年之久,但它永远都不会销声匿迹。巴尔干半岛上血流成河, 中东弥漫的阿拉伯和库尔德民族主义情绪,亚美尼亚人对土耳其的憎恶,无不显现出一个存续了 600 年、 疆域囊括从多瑙河经黎凡特(地中海东部自土耳其至埃及地区诸国)至阿尔及尔广阔土地的王朝所遗留下 来的痕迹。一直以来,几乎没有哪位历史学家能贸然地用一本书来记述这一超凡之事。《奥斯曼之梦》对 此作出了解释。 14 世纪初,几个从中亚衍生而来的土库曼人部落,为控制安纳托利亚(译者注:土耳其的亚洲部分,一 般认为等同于小亚细亚)而干戈相向,此时奥斯曼成了其中一个部落的首领。 (曾有人认为奥斯曼的 “梦 想”就是要兴建一座王宫; “Ottoman”一词是欧洲人在使用奥斯曼名字时的讹误。)到 16 世纪中叶,奥斯 曼的后人消灭了拜占庭帝国,并将其首都君士坦丁堡(后改名为伊斯坦布尔)建设成为世界上最著名的清 真寺城市。与此同时,阿拉伯半岛上的穆斯林圣地麦加和麦地那也为其所统治。 伊斯兰教主张发动一场反对异教徒的正义战争,这对奥斯曼帝国的扩张起到了一定的推动作用,但是奥斯 Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 曼人同样以善于包容而著称。从西班牙宗教法庭逃离出来的犹太人在伊斯坦布尔受到欢迎,基督教信徒也 在帝国官僚机构、武装部队乃至后宫中扮演举足轻重的角色。然而,历史的潮流还是转而朝着有利于欧洲 的方向发展,即便是在帝国鼎盛时期也是如此。聪明才智和军事才干不如欧洲人,受制于自身领导人拙劣 的财政管理能力,对巴尔干半岛上蔓延的一小撮民族主义分子又无能为力,奥斯曼帝国开始分崩离析—— 有时会发生一些突如其来的震荡,但多半却在不知不觉中衰微。 芬克尔女士拥有奥斯曼帝国历史研究的博士学位,对奥斯曼曾进行过极为复杂、严谨的研究。从理论上讲, 弄清“奥斯曼梦想”的真实含义当然非她莫属。不过,《奥斯曼之梦》一书却让人觉得作者的学识并未得 到充分发挥——书后列出了长达 30 页的参考书目。作者显然希望把所有重要事件都一一记录下来,结果 有时无外乎对那些战争和外交阴谋活动的简单罗列,令人味同嚼蜡。其实,我们只需扼要叙述一下那些错 综复杂的事件,更多的笔墨应当放在对其意义的讨论中。 相比之前,这本书还是有不少出彩之处。作者在文中特意提到,18 世纪初期奥斯曼兴建王宫时,曾融合 了法国人和波斯人的灵感——这种糅合再好不过地寓示了奥斯曼帝国牵强的多文化主义色彩。书中引经据 典描述了奥斯曼人对外来文化的着迷和排斥,生动再现了奥斯曼人后期对欧洲的矛盾心态,很是引人入胜。 芬克尔女士辩解说,对于作为旁观者的欧洲人而言,19 世纪的奥斯曼帝国“教义信仰多样化、地域不连 贯,甚而经济倒退”,完全是为形势所迫。这一观点令人感到好奇,有人希望芬克尔女士应当进一步展开 阐述。 (文中的 that it reform internally 令人匪夷所思,尤其是主语为单数 it,而 reform 又给出复数形式, 为什么呢?) 芬克尔的记述方式还是有其局限性的,最明显的是关于奥斯曼帝国末期动荡岁月的描写过于草率。她对第 一次世界大战期间亚美尼亚大屠杀一事只是一笔带过,却对当代学术界关于这场杀戮是否等同于种族屠杀 的激烈争议详加评述。这一点若作为脚注应当合情合理,可用来取代对事件真相的记述,就只能是一种回 避事实的托词而已。 译后小记: 本文是一篇书评,我没有读过《奥斯曼之梦》,对奥斯曼帝国也只是略有所知,因此翻译起来很是艰难。 一些语句我不敢擅自意译,生怕理解出错,误入“歧途”。但为了译文通顺,我尽量加入了一些自己的理 解,不妥之处望高手支招。[/replyview] 完型填空答案: [replyview]①extended ②turned ③favour ④results ⑤towards ⑥dispute

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 8

Ready, fire, aim 预备!开火!瞄准!! Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition Foreword:A vice-president, a ★quail[1] and the first glimmer of class warfare in hunting 引言:一位副总统,一只鹌鹑,等级矛盾第一次在打猎中凸现。 POLITICALGRAVEYARD.COM is (1)a goldmine for both trivia addicts and congenital time-wasters.▲ Do you want to find out about American politicians who were killed in duels (17 a______①_____ to the site)? Or about politicians who were murdered (86)? Or politicians who have been to outer space (6)? Or politicians who died while hunting or fishing (14)? Just point and click. But as yet the site doesn't have an entry for politicians who almost kill the poor ★ saps[2] they are hunting or fishing with. 对于喜欢捕风捉影的人和那些天生爱好浪费时间 的人而言,政治墓园网站(politicalgraveyard.com) 是一个极佳去处。您想知道有多少美国政治家在决 斗中丧生吗(该网站认为是 17 人)?有多少政治家遭谋杀(86 人)?有多少政治家曾去过外太空(6 人)? 又有多少政治家在打猎或钓鱼时不幸身亡(14 人)?点击便知。不过迄今为止,有关那些差点杀死同去 狩猎或者钓鱼的“可怜虫”的政治家人数,这家网站还没有登记。 No doubt (2)the good people ▲at politicalgraveyard will soon update their site. Ever since Dick Cheney took aim at a quail on February 11th and hit a 78-year-old lawyer i_________②, America has been talking of little else. This is not only because Mr Cheney's tragicomic accident seemed to sum up his style of shooting first and asking questions later (hence a torrent of jokes about Mr Cheney's insistence that he was right to shoot despite the failure to find quail in the bushes). It is also because he handled the incident with astonishing ★ineptitude[3]. 政治墓园网站指定要更新他们的网页了。2 月 11 日,迪克•切尼瞄准一只鹌鹑,结果却击中一位 78 岁的 律师。自那以后美国人无不对此议论纷纷。切尼先生令人啼笑皆非的遭遇,似乎充分表明他惯于先斩后奏 (因此这事也一时传为笑柄,都说他有权开枪射击,即便是灌木丛中没有鹌鹑),不过人们关注的焦点并 非仅此而已,他在处置这一突发事件中所表现出来的无能也让人感到惊讶。 Harry Whittington's wounds were s________③: he was pepper-sprayed in the face, neck, chest and rib cage, and rushed to intensive care. But Mr Cheney didn't bother to tell the public that their vice-president had ★winged[4] a lawyer until the next day (when he got his host to phone her local paper, the ★Corpus Christi[5] Caller-Times) and he didn't give a television interview until February 15th, a day after his v_________④ suffered a mild heart attack. As one ally puts it, “(3)Dick is beyond PR.”▲ 哈里•惠廷顿伤得不轻,面、颈、胸和胁部都被散弹击中,当时已立即被送往重症救护中心。不过切尼却 直到事发次日才不情愿地告知公众,他们的副总统开枪误伤了一名律师(他让牧场女主人打电话给当地的 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 《圣餐号召者时报》透露实情),并且直到 2 月 15 日(也就是事发后第四天)才接受电视采访,而此时受 害者出现轻微心脏病症状已近一天。正如切尼的一位支持者所说,“迪克没有处理好公共关系。 ” The media has ★pored over[6] every aspect of the incident: the fact that Mr Cheney had failed to buy the proper stamp for his licence (he subsequently sent $7 to the requisite authorities); that his host was a lobbyist; that the White House initially tried the strategy of t________⑤the shooting as a joke. But one thing was almost entirely ignored—(4)the fact that Mr Cheney was spending his weekend slaughtering innocent birds in the first place. ▲ 媒体对整个事件方方面面都很关注:如切尼的捕猎许可证上缺少一个需要购买的印章(高地猎禽印章—— 译者注) (他后来已经给管理部门送去了 7 美元) ;那个牧场女主人是个政治说客;白宫起初曾试图把这一 事件当作笑话来处理。尽管如此,人们还是完全忽视了一个问题——事情归根究底在于切尼周末去打猎了。 In many European countries, no ambitious politician would want to be seen with a hunting rifle in his hands and a ★cuddly[7] animal in his sights. In America, politicians ★go to great lengths[8] to get seen doing just that. The classic example of the shooting photo-op was (5)John Kerry's appearance in rather too ★pristine[9] duck-hunting gear▲ in October 2004. But even left-wingers like Howard Dean and Dennis Kucinich ★(6) defer to[10] the hunting vote.▲ 在许多欧洲国家,没有哪一个胸怀大志的政治家希望别人发现,自己手中拿着一支来福枪,对着视线中某 个小生灵。可是在美国,政治家们却想方设法让自己在众人面前露脸。2004 年 10 月约翰•克里站在一架 有点土气的跟踪野鸭装置前的照片可谓经典。不过,即使是霍华德•迪恩和丹尼斯•库希尼奇这样的左翼人 士,也对狩猎持赞同意见。 And why not? Hunters like to boast that their sport is as American as baseball and apple pie, a tradition shared by young and old, rich and poor, conservatives and l_______⑥. The US Fish and Wildlife Service claims that 80m Americans aged 16 or over—nearly 40% of the adult population—“enjoyed some recreational activity relating to fish and wildlife” in 2001, the latest year for which figures are a__________⑦. About 13m Americans shoot, and they spend some $20.6 billion a year on their pastime. (7)There is a hunting channel.▲ There are ★ camouflaged[11] Bibles for people who want to read scripture before blasting off. There are also powerful lobbies, from the National Rifle Association to the ★Safari[12] Club International. The Congressional Sportsmen's Foundation has more than 300 members. 况且,何乐而不为呢?猎人们不无自豪地说,这项运动跟棒球、苹果点心一样,是一项传统,无论老少、 贫富,还是保守或自由人士都喜闻乐见。美国鱼类和野生物部称,2001 年首次统计显示,有 8000 万 16 岁以上的美国人——约占成人总人数的 40%——“喜欢某种与鱼类和野生物有关的娱乐活动” 。目前,大 约有 1300 万美国人会打猎,他们每年花掉约 206 亿美元用于此项消遣。现在,只要你想打猎,就有人给 你安排好;还有人为你准备了假《圣经》,让你在开火前能装模作样地诵读一遍;还有一大批有着三寸不 烂之舌的说客,有来自全国步枪协会的,也有来自国际狩猎俱乐部的。国会运动员基金会的成员已超过 300 人。 But(8) the reality is not quite so ★tally ho[13]▲. The proportion of the population that goes hunting has been shrinking for the past 20 years. The number of hunters fell by 7% in the decade ending in 2001; the number of small-game hunters, including quail hunters, fell by 29%. The main cause of this is e__________⑧. Every year America loses 1.5m acres of wildlife habitat and 1m acres of farm and ranchland to development and ★ sprawl[14]. But the real worry for hunters is, or should be, class. 不过,实际情况还是有所不同的。近 20 年来,进行捕猎的人数所占人口比例持续下降,2001 年之前的 10 年内,捕猎人减少了 7%,而捕猎小动物如鹌鹑的人数更是减少了 29%。这主要是由经济情况造成的。美 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 国每年有 150 万英亩野生物栖息地和 100 万英亩农牧场被经济扩张所蚕食鲸吞。然而,真正让狩猎者感到 担忧的,还是或者说应该是,捕猎过程中的等级问题。 ■■■完型填空答案■■■ 1、according 2、instead 3、serious 4、victim 5、treating 6、liberals 7、available 8、economics ★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [1]quail:n.鹌鹑 vi.(与 at, before 连用)畏惧;畏缩;沮丧: 如:He quailed at the thought of meeting the President.他对会见总统的打算感到害怕。 [2]sap:n.(俚语)笨蛋,傻瓜;精力,活力;树汁,体液 vi.挖坑道;vt.使衰竭,消耗 [3]ineptitude:n.不称职,不适当的动作(adj. inept) [4]wing:vt.打伤……翅膀,打中……要害 [5] Corpus Christi:n.【罗马天主教】圣餐节:三一节(星期日)后的第一个星期四、食圣餐的日子 [6]pore over:v.注视,凝视 如:He pored over the classified ads in search of a new job.他仔细阅读分类广告栏以寻找新的工作 [7]cuddly:adj.令人想拥抱的,喜爱抚的 [8]go to great lengths:竭尽全力 go to great pains 费大力气 [9]pristine adj.纯洁的,质朴的;古时的,原来的 [10]defer to:v. 服从,遵从(出于尊敬他本人或由于承认他的权威、学识或判断力,听从他的意见,遵从 他的愿望,服从他的决定) 如:Do you always defer to your parents wishes? 你总是顺从父母的意志吗? ★近义词辨析★ yield, relent, bow, defer, submit, succumb 这些动词都表示让步于不能再反对或抵抗的人或事。 1) Yield 的应用最为广泛: 如:yield to an enemy; 对敌投降; yield to reason;屈服于理由; yieldto desire. 屈服于欲望。 “The child . . . soon yielded to the drowsiness” (Charles Dickens). “这孩子…一会儿就支持不住昏昏欲睡 了” (查尔斯•狄更斯) 2) relent 是指出于对处于自己权威和影响下的人的尊重而缓解某一制度或决定的苛刻或严格: “The captain at last relented, and told him that he might make himself at home” (Herman Melville). “最后, Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 。 船长缓和下来,告诉他随便些” (荷曼•麦尔维尔) 3)Bow 表示因失败或通过礼貌而让步: “Bow and accept the end/Of a love” (Robert Frost). “屈服并接受爱情的结局” (罗伯特•弗罗斯特) 4)defer 是指出于尊重或对他人权威、才学或判断的认可而让步: “Philip . . . had the good sense to defer to the long experience and the wisdom of his father” (William Hickling Prescott). “菲利浦…很明智地在他父亲的丰富经验和智慧面前作出了让步”(威廉姆•希克林•普莱斯哥 特)。 5)Submit 表示经过无用或不成功的抵抗之后,出于被迫而放弃: “What must the King do now? Must he submit?” (Shakespeare). “现在国王必须做什么? 他必须投降吗?” (莎士比亚) 。 6)Succumb 强烈暗示屈服不可一世的或无法抵抗的事物: “I didn't succumb without a struggle to my uncle's allurements” (H.G. Wells). “我对叔叔的诱惑未作任何反 抗便屈服了” (H.G.威尔斯) [11]camouflage:vt.伪装,掩饰 如:The military vehicles were camouflaged.军车被伪装起来了。 [12]safari:n.旅行,探险(复数:safaris) [13] tally n. 符木(古时用,上有刻痕记载交货、欠款等的数量), 记账, 得分, 标记牌, 标签, 符合, 对应物, 计数器 ho:interj.嗬!(用来表示惊讶或高兴以引起注意或催促前行) 如:Land ho! Westward ho!停下!向西! [14] sprawl vi.摊手摊脚地坐卧,平躺,倒卧;不规则的伸展;蔓延 如:sprawling on the sofa 平躺在沙发上 suburbs that sprawl out into the countryside 乱七八糟向乡间扩展的市郊

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 9

Memoirs of a quail-shooting man 一位鹌鹑捕猎者的自述 The biggest d________① in hunters is taking place among the working class—among the “Deer Hunter” crowd in the small towns of the north-east, the ★rednecks[15] of the South and the cowboys of the West. Their places are being taken by moneyed professionals, (1)the sort of people who weren't brought up to hunt▲ but who discovered that it is a good way to ★flash their money[16] and make connections. The number of hunters with household incomes above $100,000 increased by more than a q________② in the 1990s. There are so many ★nouveaux chasseurs strutting around[17] the canyons of Manhattan that both Holland & Holland and Barbour have opened shops there. 捕猎人数减少最多的是工人阶层,包括东北部小城镇上的“猎鹿一族”、南部的乡下佬以及西部牛仔。腰 缠万贯的职业猎人霸占了他们的捕猎领地,这种猎人原来压根不曾想过要去打猎,但后来却发现打猎对于 炫耀财富并疏通人际关系而言,是一条不错的门路。20 世纪 90 年代,家庭收入 10 万美元以上的猎人总 数增长了四分之一还多。猎人中的这些新贵趾高气扬地在曼哈顿峡谷中悠哉游哉,引得 Holland&Holland 和 Barbour 两大品牌都在那里开张营业了。 Mr Cheney's own expedition was a lot closer to “Gosford Park” than “The Deer Hunter”—a group of fat old ★toffs[18] (2)waiting for wildlife to be ★flushed[19] towards them at huge expense▲. There has also been a big increase in so-called “exotic hunting”, where guests not only go after i_________③ species such as wolves and bears, but also blast away at imported zebras and giraffes. (3)Convenience is essential for the hedge-fund crowd. ▲Most exotic hunts take place in ranches from which the animals can't escape (Texas has 600). Exotic hunters can shoot elephants from cars or from the backs of other elephants, sometimes the orphaned calves of the victims of previous hunts. For the truly lazy there is “just-in-time shooting”, where animals are trained to turn up at certain hours, and “internet shooting”, where you can g________④ the gun from your desk. All this removes much of the inconvenience from hunting. (4)It also removes its main justification—that it is the most natural way of culling local wildlife. ▲ 切尼先生看上去更像是“高斯福特公园族”而不是“猎鹿一族”。所谓高斯福特公园族是指一群上了年纪 的、大腹便便的纨绔子弟,悠然自得地等着出高价雇来的人将猎物赶进他们的射程。还有一种所谓的“异 国情调式打猎”也越来越受青睐,其间猎人不仅可以捕猎土产猎物如狼、熊等,还可以猎杀从国外引进的 斑马、长颈鹿。对在围场打猎的人来说,方便是第一位的。大多数“异国情调式打猎”都在猎物无法逃走 的牧场进行(在得克萨斯州有 600 个这样的牧场) 。异国情调式猎人可以坐在汽车上或是躲在其他大象的 身后射杀大象,有时也射杀一些已经中弹的落单小牛。要是实在懒得动,可选择“准时射击”,也就是把 猎物训练好,让它们能在特定的时候出现在枪口之下。另外,还有一种“互联网控制射击” ,猎人坐在电 脑桌前可以遥控猎枪。如此种种,省却了打猎中的很多不便,却也让享受这种方便的猎人们无法自圆其说 ——他们坚持认为打猎是土产野生物优胜劣汰最合乎情理的方式。 (言下之意,就原来意义上的打猎而言, 猎物存在于大自然之中,有的有能力逃过猎杀,有的则难免落网,这倒有点像优胜劣汰。然而无论是围猎 还是遥控射猎,被猎杀的动物要么无处可逃,要么被迫自投罗网,何言优胜劣汰呢?) America's anti-hunting movement is tiny by British standards. But (5)it is gathering momentum,▲ with the mainstream Humane Society taking an increasingly tough line and even conservatives protesting about exotic hunting. (The examples above are taken from “Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy”, a remarkable book by Matthew Scully, one of Mr Bush's former speechwriters.) The ★squall Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong over [20]Mr Cheney's behaviour in Quailgate will probably die down, providing Mr Whittington survives. But the d________⑤ over hunting will go on growing. 美国的反狩猎行动相比英国还有些微不足道,不过随着动物保护协会的声势日益高涨,并且连保守派也开 始反对异国情调式捕猎,(上述例证引自《统治权——人类之力量、动物之苦难和仁慈之感召》一书,这 本好书的作者马修•斯佳丽曾是布什总统的演讲撰稿人之一。 )反狩猎行动已经蓄势待发了。假如惠廷顿先 生没有生命危险,切尼在鹌鹑门所作所为引发的喧嚣也许将渐渐消逝,不过关于狩猎的争论将会日趋激烈。

完型填空答案: 1、decline 2.quarter 3.indigenous 4. guide 5.debate

★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [15] redneck n.【无礼用语】 【俚语】 红脖子,乡下佬(对属于农村劳动阶层、从事露天劳动,特别是美 国南方这一阶层白人的贬称);红脖子(被认为是持有狭隘保守,经常是有偏见的社会政治观点的人) [16]flash their money 炫耀他们是有钱人 flash vt.& n.【俚语】 招摇(庸俗华丽的或炫耀式的展览)=flaunt “The antique flash and trash of an older southern California have given way to a sleeker age of cultural hip” (Newsweek)“旧南加州往日的炫丽与糟粕,早已被文化嬉皮的时髦时代取代”(新闻周刊) [17] nouveaux adj.新近到达的,新近产生的 chasseur n.(法语)猎人 strut vi.昂首阔步,神气十足地走 [18]toff:n.有钱人,花花公子 [19]flush:v.惊起,从隐蔽处赶出 [20]squall:vi.狂风吹袭;狂叫,狂吹 n.尖叫声 补充背景材料: Gosford Park: 《高斯福德庄园》是一部电影的片名,又译作《迷雾庄园》,故事发生在 30 年代的英国,高 斯福德庄园名流云集。富有的庄园主威廉•麦考德和妻子西尔维娅邀请了一些朋友举办狩猎会。客人包括 西尔维娅的姨妈康斯坦丝伯爵夫人,西尔维娅的姐夫安东尼•梅瑞蒂斯,大明星艾维•诺威鲁,以及美国电 影制片人莫里斯•魏斯曼——他来英国为他的下一部“陈查里”电影作准备。 热闹的庄园里还有一群人,他们构成了与上流社会相对的另一个群体。这是庄园以及各位来宾的仆人侍从。 男管家詹宁斯统管男仆,不过他的工作可不轻松,这其中有几个令人头疼的“特殊人”:英俊潇洒的帕克 斯自小在孤儿院长大,性格孤僻,我行我素;魏斯曼的侍从亨利也搅得庄园颇为不安。女管家威尔森太太 则指挥着一干女仆,其中最突出的是年轻活泼的艾丽丝。 伯爵夫人的女仆玛丽是个天真的女孩,她好奇地观察着这座庄园里的各色人等,逐渐发现原来上流社 会和仆人的世界之间并没有截然分离的界线,相反,这两个世界由于种种复杂的关系产生了千丝万缕的联 系,庄园轻松闲适的气氛下其实埋藏着令人不安的因子。 麦考德先生的富有使不少人都得依附于他,其中包括伯爵夫人和梅瑞蒂斯。但麦考德似乎并不受欢迎, 女厨克劳福特太太就对他颇有怨词。性格乖戾的伯爵夫人亦不招人喜欢。西尔维娅表面上高贵优雅,其实 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 她已经有了外遇。梅瑞蒂斯曾经是战争英雄,但如今已破产,正急切地需要麦考德为他投资。亨利是个投 机分子,他来到庄园后立刻就开始追逐上流社会的富婆,另一方面也不忘与女仆们调情。帕克斯由于种种 原因成了众人瞩目的对象之后,自然对亨利的放纵十分不满。女仆艾丽丝则与麦考德先生关系暧昧…… 麦考德先生的死把庄园带入了惊恐的气氛中:他被人谋杀在书房里。庄园里的不少人似乎都有杀人的 动机,这起案件一时间扑朔迷离。警察局的探长汤普森奉命前来调查,但这个装模作样的家伙看起来没多 大本事,或许他们真需要一位“陈查里”来侦破这起谋杀案…… the Deer Hunter:同样是一部电影,可译为《猎鹿人》、《猎鹿者》、《越战猎鹿人》等,剧情:宾夕法尼亚 州三个年轻的钢铁工人迈克尔(Michael),史蒂文(Steven)和尼克(Nick) ,在越南战争时来到了越南。 在离开美国时,史蒂文与已怀孕的安吉拉(Angela)结了婚,他们的婚礼也是这三个年轻人的告别聚会。 婚礼结束后,三个人一同去打猎,迈克尔以神奇的枪法击中了一头雄鹿,但他仍神情抑郁,因为在他心中 这就等于在拿生命做赌注。在战场上,他们三人没过多久就都成了越南士兵的俘虏,越南士兵逼迫他们用 左轮手枪玩俄罗斯轮盘赌,尼克被吓得半死,迈克尔却很镇定,他还乘机抢了越南士兵的枪,与同伴一同 逃出了俘虏营,但逃出后大家又失散了。迈克尔和史蒂文回到了美国,史蒂文终身残废,住在疗养院中不 愿回家,迈克尔虽然无恙,但精神上已不复当年,他与尼克的女朋友琳达同居。当迈克尔得知尼克还活着, 并且住在西贡时,他来到了越南并找到了尼克,但此时的尼克已麻木不仁,尼克在迈克尔面前玩俄罗斯轮 盘赌,这一次他饮弹而亡。 《猎鹿人》是反思越战的经典之一,影片并没有下大笔墨去描绘战争的惨烈场面和宏大气势,而是将重点 放在表现战争对人内心造成的影响与创伤,以和平年代的亲情友情反衬出战争对人异化的恐怖可憎。德尼 罗、斯特里普和沃肯等几位主要演员在片中的表现可圈可点,他们精准却不夸张的表演很好地诠释出战争 给人带来的悲哀。值得一提的是片中另一位演员约翰·卡泽勒,他在未拍摄完前因患骨癌去世,没有看到 《猎鹿人》最终的辉煌成就,也未能与未婚妻梅丽尔·斯特里普结为百年之好,相当令人遗憾。不过值得 欣慰的是,这位神情忧郁的演员却为影迷留下了 5 部记忆深刻的影片,除了本片,其余分别是:科波拉的 《教父 1、2》与《对话》 ,以及西德尼·吕美特的《炎热午后》(Dog Day Afternoon, 1975) 。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 10

Ominous Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition FOR most of the past three years, the highly pathogenic bird flu k________① as H5N1 has been found mainly in Asia. Suddenly it has arrived in many countries in Europe, triggering widespread alarm. The detection of the virus in wild birds across Europe is certainly a cause for concern, particularly to Europe's poultry farmers▲, who are rightfully worried that the presence of the virus in wild birds will increase the risk to their flocks. However, in the m_________② of a European debate about the benefits of vaccinating chickens and whether or not poultry should be brought indoors, there is a danger that far more significant events elsewhere will be ★overlooked[1]. In particular, most attention should be f________③ on the fact that bird flu is now widespread in the poultry flocks of two nations in Africa—Egypt and Nigeria—and in India. And on the fact that, in Nigeria, the disease is continuing to spread despite great efforts undertaken by the government. An outbreak in Afghanistan also appears to be inevitable. Arguably, these matter much more than the (also inevitable) arrival of the disease in Europe▲. Poor countries with large rural populations are in a far weaker position to handle, and ★stamp out[2], outbreaks of bird flu in poultry, through both ★culling[3] and the prevention of the movement of animals in the surrounding areas. In Africa and India, chickens and ducks are far more likely to be found ★roaming[4] in people's backyards, where they can mingle with humans, other d________④ animals and wildlife, thus spreading the disease. In Europe, by c_______⑤, most poultry are kept in regulated commercial farms. The opening up of a new African front for the bird-flu virus▲ is a problem because eradication there will be tremendously difficult. There is a high risk that the disease will spread to other countries on the continent and it could easily become endemic—as it has in Asia. This offers the virus huge new scope to mutate▲ and become a disease that can pass between humans. The virus is certainly mutating—genetic changes have already affected its biological behaviour, although apparently not yet its transmission between humans. Experts are unsure as to how much, and what kind, of genetic changes would be required for the virus to become a global health threat. N_____⑥ do they know how long this process might take. But to ★dwell on[5] the increased risk of a pandemic of influenza is to miss a serious point about the direct risks posed by the loss of a large numbers of chickens and ducks across Africa. For some time, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation has been warning that if avian flu gets out of c_______⑦ in Africa, it will have a devastating impact on the livelihoods of millions of people. Poultry is a vital source of protein. For example, it provides almost 50% of the protein in the diet of Egyptians. The spread of a disease that is highly lethal to poultry, and requires culling, could have a ★dire[6] nutritional impact, there as elsewhere▲. Africa would also have to contend with huge economic losses. People who ★scratch out[7] a living in poor African nations simply cannot a_______⑧ to lose their chickens. Most of the world's poor live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. In Africa, rather a lot of these poor people depend heavily on their poultry. It is easy to see why some believe that bird flu could turn out to be primarily a development—rather than just a health—issue for the whole African continent.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong No game of chicken What can be done? It is clear that the movement and trade of poultry is making a big contribution to the spread of the virus. That trade needs tighter regulation, as does the movement of live birds from countries with H5N1 infections. In such places trade should be suspended u_______⑨ flocks have been cleaned up. In addition, Nigeria and surrounding countries need serious public-education campaigns about the danger of contact with dead birds. When outbreaks o______ ⑩ , governments should immediately offer realistic compensation to farmers for birds lost to disease and culling▲. Without this, poor farmers will be tempted to hide bird-flu outbreaks and continue to sell poultry that should be culled. Farming practices that mix poultry species in farms or live animal markets are a danger too, and must be addressed—although that might take longer. The effort would be helped if those in the poultry industry and governments in poultry-exporting nations would stop simply pointing to the risks posed by wild birds and start paying more attention to the movement of animals, products and people from infected to un-infected regions and countries. Unusually for a complex problem with international ★ramifications[8], money is available to make a serious attempt at tackling it▲—$1.9 billion was pledged by the world's wealthier nations last month in Beijing. There is no excuse for delay, unless we want more dead people to follow lots more dead ducks.

☆★注释☆★ [1]overlook vt.(1)俯瞰,俯视 The house on the hill overlooks the village. 从小山上的房子可以俯视村庄。 (2)忽略;没注意;漏看 You have overlooked several of the mistakes in this work. 你忽略了这个工作中的几个错误。 The secretary is very careful and never overlooks any little points. 秘书是个很细心的人她从不忽视细节。 [2]stamp out 扑灭,踩灭;毁灭,根除 =do away with; eradicate [3]cull vt.挑出老弱或劣质动物杀死:Every year the groups of seals that live off our coasts are culled because they eat too much fish. 每年居住在我们海岸边的海豹群都被人挑出一部分杀死,因为他们吃掉太多的鱼。 [4]roam vi.& vt. 游荡;闲逛 The visitors roamed around the town.这些来访者在城里游逛。 [5]dwell on vt.细想,说得过于详细: Don't dwell so much on your past.过去的事不必再长篇大论了。 [6]dire adj.(1)迫切的,重大的(指需要;危险):be in dire need of food 极需食物 (2)可怕的:a dire warning 可怕的预兆 [7]scratch a living =to scrape a living (收入)勉强足以糊口 [8]ramification n.(通常复数)分支,支派(尤指看法、规律等);(网状组织的)分支,支流,分叉:the ramifications of a business/of a railway system 商店分号/铁路系统分支

不祥之兆(全文) 过去的近三年中,H5N1 型高致病性禽流感主要出现在亚洲,如今已波及许多欧洲国家,为我们敲响了疫 情广泛流行的警钟。从途经欧洲的野生禽类体内检测出的禽流感病毒肯定让人们感到担忧,尤其是对于欧 洲家禽养殖农户而言更是如此。这些农户担心野生禽类携带的病毒将危及到他们的家禽,这种担心无可厚 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 非。不过,在关于给鸡注射疫苗到底有没有用以及应不应该对家禽实行圈养的这场争论中,欧洲人可能会 忽视别的一些极为重要的事情,这很危险。 需要特别指出的是,目前禽流感疫情在非洲的两个国家——埃及和尼日利亚——以及印度家禽中已经蔓延 开来,而且在尼日利亚,虽然政府已全力以赴,但疫情仍在不断地扩散。阿富汗发生疫情暴发流行似乎也 在所难免。人们对此应当予以高度重视。 也许可以这么说,相比疫情进入欧洲(同样不可避免)而言,这些更至关紧要。贫穷国家农村人口多,对 家禽中暴发的禽流感疫情处置和扑灭能力,都远远弱于欧洲国家,无论是通过控制和阻止周边地区内动物 的流动。在非洲和印度,人们的院子里来回走动的鸡、鸭随处可见,它们与人群、其他家畜以及野生动物 密切接触后,疫情遂得以传播。而在欧洲,大多数家禽都养殖在管控严格的经济农场中。 禽流感病毒新近侵入非洲为人们提出了一个难题,因为那里的人要想根除疫情将非常困难。疫情很可能会 蔓延到欧洲其他国家,而且会跟亚洲一样,无疑将导致地方性流行,从而增加了病毒变异的可能性,人畜 禽流感就会变成人与人之间传播的疾病。的确,禽流感病毒正在发生变异——很显然,基因上的改变尚未 引起病毒在人间传播,但已经对病毒的生物学特性产生影响。至于病毒变异为人间传播类型从而威胁人类 健康,其基因到底需要改变多少和发生何种改变,有关专家还难以确定,也无从知晓这种变异到底需要多 长时间。 但是,过分关注禽流感大流行的危险,就会无法认识到非洲大陆丧失大批鸡、鸭所带来的直接威胁。联合 国粮农组织曾一度发出警告,非洲禽流感疫情一旦失控,数百万人的生计将遭到灭顶之灾。家禽是蛋白质 的重要来源,比如埃及人饮食中摄取的蛋白质 50%来自家禽。不论在哪里,一种对家禽极具毁灭性的疫病 流行,必然导致家禽(染病的以及可疑病禽)被大范围捕杀,从而可能引发严重的营养问题。此外,非洲 还必须应付巨大的经济损伤。对非洲穷国中靠养鸡勉强糊口的人们来说,鸡没了,这日子就完全过不下去 了。世界上大多数穷人居住在农村,以农为生,而非洲这些人中一多半又主要依靠家禽养殖维持生计。所 以不难理解,为什么有人认为,禽流感所引发的不仅仅是健康问题,更主要的还是发展问题。 别拿鸡当儿戏 如何是好呢?显而易见,家禽的流动和交易对禽流感病毒的播散起到了很大作用。我们必须对禽类交易以 及来自 H5N1 病毒感染疫区国家的活禽流动进行严格管控。在病禽尚未彻底扑杀之前,这些地区应当停止 禽类交易。 此外,尼日利亚及其周边国家要认真开展教育活动,让民众认识到接触死禽的危险性。各国政府在疫情暴 发时,应当立即向农民提供相应补偿,以弥补因家禽染病以及大范围扑杀给他们造成的损失。若非如此, 穷苦的农民就会冒险隐情不报,继续售卖那些本应被扑杀的家禽。同时,农民习惯在农场或者活禽交易市 场将不同禽类混养混卖,这也很危险,必须处理妥当——尽管也许这需要更长时间。如果禽类产业人士和 家禽输出国政府不再只强调野生禽类的危害,而开始高度重视动物、禽类产品以及人群在有疫情和无疫情 国家及地区之间的流动,上述疫情防控措施才会不至于白费力气。 异乎寻常地是,为了认真解决一个如此纷繁复杂的国际性问题,所需资金已然到位——上个月世界一些富 裕国家在北京承诺将拨款 19 亿美元。我们没有任何理由拖延下去,除非希望在死了很多鸭子之后再死去 更多的人。 完形填空答案(以原文为准,请自行辨析): ①known ②midst ③focused ④domestic ⑤contrast ⑥Nor ⑦control ⑧afford ⑨until ⑩occur Page 3 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 11

A calibrated provocation Mar 2nd 2006 | BEIJING From The Economist print edition But China has not fallen into the trap. (1)IN THE elaborate ★fiction[1] that governs relations across the Taiwan Strait, there exists in Taiwan a body called the National Unification Council, whose notional aim is to advise the president on how the island and the mainland are to u_______①, an aim which China and Taiwan notionally share. The body has been inactive for six years. But when President Chen Shui-bian appeared to scrap it this week, he caused anger in China, and worry in America. Mr Chen has been weakened by scandals in his party but has two years l______② in office. Appealing to Taiwanese nationalism is one way to rally support. Hence the appeal of scrapping a body that is supposed to advise him on unification. But Mr Chen does not want to provoke China into a military response. So (2)his decision was judiciously worded. The council, he said, had “ceased to f________③” and its guidelines had “ceased to apply”. This phrasing suggests the possibility of a future revival. The careful wording was also partly intended to pacify America, which has been trying to persuade Mr Chen not to ★rock the boat[1] since late January, when he signalled his intention to take this step. A spokesman for the State Department said America would “continue to hold President Chen by his commitments not to take unilateral moves”. He also said it was America's understanding that Mr Chen had not formally a_________④ the council. (3)For all its fulminations, however, China does not seem keen to escalate this particular dispute. President Hu Jintao accused Mr Chen of taking a “dangerous step” towards i__________⑤. But officials have not threatened to ★invoke[3] an anti-s________⑥ law passed by China's legislature a year ago. That authorised military action against Taiwan in the event of (4)undefined “major incidents” ★entailing[4] the island's independence from China. The law has been described by Taiwanese officials as a threat to the s________⑦ quo and, indeed, a primary justification for Mr Chen's decision. A bigger worry for Chinese leaders is that Mr Chen might ★renege on[5] other pledges not to amend the island's constitution. He may suggest that China is a separate country. W______⑧, he may change Taiwan's official name (the Republic of China). China does not officially accept this name for Taiwan, but much prefers it to the Republic of Taiwan. Given the distinct possibility that the opposition Kuomintang (KMT) will reclaim Taiwan's presidency in 2008, Mr Chen might (5)feel tempted to risk a dramatic ★gesture[6] in order to rally support for his party. But as Mr Chen noted this week, any constitutional reform would, under rules introduced last year, require approval by three-quarters of the legislature as w_____⑨ as a referendum. With the KMT and its supporters— who favour keeping on good terms with China and keeping the council—controlling a majority of parliament's seats, this would make it hard to introduce an amendment China strongly disliked. Mr Chen wants a constitutional referendum next year, but has not so far proposed any changes that would ★rile[7] the Chinese. Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (6)An escalation of rhetoric can be expected in the next few days as China's legislature holds its annual meeting, starting on March 6th. Nationalistic outbursts from the Communist Party-picked delegates have become part of the ritual. Unlike the meeting last year at which the anti-secession law was adopted, the focus of this year's agenda will be domestic: in particular a new five-year economic plan which is aimed at reducing a growing g_____⑩ between rich and poor. But just to be sure that Taiwan stays in line, the meeting will surely engage in another of its annual rituals, a hefty increase in military spending. NOTES:(参考书: 《朗文现代英汉双解词典》) [1]fiction n.杜撰;虚构;幻象:His account of the crime was a complete fiction.他所讲述的那件罪行完 全是虚构的。 [2]rock the boat 从中捣乱,使事情恶化:The leader of the party asked Tony not to rock the boat until after the election.党的领袖要别在选举前提出异议,免令情况恶化。 [3]invoke vt.使生效,援用:to invoke the powers of the law to present a crime.借助法律力量防止罪案 [4]entail:.vt. 承担,伴随,需要(施加或要求使成为必要的附属物或结果)an investment that entailed high risk.一项需承担高风险的投资 [5]renege:v.(on)背心,违约:You said you’d come—you can’t renege now!你说过要来——你现 在不能失信。 [6]gesture n.表达,姿态:Some countries give rare animals to important foreign visitors as a gesture of friendship.有些国家把稀有动物送给重要的外宾以示友好。 [7]rile vt.恼怒,激怒热火:It riles me when he won’t stop whistling.他不停地吹口哨,把我给惹火了。 参考译文

精准的挑衅 但是中国大陆并没有上当。 左右台湾海峡两岸关系的因素非常复杂,但又虚无缥缈,其中在台湾有一个名叫“国家统一委员会”的机 构,其意图旨在就如何实现台岛和大陆的统一向“总统”建言献策,而从理论上讲,实现统一也是北京和 台湾的共同意图。六年来,该机构一直无所作为。不过,当陈水扁“总统”本周宣布将其废止之际,北京 感到大为恼怒,美国方面也是忧心忡忡。 陈水扁因其党内丑闻而渐次式微,可他还有两年任期。拿台湾人的民族独立主义作文章,是一种赢取民众 支持的办法,所以陈水扁才谋求废止这一被认为是劝其统一的机构。不过,陈水扁不希望激惹北京动武, 因此宣布决定时很讲究措辞。他说,国统会已“终止运作” ,其纲领已“终止适用” 。这种说法暗示了将来 重新恢复国统会的可能性。 从一定程度上看,措辞谨慎也是为了让美国放心。自从一月底发现陈水扁有意采取行动以来,美国一直试 图说服陈水扁避免让事态恶化。美国务院一位发言人说,美国会“继续敦促陈水扁信守不采取单边行动的 承诺” 。他还说,美国已经了解到陈水扁并未正式废除国统会。 然而,北京尽管对此举进行了严词指责,但它似乎并不急于让这一特殊的矛盾升级。胡锦涛主席指责陈水 扁朝台独又迈入了“危险的一步”,但是官方并没有威胁要援用一年前中国立法机关制定的《反国家分裂 法》。该法规定,一旦发生将会导致台湾从中国分裂出去的“重大事变” ,国家有权采取武力行动。台湾官 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 方认为,此项法律是对台海现状的威胁,而且事实上也成为陈水扁此举的主要托词。 令北京领导人感到更为担忧的是,陈水扁可能违背不修改台湾宪法的其他承诺,他也许会说中国是一个分 裂的国家,更糟糕的是他说不定会更改台湾的官方名称(中华民国)。北京虽未正式承认台湾是“中华民 国”,但比起“台湾共和国”,它宁愿承认前者。若反对党国民党 2008 年执政台湾确有可能,陈水扁为了 赢得民众对本党的支持,就会不惜冒险采取激烈手段。 不过正如陈水扁本周所强调,按照去年通过的规定要求,任何宪法改革都需要立法会四分之三的委员和全 民投票同意。由于国民党及其支持者——他们赞同与北京保持良好关系和维持国统会——在“议会”中占 大多数席位,北京坚决反对的宪改很难得以实施。陈水扁是想在明年举行一次宪法公投,但是目前还不会 改变现状,免得惹恼北京。 在接下来的几天里,随着 3 月 6 日中国立法机关年会的召开,北京在措辞方面将进一步严厉。在这一例会 中,中共遴选的会议代表必然会发出一些爱国主义呼声。不同于去年那次通过《反分裂国家法》的会议, 此次会议议程的重点在国内,尤其是旨在缩小日益拉大的贫富差距的新五年经济规划。不过,为确保台湾 不会捣乱,此次会议肯定会遵照另一惯例,继续加大国防投入。 填空答案 ①unite 统一 ②left 剩下 ③function 运转 ④abolished 废除,阿扁玩的就是废除和终止的文字游戏. ⑤independence 独立,阿扁痴心妄想 ⑥secession 坚决反对"分裂"祖国 ⑦status 与 quo 一起,"现状" ⑧Worse 更为糟糕的是 ⑨well "as well as"也 ⑩gap 鸿沟,这里说的是贫富"差距"

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 12

Not science fiction Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition THE recent stem-cell scandal in South Korea may have made front-page news across the world, but (1)few readers are likely to bet that a literary novel set in a laboratory and based on scientific research might end up being a ★page-turner[1]. Readers of “Intuition”, however, will battle with themselves over whether to savour Allegra Goodman's exquisite ★filleting[2] of character, as the scientists are themselves dissected like their experimental mice, or to rush ★headlong[3] to find out what h________① next. In an under-funded Harvard laboratory, the ★dogged[4], unglamorous ★slog[5] towards finding a cure for cancer is u_______② way. Suddenly one research assistant's experiment ★bears [6]fruit. After mice infected with human breast-cancer cells are injected with Cliff's R-7 virus, their tumours melt away in 60% of the population. But are Cliff's results too good to be true? (2)The question of whether the R-7 results were ★ fiddled[7] powers the remainder of the book. Ms Goodman follows the good novelist's ★credo[8] that plot ★proceeds from[9] character; and (3)she follows the good scientist's credo that objective truth is inexorably ★coloured[10] by whoever ★ stands[11] to lose or gain by it. All the researchers in “Intuition” are sympathetic, and they are all ★screwed up[12]. Sandy, co-director of the lab, is a ★charismatic[13] dynamo[14], but too enamoured with worldly glory. His brilliant, shy partner Marion has ★impeccable[15] research standards, but is undermined by chronic self-doubt. By contrast, Cliff is ★glibly[16] over-c_________③. Robin, R-7's ★whistle-blower[17] (also Cliff's former girlfriend), is a natural scientist, but her determination to uncover fraud may be driven by romantic disappointment. Robin is heeding her intuition, and “young researchers had their intuition ★tamped down[18] lest, like the ★sorcerer's[19] apprentice, they flood the lab with their conceits.” What a relief to find a novel that does not take place in the literary salons of London or New York. (4)Ms Goodman manages fully to inhabit another profession's world. Her characters so live and breathe on the page that they could get up and m_______④ you a cup of coffee while you finish another chapter. (5)Her writing is rich, so rich it would be easy to miss how skilful is the prose itself. Exciting and, for most, exotic as well, “Intuition” is a ★stunning[20] achievement. 参考译文(TRANSLATED BY CHENJILONG)

并非科幻小说 韩国最近发生的干细胞丑闻或许已成为世界各地的头条新闻,不过几乎没有读者会相信,一本以实验室为 背景、基于科学研究的小说到头来竟然让他们爱不释手。然而,读过《直觉》这本书的人心里很矛盾,小 说里的科学家如同他们用作实验的小鼠一样被深刻剖析,因而读者们不知道是仔细品味一下阿列格拉•古 德曼入木三分的人物描写呢,还是急于弄清接下来会发生什么事情。 在哈佛大学一个资金不足的实验室里,科学家们为了找到一种治疗癌症的方法,正默默无闻、坚持不懈地 辛勤工作。突然,助理研究员克里夫的实验结出了果实。他用 R7 病毒注射染有人乳腺癌细胞的小鼠后, 60%小鼠的肿瘤消散了。可是,克里夫如此完美的研究结果是真实的吗?R7 结果有没有被虚报?这一疑 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 问让本书随后的内容更加扣人心弦。 古德曼夫人延续了优秀小说家所提倡的“情节因人物而生”,也承继了优秀科学家所奉行的“任何人都不 能歪曲客观事实”。 《直觉》中的所有研究人员表面上一团和气,暗地里却都勾心斗角。实验室副主管桑迪 很有人格魅力,一心扑在工作上,但虚荣心太强。他的搭档马里昂才华横溢,少言寡语,工作标准极高, 但因为长期缺乏自信而萎靡不振。相比之下,克里夫却有些圆滑世故和自命不凡。揭发 R7 秘密的罗宾(克 里夫前女友)则是一位朴实的科学家,不过她决心揭露骗局可能多少出于对爱情的失望。她重视直觉,而 且,“年青研究者悄悄地抑制了他们的直觉力量,生怕会像刚学巫术的人一样,让实验室充斥着自负和虚 夸。” 能看到一本不是描写伦敦抑或纽约文学沙龙的小说,真是一件让人舒心的事。古德曼夫人完全立足于另一 种职业领域,刻画的人物栩栩如生,呼之欲出,甚至能在你每读完一个章节的时候为你泡上一杯咖啡。古 德曼著作颇丰,因此人们往往忽视了她的写作技巧。《直觉》一书动人心魄,而且对大多数人而言还颇具 异国情调,实在令人为之侧目。

NOTES [1]page-turner n.【非正式用语】让人一页一页不停往下翻的书;引人入胜的书(一本非常有趣的、令人兴奋 或悬念四起的书,通常是指小说): “The book is a page-turner”(Frank Conroy)“这本书真是让人爱不释手” (弗兰克•康罗伊) [2]fillet v.切取(鱼、肉)净肉;切(鱼肉)成片 [3]headlong adj.&adv.=headfirst 头先向前的;轻举妄动地,匆匆忙忙地:He’s gone headfirst into trouble. 他轻率地陷入麻烦中。 [4]dogged adj.顽强的,坚忍不拔的:She was not very clever, but by dogged efforts she learnt a good deal at school.她不怎么聪明,但努力不懈,在学校学到了很多东西。 [5]slog n.艰苦工作(之期间) :I always found school difficult: it was a hard slog.我总觉得求学不易,读书是 一桩苦事。 [6]bear v.产(作物、水果) :The young apple tree is bearing this year for the first time.这棵苹果幼树今年首度 结了果。 [7]fiddle v.虚报:to fiddle one’s income tax 虚报所得税 [8]credo n.信仰,信条:a credo of socialist principles 社会主义的信条 [9]proceed from (无被动)由……造成,产生自…… [10]colour vt.使(人,事件)带特殊的效果或感受;影响:Personal feelings coloured his judgement.个人的 感情影响了他的判断。|a highly-coloured account of his difficulties 大加渲染地描述他的种种困难 :If this new law is passed, we [11]stand v. to be in a position to gain or lose 有(得失之)机会;势将(得或失) stand to lose our tax advantage.如果这项新法律通过,我们势将失去我们在税赋方面享受的利益。 [Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English] stand to do something: to be likely to do or have something: stand to gain/lose/win/make What do firms think they stand to gain by merging? After the oil spill, thousands of fishermen stand to lose their livelihoods. [12]screw up v.(常被动) (俚语)搞得乱七八糟;搅乱:Things are screwed up, as usual.事情跟平常一样糟。 Screw up one’s courage 鼓起勇气 [Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English] someone who is screwed up has a lot of emotional problems because of bad or unhappy experiences in the past. [13]charismatic adj.有气质的,有(政治)魅力的 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [14]dynamo n.发电器,发电机:(比喻)Randolph is a real dynamo; he never stops working.鲁道夫浑身都是 劲,总是不停地工作。 [15]impeccable adj.=faultless 无瑕疵的 [16]glibly adv.油腔滑调地,流利而不真实地 [17]whistle-blower n. someone who tells people in authority or the public about dishonest or illegal practices at the place where they work 告密人,揭发者:What is disturbing is that it is typical of a new intolerance against whistlee-blowers that raises serious questions about free speech. [18]tamp down v. to press or push something down by lightly hitting it several times 捣实,拍紧,砸紧:As well as surprise, she had heard irritation tamped down in Vitor's voice. [19]sorcerer n.巫师,魔法师,弄妖术者 [20]stunning adj.迷人的,极富魅力的,极美的,讨人喜欢的

完型填空答案及分析 ① happens:接下来会“发生”什么事,此处肯定是个动词。前面的 find out 暗示了“发生”。 ② under:under way 是指 to have started to happen or be done,“正在进行中。” ③ confident:上一句中有 self-doubt 缺乏自信,而后转折 by contrast,对比分析知道该处应说的是“过于 自信” 。 ④ make:此处应填动词,而后面跟的是 a cup of coffee,同时全句的意思是把人物给写活了,能在你看完 一章后“为你……一杯咖啡”,注意介词“for” ,为……,而不是 to。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 13

Go forth and multiply 一往无前,生生不息 Mar 2nd 2006 From The Economist print edition WHAT makes for a successful invasion? Often, the answer is to have better weapons than the enemy. And, as it is with people, so it is with plants—at least, that is the conclusion of a p_______① published in ★Biology Letters[1] by Naomi Cappuccino, of Carleton University, and Thor Arnason, of the University of Ottawa, both in Canada. 怎样才能成功入侵?答案常常是:拥有比敌人更好的武器。人是这样,植物也是如此——至少,《生物书 简》上发表的一篇论文是这么认为的,作者是来自加拿大加里敦大学的纳奥米•卡普奇诺和渥太华大学的 索尔•阿纳森。 The phenomenon of alien species ★popping up[2] in unexpected parts of the world has grown over the past few d________② as people and goods become more mobile and (1)►plant seeds and animal larvae have ★ hitched[3] along for the ride◄. Most such aliens blend into the ecosystem in which they arrive without too much fuss. (Indeed, many probably fail to establish themselves at all—but those failures, of course, are never noticed.) Occasionally, though, something ★goes bananas[4] and starts trying to take the place over, and an invasive species is born. Dr Cappuccino and Dr Arnason asked themselves w_______③. 过去的几十年,随着人和货物的流动日益频繁,植物种子和动物幼体也乘机“搭便车”四处播散,世界各 地无意间出现了越来越多的外来物种。这些外来物种大多数都轻而易举地融入了所到之处的生态系统。 (事 实上,许多物种可能还没有站稳脚跟——当然,人们从未注意到这一点。 )不过,偶尔也有某些物种疯狂 繁殖,开始企图占领原有物种的生长空间,一种入侵物种就这样形成了。卡普奇诺和阿纳森对此感到百思 不得其解。 One hypothesis is that aliens leave their predators b________④. Since the predators in their new homelands are not adapted to exploit them, they are able to reproduce unchecked. That is a nice idea, but it does not explain why only certain aliens become invasive. Dr Cappuccino and Dr Arnason suspected this might be because native predators are (2)►sometimes “pre-adapted” to the aliens' defences◄, but in other cases they are not. 有人推想,外来物种摆脱了原先的掠食者,而在新的“家园”,现有的掠食者又没有发现它们也合口味, 因此这些物种得以肆无忌惮地繁衍。这种观点好是好,不过没有解释为什么只有特定的外来物种才具有入 侵性。卡普奇诺和阿纳森猜测,这可能是因为土生土长的掠食者对外来物种所具有的防御机制有时产生“预 适应” ,有时又不产生。 To test this, they had first to establish a reliable list of invaders. That is not as easy as it sounds. As they observe, “although there are many lists of invasive species published by governmental agencies, inclusion of a given species in the lists (3)►may not be entirely free of political motivation◄”. Instead, they polled established researchers in the field of alien species, asking each to list ten invasive species and, for c_________⑤, ten aliens that just ★rubbed along quietly with[5] their neighbours. The result was a list of 21 species widely agreed to be invasive and, for comparison, 18 non-invasive aliens. 为了证实这一猜测,他们必须首先列出一些已经确认的入侵物种。这可不是件轻松的事。正如他们所说, “虽然政府部门公布了许多入侵物种名单,但是把指定物种归入此名单也许多少有些出于政治上的考虑。” Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 为此,他们调查了外来物种领域一些有名望的研究人员,请每人举出 10 种入侵物种,以及 10 种与本地物 种能和睦共生的外来物种用于对照。最后得到的名单中包括 21 种被广泛认可的入侵物种和 18 种用于对照 的非入侵性外来物种。 H________⑥ established these lists, they went to the library to find out what was known about the plants' chemistry. Their aim was to find the most prominent chemical weapon in each plant, whether that weapon was directed against insects that might want to eat the plant, bacteria and fungi that might want to i_______⑦ it, or other plants that might compete for space, water, nutrients and light. Botanists know a lot about which sorts of compounds have what roles, so classifying constituent chemicals in this way was not too hard. 名单确定之后,他们就到图书馆查询这些植物的化学性质,旨在找出每种植物所拥有的作用最为突出的“化 学武器”。这种“化学武器”的攻击对象包括可能吃掉该植物的昆虫,使其感染的细菌和真菌以及与其竞 争生长空间、水、养料和阳光的其它植物。植物学家对哪些化合物有哪些作用都了如指掌,因此这样对化 学物质进行分类并不太难。 The researchers then compared the chemical arsenals of their aliens with those of native North American plants, (4)►to see if superior (or, at least, unusual) weaponry was the explanation for the invaders' success.◄ Their hypothesis was that highly invasive species would have chemical weapons not found in native plants, and w________⑧ pests, parasites and other plants would therefore not have evolved any resistance to. The more benign aliens, by contrast, were predicted to have arsenals also found in at least some native species. 然后,为了弄清外来物种的成功入侵是否得益于“超级武器“(或者至少是超常武器),这两位研究人员将 已知外来物种的“化学武器库”同北美土生土长的植物“化学武器库”进行了比较。他们推断,具有高度 入侵性的物种拥有土产植物所缺少的“化学武器”,对这种化学武器,害虫、寄生虫及其它植物都不能产 生任何抵抗力。相比之下,入侵性较弱的外来物种所具有的“武器库”可能至少同样存在于某些土产物种。 And so it proved. More than 40% of the invasive species had a chemical unknown to native plants; just over 10% of the non-invasive aliens had such a chemical. M_________⑨, when they looked at past studies on alien plants that had examined how much such plants suffer from the ★depredations[6] of herbivorous insects, they found that the extent of the damage reported was significantly correlated with the number of native species with which that alien shared its principal chemical weapon. 猜测因而得到了证实。40%以上的入侵物种含有一种土产植物所没有的化学物质,仅 10%多一点的非入侵 外来物种含此物质。而且,他们在看了以前一些关于外来物种的研究(已经查实这类植物受食草昆虫的损 害程度)之后,发现损害程度与土产植物的数量密切相关,而外来物种所含的主要“化学武器” 与这些 土产植物相同。 For alien plants, then, the real secret of success—also as in human warfare—is surprise. (5)►It is not that the chemicals concerned are more toxic in any general sense◄ (indeed, successful invaders are often rare in their own native habitats). R_______⑩, it is that the locals just don't see them coming. 那么,对于外来植物而言,其成功的真正秘诀——人的竞争也是如此——令人感到惊奇,它不在于一般意 义上所认为的那样具有毒性更强的化学物质(的确,入侵成功的外来物种在其原有生长区域内往往很罕 见),而是因为本地掠食者根本没有察觉它们的到来。

NOTES: [1]Bilology Letters 《生物书简》杂志 [2]pop up =happen suddenly, arise 突然出现,突然发生 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [3]hitch v.搭便车:He hitched across Europe.他搭便车横跨欧洲。/Let’s hitch a ride.让我们搭一次便车。 [4]go bananas (口语)发疯,神经错乱 ▲辨析▲——top banana 与 go bananas top banana 本指喜剧的主角( chief comic ),现在多半都指老板或上司( boss or supervisor ) 。 例如: He is a top banana in this corporation. (他是公司的老板。 ) 但是 go bananas 系指激动、���狂、神魂颠倒( wild, crazy or excited )( banana 要用复数。 ) 例如: The drugs ( marijuana ) have made him go bananas. (毒品大麻使他神魂颠倒。 ) 此外, to drive ( someone ) bananas (或 nuts )意思也是使人发狂,只是动词要用 drive, banana 也 要用复数。 例如: He has driven his wife bananas ( nuts )(他逼得他太太发疯。) [5]rub along (with) (跟某人)关系维持得不错;相处得不错:My wife and I seem to rub along (together) all right.我太太和似乎相处得还不错。 [6]depredation n.(常复数)抢夺,劫掠,蹂躏:The depredations of war/of the storm can still be seen several years after the event.战争/暴风雨蹂躏的痕迹,事后数年仍历历在目。

★★BACKGROUND★★ 外来物种(Alien species)是指出现在其过去或现在的自然分布范围及扩散潜力以外(即在其自然分布范 围以外,在没有直接或间接的人类引入或照顾之下而不能存在)的物种、亚种或以下的分类单元,包括其 所有可能存活、继而繁殖的部分、配子或繁殖体。当外来物种在自然或半自然生态系统或生境中建立了种 。外来物种在有的文 群,改变或威胁本地生物多样性的时候,就成为外来入侵种(Alien invasive species) 件中也称之为非本地的(non-native) 、非土著的(non-indigenous)、外国的(foreign)或外地的(exotic) 物种。 完型填空答案 ①paper ②decades ③why ④behind ⑤comparison ⑥having ⑦infect ⑧which ⑨Moreover ⑩Rather

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 14

Small country, big example Mar 16th 2006 | PORTO-NOVO From The Economist print edition Still an unusual success for democracy—★fingers crossed[1] ON March 5th, Benin went to the polls for the fourth presidential election since multi-party democracy was introduced in 1990: no mean achievement in west Africa. Even more impressive was the fact that President Mathieu Kérékou did not ★stand for[2] re-election, nor did his great rival, Nicéphore Soglo, who was president from 1991-96. Both have passed the constitution's age l_______① of 70. (1)That respect for the constitution goes admirably against Africa's trend for heads of state to change the law to stay even longer in office. Benin has fewer than 8m people. It is one of the p______② countries on earth. And yet, in Africa, it is also a democratic ★exemplar[3]. Many of Africa's former French colonies brought in multi-party democracy only when forced to by the French—in return for more aid—in June 1990. (2)Having abandoned Marxism, Mr K érékou, Benin's president and military ruler, not only legalised opposition parties several months before then, but also ★stood down[4] after his electoral defeat to Mr Soglo in 1991. So Benin became the first African country where an incumbent ran for re-election, lost and graciously ★bowed out[5]. Since then, d_________③ has implanted itself strongly in the minds of Benin's citizens. “Our history is so terrible, with coups and years of problems, that now we all care about democracy very deeply,” says one of them. Still, the election did not go smoothly. Electoral materials, i_________④ voting forms, seals for ballot boxes and even the ★urns[6] themselves turned up late or not at all, causing most polling stations to open hours late. Although they all then stayed open for the regulation nine hours, election officials were often absent and many had not been properly trained. Mr Kérékou blamed the independent electoral commission, hinting that the errors were not accidental. (3)All the same, turnout was high. Provisional results suggest that Yayi Boni, a banker, is ahead and will be faced in a second round by Adrien Houngbédji, a former prime minister and long-time rival of Mr Kérékou. Several other more minor candidates have filed complaints about the election process with the constitutional court. It is, alas, possible that a second round may not take p______⑤. Mr Kérékou has talked ★darkly[7] of following America's example in 2000 by taking months to verify the first-round results. His critics say he is stalling for time to handpick a favoured successor to run again if the first round is invalidated. (4)So far, however, his promise to give up power has to be taken ★at face value[8]. Benin's democracy-loving people should make him stick to his word: it could be the former general's greatest legacy.

NOTES:(LONGMAN) 1.keep…fingers crossed 希望能成功,如愿 to hope that something will happen the way you want e.g. We'rekeepingourfingers crossedthat she's going to be OK.我们衷心希望她能一切都好。Bingham is keeping his fingers crossed that Gray's withdrawal is the only one.宾厄姆希望除了格雷没人会退出。 2. stand for (election)做……(委员会、议会)候选人 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (British English)to try to become elected to a council, parliament etc [= run American English] e.g.She announced her intention to stand for Parliament.她宣布打算参加议会竞选。 3.exemplar 样板,模范,典范(exemplar of) a good or typical example e.g. Milt's career is an exemplar of survival in difficult times.米尔特的生涯可谓逆境生存的典范。 4.stand down 同意撤岗或停止竞选,给其他人机会;引退 to agree to leave your position or to stop trying to be elected, so that someone else can have a chance [= step down American English] 5.bow out 由……退出,从容引退;不反悔(bow out of) 1)to stop taking part in an activity, job etc, especially one that you have been doing for a long time e.g. Reeves thinks it is time for him to bow out of politics.里夫斯觉得是时候告别政治舞台了。 2)to not do something that you have promised or agreed to do [= get out of] e.g. You're not trying to bow out of this, are you?你不会说话不算话吧,啊? 6.urn 瓮,茶水壶,骨灰盒 7.darkly 悲伤地,生气地,胁迫地 in a sad, angry, or threatening way: e.g. Fred scowled darkly at her.弗雷德恶狠狠地看着她。 8. take something at face value 不考虑内在含义而接受某种条件或听信别人的话,信以为真 to accept a situation or accept what someone says, without thinking there may be a hidden meaning: e.g. You shouldn't always take his remarks at face value.你应该注意一下他的弦外之音。 [BACKGROUND]贝宁简况 位于西非中南部,东邻尼日利亚,西北、东北与布基纳法索、尼日尔交界,西与多哥接壤,南濒大西洋。 海岸线长 125 公里。沿海平原为热带雨林气候,常年气温在 20-34℃之间,最高可达 42℃;中部和北部为 热带草原气候,年平均温度 26-27℃。 16 世纪前后,贝宁出现许多小王国和酋长国。18 世纪阿波美王国鼎盛时期统一了南部和中部。16 世纪后 期,西方殖民者入侵贝宁,大肆进行奴隶贸易。1904 年,贝宁并入法属西非,1913 年沦为法国殖民地。 1958 年成为法兰西共同体内的“自治共和国”。1960 年 8 月 1 日独立,成立达荷美共和国。1972 年 10 月 克雷库政变上台,宣布“走社会主义发展道路” 。1975 年 11 月 30 日改国名为贝宁人民共和国。1990 年 3 月 1 日改为贝宁共和国,实行多党制。1991 年 3 月,尼塞福尔•索格洛(Nicéphore SOGLO)在首次多党 大选中获胜,当选总统。1996 年 3 月,克雷库在换届选举中击败索格洛重新执政。

参考译文及填空参考答案

小国家,大典范 BY Chenjilong 这总算是一项了不起的民主成就——希望他们得偿所愿。 3 月 5 日,贝宁自从 1990 年实行多党制以来,举行了第四届投票选举总统——这一成就在整个西部非洲 是无与伦比的。令人印象尤为深刻的是,马蒂厄•克雷库并未参加此次换届选举,其最主要对手、1991 年 至 1996 年曾任总统的尼塞福尔•索格洛也没有。两人都已年逾 70,超过了宪法规定的最高竞选年龄。在 非洲,国家领导人往往可以借助篡改法律来延长在位时间。贝宁这两任总统严格遵守本国宪法,虽与此格 格不入,却也令人肃然起敬。 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 贝宁的人口不到 800 万,是世界上最贫穷的国家之一,但也是非洲民主的典范。1990 年 6 月,迫于法国 的压力,非洲许多前法属殖民地国家纷纷推行多党制民主政府,从而谋求更多援助。克雷库,这位不再坚 持马克思主义的贝宁总统兼武装部队统帅,不但承认了反对党派的合法地位,并且在 1991 年选举时败给 索格洛后甘愿离职。贝宁因而成为非洲首个在职元首参加换届选举并失败、最后能从容引退的国家。从此, 贝宁人民的心里深深地打上了民主的印记。有的贝宁人说:“我们的国家曾经政变不断,问题层出不穷, 简直不堪回首,我们现在都深切盼望民主能带来一些变化。 ” 不过,这次民主选举进行得并不太顺利。选表、投票箱封条、票瓮等选举用材迟迟不能到位,致使大多数 投票站推迟开放。这些投票站虽然按规定开放了 9 个钟头,但是常常连选举监督官员的人影儿都看不到, 而且许多人还未没有经过正规培训。克雷库总统对独立选举委员会进行了斥责,而且言下之意指出这类错 误并不是偶然的。话说回来,参加投票的人还是很多的。各省选票统计结果显示,银行家亚伊•波尼遥遥 领先,可能会在下一轮选举中遭遇前总理、克雷库总统的宿敌亚德里安•温贝吉。其他一些少数党候选人 已就选举过程向宪法法院提出了抗诉。 唉,也许下一轮压根都不会开始。克雷库总统已经声称要照搬美国 2000 年的选举模式、用数月时间来核 实第一轮投票结果。批评人士认为,克雷库这样做是故意拖延,他正在给自己挑选称心如意的接班人,一 旦认定第一轮选举结果无效,他的接班人就能上台了。不管怎么说,目前对于克雷库承诺放权一事,人们 表面上还是得相信。热爱民主的贝宁人民应当敦促他信守承诺——这可是这位曾经的将军能给贝宁留下的 最宝贵的财富了。 完形填空答案:1.limit 2.poorest 3.democracy 4.including 5.place

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 15

A text a day... Mar 24th 2006 From The Economist print edition

The medical uses of mobile phones show they can be good for your health

WHAT impact can mobile phones have on their users' health? Many people (A) the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations1, despite the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more abundant. Indeed, a systematic by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, London, ★rounds up[1] 150 review (B) three categories: examples of the use of text-messaging in the delivery of health care. These uses (C) efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by incorporating text-messaging into treatment regimes. The study, funded by Vodafone2, the world's largest mobile operator, was published this week. (1)Using ★texting[2] to boost efficiency is not rocket science, but big savings can be achieved. Several trials carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders reduces the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, for example, and the number of missed hospital appointments by annual savings of 33-50%. If such schemes were ★rolled out[3] nationally, this would (D) £256m-364m. Text messages are also being used to remind patients about blood tests, clinics, scans and dental appointments. Similar schemes in America, Norway and Sweden have had equally satisfying results—though the use of text-message reminders in the Netherlands, where non-attendance rates are low, at 4%, had no effect other than to annoy patients. Text messages can also be a good way to disseminate public-health information, particularly to groups who are hard to reach by other means, such as teenagers, or in developing countries where other means of communication are unavailable. Text messages have been used in India to inform people about the World Health Organisation's strategy to control tuberculosis, for example, and in Kenya, Nigeria and Mali to provide information about HIV and malaria. In Iraq, text messages were used to support a campaign to vaccinate nearly 5m children against polio. Finally, there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to take their medicine at the right time, or to encourage compliance with exercise regimes or efforts to stop smoking. (2)The evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally ★anecdotal[4], however, notes Dr Rifat. More quantitative research is needed—which is why his team also published three papers this the use of mobile phones in health care in more detail. One of these papers, written in week (E) conjunction with Victoria Franklin and Stephen Greene of the University of Dundee, in Scotland, reports the results of a trial in which diabetic teenagers' treatment was (F) with text messaging. Diabetes needs constant management, and requires patients to take an active role in their treatment by measuring blood-sugar levels and administering insulin injections. (3)The most effective form of therapy is an intensive Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong regime in which patients adjust the dose of insulin depending on what they eat. This is more ★onerous[5] a greater dietary variety. Previous studies have shown that intensive for the patient, but (G) treatment is effective only with close supervision by doctors. Dr Franklin and her colleagues devised a system called Sweet Talk, which sends patients personalised text messages reminding them of the treatment goals they have set themselves, and allowing them to send questions to doctors. The Sweet Talk system was tested over a period of 18 months with teenage patients receiving both conventional and intensive diabetes treatment. A control group received conventional treatment and no text messages. The researchers found that the use of text-messaging significantly increased “self-efficacy”3 (the effectiveness of treatment, measured by questionnaire). More importantly, among patients receiving intensive therapy, the level of haemoglobin HbA1c4—an indicator of blood-glucose and hence of glycaemic control—was 14% lower than for those in the control group. Since even a 10% decline in HbA1c level is (H) a reduction in complications such as eye and kidney problems, this is an impressive result. It suggests that texting can cheaply and effectively support intensive therapy among teenagers, who often demonstrate poor compliance5. Despite such promising results, Dr Rifat notes, many of the medical uses of text-messaging have not yet been __ (I) _ clinical trials, because they are so new. And even where the benefits are proven, the technology has not improving outcomes and reducing been systematically deployed on a large scale. But when it (J) costs, (4)text messages would seem to be just what the doctor ordered.

[QUIZ] 1. Fill in each blank with an appropriate form of each following phrasal verb. One verb can only and must be chosen once. ①look at, ②subject to, ③allow for, ④carry out, ⑤associate with, ⑥worry about,⑦back up, ⑧come to, ⑨ fall into, ⑩translate into A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. 2. Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. round up v.(赶往)监狱,围捕;归拢,聚集;五入以成整数 1)if police or soldiers round up a particular group of people, they find them and force them to go to prison e.g. Thousands of men were rounded up and jailed. 数以千计的人被围捕并关进监狱。 2)to find and gather together a group of people, animals or things e.g. See if you can round up a few friends to help you!我倒要看看你能找着几个朋友帮你。 Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong His dog Nell started to round up the sheep.他的狗奈尔开始把羊朝一起赶。 3)to increase an exact figure to the nearest whole number (+to) e.g. A charge of 1.90 will be rounded up to 2, and one of 3.10 rounded down to 3. 把 1.90 英镑的费用上调为 整数 2 英镑, 把 3.10 英镑下调为整数 3 英镑. 2.text v.发送短信 to send someone a written message on a mobile phone 3.roll out v.推出,推开;发行,启动 to make a new product available for people to buy or use;=launch e.g. The company expects to roll out the new software in September.公司计划在 9 月份推出这款新软件。 4.anecdotal adj.趣闻轶事的,个人见闻的 consisting of short stories based on someone’s personal experience e.g. His findings are based on anecdotal evidence rather than serious research.他的发现都是基于传闻证据而非 认真研究。(anecdotal evidence 在心理学上称为“轶事证据”, 即粗浅的证据,经常以故事形式出现:比 如“我记得那时……”, “我听说……” 。轶事是出了名的不准确。也有人译为“传闻证据” 、“观察证据” 、 “轶闻证据”等。) 5.onerous adj.(正式)(工作或责任)困难且令人焦虑的;累人的 work or a responsibility that is onerous is difficult and worrying or makes you tired.

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 基站(Base station) :是指采用蜂窝方式组网的 GSM 移动通信系统、CDMA 移动通信系统、数字集群 通信系统、PHS 无线接入系统以及采用其他技术体制的无线电通信系统的基站及其室外直放站。基站所使 用的频率必须已经国家或省级无线电管理机构批准;使用的发射设备必须具有国家无线电管理机构核发的 《无线电发射设备型号核准证》。 2. 沃达丰(Vodafone):是跨国性的移动电话营办商。总部设在英国波克夏郡的纽布利(Newbury)及德 国的杜塞尔多夫。现时为世界上最大的流动通讯网络公司之一,在全球 27 个国家均有投资。在另外 14 个国家则与当地的移动电话营办商合作,联营移动电话网络。截至 2004 年 12 月 31 日,沃达丰在全球拥 有大约一亿五千一百八十万名用户。沃达丰使用沃达丰集团作为名称,分别于伦敦证券交易所(代号 VOD.L)及纽约证券交易所(代号 VOD)上市。沃达丰(Vodafone)的名称结合了 Voice(语音)-Data (数据)-Fone(电话)三个意思。 3. 自我效能感(self-efficacy) :即一个人对自己成功地完成某种任务、达到既定水平的确信程度。 4. 糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c):是血红蛋白 A 组分的某些特殊分子部位和葡萄糖经过缓慢而不可逆的非酶促 反应结合而形成的,当血液中葡萄糖浓度较高时,人体所形成的糖化血红蛋白含量也会相对较高。人体内 红细胞的寿命一般为 120 天,在红细胞死亡前,血液中糖化血红蛋白含量也会保持相对不变。因此糖化血 红蛋白水平反映的是在检测前 120 天内的平均血糖水平,而与抽血时间,病人是否空腹,是否使用胰岛素 等因素无关,是判定糖尿病长期控制的良好指标。它反映 4~8 周的体内血糖的平均水平,并可能是造成 糖尿病并发症的一个重要原因。 5. 依从性(compliance) :是指患者执行医疗措施的程度,亦即患者执行医嘱的程度。患者能完全按医嘱 要求执行者称为依从性好,否则称为不依从性。

每天一条短信…… (陈继龙 学译)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 通过医学应用显示,手机可能有益于您的健康。 手机对使用者健康会产生什么样的影响呢?许多人担心手机手持装置及通信基站的辐射会对身体有害,不 过始终缺乏可靠依据,而关于手机对健康有益的证据却越来越多。的确,在伦敦皇家学院里法特•亚顿及 其同事撰写的一篇系统性综述中,就汇总了 150 条手机短信用于提供医疗保健服务的事例。短信的这些用 途可以分为三类,即提高工作效率、促进公共卫生宣传以及通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合直接惠及病人。 本周公诸于众的此项研究是由世界最大的移动电话运营商沃达丰资助的。 利用编发短信来提高工作效率并不是多么高深的科学,但是能节省大笔费用。比如,英国有几项试验发现, 短信提醒功能将同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了 26%到 39%,同医院的约会错过率则减少了 33%到 50%。 设若这种短信提醒系统能推广到全国,则相当于每年节省 2.56~3.64 亿英镑。 在提醒病人去验血、上诊所、做扫描以及预约牙医等方面,短信也正得到应用。在美国、挪威和瑞典,一 些类似的系统均已取得了令人满意的效果——不过在荷兰,由于无故缺席率本来就较低(5%),所以短信 提醒除了打扰患者之外,无任何效果。 手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径,对那些通过其他方式难以传达到的人群,比如青少年,或 者是在没有其他通信手段的发展中国家,更是如此。比如,印度已使用短信来宣传国际卫生组织的结核病 防控策略,肯尼亚、尼日利亚和马里也利用短信为人们提供艾滋病和疟疾方面的讯息,在伊拉克,短信则 被用来声援一项给将近 5 岁的儿童接种天花疫苗的行动。 最后,手机短信还可作为治疗方案的一部分,发挥多种作用,其中包括提醒病人适时服药、督促病人按要 求进行锻炼以及劝阻患者吸烟。然而,里法特强调,有关这些作用效果的例证一般都是道听途说来的(街 谈巷议),尚需进一步定量研究——这也正是里法特研究小组本周着眼于阐明手机对卫生保健的作用所发 表的 3 篇论文的出发点,其中有一篇是与苏格兰邓迪大学的维多利亚•富兰克林和斯蒂芬•格林合作撰写 的。该文报告,一项糖尿病青少年病人试验结果表明,手机短信对治疗该病有辅助作用。 糖尿病需要持续性治疗,并要求患者在治疗过程中必须积极主动,如测量血糖浓度、注射胰岛素。最有效 的治疗形式就是进行强化治疗,即患者根据饮食调整胰岛素用量。这对患者而言是有些勉为其难,但饮食 上的多样性决定了别无选择。以前有研究显示,只有在医生密切监控下,强化治疗才有效。富兰克林和他 的同事们设计了一种“甜言蜜语”系统,此系统可向患者发送个性化短信,叮嘱其记住既定治疗目标,如 有疑问也可发信息给医生。 “甜言蜜语”系统经过了 18 个月的检测,期间少年糖尿病患者同时接受一般性 和强化治疗,并设立对照组,即患者仅接受一般性治疗,而不给其发送短信。 研究人员发现,应用短信显著提高了患者“自我效能感” (即治疗效果,问卷检测) 。更重要的是,接受强 化治疗的患者中,糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)(一种血糖指标,用于监控血糖含量)浓度比对照组低 14%。 一般而言,糖化血红蛋白浓度下降 10%,就表明眼、肾等并发症发生率降低,因此这一试验结果令人瞩目, 它提示短信能够便宜有效地辅助少年患者强化治疗,而这些患者在治疗中往往依从性很差。 里法特指出,结果虽然令人深受鼓舞,但短信的很多医疗用途由于太过新颖,还没有接受临床试验,即便 是已被证实的用途,也尚未得到系统性推广。但是,随着短信对改善治疗效果和减少医疗费用的作用越来 越突出,医生们也许将用短信来下医嘱。

[KEY TO QUIZ] Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong A.worry about B.carried out C.fall into 分成,变成(如:The lecture series falls naturally into three parts. 该系列讲座可自然分作三部分。) D.translate into 转化为(如:I wonder how your religious belief will translate into political action. 我不知道你 的宗教信仰如何转化为政治行动。) E.looking at 考虑(如:That's the way I look at it, too. 我也是这么想。) F.backed up 支持,援助(如:He drought along a file of document to back up his claim. 他随身携带一卷宗文 件以便证实索赔要求。) G.allows for 考虑到(如:In calculating profit, retailers must allow for breakage and spoilage. 计算利润时,零 售商们必须考虑到破碎和损坏情况。 ) H.associated with I.subjected to J.comes to

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 16

Like pearls falling into a jade plate Mar 30th 2006 From The Economist print edition WHEN Wu Man arrived in New Haven1, Connecticut, from Beijing in 1990 she spoke no English and ★gambled on[1] surviving with the help of her pipa, a traditional lute-like Chinese instrument. She has succeeded (A) (triumph), working her way from New York's Chinatown to Carnegie Hall2, where she gives her debut recital on April 6th. The pipa is a sonorous, four-stringed, pear-shaped instrument held upright on the lap. Its strings used to be silk but are now steel, which resonates better. The fake fingernails on Ms Wu's right hand ★pluck[2] the strings, while her left hand fingers the ★frets[3]. (1)She produces an (B) (astonish) range of colours and moods from a 2,000-year-old instrument which produces a sound, observed a poet from the Tang dynasty, like “pearls falling into a jade plate”. Ms Wu is a ★virtuoso[4] interpreter of traditional music, creating (C) (haunt) exotic waves of sound with ★pizzicatos and tremolos[5] (the plucking of one string with all five fingers consecutively). But (D) (evoke) of dropping pearls soon fade to Jimi Hendrix3. During her time in America, (2)Ms Wu has daringly expanded the pipa's range, playing jazz, bluegrass4 and Bollywood5 with (number) works from prominent composers. eclectic instrumentalists—and inspiring (E) The pipa can sound gently lyrical or (F) (aggress) modern, which is why, says Ms Wu, it attracts such composers as Terry Riley, Philip Glass, Tan Dun and Bright Sheng, all of whom have written for her. She was the first to partner the pipa with an endongo (an eight-stringed Ugandan instrument), an Appalachian banjo and a string quartet6. She was also, she says, the first to play jazz on the pipa. All this happened after she arrived in America. Young Chinese musicians are now ubiquitous in American and European conservatories, competitions and concert halls, but during China's cultural revolution the performance of Western music was greatly restricted. Traditional instruments, however, were born in 1964 in Hangzhou, began studying the pipa when she was nine.

(G) (courage), and Ms Wu,

She entered the Beijing Central Conservatory of Music (where she heard Western music for the first time) and became the first (H) (receive) of a masters degree in the pipa. She was awarded a ★tenured[6] faculty position. But her curiosity about the West proved (I) (resist). Colleagues who had emigrated to the United States warned her that there was no interest in Chinese traditional music, (3)but, undaunted, she packed seven instruments (including pipas, a zither and a dulcimer) and set off. During the first two difficult years she learnt English and cried a lot. She joined other Chinese musicians and began performing in New York's Chinatown, (J) (rehearse) in the basement of a dry-cleaner. (4)American musicians would approach her after concerts, (K) (fascination). David Harrington of the Kronos Quartet said that the first time he heard her play was like the first time he heard Jascha Heifetz, a master violinist. Page 1 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Mr Harrington chose her to perform in the quartet's recent Bollywood- (L) (inspiration) recording because he wanted one person to create many different sounds. (5)Ms Wu, with her “large sonic vocabulary”, was uniquely qualified. She also attracted the attention of Yo Yo Ma, a cellist with whom she now frequently performs as a member of his Silk Road ★Ensemble[7]. Pipa players and audiences in China are also becoming more open minded; she caused (M) (exciting)when she performed in Beijing with the Kronos Quartet ten years ago. “That's my hope,” she says, “that (6)the next generation know there is another way for traditional instruments to survive.”

[QUIZ] 1. 用文中空白后括号内单词的适当(相关)形式填空(可以是动词、形容词及副词,注意 时态、语态、比较级乃至派生词等): 如:WHEN Wu Man ________(arrival) in New Haven, Connecticut, from Beijing in 1990 she spoke no English. 此空白处应填 arrived.

2. 将文中划线部分翻译成英语:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) [1]gamble v.以……为赌注,孤注一掷 to do something that involves a lot of risk, and that will not succeed unless things happen the way you would like them to gamble on They're gambling on Johnson being fit for Saturday's game. gamble something on something Potter gambled everything on his new play being a hit. [2]pluck v.弹拨 to pull the strings of a musical instrument pluck at Someone was plucking at the strings of an old guitar. [3]fret n.音品;安在某些弦乐器如吉他弹拨处的一个或多个隆起物 one of the raised lines on the fretboard of a guitar etc [4] virtuoso

plural virtuosos

n. 技术超群的表演者(尤指音乐)someone who is a very skilful performer, especially in music: violin virtuoso Stephane Grappelli —virtuoso adjective [only before noun] a virtuoso performance a virtuoso pianist [5] pizzicatos and tremolos 拨奏曲和颤音 Page 2 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [6]tenure [UC]享有终身教授的权利 the right to stay permanently in a teaching job: It's becoming increasingly difficult to acquire academic tenure. —tenured adjective: a tenured professor a tenured position [7]ensemble <法>全体, [音]合唱曲, 全体演出者

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 纽黑文(New Haven) :美国康涅狄格州(Connecticut)南部城市,临长岛海湾,对外贸易港口。人口 12.4 万(1984),大市区 41.7 万(1980)。建于 1638 年。有钟表、仪表、橡胶制品、枪炮、弹药、电气制 品、造船等工业。著名的耶鲁大学就在这座小城,纽黑文还是美国比萨的起源地。每天,都会有上百美国 人从纽约或波士顿驾两三个小时的车到纽黑文品尝这里的比萨。其中,又以"Frank Pepe's''及"Sally"的比萨 最著名,周末你可得排上几个小时,才能尝到香喷喷的比萨! 2. 卡内基音乐厅(Carnigie Hall):世界上最著名的音乐圣殿,位于纽约 57 号大街 154 号。1891 年由钢 铁大王卡内基投资兴建,当时,那里还属于曼哈顿颇为荒凉的郊区。这座意大利文艺复兴工的音乐厅在设 施上几乎达到了无可挑剔的境界。卡内基音乐厅建成公演的那天,卡内基特地邀请柴可夫斯基担任乐队的 客座指挥,所有纽约自认品味高雅的家庭在音乐厅外等了至少一小时,为的只是能买到一张入场券。几乎 20 世纪所有的古典音乐巨匠都以能在卡内基音乐厅演出为荣。郎朗是中国钢琴演奏史上第一位在卡内基 大厅作音乐会现场录音的钢琴大师。 《千手观音》领舞、残疾人艺术家邰丽华也在此演出过。 3. 吉米·亨德里克斯(Jimi Hendrix) :原名詹���斯.马歇尔.亨德里克斯(James Marshall Hendrix),1942 年 11 月 27 日出生于华盛顿州的西雅图。吉米.亨德里克斯生长于一个贫穷的黑人家庭,他是摇滚历史上最伟 大的电吉他天才和 60 年代末唱片工业摧毁力量的牺牲品。亨德里克斯在上学期间就自学吉他,并热衷于 听南方布鲁斯歌手的作品,从罗伯特.约翰逊(Robert Johnson)到 B.B.金(B. B. King)。1961 年,他在美国伞 兵服役期间,在部队俱乐部演奏音乐,并结识了贝司手比利.考克斯(Billy Cox)。在亨德里克斯以后的生涯 中,他对亨德里克斯的帮助很大。退役后,亨德里克斯参加了一些音乐家的演出。在他移居纽约之前,他 还与小理查德(LittleRichard)、艾克和蒂娜.特纳(Ike and Tina Turner)合作过。当他在纽约的黑人俱乐部里为 “艾斯利兄弟"(IsleyBrothers)、金.柯蒂斯(King Curtis)和其他乐队伴奏时,被实业家埃德.查普林发现,并 与他签订了录音合同,还使他成了“柯蒂斯骑士”(Curtis Knight)乐队的主音吉他手。同时,亨德里克斯 作为一个吉他手的绝顶天赋被前“动物”(Animals)乐队的贝司手蔡斯.钱德勒(Chas Chandler)所赏识,并向 他许愿把他培养成顶级歌星。亨德里克斯被他打动了,并于 1966 年随他到了英国。在伦敦, “吉米.亨德 里克斯经验”(Jimi Hendrix xperience)乐队组建,这是一支有魔力的三人乐队,主音吉他兼主唱亨德里克斯, 贝司手诺埃尔.雷丁(Noel Rid ding)和鼓手米奇.米切尔(Mitch Mitchell)。该乐队几乎一夜成名,尤其是亨德 里克斯引起了英国流行音乐界的极大关注,据报道,那年冬天,埃里克.克拉普顿(Eric Clapton)和皮特.汤 森(PeteTownshend)观看了他所有的演出。1967 年夏,他成功地进行了英国、德国和斯堪的纳维亚巡回演 出 , 并 录 制 了 热 门 单 曲 “ 嘿 , 乔 ” (Hey Joe) 和 “ 紫 雾 ” (Purple Haze) 以 及 专 辑 《 你 经 历 过 吗 ? 》 (AreYouExperienced?)在保罗.麦卡特尼(Paul McCartney)的大力推荐下,他参加了蒙特雷音乐节,他的成功 使他跻身于世界超一流歌星的行列。作为一名黑人歌星,人们注意到,他的听众几乎都是白人,他是第一 位赢得所有白人听众的黑人歌星。1969 年,他却面临巨大的政治压力——黑人团结,但他并不懂政治, 因此感到不解和紧张。在商业方面,1968 年是最成功的一年, 《像爱一样勇敢》(Axis: Bold As Love)(1969) Page 3 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 和《电子女儿国》(ElectricLadyand)都成为金唱片,他还从音乐会及无可争辩的超级歌星的身份中赚取了 大量的金钱。在 1968 年底,他被认为是其他“激进摇滚”吉他手的鼻祖。他那忧郁而激动人心的独特风 格,体现了强烈的布鲁斯音乐的情感。爵士乐大师迈尔斯.戴维斯(Miles Davis)甚至预言他将成为一名伟大 的爵士乐吉他手。他的演奏具有很浓的实验色彩,把电吉他的技巧和功效发挥到了不可思议的地步。但当 他进一步成功时,麻烦也随之而来了。1968 年 1 月,他因与贝司手诺埃尔.雷丁争吵斗殴而被拘留,这标 志着乐队成员之间的关系激剧恶化。一个月之后,在他第二次环美旅行演出中,他放弃了舞台表演中所有 花哨和噱头,直接表现他那复杂的音乐。这一举动遭到了观众的反对,亨德里克斯为逃避这种反应,取消 了 47 天中的 54 场演出,并用大量吸毒的狂乱生活方式麻醉自己。他消瘦了许多,并指责他的经理人对他 的钱财管理不当。除了他的魔力在公众中的巨大影响,1969 年却是一个不顺之年,他的经理人蔡斯.钱德 勒被解雇, “吉米.亨德里克斯经验”乐队解散,一个多伦多的毒品贩子控制了他,整整一年,金钱如流水 般地花掉,他的私生活更加无序。同时,他还面临来自黑人听众的巨大政治压力,要求他组建一支全黑人 乐队。尽管他在纽波特音乐节上露面,并重新启用米奇.米切尔,还邀请他的朋友比利.考克斯(Billy Cox) 任贝司手,他的现场演出还是比以前大大减少了。一个月后,他在伍德斯托克音乐节露面,这是他音乐生 涯中的最后高潮,同年 12 月,他的全黑人乐队(“吉普赛人乐队”(Band of Gypsies)终于组成),但他对乐 队第 1 张专辑并不满意,不久在纽约麦迪逊广场花园演唱会后“吉普赛人乐队”宣告解散。此时,他还在 准备下一个双张套专辑《新升太阳的第一束光》(FirstRays of the New Rising Sun)。此后,亨德里克斯重组 “吉普赛人乐队”,乐队由亨德里克斯、考克斯和巴迪.迈尔斯(Buddy Miles)组成,到夏威夷拍电影,开更 多的演唱会,在新开的“电子女儿国”录音棚里录音。8 月份,他最后一次离开美国,参加怀特岛音乐节。 当时舆论认为他那次表演水平并不高,可现在回想起来,那次表演依然十分出色,接下来的欧洲巡回演出 被缩短了。亨德里克斯于 9 月中旬回到英国。 1970 年 9 月 18 日,他因过量服用安眠药剧烈呕吐窒息而死。当时亨德里克斯心理压力很大,种种迹 象表明他并非自杀——他的死只是个悲剧事件。许多人认为亨德里克斯死的时候,灵感已枯竭。摇滚歌星 们应该知道在这种职业生涯中该如何保护自己,可惜一个人在青云直上时不会明白,而等他明白时,已经 太晚了。亨德里斯从来不知道如何筑起保护墙。我们不能说他在 70 年代的作品缺乏创造力,不幸的是亨 德里克斯的音乐深奥重要之处已被营利目的搞的面目全非——《新太阳的第一束光》这张未完成专辑中的 大部分歌曲被收录在亨德里克斯死后最初出版的两张专辑《爱之哭泣》(Cry of Love)和《彩虹桥》(Rainbow Bridge)。 随后,突然之间到处都出版了亨德里克斯拼凑歌曲的专辑,直到 1974 年制作人艾伦.道格拉斯(Alan Douglas)开始接管他的遗作时,情况才消失,道格拉斯最初出版的两张“新”专辑《紧急着陆》(Crash Landing) 和《午夜之光》(Midnight Lightning)全都是把亨德里克斯 1969-1970 年的录音室原声经过道格拉斯把吉他 以外的噪音抹去,再重新加上乐手的伴奏而编辑的,如果说这些专辑毫无生机的话。那么道格拉斯制作的 另一张“新”专辑《宇宙的九个》(Nine to the Universe)倒并不太坏,的确是当时亨德里克斯和当时的乐手 一起演奏的。现场演出版本的一些专辑,像《音乐会》(Concerts)、 《温特兰德现场唱会》(Live at Winterland) 以及 4CD 装的《舞台》(Stages)倒是一些很具历史价值的东西,就像《第一电台》(Radio One)(是“亨德里 克斯和经验”乐队 1967 年在 BBC 电台做的),一样都是尽收全文未经改动的真实演唱会版本。 从音乐上来说他对以后无数继承者的影响是无可估量的。这位巨匠的吉他技巧和丰富的想像力对后人 影响的结果是竞争多于启示。这本身是他的力量和形象的象征。至今还无人能超过这位天才,或许永远不 会有。风格: Acid Rock(酸性摇滚) Album Rock(专辑摇滚) Blues-Rock(蓝调摇滚) Hard Rock (硬摇滚) Psychedelic(迷幻音乐) 4. 蓝草音乐(Bluegrass) :代表早期传统乡村音乐的一种风格:由美国东南部的阿巴拉契亚山脉地区的“乡 下人”组成的以弦乐器为主的乐队,演唱传统的歌曲,以高音人声作和声,基本的伴奏乐器包括:小提琴、 吉他、曼陀林、五弦班卓琴和由小提琴制造者约翰.多皮埃拉(John Dopyera,1893-1988 年 1 月 3 日)发 明的多布(Dobro)——一种用来以机械方式放大吉他声音的铝制圆锥体。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 5.宝莱坞(Bollywood):是位于印度孟买的广受欢迎的电影工业基地的别名,由孟买(Bombay)和好莱坞 (Hollywood)结合而成。尽管有些纯粹主义者对这个名字十分不满,看上去“宝莱坞”还是会被继续沿用 下去,甚至在牛津英语大词典中也已经有了自己的条目。宝莱坞也被称作是“印地语(Hindi)的影院”,其 实乌尔都语(Urdu)诗歌在这里也相当常见,同时英语的对白和歌曲所占的成分也正在逐年增加。不少影片 中的对白中都有英语单词短语,甚至整个句子。一些电影还被制成两种或三种语言的版本(使用不同语言 的字幕,或者不同的音轨)。宝莱坞和印度其它几个主要影视基地(泰米尔语 - Kollywood,特鲁古语 (Telugu),孟加拉语(Bengali) - Tollywoord,坎拿达语(Kannada)和马拉亚拉姆语(Malayalam)等)构成了印度 的庞大电影业,每年出产的电影数量和售出的电影票数量居全世界第一。宝莱坞对印度以至整个印度次大 陆,中东以及非洲和东南亚的一部分的流行文化都有重要的影响,并通过南亚的移民输出传播到整个世界。 宝莱坞的电影通常是音乐片。几乎所有影片中都至少有一段唱歌跳舞的场面。 6. 弦乐四重奏(string quartet):四件乐器是小提琴二、中提琴、大提琴各一。典型模式为四个乐章(与 交响曲相同) 。

[APPENDIX] 各种西洋乐器人声中英文对照 一、Woodwinds: 木管乐器 28.Panpipes 排萧 1.Piccolo 短笛 二、Brass: 铜管乐器 1.Cornet 短号 2.Flute 长笛 2.Trumpet in Bb 降 B 调小号 3.Soprano Recorder 高音竖笛 3.Trumpet in C C 调小号 4.Oboe 双簧管 4.Flugelhorn 夫吕号(行进乐队常用) 5.English Horn 英国管 5.Horn in F F 调圆号 6.Bassoon 大管 6.Trombone 长号 7.Contrabassoon 低音巴松 7.Tenor Trombone 次中音长号 8.Clarinet in Eb 降 E 调单簧管(小黑管) 8.Bass Tromone 低音长号 9.Clarinet in A A 调单簧管 9.Baritone(T.C.) 次中音号 10.Clarinet in Bb 降 B 调单簧管 10.Baritone 次中音 11.Bass Clarinet 低音单簧管 11.Euphonium 小低音号 12.Soprano Saxophone 高音萨克斯 12.Tuba 大号 13.ALto Saxophone 中音萨克斯 13.Bass Tuba 低音大号 14.Tenor Saxophone 次中音萨克斯 14.Piccolo Cornet 高音短号 15.Baritone Saxophone 上低音萨克斯 15.Piccolo Trumpet in A A 调高音小号 16.Alto Flute 中音长笛* 16.Bass Trumpet in C C 调低音小号 17.Bass Flute 低音长笛 17.Alto Trombone 中音长号 18.Oboe d' Amore 双簧管的一种 18.Contrabass Trombone 倍低音长号 19.Piccolo Clarinet 高音单簧管* 三、Pitched Percussion: 有音高打击乐器 20.Alto Clarinet 中音单簧管(Eb 调的,属于低音单 1.Timpani 定音鼓 簧管) 2.Bells 排钟 21.Contrabass Clarinet 倍低音单簧管 3.Glockenspiel 钢片琴 22.Descant Recorder 高音竖笛 4.Crystal Glasses 23.Alto Recorder 中音竖笛 5.Xylophone 木琴 24.Tenor Recorder 次中音竖笛 6.Vibraphone 颤音琴 25.Bass Recorder 低音竖笛 7.Marimba 马林巴琴 26.Bagpipes 风笛 8.Bass Marimba 低音马林巴琴 27.Basset Horn 巴赛管(单簧管) Page 5 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 9.Tubular Bells 管钟 10.Chimes 钟琴 11.Steel Drums 钢鼓 12.Mallets 三角木琴 四、Percussion: 小打击乐器 1.Percussion 小打击乐器组 2.Wind Chimes 3.Bell Tree 音树 4.Triangle 三角铁 5.Crotales 响板 6.Finger Cymbals 手指小镲 7.Sleigh Bells 马铃 8.Cymbals 大镲 9.Cowbell 牛铃 10.Agogo Bells (由两个锥型铁筒组成,比牛玲音 高) 11.Flexatone 12.Musical Saw 乐锯 13.Brake Drum 闸鼓 14.Tam Tam 大锣 15.Gong 锣 16.Claves 响棒 17.Slapstick 击板 18.VibraSlap 19.Sand Block 沙轮 20.Ratchet 齿轮剐响器 21.Guiro (木制,用铁棍剐) 22.Cuica (发出的声音象狗叫的拉丁乐器) 23.Maracas 沙槌 24.Castanets 响板 25.Wood Blocks 盒棒 26.Temple Blocks 木鱼 27.Log Drum 木鼓 28.Tambourine 铃鼓 29.Whistle 哨 30.Siren 汽笛 31.Jawbone 32.Anvil 乐钻 五、Drums: 鼓 1.Drum Set 架子鼓 2.Bongo Drums 邦加鼓(用手指敲的小鼓,夹在两 腿间) 3.Timbales 蒂姆巴尔鼓 4.Conga Drums 康加鼓(橄榄型) 5.Snare Drum 小军鼓

6.Quad Toms 4 组鼓筒鼓 7.Quint Toms 五组筒鼓 8.Tenor Drum 次高音鼓 9.Tom Toms 筒鼓 10.Roto Toms 轮鼓 11.Bass Drum 低音鼓 六、Plucked Strings: 弹拨乐 1.Harp 竖琴 2.Guitar 吉他 3.Scoustic Guitar 4.electric Guitar 电吉他 5.Banjo 班卓 6.Bass 贝司 7.Acoustic Bass 非电贝斯 8.Electric Bass 电贝司 9.String Bass 弦贝司 10.Mandolin 曼陀林 11.Lute 琉特琴 12.Ukulele 夏威夷四弦琴 13.Zither 齐特尔琴 14.Sitar 锡塔尔琴 七、Keybords: 键盘 1.Piano 钢琴 2.Organ 管风琴 3.Harpsichord 大键琴 4.Celesta 钢片琴 5.Accordion 手风琴 6.Clavichord 古钢琴 7.Harmonium 脚踏式风琴 8.Synthesizer 电子合成器 八、Chorus: 合唱 1.Soprano 女高 2.Soprano Ⅰ 女高 1 3.Soprano Ⅱ 女高 2 4.Mezzo-Soprano 女次高 5.Contralto 女低 6.Alto 女低 7.Counter-Tenor 8.Tenor 男高 9.Tenor Ⅰ 男高 1 10.Tenor Ⅱ 男高 2 11.Baritone 男中 12.Bass 男低 13.Bass Ⅰ 男低 1 14.Bass Ⅱ 男低 2 Page 6 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 15.Voice 人声 16.Vocals 元音 九、Strings: 弦乐 1.Violin 小提琴 2.Violin Ⅰ 小提琴 1 3.Violin Ⅱ 小提琴 2 4.Viola 中提琴 5.Cello 大提琴 6.Violoncello 低音提琴 7.Contrabass 低音提琴

8.Double Bass 倍低音提琴 9.Solo Violin 独奏小提琴 10.Solo VIola 独奏中提琴 11.Solo Cello 独奏大提琴 12.Solo Bass 独奏低音提琴 13.Viola d' Amore 十、Handbells: 手铃 1.Handbells 手铃 2.Handbells(T.C) 手铃(中音)

[TRANSLATION]

大珠小珠落玉盘 (陈继龙 学译) 1990 年,吴曼从北京奔赴康涅狄格州纽黑文市的那会儿,一句英语也不会说,生存的希望完全寄托 在她的琵琶(类似鲁特琴的中国传统乐器)上。现在她已经获得了骄人的成就——经过努力拼搏,终于从 纽约的唐人街来到了卡内基音乐厅,并将于 4 月 6 日在那里首次举办独奏音乐会。 琵琶是一种音色清亮的四弦乐器,其形如梨,演奏时被竖抱于膝上。琵琶弦以前多为丝制,现已改为 钢弦,共振效果更佳。吴曼用右手上的假指甲拨弦,而用左手手指压盖音柱。在她的弹奏下,这种有着 2000 年历史的乐器发出的一曲曲乐音音色和韵味都令人惊叹不已,正如一首唐诗所说,像“大珠小珠落 玉盘”一般。 吴女士使用弹拨和震音(用 5 根手指连续拨动一根弦),奏出了众多令人萦怀的异国曲调,其诠释传 统音乐的造诣之深可见一斑。但是, “大珠小珠落玉盘”的召唤力很快就消失殆尽,一如当年的“吉米·亨 德里克斯经验”乐队。在美国期间,吴女士大胆扩展了琵琶的演奏范围,与相应的乐器手共同弹奏爵士乐、 蓝草音乐、宝莱坞电影音乐,并且激发一些知名作曲家谱写了众多作品。 吴女士说,琵琶之声时而柔美如诗,时而激越且不乏时代感,这就是它之所以能吸引泰瑞·莱利、菲 利普·格拉斯、谭盾、盛宗亮等作曲家的缘故,而这些人都曾为其谱过曲子。她是第一个把琵琶与乌干达 竖琴、阿帕拉契五弦琴以及弦乐四重奏组合在一起的人,也是第一个用琵琶弹奏爵士乐的人。 一切均始于她抵达美国之后。现如今在美国和欧洲的音乐学院、各类比赛以及音乐厅里,年轻的中国 音乐家比比皆是。要知道,在中国“文化大革命”时期,演奏西洋音乐是受到严格限制的,国家提倡使用 传统乐器,于是乎,1964 年出生于杭州的吴曼 9 岁时开始学弹琵琶。 她考进了北京中央音乐学院(在那里她第一次听到了西洋音乐) ,随后获得中国第一个琵琶专业硕士 学位并被授予终身教授职位。但是,她实在掩饰不住对西方的好奇心。移居美国的同事告诫她说,美国人 对中国传统音乐毫无兴趣,但她并没有打退堂鼓,带上七件乐器(其中包括琵琶、古筝和一把扬琴)就出 发了。

Page 7 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 头两年的生活很艰辛,她学习英语,也哭过很多次。她加入了其他中国音乐家的行列,开始在纽约唐 人街演出,在一家干洗店地下室里排练。几场音乐会下来,美国的音乐家们被迷住了,开始主动跟她打交 道。 “克诺斯四重奏”乐队的戴维·哈林顿说,他起初听她演奏时的感觉就像头一次听小提琴大师雅沙·海 飞兹演奏一样。 “克诺斯四重奏”乐队最近录制一张取材于宝莱坞电影音乐的唱片时,哈林顿看中了她,因为他需要 一个人能独自奏出多种不同的声音效果。拥有“丰富的声汇量”的吴女士当之无愧。她也引起了马友友的 注意——作为这位大提琴家“丝绸之路”演奏团的一员,她现在经常和他同台表演。 中国的琵琶演奏者和听众的思想也越来越开放,十年前吴曼与克诺斯四重奏一起在北京的演出曾经轰 动一时。她说:“我希望下一代中国人明白,还有一种能让传统乐器经久不衰的方法。”

[KEY TO QUIZ] A. triumphantly (triumph 胜利-triumphant 胜利的,洋洋得意的-triumphantly 成功地,自豪地) B. astonishing (注意区分 astonished 感到惊讶的和 astonishing 令人惊讶的) C. hauntingly (haunt 萦绕心头-haunting 常浮现于脑海的,难忘怀的-hauntingly 副词,此处修饰形容 词 exotic,故应填入副词。注意 haunted 的意思是“神鬼出没的,闹鬼的” ) D. evocations(此处应填名词,evoke 唤起,引发-evocation n.再现,描绘) E. numerous(此处应填入由 number 派生而来的 numerous-大量的,许多的) F. aggressively(修饰形容词 modern,应填副词,aggress v.攻击,侵犯-aggressive adj.好斗的,挑衅的, 有闯劲的-aggressively adv.侵略地,有攻势地) G. encouraged(此处应填动词的被动语态) H. recipient (此处应填表示“人”的名词,recipient 接受者) I. irresistible (本题有一定难度,首先根据句意及括号中的 resist,这句应该指“不可抵抗的”。注意 resistance n.抵抗力,耐受;resistant adj.有抵抗力的) J. rehearsing (现在分词伴随状语;rehearse v.排练 rehearsal n.) K. fascinated (过去分词伴随状语) L. inspired (inspire 的过去分词,“被激发的” ) M. excitement (填入名词)

Page 8 of 8


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 17

Farewell the red soldiers Apr 12th 2006 | BEIJING From The Economist print edition LONG gone are the days when Chinese parents often chose such names as Hongbing (Red Soldier), Aihua (Love China) or even Kangmei (Anti America) for their children. (1)They are still limited by the custom of using no more than two Chinese characters for given names. But growing numbers now prefer to choose the common highly obscure ones to ① phenomenon, given a ★ paucity[1] of surnames, of ★bestowing[2] a name already used by countless others. The police, however, have plans to stop this. The problem is that commonly used software for inputting Chinese characters, including that used by police departments responsible for ② identity cards (which every Chinese must carry), cannot ③ very its pronunciation rare characters. In China, the usual way of writing a character on a computer is to ④ using Roman letters, then choose from a list of possible options (most characters have many ★homonyms[3]). A up on the list. rare character might not ⑤ The tens of millions of Chinese with rare characters in their names (2)have long suffered the consequences, experiencing problems with everything from buying airline tickets to opening bank accounts. A Chinese graduate student says none of her examination certificates has ever ⑥ her full name, Chen Minqian. The rare “min” character, a poetical term for “autumn”, has been represented by zeros or ★asterisks[4]. Many computers once had problems generating the name of Zhu Rongji, China's former prime minister, ⑦ to his “rong” character, which is an unusual variant of a character meaning “smelt”. For the police all this has become a particular problem with the introduction in 2004 of new identity cards with ⑧ microchips. Rather than ⑨ better software, a senior police official has announced that the answer is to ban problematic characters. ⑩ that the new regulation would (3)Reaction has not been entirely positive. One Chinese newspaper “simply be for the convenience of the police” rather than for the good of the public. A government adviser was quoted in another as saying that the “right of citizens to use characters freely” should be respected. (4)The “old hundred surnames”, as ordinary citizens are often described in Chinese, would agree.

[QUIZ] 1. Fill in each blank with an appropriate form of each following verb. One verb can Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

only and must be chosen once.(将下列动词的适当形式填入文中空白处,每个单词只可 并且必须使用一次。 ) ①handle, ②get, ③show, ④complain, ⑤issue, ⑥avoid,⑦embed, ⑧enter, ⑨thank, ⑩ record 2. Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. (1) (2) (3) (4)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. paucity n. less than is needed of something 缺少,缺乏 [= lack]

e.g. a paucity of information 缺乏信息 2.bestow v. to give someone something of great value or importance 把(有价值的或重要的东西)赠予某人 常用 bestow something on/upon somebody 形式

e.g. honours bestowed on him by the Queen 王后授予他的荣誉 3.homonym n. a word that is spelt the same and sounds the same as another, but is different in meaning or origin. For example, the noun 'bear' and the verb 'bear' are homonyms 同音异义字或词;同形异义字 4.asterisk n. a mark like a star (*), used especially to show something interesting or important 星号(可作动词用,加星号)

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 旻(min):mín (本义:秋天) 旻,秋天也。——《说文》 旻无疾威。——《诗·小雅·雨无止》 又如:旻宇(秋天);旻序(秋为旻天,故称秋季为“旻序”);旻云(秋天的云) 取名不用生僻字(语言文字学家、训诂学家、北京师范大学中文系教授王宁谈取名) ●汉字学上称以下四类字为生僻字,也叫疑难字:第一类,是音义不全的字,字典上面有形,但有音无义 或有义无音,这些字多半是在字典收字时横向合并或历时传承时整理不彻底或传抄错讹造成的。第二类是 指已经被现代楷书取代了的古文字隶定字形或者过渡字形。隶定字形是为了在称说古文字原形时对它进行 描写的,这些字在隶变以后还有一个通行的传承字,例如:“畞”是“亩”的古文隶定字。过渡字形是一 些字书为了讲解其它的字而设的,比如: “圥”可以构成“坴” , “坴”又可以构成“陸(陆) ”、 “睦” , 《说 文解字》就保留了“圥”。章太炎先生有几个女儿,她们的名字都是用四个字垒到一起的,其中有一个女 儿叫张窨(zhǎn) ,就是四个“工”字,这个字在《说文解字》里有,就是小篆“展”的声符,当工整讲, 楷书的“展”已经不从它了,这个字在使用领域就作废了。这些字的音和义谁都不清楚,又有别的通行字 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 可用,你用它取名有什么意义呢?第三类就是不通行的异构字和异写字。第四种就是适应某一种方言的方 音制造的方言字。香港的某些报纸充满了这种字。比如, “卡片”的“卡”,在香港写作一个“口”加一个 “吉” 。 “吉”的古音的声母的确是 ka,粤语保留的是古音,但是到了别的方言区,大部分“吉”和“卡” 不同音了,它只适应广东话,所以很难认。 ●大家不是希望名字多体现一点中国的传统文化吗?古代童蒙识字的课本《三字经》、 《百家姓》、 《千字文》, 不重复的字种数是 1462 个,宋代通行的四书《大学》、 《中庸》 、 《论语》 、 《孟子》 ,总字数 56764 个,不重 复的字种数也只有 2320 个。宋诗 18000 多首,字种 4520 个。字量很大的《十三经》,字种数也超不过 6000 个。起名字带有一定的偶然性和可选择性,可用这个,也可用那个,你不必非得用没有的那个字。 ●姓和名不同,它不但是称谓的符号,还涉及血统、祖籍等,包括继承权等等复杂的社会问题,它不是任 意选用的,是传承的,其中有些怪字,如果考不清楚来龙去脉,那就有一个算一个,估计也不会太多。在 这个数量内,对我们的文化继承是不会有损害的。 ●我们在 4 亿人口时就有重名,唐代人口不足 1 亿,翻翻人名大词典,光知名人重名的就不少。所以古人 除了正名以外,还有字、号和给自己工作、休息、写作的地方取的室名。现代的重名更是不可避免的,起 名字的人怎么想避免都难以做到。我觉得避免重名,要靠取名字的人的文化素养、社会经验和智慧,他能 够想到一些别人想不到的搭配。大家在取名字时,喜欢找比较有学问的人在诗词里、成语里、古代名言隽 语里兼顾音义想一个有意义的好名字。比如说搭配谐音,北大一位老师给孩子取名“何鲤” ,非常好的一 个名字,因为“鲤鱼”的“鲤”字,一般的人不会想到,鲤鱼跳龙门,有望子成龙之意,再加上他姓“何”, 合在一起正好是“合情合理”的“合理”的音,这不是很好吗?但是有人为姓“宋”的孩子也想起一个“鲤” 名字,叫“宋鲤” ,谐“送礼”,就不是个好名字了。

[TRANSLATION]

告别“红兵” (陈继龙 学译) 很久以前,中国的父母常常用“红兵” (红色士兵)、“爱华”(爱中国)乃至“抗美”(抵抗美国)来 给他们的孩子起名。如今,他们取名时仍按约定俗成不超过两个汉字,但是由于中国姓氏少,为了避免与 许多人同名,越来越多的人倾向于选用生僻字。然而,公安部门正计划阻止这种情况的发生。 问题在于,包括负责制发身份证(每个中国人都必须领取)的公安部门所用软件在内的汉字通用输入 软件无法处理罕见汉字。在中国,要将汉字写入电脑,通常是用罗马字母输入汉字拼音,然后从提示字单 选项(大多数汉字有许多同音异形字)中选择所输汉字。字单中不一定会有生僻字。 为此,名字中含有生僻字的数千万中国人长期以来麻烦不断,从购买机票到银行开户都饱受困扰。一 位中国研究生说,她的考试证书没有一个把她的名字填写完整。她叫陈旻倩,“旻”属于罕见字,是一个 颇具诗意的汉字,意为“秋天”,这个字在她的证书中要么空着,要么被代以“*”。许多计算机在输入中 国前总理朱镕基的名字时也曾遇到类似问题,因为“镕”字是一个不常用的汉字,意为“闻” 。 自从 2004 年开始采用新一代芯片植入式身份证以来,生僻字一直是公安部门面临的一个难题。公安 部一位高级官员已经宣布,要通过禁止使用“问题”汉字来解决这一难题,而不是寻求更好的输入软件。 人们对此褒贬不一。一家中国报纸抱怨说,新规定“只会给公安部门带来便利” ,而无益于公众。另 一家报纸援引一位政协委员的话说, “公民自由使用汉字的权利”应该受到尊重。 “老百姓”——汉语中对 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 普通公民的称呼——则会表示支持。 (译者注:这里的 agree,我的理解应该是“支持公安部门的新规定”, 而不是“同意尊重自由使用汉字的权利”,因为我想老百姓应该多数反对取生僻字来作名字,确实太麻烦 了。见附录)

[KEY TO QUIZ] Avoid, issuing, handle, enter, show, recorded, thanks, embedded, getting, complained 句子翻译请见译文,绝非权威,仅供参考

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 18

Has all the magic gone? Apr 12th 2006 From The Economist print edition ON MARCH 27th a bathroom cleaner called Magic Nano went (A) sale in Germany. Three days later it was withdrawn from the market after nearly 80 people reported severe respiratory problems and six were admitted (B) hospital with fluid on their lungs. Although most of the symptoms soon cleared up, critics of nanotechnology, have been quick to identify this as (1)one of the first examples of a sinister technology run ★amok[1]. One problem (C) this criticism is that the respiratory problems were noticed only with the ★aerosol[2] spray-can form of the product. No problems have been reported with the same fluid in a pump bottle. Jürgen Kundke, of the Berlin-based Federal Institute for Risk Assessment, a government group that reports on consumer-health protection, points to similar respiratory effects in a Swiss product several years ago that was not marketed

(D)

a nanotechnology label.

Another problem with blaming nanotechnology is that Kleinmann, the manufacturer based in Sonnenbühl, Germany, also produces a range of other products such as a ★windscreen[3] cleaner containing the ★ self-same[4] nanotechnology. These have not harmed anyone. The technology (E) question contains very tiny ★silicate[5] particles suspended in a fluid. When they are applied to a surface, these particles block the minute ★crevices[6] in it, (2)reducing the scope for dirt, moisture and bacteria to cling to the surface. Kleinmann in Britain, said (3)the signs so far were that the culprit Neil McClelland, a spokesman (F) was the anti-corrosion liquid inside the ★propellant[7] can. The aerosol was the only product in the Magic Nano range that the company did not produce—it came from a supplier in Munich, called Hago, which also tested the product. On April 10th representatives from Kleinmann met scientists in Berlin to brief them (G) Magic Nano's ingredients. The product inside the aerosol was also cleared by the German consumer-protection agency just before the meeting. Whatever the source of the problem, Kleinmann clearly has the responsibility to be sure that what it sells is safe. (4)And this is where nanosceptics have a point. No law yet states how to test nanotechnology. Although manufacturers will always test the safety of their products, consumers—and the companies themselves—may fear that they are missing tests needed to establish that nanotechnology products are safe. Nobody knows what such tests might be, especially for ★particulates[8]. Regulators have been slow to issue guidance in spite of requests in Europe and America. The trouble is that government scientists are themselves unsure

(H)

exactly what tests might be necessary.

Nanosceptics hoped that this most recent ★episode[9] would create a health scare

(I)

nanotechnology. Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong In fact, the reverse seems to have happened. Mr McClelland says that the publicity about Magic Nano—in particular, that it provides as much as six months' antibacterial resistance (J) bathrooms—has brought Kleinmann more business than ever. ★(5)In the teeth of[10] the scare, Kleinmann's customers seem to have concluded that the magic hasn't rubbed off.

[QUIZ] 1. 选择下列介词填空: on, with, for, over, under, to, of A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. A.

2. 试译划线部分: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1.amok 亦作 amuck adv. 常以 run amok 形式 a) to suddenly behave in a very violent and uncontrolled way: 发疯地,狂乱地

e.g. Drunken troops ran amok in the town. b) to get out of control and cause a lot of problems: 失控而导致诸多问题

e.g. an age in which global capitalism has run amok 2.aerosol n. a small metal container with liquid inside. You press a button on the container to make the liquid come out in very small drops. [与 spray 连用] 盛液体的金属小容器 (文中 aerosol spray can 气溶胶喷雾罐) 3.windscreen

n.

(British English)the large window at the front of a car, bus etc [= windshield American English](英国英语) 汽车挡风玻璃(=〔美国英语〕windshield) 另:windscreen wiper 雨刷 Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 4.selfsame adj. exactly the same: 完全相同的

e.g. two great victories on the selfsame day 5.silicate

n.

one of a group of common solid mineral substances that exist naturally in the Earth 硅酸盐 6.crevice n. a narrow crack in the surface of something, especially in rock: 裂隙,裂缝(尤指岩石)

e.g. small creatures that hide in crevices in the rock 7.propellant n. 1)an explosive for firing a bullet or rocket 子弹或火箭推进剂,发射剂 2)gas which is used in an aerosol to spray out a liquid 气溶胶气体 8. particulates [常复数]n. harmful dust in the air, especially produced by car engines 空气中有害微尘(特别是汽车发动机产生的) 9.episode n. 1)an event or a short period of time during which something happens: (整个事情中的)一个事件

e.g. Being named the best athlete of the year was an important episode in his life. 他被命名为当年的最佳运动员是他一生中的重要事件。 She decided she would try to forget the episode by the lake.她决定试着忘掉湖边发生的事。 one of the most interesting episodes in his career 他职业生涯中最有趣的事之一 2)a television or radio programme that is one of a series of programmes in which the same story is continued each week: (电视等的)连续剧的一出(或一集)

e.g. The next episode of this television movie will be shown on Friday. 这部电视剧的下一集将于星期五播映。 10.in the teeth of sth. in spite of opposition or danger from something: 不顾反对或危险

e.g. Permission for the development was granted in the teeth of opposition from local shopkeepers.尽管当地 店主不同意,该项开发计划还是得到批准。 又:get your teeth into something to start to do something with a lot of energy and determination: 精 神抖擞、毅然决然地做某事

e.g. I can't wait to get my teeth into the new course. 我恨不得立刻全身心投入到新课中。

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 纳米技术(nanotechnology):是 20 世纪 90 年代出现的一门新兴技术。是在 0.10~100 nm 尺度的空间内, 研究电子、原子和分子运动规律和特性的崭新技术。纳米技术是以许多现代先进科学技术为基础的科学技 术,它是现代科学和现代技术结合的产物,纳米技术被认为是世纪之交出现的一项高科技。现在纳米科学 技术主要应用于材料学方面。所谓纳米材料,是指用纳米量级的微小颗粒制成的固体材料。其纳米颗粒的 Page 3 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 大小不超过 100 nm,而通常情况下不超过 10 nm。由于纳米颗粒的尺寸已经很接近原子的大小,量子效应 便开始影响物质的结构与物理、化学性能。由此可见应用纳米技术可制成性能特别优良的各种特殊材料。 例如,用单个原子制成的开关;单电子晶体管;各种单电子单原子的逻辑器件,它们将是新一代分子计算 机的重要组成部分。纳米分子电脑将会小如谷粒,而其计算机能力将是现代“奔腾”芯片的 1000 亿倍。 有专家指出,纳米技术尚处于孕育、发展阶段,目前市场上所谓的“纳米产品”有 99%都名不副实。

[TRANSLATION]

神奇尽失? (陈继龙 学译) 一种名为“神奇纳米”的浴室清洁剂 3 月 27 日在德国上市,但三天后即被召回,原因是大约有 80 名用户诉称出现严重呼吸困难,并有 6 人因肺部出现分泌物而被送往医院。尽管大多数症状很快就消失了, 对纳米技术持批评意见的人士仍然随即认定,一种“不良技术”开始兴风作浪了。 这种说法是有问题的,其一就是呼吸困难仅见于使用气溶胶喷灌式产品的人,而使用含有同样液体的 泵瓶者则安然无恙。联邦政府危险评估研究所的尤尔根·昆特克指出,几年前瑞士一种产品对呼吸系统也 产生了类似影响,当时其虽打着纳米技术标签,但并未进入市场。该研究所设在柏林,是一个政府团体, 负责对消费者健康保护情况进行调查报告。 另一个问题是,该产品位于德国索伦堡的制造商克莱恩曼公司,也生产包含完全相同纳米技术的其他 产品,如汽车挡风玻璃清洁剂,而这些产品并未对人产生有害影响。 这一饱受质疑的技术所运用的是许多悬浮在液体中、极其微小的硅酸盐颗粒。当这些颗粒覆盖到某一 表面时,就能堵塞表面细缝,从而减少灰尘、水分和细菌的黏附。 克莱恩曼公司在英国的发言人 Neil McClelland 说,到目前为止已有迹象表明,气溶胶推进剂罐内的 防腐液是问题根源所在。这种气溶胶罐是“神奇纳米”系列中唯一非该公司生产的产品——它来自于慕尼 黑一家名为 Hago 的供应商,该供应商对此产品也做过检测。 4 月 10 日,克莱恩曼公司的代表在柏林会晤了一些科学家,向其简要介绍了“神奇纳米”产品的组 成。此前,德国消费者保护协会也已查清了气溶胶罐中所含成分。 显然,无论问题出自何处,克莱恩曼公司都有责任明确其所售商品安全与否。这一点也恰好给对纳米 技术持怀疑态度的人留下了话柄。迄今为止,还没有规定如何检验纳米技术的相关法律。 制造商总是会对其产品进行安全检测的(指内部) ,可是消费者,也包括制造商自身在内,仍然有可 能因为缺少必要的纳米科技产品安全性确认检验(指官方)而忧心忡忡。没有人知道这种确认检验该是怎 样的,尤其是对于检测有害微尘而言。欧美尽管有人要求进行检验,但管理部门迟迟未颁布有关指南。要 命的是,就连官方科学家们本身对到底必须采用何种检验方法也举棋不定。 对纳米科技持怀疑态度的人士希望,眼下发生的这一事件能引起人们对纳米技术健康问题的恐慌。实 际上,结果似乎截然相反。McClelland 先生说,“神奇纳米”产品的推广——特别是它能起到长达 6 个月 Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 的浴室抗菌防御作用——已经让克莱恩曼公司的生意更加红火。恐慌归恐慌,克莱恩曼公司的消费者似乎 已然认定,该产品的“神奇”并没有被“擦掉” 。(译注:rub off 本意就是“擦掉,擦除” ,此处说的这种 浴室清洁剂有一种“神奇”的功能,不会因为存在健康隐患而象洗刷浴室时一样被“擦掉” ,因此我认为 采用直译更能表达作者的意思,不宜用意译,如消失、没有了等等。或者: “其神奇依然如故” 。——值得 商榷)

[KEY TO QUIZ] A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

on (on sale 正在销售) to (admit to hospital 入院) with under in for on of over to

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 19

Fair enough Mar 30th 2006 | MEXICO CITY AND SAN JOSÉ From The Economist print edition MAKING good coffee is not a simple business. Coffee bushes must be grown in shade—neither too much, nor too little. A hillside is best—but it mustn't be too s______ ①. After three years, the bushes will start to produce bright-red coffee “cherries”, which are picked, processed to remove the pulp, and spread out to dry for days, ideally on concrete. They are m_______② again to separate the bean, which needs to rest, preferably for a few months. (1)Only then can it be roasted, ground and brewed into the stuff that dreams are ★quelled with[1]. In Mexico and parts of Central America, as in Colombia and Peru further south but not in Brazil, most coffee farmers are smallholders.(2)They found it especially hard to deal with the recent ★slump[2] in the coffee price. The price has since recovered: the benchmark price applied to m________③ coffee now ranges from $1.11 to $1.14 per pound. That is roughly double its ★rock-bottom[3] level of August 2002. But the v_________④ of their income makes it hard for farmers to invest to sustain their crop, says Fernando Celis of the Mexican National Organisation of Coffee Growers. The slump forced many small farmers to switch to other crops, or migrate to cities. Mexico's exports of coffee are less than half of what they were six years ago. (3)For farmers, one way out of this dilemma is to decouple the price they are paid from the international commodities markets. This is the a_______⑤ of Fairtrade, a London-based organisation which certifies products as “responsibly” sourced. Fairtrade determines at what price farmers make what it considers a reasonable profit. Its current calculation is that the appropriate figure is 10% above the market price. W________⑥, sales of Fairtrade-certified coffee have increased from $22.5m per year to $87m per year since 1998. This is still only a tiny fraction of the overall world coffee trade, worth $10 billion annually. But there are plenty of other ★niche markets[4] for high-quality coffee. Some small producers can c_________⑦ more by marketing their coffee as organic—a switch which takes five years or so—or “bird-friendly” (4)because, unlike large, mechanised plantations, they have retained shade trees. Starbucks, the Seattle-based coffee-bar c________⑧, says it uses a similar formula to that of Fairtrade in buying its coffee. All is bought at a “fair price”, says Peter Torrebiarte, who manages Starbucks' buying operation in Costa Rica. (5)Some niches can be large. Only 6% of world o________⑨ is of top quality, but in Costa Rica and Guatemala the figure rises to 60%, says Mr Torrebiarte. Starbucks bought 37% of Costa Rica's entire coffee crop in the 2004-05 season, according to Adolfo Lizano of the country's coffee institute. Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Mexico lags behind its neighbours in extracting higher prices. But 95% of the coffee in Mexico is arabica—the type of bean demanded by connoisseurs—rather than lower-grade robusta. Almost all of it is grown at a________ ⑩, which also improves quality. So Mexico, too, has the potential to compete on quality rather than price. Only by following the path forged by Costa Rica and Guatemala, says Mr Celis, can Mexico's coffee growers survive in the world market. (6)For their part, discerning coffee drinkers can satisfy their palate and their conscience at the same time.

[QUIZ] 1. 根据空白后括号里面的词性提示和英文释义以及首字母,填入合适的单词(注意单词形 式变化) 。 如: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ ⑥ ⑦ ⑧

s______(adj. rising or falling at a sharp angle) m______(v. to crush grain, pepper, etc into flour) m_______(adj. not very strong or hot-tasting) v_________(n. likelihood to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry) a_______(n. something you hope to achieve by doing something) W________(adj. everywhere in the world) c_________ (v. to ask someone for a particular amount of money for something you are selling) c________(n. a number of shops, hotels, cinemas etc owned or managed by the same company or person) ⑨ o________(n. the amount of goods or work produced by a person, machine, factory etc;production) ⑩ a________(n. the height of an object or place above the sea)

2. 将文中划线部分英语翻译成汉语:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) [1] quell

[transitive] formal

1to end a situation in which people are behaving violently or protesting, especially by using force [= put down] 镇压 quell the violence/disturbance/riot etc Police used live ammunition to quell the disturbances. 2 literary to reduce or stop unpleasant feelings such as fear, doubt, or worry: 压制,压抑,平息 'Jerry?' she called, trying to quell the panic inside her.

[2] slump [countable, usually singular] 1 a sudden decrease in prices, sales, profits etc (价格、销售、利润等)骤降 slump in a slump in car sales 2 a period when there is a reduction in business and many people lose their jobs [≠ boom]: 衰退时期 The war was followed by an economic slump. Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong a worldwide slump 3 especially American English a period when a player or team does not play well(运动员及队伍)状态低迷期 in a slump The Dodgers have been in a slump for the last three weeks.

[3]rock-bottom [only before noun] a rock-bottom price is as low as it can possibly be: 极低的(价格) bargain holidays at rock-bottom prices [4] niche markets 瞄准机会的市场 niche [only before noun] relating to selling goods to a particular small group of people who have similar needs, interests etc: niche marketing a niche market a niche product 在国内,niche market 被译为“利基市场”,其中 niche 即拾遗补缺或见缝插针的意思,因此所谓利基市场可 以指空缺市场。在市场经济条件下,一些企业专注于市场的某一细分环节,他们不与强势企业正面竞争, “不拿鸡蛋碰石头”,而是通过专业化经营、见缝插针地占据有利的市场位置,这部分市场就可称为利基市 场。而利基营销则是指企业通过整合各种营销要素,如开发产品、市场推广、客户服务等,集中力量于某 一特定市场,从而形成独具特色的经营策略与经营方式,最终造就在这一领域的差异化优势。

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 关于咖啡的产区、特性 咖啡的生产地带(俗称为咖啡带)介于北纬 25 度到南纬 30 度,涵盖了中、西非,中东,印度,南亚, 太平洋,拉丁美洲,加勒比海的许多国家。咖啡的种植之所以集中在此一带状区域,主要是受到气温的限 制。因为咖啡树很容易受到霜害,纬度偏北或偏南皆不适合,以热带地区为宜,此地区的热度和湿度最为 理想。目前世界重要的咖啡豆主要来自 Coffee Arabica 及 Coffee Robusta 这两个品种。这两种咖啡豆的植 株、栽培方式、生长环境、形状、成份及加工方式皆不同。一般来说,Arabica 咖啡的品质较好,价钱亦 较贵。巴西是世界上最大的咖啡生产国,产量几佔全世界的三分之一,主要品种是自然的 Arabica-Natural Arabica) ,其次是哥伦比亚,委内瑞拉,秘鲁和厄瓜多尔(水洗 Arabica 咖啡豆-Washed Arabica ) 。大多 数的非洲国家生产 Robusta 品种的咖啡豆。在全世界的咖啡市场上,Arabica 品种的咖啡约佔 75~80%, Robusta 品种的咖啡则佔 20~25%。咖啡全年度的生产量约为 9 千 1 百万袋,每袋 60 公斤。中、南美洲 的咖啡出产量约佔全世界产量的 70%,亚洲 20%,非洲 10%。 咖啡豆是一种类似樱桃似的种子,它生长在海拔 6000 英尺、狭长的亚热带区域。 咖啡树是常绿植物,生长高度可达 20 英尺。为了收获简单,一般将树剪成 8 到 10 英尺高。咖啡果 成熟期并不一致,所以主要靠手工���摘。需要大约 2000 个阿拉比卡樱桃果才能制造出 1 磅烤制咖啡。由 于每个果实有 2 个豆,所以 1 磅咖啡来自于 4000 颗豆。每株咖啡 1 年平均产 1 到 2 磅烘烤咖啡。咖啡 树苗需要 4-5 年才能开始结果。 咖啡树开白色小花,呈簇状,外形和气味与茶树相似。花期只有几天,然后结出绿色的小咖啡果,成 熟后呈黄色、红色,最后几乎变成黑色。成熟期 6 到 9 个月。咖啡果采摘后就送去加工。有两种脱去外 Page 3 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 皮的方法:自然法,也秤干法;即晒干或烘干后用机械方法分离。湿法稍微先进,又称为浸泡法;所制备 的咖啡豆又称水洗豆。绿色咖啡豆干燥、按大小分类、分级挑选,通常全凭手工。装袋后运到世界各地的 烘烤店。我们日常所用的物品,很少象咖啡这样,需要这么多人力劳动。

[TRANSLATION OF FULLTEXT]

还算公道 (陈继龙 学译) 生产优质咖啡并不是一件简单的事情。咖啡树必须种在荫凉处——不宜太稠密,也不宜太稀疏,最好种在 山坡上——但不能太陡。三年之后,咖啡树即可结出鲜红的咖啡“樱桃”。采摘后,经加工去除(外面的) 果肉, (将里面的咖啡豆)铺开干燥数日(最好放在混凝土上),然后再次研磨,分离咖啡豆,后者最好静 置数月。此后才可进行烘焙、碾磨、发酵,最后制成成品咖啡豆。恰恰就是这些咖啡豆,压制了许多人的 梦想。 跟哥伦比亚、秘鲁以南(不包括巴西)一样,墨西哥和中美洲部分国家的大多数咖啡种植户都是小农。最 近咖啡价格的暴跌让他们感到不知所措。目前,价格已经回升:现在淡咖啡的基准价为每磅 1.11 美元到 1.14 美元,大约两倍于 2002 年 8 月时的最低价。 不过,墨西哥全国咖啡种植者组织的费尔兰多·塞利斯说,收入的不稳定让农户难以投资维持作物的种植。 价格下滑迫使许多农户改种其他作物或者迁往城市。墨西哥的咖啡出口额较 6 年前减少了将近一半。 有一条可以帮助咖啡种植户走出这种两难困境的途径,那就是将咖啡收购价与国际商品市场脱钩。总部设 在伦敦、专为产品来源提供“可靠性”认证的“公平贸易组织”的宗旨就在于此,它可根据利润是否合理 (译者注:对于第一句,理解 来指导农户定价。按照其目前的计算方法,超出市场价 10%的价格为合理价格。 的关键是 decouple 这个词,其意为“脱离,分离”,与后面的 from 构成“decouple…from…”结构,使……与……相分离开。 )

从世界范围看,“公平贸易”认证的咖啡销量自 1998 年以来,已从每年 2250 万美元增加到 8700 万美元。 放到全世界每年 100 亿美元的咖啡总贸易额中来看,这只占很小一部分。但是,对于品质上乘的咖啡来说, 存在足够的市场空间。 (比如)有些小生产者可通过开拓“有机咖啡” (实际上要 5 年左右时间才能转化成 功)或者“鸟类友善咖啡”市场来争取更高价格,因为这类咖啡有别于大规模、机械化种植出来的咖啡, 它们都属于树荫咖啡。(树荫对于咖啡生长的意义见附录) 总部位于西雅图的星巴克咖啡馆连锁店称,它在购买咖啡时所遵循的原则近似于“公平贸易”,星巴克负 责在哥斯达黎加采购咖啡的彼特·托莱比阿尔特说,买来的咖啡都“价格公道”。 有时候,小市场还可以做大做强。托莱比阿尔特说,全球咖啡总产量中高品质咖啡仅占 6%,其中哥斯达 黎加和危地马拉就占 60%。据哥斯达黎加咖啡研究所的阿多尔佛·里扎诺称,2004 至 2005 年度,星巴克 购买了哥斯达黎加咖啡总产量的 37%。 就抬高咖啡价格以谋求更多利润而言,墨西哥落在了其周边国家的后面。不过,墨西哥有 95%的咖啡属 “阿拉比卡”咖啡(内行人追求的咖啡豆品种) ,而不是品级相对较低的“罗布斯达”,并且几乎所有咖啡 都产自有利于改善质量的高海拔地区。因此,墨西哥的竞争潜力在于质量而非价格。塞利斯说,墨西哥咖 啡种植户要想在世界市场中生存,只有仿效哥斯达黎加和危地马拉的模式。对这些种植户来说,掌握喝咖 啡人的不同特点,就能让他们既感到有滋有味,又能问心无愧。(译者注:我的理解是,文章后四段均讨论的是 Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 高品质咖啡市场空间问题。在倒数第四段中,作者首先提到作为高品质咖啡的代表的“有机咖啡”和“鸟类友善”咖啡, 该句用“口味”和“良心”正好与其一一对应。“有机咖啡”使咖啡更好喝,当然是“满足了口味”,而“鸟类友善咖啡” 则强调咖啡树属于自然生长,树荫茂密,鸟儿可以自由歌唱,生态得以维持良好,人们“良心上就过得去了” 。反之,如若 为了大规模机械化种植而大肆垦荒伐林,让倦鸟无以归巢,试问,谁不自责呢?——一点肤浅看法)

[KEY TO QUIZ] ①steep 陡峭的;②mill 磨;③mild 口味清淡的;④volatility 易波动性;⑤aim 目标; ⑥Worldwide,世界各地的;⑦charge 收费,要价;⑧chain 连锁店;⑨output 产量; ⑩altitude 海拔高度

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 20

Apocalypse Now?1 现代启示录? (陈继龙 编译)

May 4th 2006 | LOS ANGELES From The Economist print edition

U

NLIKE many recent political documentaries, “An Inconvenient

Truth” does not a_________① its fiercest fire at George Bush. (1)Surprising this, especially as the film stars Al Gore, the man whom President Bush ★narrowly [1] beat to the White House in 2000. Instead, Davis Guggenheim, the film's director, tries to rise above American politics, addressing his film, which is to be shown at the Cannes film festival 2 later this month, to the whole of the human race. 《难以忽视的真相》并不像许多政治题材的纪录片那样,将最猛烈的 炮火对准乔治·布什。尤为令人感到意外的是,这部电影的领衔主演 竟然是曾在 2000 年惜败于布什总统的阿尔·戈尔。导演戴维斯·古 根汉姆力图超越美国政治,将这部即将于本月下旬在戛纳电影节上映 的影片视角定位到整个人类。 (2)Mr Guggenheim's film is a fascinating and alarming ★polemic[2] that does, indeed, set out to speak to everyone. It was inspired by the lectures and slide-show on global warming that Mr Gore has d__________② more than 1,000 times since he failed to become president. The former vice-president is shown talking about what he calls “our planetary emergency” to groups of concerned Americans, displaying the relaxed charm and sense of humour that he notably lacked as a political campaigner. 古根汉姆的影片就像一场精彩、惊人的辩论,而且其开场白的确也是说给每个人听的。戈尔竞选总统失败 后,不止 1000 次发表过关于全球气候变暖的演说,该片正是从中受到启发。片中,这位前任美国副总统 对许许多多忧虑的美国人谈到了他所谓的“我们星球的突发事件”,展现出过去身为一名参加竞选的政治 家所不具有的得体仪态和幽默感。 The powers of cinema are used to extend his teaching techniques: ★before-and-after[3] photography from around the world, footage of ice-shelves collapsing, animated maps and graphs, even an ★interlude[4] starring “The Simpsons” 3. These parts of the film, which r_________③ the entertaining science documentaries that Frank Capra4 made in the 1950s, (3)probably communicate as much information as an audience in a cinema can be expected to digest in one sitting. 应用电影制作为戈尔的说教赋予了更加多彩的形式,比如前后对照鲜明的世界各地摄影、冰架坍塌的组拍 镜头、动画地图和图表,甚至还插入了《辛普森一家》的一个片段。影片这些组成部分所传递的讯息量也 (译者按:译文的确很蹩脚,但句子的结构应 许快赶上一名观众在电影院看一次电影所能理解接受的讯息量了, 该是清楚的,主语是 these parts of the film,谓语是 communicate(传达,传递) ,宾语是 information,as much as 后接的是一 个比较状语从句,从句主语是 an audience,谓语是情态助动词 can 加被动语态 be expected, to digest 则是 expect 的间接宾 语,in a cinema 和 in one sitting 都是状语)这不禁让人想起了 20 世纪 50 年代弗兰克·卡普拉的娱乐性科学纪录

片。 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong In addition, the film tells a human story: how Mr Gore became an environmentalist, and the motives that have impelled him to devote the past five years to playing the part of Paul Revere5, bearing his warning of approaching danger across the land. (4)Orators have always understood that their listeners must believe in the good character of the person addressing them if he is to have any chance of winning them to his cause. To that end, Mr Guggenheim works away to humanise Mr Gore, who talks (as he has on other occasions) of almost losing his six-year-old son in a traffic accident and seeing his sister die of lung cancer—a personal c_________④ that spurred his family to get out of the tobacco business. 此外,该片还讲述了一个人的故事:戈尔如何成为一位环境保护主义者?过去五年来,戈尔一心一意向保 罗·里维尔学习,在全国各地警告人们危险即将来临,其动机何在?演说者从来都明白,要想听众支持自 己的论点,就一定要让他们相信自己是个好人。为此,古根汉姆想方设法让戈尔更具有人情味。戈尔在片 中谈到了(跟他在其它场合一样)一次车祸差点让他失去 6 岁的儿子,还有眼睁睁地看着姐姐被肺癌夺去 生命——这次个人巨大的不幸让他全家彻底告别了烟草业。 The film's end-credits, which intersperse appeals to the s__________⑤ with the names of the film-makers, do not actually include a “Draft Gore” sticker. Even without such an overt bow, this portrait of Gore the ★ Crusader[5] adds a political layer to the film's message which, despite the director's supposedly non-partisan hopes, the press (and a lot of other people too) will make much of. With a bit of luck, however, more attention will be paid to the message than to the messenger. (5)If Mr Gore should happen to be right, and he may be, time is running out faster than most of the world thinks. 影片结尾致谢字幕中,对观众的呼吁和电影制作人员的名字交替出现,但并没标出“特邀嘉宾戈尔”。(译 者按:这里的“Draft Gore” ,本人半天没有悟出来,就信手编了一个凑数,欢迎纠正。)即便缺少这类公开的致敬, “十 字军战士戈尔”这一形象还是给该片的寓意抹上了一层政治色彩。导演可能不希望牵扯上任何党派干系, 但新闻媒体照样会对此大做文章,其他许多人也一样。然而,只要运气不至于太糟,人们还是会更加关注 影片所蕴含的寓意,而不是片中说话的人(译者按:指戈尔)。要是真让戈尔给说中了,并且也许他就是正 确的话,时间流逝之快就确实超出了全世界大多数人的想象了。 (译者按:要是片中戈尔关于温室效应的说法不 假的话,那么时光飞逝,地球末日也就即将来临了。而“启示录”就是用来预言万物结局的,这句正好呼应了文章的题目 “现代启示录”,您看呢?)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首个字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意形式变化,如分词等): ①a________(vt. ②d________(vt. ③r________(vt. ④c________(n. ⑤s________(n.

to point a weapon or another object towards an intended goal) to make a speech etc to a lot of people) to remember a particular fact, event, or situation from the past) a disaster) someone who is watching an event or game; audience)

2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. narrowly adv. 1)by only a small amount 勉强,刚好: He was narrowly defeated in the election.他以微弱劣势在选举中落败。 One bullet struck his car, narrowly missing him.一颗子弹穿过他的汽车,差点打中他。 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong A man narrowly escaped death when a fire broke out in his home on Sunday morning.星期天早上,一个男人 家里着火后侥幸逃生。 2)in a limited way: 限制过窄地,狭窄地 The law is being interpreted too narrowly. These big general issues should be broken down into more narrowly focused questions. 2.polemic n. 1)[C] a written or spoken statement that strongly criticizes or defends a particular idea, opinion, or person (书面或口头的)争论,辩论,争辩 2)[U] (亦作 polemics)the practice or skill of making written or spoken statements that strongly criticize or defend a particular idea, opinion, or person 3. before-and-after adj. 表示出外形上的尖锐对照;前后形成明显对照的 4. interlude n. 1)a period of time between two events or situations, during which something different happens: 两件事情 或两种情况之前的一段时期(尤指有意外情况发生的) 2)a short period of time between the parts of a play, concert etc 戏剧或音乐演出各幕之间的短暂间隔[= intermission] 3)a short piece of music, talk etc used to fill such a period 幕间音乐片段或简短对话 4)a short romantic or sexual meeting or relationship: 短暂的爱情或色情聚会或关系 5. crusader n. 改革者;十字军战士

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 《现代启示录》 (Apocalypse Now):是弗朗西斯·福特·科波拉 1979 年 拍摄的经典名作,由马龙·白兰度、罗伯特·杜瓦尔主演。当时,受政治环 境的影响以及为了迎合主流观众的胃口,该片曾删掉长达 49 分钟的内容。 2001 年,在科波拉的策划下,这部惊世之作终于恢复其本来面目。影片描 写的是越战期间,美军情报官员威尔德上尉奉命“毫不留情”地除掉库尔兹 上校,一个叛逃美国军人。接到命令后,威尔德率领小分队,冒险深入柬埔 寨。在一处偏僻的热带丛林内,精神失常的库尔兹上校以其嗜血成性的残暴 统治着当地土著居民,成为他们盲目崇拜、 迷信的图腾。随着小艇驶入柬埔寨,威尔德 一行人似乎卷入一个超乎现实、彻底疯狂的 世界,淹没在人类灵魂最黑暗、卑劣的阴影 里。本片是科波拉备受争议的战争史诗作品。 全片的最精采之处,就是 Vittorio Storaro 惊人的摄影映像,完全是他将观众 带入迷茫的丛林中。影片真实、生动地描述了千奇百怪因战争而引发的疯 狂:高视阔步、目空一切的基尔戈上校率领直升机打击目标时竟疯狂地陶 醉在瓦格纳歌剧的乐声中;前来慰问的“花花公子”俱乐部联欢会一开场 便陷入不可收拾的混乱;在一个被越军围困的营队里,官兵嗜毒成性,指 挥部门形同虚设,士兵一盘散沙。所有这一切不过是威拉德上尉丛林之旅 的序曲而已。在库尔兹的据点周围,展现在眼前的更是一幅可怖的画面: Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 挂在树枝上的尸体在烈日下东摇西晃;叛逆者的头颅被割下示众。 经典台词: “我喜欢闻弥漫在清晨空气中汽油弹的味道。” I love the smell of napalm in the morning. 2. 戛纳电影节(the Cannes film festival;Festival De Cannes):又名康城电影节或坎城电影节,国际上最 有影响力的电影节之一,与德国的柏林电影节、意大利的威尼斯电影节、加拿大的蒙特利尔电影节以及捷 克的卡罗维发利电影节是国际电影联合会确定的国际五大电影节。电影节始于 1946 年,于每年春季在法 国南方小城戛纳举行。电影节在 1948 年、1949 年曾停办两次,在 1968 年因为法国的五月风暴又中断一 次。电影节设立多个奖项,其中最高奖项在 1957 年之前为“金鸭奖”,1957 年起开始改为“金棕榈奖”, 这也是每年国际电影界相当重要的奖项。另外评委会特别奖也是电影节比较重要的奖项。 3. 《辛普森一家》 (The Simpsons):是美国电视史上播放时间最长的动画片,已经热播 17 年,在全球拥 有数以亿计的观众。这部卡通剧还保持了“系列动画片中名人出现最多”的吉尼斯世界纪录。动画片中, 辛普森一家五口住在虚拟的美国小镇———春田镇上。这一家人面临着一个个普通家庭都会遇到的生活难 题,被称为是美国社会的一个缩影。多次获得艾美奖、安妮奖(美国最高动画片奖项)、金球奖等殊荣。 辛普森一家的形象也随着电视剧的走红而成为世界性的流行符号,其中爱捣乱的长子巴特·辛普森已经成 为一个大众偶像,甚至连《时代》杂志也选他为 20 世纪演艺圈最重要的人物之一。 4. 弗兰克·卡普拉(Frank Capra) :1892~1991,美国好莱坞电影大师, 他算是最早移民美国实现自己梦想的成功者。1921 年,他开始为旧金山一 家小公司拍摄只有一本的廉价影片。后来进入哥伦比亚影业公司当学徒,并 担任过道具员、剪辑师、助理导演和噱头作者等职务。1926 年,他因导演 由著名喜剧演员 H.朗东主演的《强有力的人》一片获得成功,使他决定朝 喜剧片方向发展。从《金发女郎》到《狂乱的美国》,在美国影坛上造成了 编剧李斯金导演卡普拉最佳搭档的黄金时代。他俩的才华日益受到重视。 《一 夜风流》、 《富贵浮云》两片连获奥斯卡金奖。二战时期,他息影从戎。而电 影还是找上了戎装的他,马歇尔将军亲自委任他拍摄一部能够激励美国青年 参军的大型纪录影片——《我们为何而战》(7 集大型系列纪录电影)。 5. 保罗·里维尔(Paul Revere) :是美国独立战争时期的一个英雄人物,后 来成为美国英雄主义和爱国主义的象征。1775 年 4 月 18 日夜,他得知英军 要搜查枪支和逮捕革命领袖的消息,立即骑马将英军的军事行动驰报各地,使民军得以做好准备。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①aim 瞄准;②delivered 发表(演说);③recall 回忆,回想;④catastrophe 或 calamity 大灾难 ⑤ spectator 观众

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

Page 4 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 21

Show me the money 给我钱! (陈继龙 编译 仅供参考,欢迎指正)

May 4th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition (1)THE words “probate exception” do not titillate[1]. And yet a saucy[2], decade-long legal battle ______ ① a fortune of nearly half a billion dollars hinges on[3] this clause, which deals with the boundaries between state and federal courts in estate disputes. At issue[4] is whether Vickie Lynn Marshall, a former Playboy pin-up[5] and exotic dancer better known as Anna Nicole Smith, will get anything from the estate of her late husband, J. Howard Marshall, an oil tycoon with assets estimated _______② $1.6 billion. 对遗嘱公证可持有异议”这句话本身并无桃色意味。实际上,这是适用于涉及州立和联邦法庭之间处理财 产纠纷的权限问题的条款。然而正是这一条款,让一场令人啼笑皆非、争夺大约 5 亿财产的诉讼持续十年 之久。大家都对维基•琳恩•马歇尔能否从她已故丈夫的财产中分得一杯羹议论纷纷。马歇尔曾经是《花花 公子》杂志的一名海报女郎和脱衣舞女,人称“安娜•尼科尔•史密斯”,她的丈夫 J.霍华德•马歇尔则是一 个拥有差不多 16 亿身家的石油大亨。 On May 1st, Ms Smith won an important victory. Although her inheritance remains uncertain, the United States Supreme Court unanimously ruled that she could pursue her case in federal court. (2)One suspects the justices were enjoying themselves, for once. 5 月 1 日,史密斯女士赢得了重大胜利。尽管她的继承权仍未明确,但美国最高法院一致裁决,她可以在 联邦法院追诉。有人怀疑,法官们这是在逗闷玩儿,简直是破天荒头一次。 (3)The details of the case have kept the tabloids busy. (4)Marshall met Ms Smith when he was wheeled[6] into the Texas strip club where she was dancing. After a courtship of a few years, full of expensive gifts (such as $2m in jewellery) and pricier promises, the two were married in 1994. She was 26, he was 89. Fourteen months later, Marshall dropped dead ________③ a heart attack, leaving nothing to Ms Smith in his will. 那些街头小报为了捕捉此案一些细节而忙得不亦乐乎。 (报道说,)马歇尔是被人用轮椅推进得克萨斯脱衣 舞夜总会后结识了在那儿跳脱衣舞的史密斯。随着几年的求爱,加上数不胜数的昂贵礼物(比如 200 万美 元的珠宝)跟一番海誓山盟之后,两人在 1994 年结婚。当时她 26 岁,而他 89 岁。十四个月过后,马歇 尔死于心脏病,可在遗嘱中给史密斯女士分文未留。 (5)The dispute has seen the inside of five courthouses since 1995, when Ms Smith first sued Marshall's son, E. Pierce Marshall, in a Texas state court, accusing him of cutting her ________④ from the estate. She insists that Marshall promised her half his fortune. His son, seething[7] at what he considers Ms Smith's gold-digging (he calls her “Miss Cleavage”), argued that Marshall had already given her $6m in gifts and did not intend to leave her more. Ms Smith got nothing from her first lawsuit, but was awarded $475m in a federal bankruptcy ruling in California in 2000. (6)A federal district court judge cut this award to $89m, and then a US appeals court ruled that the issue was not a federal matter. 1995 年以来,这场遗产纠纷先后闹到了 5 家法院。一开始,史密斯向得克萨斯州法院起诉马歇尔的儿子 E.皮尔斯•马歇尔,指控他剥夺了她的财产继承权。她坚持认为,老马歇尔曾许诺分给她一半财产。小马 歇尔对史密斯女士这种“掘金”举动(他叫她“乳沟小姐”)大为光火,声称老马歇尔曾送给她价值 600 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 万美元的礼物,并没打算再多给。在首次诉讼中史密斯空手而归,但在 2000 年加里福利亚裁决的一宗联 邦破产案中获判 4.75 亿美元,而后某联邦地方法院将判给她的这笔钱缩减至 8900 万,随后某上诉法院又 作出裁决,认为本案不归联邦法院审理。 (7)The Supreme Court justices, who heard arguments in February, have not weighed in on the merits of Ms Smith's case. (8)Indeed the buxom[8] blonde, who sniffled disingenuously during the hearings, has hardly been a sympathetic figure. The court's opinion, written by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, is a technical one that measures the scope of the probate exception. It leaves _______⑤ state courts the probate or annulment[9] of a will and the administration of an estate. (9)This puts Marshall's estate back into play, and ensures that bitter legal wrangling[10] will stretch on for years. 今年 2 月召开听证会的最高法院法官对史密斯一案并不重视。事实上,这个在听证会上拿腔作势、哭哭啼 啼的丰乳肥臀的金发女人,绝不是省油的灯。鲁思•巴德尔•金斯伯格法官(在一项声明中)写道,最高法 院给出的是从技术层面权衡“遗嘱认证例外”范围的处理意见,至于遗嘱公证或认定无效以及财产如何分 配则是州立法院的事。这就使得马歇尔的财产再度陷入纠葛之中,接下来肯定又是持续数年的激烈的法律 纷争。

[QUIZ] 1. 在文中空白处填入适当介词: 2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文(任选 3 句翻译即可)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. titillate v. if a picture or a story titillates someone, it makes them feel sexually interested(照片或故事)给人以快感;搔 痒 2. saucy adj. saucy jokes, remarks etc are about sex in a way that is amusing but not shocking: (性有关的小说、言论等)可 笑的,俏皮的 3. hinge on/upon something if a result hinges on something, it depends on it completely: 完全依赖于,取决于 例如:His political future hinges on the outcome of this election. The case against him hinged on Lewis' evidence. 4.at issue the problem or subject at issue is the most important part of what you are discussing or considering: 正在讨论或 考虑的(最重要问题或话题) 例如:At issue here is the extent to which exam results reflect a student's ability. 5. pin-up[countable]招贴(美女)画像 1)a picture of an attractive person, often not wearing many clothes, that is put up on a wall to be looked at and admired: Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 2)someone who appears in pin-up pictures or who is considered attractive by a particular group of people: (小典故:在 20 世纪 50 年代早期,肚子尤其是肚脐是女人身上最猥亵的部分。但是,许多好莱坞女星都 穿着比基尼摆 POSE 拍照,她们的照片被印出成千上万份,到了男人们的手里,男人们兴奋极了,立刻把 这些照片贴在自己房间的墙上,由此诞生了一个词:pin-up(钉在墙上的半裸体美女照片)。此外,性感美 女还被赋予了一些人为的标准:涂得无可挑剔的指甲,眼睛经过细心描画,还贴上了假睁睫毛,嘴唇涂成 大红色,头发染成全黑,或者相反,染成金黄色……在好莱坞,"性"开始大行其道,虽然审查官们时刻拿 着剪刀准备着。当时的影片里不仅有赤裸镜头,还有令人不耻的通奸(拍摄出来的画面却十分具有吸引力), 甚至还安排了白人与黑人的性关系……美国的导演们是处理这类"艺术"的行家里手。如今,时隔 50 年, 我们依然会对他们这样做的毫无意义感到目瞪口呆。1953 年,美国的一位享乐主义天才--休•赫夫纳创办 了杂志《花花公子》。这是第一本可以在报摊上买到的色情杂志,从此色情暴露在光天化日之下。当时尚 毫无名气的玛丽莲.梦露成为在《花花公子》上露面的首批封面女郎之一。这份杂志迅速地取得了全球性 的成功,于是性革命开始了。从此之后,在这个世界上,性别混淆了,世界已经做好了准备来接受色情的 发展。 ) 6. wheel (into)vt. to move someone or something that is in or on something that has wheels: 用带轮子的工具运送 例如:Two nurses were wheeling him into the operating theatre. 7.seethe (with) vi. to feel an emotion, especially anger, so strongly that you are almost shaking [= fume]激动(发怒)以至于发抖 例如:He was seething with anger. I was absolutely seething. 8. buxom adj. a woman who is buxom is attractively large and healthy and has big breasts (女人)丰满的 9. annulment n. –annul v. to officially state that a marriage or legal agreement no longer exists: 正式宣布(婚姻或合同)解除或失效 例如:Their marriage was annulled last year. 10.wrangle vi. to argue with someone angrily for a long time 与(某人)持久争吵

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 美国法院体系:美国法院分为联邦法院和州法院两个体系。 (1)联邦法院:联邦法院是美国联邦政府的一部份,可分为普通法院和专门法院。普通法院分为三级, 从下到上分别是:地方法院(district court)、上诉法院(appeal court 或 Court of Appeals, 除了联邦区域上 诉法院)、最高法院(the Supreme Court);专门法院有:破产法庭(bankruptcy court)、税务法庭(tax court)、 国际贸易法庭(international trade court) 、联邦区域上诉法院。地方法院共有 94 所,分散在全国各州境内, 由 1 名法院独任审理。上诉法院有 13 所,是第二审级法院,上诉案件由三名法官审理;最高法院设在华 盛顿,由首席法官(chief justice)1 人、法官(associate justice)8 人组成。最高法院法官是行使司法权的最高 机构,其法官由总统经参议院三分之二的多数同意后任命,并任职终身。美国的最高法院有权对是否符合 宪法行使监督权。 (2)州法院:美国各州有自己的法院系统,而且各州的法院设置有所不同。但一般来说,各州设有两个 审级,即第一审法院和上诉审法院。第一审法院主要包括两类法院 a. 有限管辖法院(court of limited Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong jurisdiction):设在市县,主要审理轻微的刑事案件和金额较小的民事案件,如违反治安,交通和金额在一 万美圆以下的案件;b. 普通管辖法院(general jurisdiction courts):对涉及州法的一般民事和刑事案件享有 管辖权。上诉审法院(appellate courts)包括州的上诉法院和最高法院。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①over;②at;③of;④off ⑤to 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 22

Charity or China? 要施舍还是要中国? May 11th 2006 | ASUNCIÓN From The Economist print edition OF THE 25 countries around the world, all smallish, which choose to recognise Taiwan rather than China, almost half are in Latin America or the Caribbean.(1)In the past, their motives were often rooted in shared anti-communism. Nowadays, it is usually a matter of money. So it is with Paraguay. When Chen Shui-bian, Taiwan's president, visited the l________(A) South American republic last weekend he paid homage[1] to the origins of their friendship at a reception, going out of his way to greet the grandson of Alfredo Stroessner, Paraguay's fascistic dictator of 1954-89. Then he got out his cheque book. 全世界选择承认台湾而非中国(为主权国家)的 25 个国家(都是一些弹丸小国)中,有接近一半都位于 拉丁美洲或加勒比海地区。过去它们这样做的动机通常都根源于反对共产主义(“be rooted in”表示“根源于”, “明显受……影响”) ,而现在则往往是钱说了算。巴拉圭也是如此。上周末,台湾“总统”陈水扁访问这个 南美内陆共和国时,在一次招待会上对双方的友谊渊源推崇备至,竭尽全力讨阿尔弗雷多·斯特罗斯纳 (1954 至 1989 年巴拉圭法西斯独裁者)孙子的欢心。随后,他掏出了支票本。 In the past few years, Taiwan has given Paraguay grants of $30m for public housing and $20m for a new Congress building. Other donations—only Japan and Germany are more g________(B)—pay for scholarships. Two Taiwanese banks offered a $400m loan, making the island Paraguay's biggest bilateral creditor. 在过去的几年里,台湾为巴拉圭的公共住房事业赞助了 3000 万美元,为一幢新建的国会大楼捐助了 2000 万美元,其它捐款则被作为助学金,其表现之慷慨,仅次于日本和德国。两家台湾银行还提供了一笔 4 亿美元的贷款,使台湾成为巴拉圭最大的双边债权“国”。 Paraguay has failed to turn this charity into a development partnership. In 1990, the average Taiwanese was three times better off than the average Paraguayan; now the g________(C) is more than sevenfold. Of the 10,000 Taiwanese who migrated to Paraguay, many of them in the 1980s, only half remain. Taiwanese investment comprises little more than an ailing[2] industrial park—partly because skilled labour is short. (2)Taiwanese experts have passed on technical advice, but their lessons were ignored, says Carlos Paris, a trade official. 然而,巴拉圭没能将这种施舍转变为一种发展伙伴关系(没有与台湾一起实现同步发展) 。1990 年,台湾 人平均收入是巴拉圭人的 3 倍,现在差距已经超过 7 倍。移民到巴拉圭的一万名台湾人中,许多都是上世 纪 80 年代去的,如今只剩半数还继续留在巴拉圭。台湾的投资也大多集中在一个工业园,现已每况愈下, 部分是因为缺乏技术熟练的劳工。贸易官员卡洛斯·巴黎说,台湾专家提供了很多技术方面的建议,但是 却没有传授任何经验。(“pass on”意为“传递”,在本句中是指“先后”有很多专家前往巴拉圭进行技术指导,也就是 技术援助。 “be ignored”的主语也应该是“台湾专家”,就是说,这些台湾专家只给巴拉圭从技术方面建言献策,但他们“忽 视了”介绍自身工作积累的一些经验和教训,于是乎,没有前车之鉴,巴拉圭就难免总是摔跟头了。意思是明白了,语言

) 组织是一件难事,凑合着看吧。 (3)Meanwhile, China looms larger. Last year, it supplied a quarter of Paraguay's imports, second only to Brazil. It buys much of the country's soya crop. For some Paraguayans, such as Jorge Samaniego, whose factory a________(D) Chinese motorcycles, lack of diplomatic ties is becoming a problem. It makes it harder for his Chinese suppliers to visit. Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 与此同时,中国越来越势不可挡。 (“loom large”是指“to seem important, worrying, and difficult to avoid”,意思是“似 乎很重要,令人焦虑,而且不可避免” )去年,中国占巴拉圭进口总额的四分之一,仅次于巴西。中国还收购了 该国一多半的大豆作物。巴中之间缺少邦交关系,已经成为困扰某些巴拉圭人的一个难题,比如乔治·萨 马尼戈,他的工厂负责组装中国摩托车,可就是因为这个问题使得中国供应商前来访问难上加难。 Pressure to switch diplomatic recognition lay behind Mr Chen's visit. “People see China's economic b________ (E) as an opportunity, but its voracious[3] appetite for energy and raw materials should be treated with caution,” he said. He unveiled a $250m fund to encourage Taiwanese firms to invest in the island's Latin American diplomatic allies. “We are talking about an investment plan. This is not dollar diplomacy,” said Mr Chen. (4)Perish the thought. 陈水扁是顶着巴拉圭人意欲转变外交认可态度带来的压力前往访问的。他说:“人们把中国的经济繁荣看 成是一种机遇,但应谨慎对待中国对能源和原材料的巨大需求。”他透露,将赞助 2.5 亿美元,鼓励台湾 公司到拉丁美洲台岛“邦交”国投资。陈水扁说:“我们正就一项投资计划进行商讨。这不是美元外交。 ” 想得美哦! (“Perish the thought”是一句口语,表示“希望某人说的话永远不会发生”,如果是好事,就可以理解成“想得 美”或“得了吧”或“做梦吧,你!” ,如果是坏事,则表示“但愿不会”、 “打消这念头” !等等。文章最后给出这样的评论, 颇有讽刺意味。事实上,众所周知,以陈水扁为首的人搞的就是“美元外交” ,他说“不是”,作者自然要“嗤之以鼻”了。 对付这种外交方式最好的方法就是“以毒攻毒” ,所谓魔高一尺,道高一丈。 )

[QUIZ] 1.翻译划线部分英文: 2.根据单词英文释义和首字母提示填入恰当单词: (A)l________(adj. surrounded by other countries and having no coast) (B)g________(adj. willing to give money in order to help people) (C)g________(n. a big difference between two amounts, groups of people, etc) (D)a________(vt. to put all the parts of something together) (E)b________(n. a quick increase of business activity; opposite to “slump”)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1.homage n. something you do to show respect for someone or something you think is important 尊崇, 效忠(pay homage to 对……毕恭毕敬) 2.ailing adj. an ailing company, organization or economy is having a lot of problems and is not successful 困难重重的(公司、组织、经济);境况不佳的 3.voracious adj. eating or wanting large quantities of food 贪吃的;贪婪的;狼吞虎咽的 如:Kids can have voracious appetites.小孩会很贪吃。

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 台湾的 25 个“邦交国” : 欧洲(1 个) :梵蒂冈。 非洲(6 个) :马拉维、乍得、斯威士兰、布基纳法索、冈比亚、圣多美和普林西比。 拉丁美洲(12 个):巴拿马、海地、巴拉圭、萨尔瓦多、多米尼加、哥斯达黎加、危地马拉、洪都拉斯、 圣文森特和格林纳丁斯、圣基茨和尼维斯、伯利兹、尼加拉瓜。 大洋洲(6 个):瑙鲁、图瓦卢、所罗门群岛、马绍尔群岛共和国、帕劳、基里巴斯。 (完) 截至 2005 年 10 月 25 日 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. 翻译参见译文,不妥之处欢迎商榷。 2. (A)landlocked 内陆的;(B)generous 慷慨的,大方的;(C)gap 差距;(D)assembles 组装; (E)boom 快速增长;繁荣

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 23

To save a woodpecker 为了救一只啄木鸟 May 11th 2006 | CLARENDON, ARKANSAS From The Economist print edition THE ivory-billed woodpecker is not large, as birds go. It is about the size of a crow, but flashier. Its claim to fame[1] is that, though it had been thought e_________(A) since 1944, a lone kayaker spotted it about two years ago, flying around among the cypress trees in the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge. And (1)that sighting may prove the death-blow[2] to a $319m irrigation project in the Arkansas corner of the Delta. 象牙喙啄木鸟与普通的鸟一样,体形不是很大,跟乌鸦差不多,但羽色较亮。1944 年以来人们一直以为 它已经灭绝,但大约两年前,一个划着小船的独行客在凯奇河国家野生物保护区的柏树林中发现一只啄木 鸟正在四处飞翔,因此,这种鸟就出了名。而且,这一发现可能致使阿肯色三角洲地区一项耗资 3.19 亿 美元的灌溉工程搁浅。 The Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project seemed, at first, a fine idea. The Grand Prairie is the fourth-largest rice-bowl in the world, with 363,000 acres under paddies. But it is running out of water, with farmers driving wells deeper and deeper into the underlying aquifer[3]. The new project, dreamed up around a decade ago, would tap excess water from the White river when it f_________(B) and pump it, at the rate of about one billion gallons a day, to storage tanks on around 1,000 rice farms. 此项北美大草原地区示范工程一开始似乎是个好主意。大草原是世界 上第四大稻米产地,拥有 36.3 万亩稻田。但是那里水资源正日趋枯 竭,农民的井越挖越深,已经到了地下蓄水层。大概十年前人们就梦 想有这样一项新的工程,能在怀特河发生洪灾时对上涨的河水进行引 流,并以每天 10 亿加仑的流量将其抽入大约 1000 个水稻农场的蓄水 池中。 U_________(C), it would also divert water from the region's huge, swampy wildlife refuges, home to black bears and alligators and the pallid sturgeon. Tiny swamp towns like Clarendon and Brinkley, which are heavily black and almost destitute[4], rely on nature tourism for the little economic activity they have. In Brinkley, (2)the barber offers an “ivorybill” haircut that makes you look like one. 可不幸的是,这一工程同样会排走当地野生物保护区庞大的沼泽地里(黑熊、鳄鱼和白鲟鱼栖息处)的水。 像克拉林顿和布林克利这样的沼泽小城都是黑黢黢的,穷得叮当响。靠着自然旅游业,它们的经济方才一 息尚存。在布林克利,理发师会剪一种“象牙喙”发型,让每个人看上去都毫无二致。(译者按:此句中的 “one”到底指代什么呢?是“one ivory-billed woodpecker”还是“the same one” ,或者是别的?匪夷所思! )

The project has some powerful local backers. They include Blanche Lincoln, the state's senior senator, who grew up on a rice farm in Helena, and Dale Bumpers, a former four-term senator and governor of Arkansas. Mr Bumpers, long an i_________(D) of the environmental movement and prominent in the efforts to establish the refuges, now believes the water project is important for national security in food and trade, and that it will not damage the forests he has worked to protect. 该工程得到了当地一些有权有势的人的支持,这些人包括,在海伦娜一个水稻农场长大的州参议院资深议 员布兰彻·林肯和阿肯色州第四任参议院议员兼州长戴勒·邦姆珀斯。邦姆珀斯先生一直以来都是环境保 护运动的领军人物,为建立野生物保护区做出过卓越贡献,如今他认为,这项灌溉工程对国家食品与贸易 Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 安全而言具有重要意义,并不会破坏他曾经致力于保护的森林。 (3)Opponents worry that the project, apart from its environmental risks, will overwhelm the innovative water conservation methods that rice-farmers are already using, and give the biggest water users an unfair advantage. They also object that it means using subsidised pumps to provide subsidised water for a crop that doesn't pay. Rice is one of the most heavily assisted crops in America; rice payments cost taxpayers almost $10 billion between 1995 and 2004, and rich farmers round Stuttgart in Arkansas County (an efficient and politically shrewd group) took in $21.2m in subsidies in 2004 a_________(E). 反对人士担心,工程不但会给环境造成诸多威胁,而且将导致稻农可能放弃现已采用的储水改良方法, 最终受益的将是那些用水大户,这是不公平的。他们还反对说,这一工程意味着,政府对抽水灌溉农作物 提供了补贴,可用水人却不需缴任何费用。水稻是美国重点扶持的农作物之一,1995 年至 2004 年间纳税 人为购买大米支付了将近 100 亿美元,阿肯色县斯图加特(一个高效的、有着精明政治头脑的集体)附近 的富裕农户,仅从 2004 年一年的政府补贴中就赚得 2120 万美元。

[QUIZ] 1.翻译划线部分英文: 2.根据单词英文释义和首字母提示填入恰当单词: (A)e________(adj. [animal or plant] not existing any more; dying out) (B)f________(vi. to become covered by water and spread water over the land) (C)U_______(adv. unluckily) (D)i________(n. someone who is thought to represent an important idea) (E)a________(adv. without including anything else; merely)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1.sb’s/sth’s claim to fame a place or person’s claim to fame is the reason why they are famous—often used humorously to mention something that is not very important (某地或某人)出名的原因(诙谐用语,形容一些无足轻重的事物) 如:My main claim to fame is that I once shook Elvis’s hand. 跟 Elvis 握手让我出了名。 2.death blow an action or event that makes something fail or end [= death knell]: (令某事失败或终止的)行动或事件 如:His decision to leave the show has delivered a death blow to the series. 3.aquifer n.蓄水层 4.destitute adj. 1)having no money, no food, no home, etc. 一无所有 如:The floods left many people destitute.洪水让许多人缺衣少食,无家可归。 2)be destitute of sth.一点也没有…… 如:a man who is destitute of mercy 毫无同情心的人

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. 翻译参见译文,不妥之处欢迎商榷。 2. (A)extinct 灭绝,绝种;(B)floods 闹水灾,涨水;(C)Unfortunately 不幸地;(D)icon 代表 人物,标志性人物,公认代表;(E)alone 仅仅

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 24

Love thine enemy 爱你的敌人(陈继龙 编译)

May 18th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition AMERICA's churches are nothing if not nimble[1]. You might think that they would be up in arms[2] about “The Da Vinci Code(1)”. Dan Brown's novel has sold well over 40m copies in 44 languages; the film version of the novel, which is being r_________① around the world on May 19th, will reach millions more; and yet Mr Brown's message is about as heretical as you can get. “The Da Vinci Code” holds that Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene and fathered a daughter; that the Bible was put together by a fourth-century Roman emperor with a thing against women; that the Catholic Church is a criminal conspiracy. 美国的教堂脑筋极为灵活。 (“nothing if not”一般用于强调某人 或某物的品质“尤其……”,“极为……”)也许你以为他们将与 《达·芬奇密码》干戈相向了。丹·布朗这部小说十分畅销, 已经被翻译成 44 种语言,印数超过 4000 万册;根据小说改 编的电影 5 月 19 日将在全球首映,必定引得更多人瞩目。 然而,从布朗的小说中你所能看到的不外乎是一种异教论。 《达·芬奇密码》认为,耶稣娶玛丽·玛德琳娜为妻,生了 一个女儿;《圣经》是四世纪一位罗马皇帝(即君士坦丁) 怀着对女性敌视的思想捏造出来的;天主教堂隐藏着一个犯 罪阴谋。 Roman Catholics are c_________② up in arms. The Vatican has urged the faithful to boycott the film. The US Conference of Catholic Bishops has launched a documentary and a website, Jesusdecoded.com. The American Society for the Defence of Tradition, Family and Property is organising prayer-vigils[3] at cinemas. The film is the most flagrant[4] example of American anti-Catholicism, some say, since the Know Nothings(2) of the 19th century. 罗马天主教肯定是要怒目以对的。梵蒂冈罗马教廷已经敦促信徒们抵制这部电影。美国天主教主教集会发 布了一部纪录片,并推出一个网站(http://www.Jesusdecoded.com)。美国传统、家庭与财产保护协会正组 织在电影院举行静坐守夜抗议活动。有人说,该片是自 19 世纪的“一无所知党”以来,美国反天主教最 为明目张胆的例证。 But many other Christians, particularly evangelicals[5], are taking a different approach. For them the film provides a golden opportunity to get people talking about Christian subjects. Some churches are giving away tickets along with Starbucks v_________③ to encourage post-film discussion. The Campus Crusade for Christ has printed 1m copies of its guide to the code. This Sunday, thousands of preachers across the country will be addressing Mr Brown's book. 不过,其他许多基督教徒,尤其是福音信仰者的反应却迥然不同。他们认为,这部影片为争取基督教成为 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 人们的中心话题提供了一个千载难逢的机遇(译者按:“golden opportunity”意为“绝好的机会”)。有些教会正把 电影票与星巴克咖啡优惠券一起到处派发,用以鼓励人们开展观后讨论。基督校园支持会印制了 100 万份 “密码指南” 。本周日,全美数以千计的牧师还将诵读这本小说。 One reason why evangelicals are embracing Mr Brown is that shunning proved such a disaster with Martin Scorsese's “The Last Temptation of Christ” in 1988. All the outrage and m_________④ simply made Christians look bigoted[5] and silly, and brought a tedious film much publicity. But there are two more positive reasons. 福音信仰者之所以接受布朗,其原因之一是 1988 年马丁·斯高塞瑟的《基督最后的诱惑》已经证明,回 避就意味着灾难。义愤填膺也好,示威游行也罢,到头来基督教徒反而给人一种顽固愚昧的印象,并且促 使一部原本单调乏味的电影名声大作。不过,还有两个更为积极的因素在起作用。 First, the churches are determined to engage with popular culture. Today's mega-churches have dispensed with traditional hymns[6] and learned sermons[8] in favour of rock bands and—a recent favourite—pastors who p________⑤ from inside mock-up prisons, a reference to Fox's hit show, “Prison Break”. The churches did roaring business on the back of “The Passion of the Christ” and “The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe”; they hope to do the same, with the aid of a bit of jujitsu, with Mr Brown's offering. 首先,各教堂决意要和通俗文化融为一体。如今的大教堂已经摒弃了传统的唱赞美诗和学究式的布道说教 (译者按:“dispense with”意为“省却,免去,无需”。) ,开始转向追捧摇滚乐团和在模拟监狱中讲道的牧师。 后者源自福克斯公司最为叫座的电视剧《越狱》 ,最近深受大众喜爱。各教堂在《耶稣受难日》和《狮子、 女巫和魔衣橱》两部片子中接连赚得盆满钵满(译者按:“roaring business”意为“生意兴隆”);这一次,有了 一点点柔术的帮助,加上布朗的佳作巨献,他们希望再创佳绩。 The churches are also obsessed with “seekers”—people who are vaguely interested in Christianity without knowing much about it. The calculation is that the film will boost the number of seekers—and that the churches will then knock Mr Brown's nonsense out of their heads. 此外,各教堂十分垂青“慕道友”,也就是那些对基督教了解不深但又对其兴趣暧昧的人们。经估算,该 片将使“慕道友”的人数骤增,——同时,各教堂随之也会把布朗的胡说八道忘得一干二净。 (译者按:赚 钱又赚人,何乐而不为,歪曲也好,侮辱也罢,都让它们随风消散吧。) Whether Mr Brown's work brings people to God is impossible to say. But with at least 45 books debunking[9] the code, more than a dozen CDs and DVDs coming out with the film, and seven TV specials airing this month, it is bringing a lot of money to a lot of people. Pity about the book. 布朗的作品是否让人们开始信奉上帝尚且不得而知,但是至少 45 部揭穿密码真相的著作,影片同期发行 的数不胜数的 CD 和 DVD,以及本月开播的七档电视特别节目,都将让许多人大赚特赚。这部小说也真 是不幸哦!(译者按:鸡犬升天,别人凭借自己写的小说捞足了银两,尽管无损于己,而且还付了版权费,却也不爽。)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首个字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意名词复数、动词时态等 变化): ①r________(vt. to make a CD, video, film etc available for people to buy or see) ②c________(adv. without any doubt; definitely) ③v________(n. a ticket that can be used instead of money for a particular purpose:) ④m________(n. an organized event in which many people walk together to protest about something) ⑤p________(n. to talk about a religious subject in a public place, especially in a church)

2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. nimble adj. able to move, think quickly, or understand things easily 灵敏的,敏捷的 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 2. be up in arms to be very angry and ready to argue or fight:非常生气,随时准备争吵或抗争 如:Residents are up in arms about plans for a new road along the beach.居民竭力反对沿着海滩修建一条新 路的计划。 3. vigil n. 1)a period of time, especially during the night, when you stay awake in order to pray, remain with someone who is ill, or watch for danger:守夜,值班 如:Eva and Paul kept a constant vigil by their daughter's hospital bedside.伊娃和保罗一直守候在女儿的病 床旁。 2)a silent political protest in which people wait outside a building, especially during the night 静坐守夜(以 示抗议) 如:2000 demonstrators held a candlelit vigil outside the embassy.2000 名示威者在使馆外举行了烛光静坐守 夜活动。 4. flagrant adj. a flagrant action is shocking because it is done in a way that is easily noticed and shows no respect for laws, truth etc 明目张胆的,公然挑衅法律、事实的,恶名昭著的 如:flagrant abuse/violation/breach etc 公然滥用/违反/违背 5. evangelical n.信福音主义者 6. bigoted adj. having such strong opinions about a group of people that you are unwilling to listen to anyone else's opinions: 顽固不化的;固执己见的 7. hymn n.赞美诗,赞歌 8. sermon n. 训诫,布道,说教 9. debunk vt. to show that an idea or belief is false:揭穿;揭露;指出(观念、信仰的错误) His claims were later debunked by fellow academics.业内学者后来指出他的主张是错误的。

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1.《达·芬奇密码》: 《达·芬奇密码》是惊险小说和智力解迷结合的典范之作。其行文节奏明快,语言富 有智慧,情节错落有致,作者在密码学、数学、宗教、文化、艺术等诸多方面的知识可以说展露得淋漓尽 致,并将大量的时下人们关注的信息有机地引入作品之中,巧妙地运用到高潮迭起的情节里面,从小说的 精彩开篇到难以预料的令人叫绝的结尾,丹·布朗充分证明自己是个善讲故事的大师。本书讲述的是卢浮 宫馆长在卢浮宫馆内被谋杀,死前他将自己摆成了达·芬奇名作《维特鲁威人》中的姿势,并在尸体旁留 下了难以捉摸的密码符号。哈佛大学宗教符号学教授罗伯特·兰登和馆长孙女索菲·奈芙在一起追寻凶手 的过程中,竟然发现一连串的线索。 本书作者丹·布朗是《数字堡垒》、 《魔鬼与天使》及《圈套》的作者,现居住在新英格兰。个人网站: http://www.danbrown.com 1996 年,出于他对密码破译和秘密情报机构的兴趣,丹·布朗创作了他的第一 部小说《数字堡垒》,探讨了公民隐私与国家安全的矛盾,迅速成为当年美国畅销榜上排行第一的电子书。 他接下来的作品《欺骗要诀》也是这一主题的延伸,关注政治道德、国家安全与保密高科技。此后,他更 接连创作了最成功的畅销书《天使与魔鬼》、《达·芬奇密码》,把"科学+宗教"的惊险小说类型发挥到极 致。如今的丹·布朗频频亮相于 CNN、今日秀,美国国家广播电台、美国之音,以及《新闻周刊》、《人 物》、 《福布斯》、 《娱乐周刊》、 《纽约客》等重要媒体。他的小说被摆放在美国各大书店最醒目的位置,他 的作品被翻译成 30 多种语言在世界各国出版。 2.一无所知党(the Know Nothings):又称“美国本土党” (American Native Party)或“美国党” (American Party),成立于 1849 年,是在“美国人联合社团” (the Order of United Americans,1844 年成立)等秘密 社团基础上发展起来的。 “一无所知党”的名字源于 19 世纪 40 年代的一位新闻工作者霍勒斯·格里利 (Horace Greeley)在揭露一个秘密组织时的说法。当时,该组织的成员发誓,如果被问到有关该组织的 活动,就说“一无所知”。该党的骨干成员都是本土主义者,他们认为,美国是美国本土居民的美国,所 以,美国各级政府必须控制在本土出生的人手里。美国本土主义运动是美国历史上一场以排外思想为理论 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 根基,以反对天主教、犹太教、亚洲和拉丁美洲移民为主要任务,以一些兄弟会性质的组织为骨干,以维 护美国白人主流文化为主要目标的运动。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①released 公开发行,公开放映;②certainly 当然,肯定;③vouchers 代金券;④marches 示威游行 ⑤ preach 布道,说教

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 25

Football fiasco 一败涂地的足球(陈继龙 编译) May 18th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition SILVIO BERLUSCONI says it was a rigged[1] contest that his side won. Not Italy's election: its football championship. His team, AC Milan, finished second in both the past two seasons to Juventus. (1)But the Turin team is at the centre of a match-fixing scandal that may be the biggest even this country has seen. On May 16th, less than a month before the start of the soccer World Cup in Germany, Italy's top sporting body, the Olympic committee, put the national football federation under emergency rule. The federation's president had q_______① after claims that he ignored evidence of misconduct by officials, referees and players. The committee chose a 75-year-old former stockmarket regulator, Guido Rossi, in his place. 西尔维奥·贝鲁斯科尼说,他那一方赢的是一场被操纵的比赛。他这说的不是意大利选举,而是足球赛。 他的 AC 米兰队在过去两个赛季都排在尤文图斯之后居于次席。但是尤文图斯(注:尤文图斯俱乐部位于 意大利西北部城市都灵)目前正陷入意大利有史以来最大的一件操纵比赛的丑闻漩涡之中。 (译者按:“fix” 在这里是“操控,操纵”的意思,“this country has seen”本义是“该国所见证的” ,意译为“有史以来”。)5 月 16 日, 亦即距德国世界杯开幕不到一个月的时候,意大利最高体育组织——奥委会对国家足协实行了紧急管制。 由于被指称对比赛官员、裁判以及球员的不轨表现坐视不理,足协主席已经离任,奥委会挑选了 75 岁的 前股市调节员吉多·罗西接替他的位置。 The evidence in the case comes from prosecutors in Naples who are looking into 19 games that were played in Italy's top division in the 2004-05 season. Seven matches involved Juventus, whose board has now resigned. (2) Shares in the publicly traded club have plunged as investors fret that Juventus could be stripped of its titles, and even demoted. Il Sole-24 Ore, a financial daily, r________② that would cost the club as much as €120m ($160m) in lost sponsorship and television revenues. 该事件有关证据源自那不勒斯检察官, 他们对 2004~2005 赛季意大利甲级联赛中的 10 场比赛进行了调查, 目前董事会已集体辞职的尤文图斯参加了其中 7 场。由于投资者担心尤文图斯可能被剥夺冠军头衔甚至降 级,该上市俱乐部的股票已经迅速下跌。(译者按:“public”为“上市的”;“plunge”是指“突降,俯冲”,引申为 “快速下跌” ;”as”是连词, “因为” ;“fret”是从句谓语,意为“担心,焦虑”; “strip of”指“剥夺”;“demote”是“使降 级”的意思。 )金融日报《Il Sole-24 Ore》 (《一日二十四小时》)估算,这将导致俱乐部因失去赞助商和电视 转播收入而损失高达 1.2 亿欧元(约合 1.6 亿美元)。 Juventus's general manager, Luciano Moggi, also resigned on May 14th. Leaked extracts from intercepted[2] telephone conversations suggest that he habitually secured amenable[3] referees for his team, rewarding those who favoured it, and p________③ those who did not. They record him boasting of locking match officials in the changing room as a reprisal[4], and urging a television journalist to tamper with[5] a slow-motion replay to hide a wrong decision in Juventus's favour.(3)His reputation for fixing matches was such that the interior minister in Mr Berlusconi's government once rang him to ask for help for his local side, playing in a lower division. Some weeks later, the transcripts show Mr Moggi taking a grateful call from the club's chairman.

尤文图斯总经理卢奇亚诺·莫吉也于 5 月 14 日辞职。根据窃听得到的一段电话交谈记录,莫吉经常为自 Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 己的球队安排合适的裁判人选,对于那些袒护球队的人给予奖赏,否则就加以惩罚。检察官的记录表明, 他吹嘘自己曾将比赛官员关在更衣室里以示报复,还怂恿一名电视记者篡改一个慢动作回放镜头,以隐瞒 一项有利于尤文图斯的错误决议。莫吉操纵比赛名闻遐迩,甚至连贝鲁斯科尼政府的内政部长也曾打电话 给他,请他给他家乡一支乙级俱乐部提供帮助。 (译者按:“local”除了有“地方的,本地的”的意思之外,还可指 “家乡的,乡土的” ; “side”常用于表示“比赛或竞争中的一方”; “a lower division”直译为“低一级的联赛” ,即乙级联赛。) 记录表明,几周之后,莫吉接到了该俱乐部主席打来的感谢电话。 Football fans have long s________④ that Juventus, which for years was universally associated with the Fiat automotive group and a symbol of Italian industrial pride, gets unduly[6] favourable treatment. (4)But investigations in Naples and three other cities point to corrupt practices far beyond Turin. Several teams are involved. One of them is AC Milan. 多年来,尤文图斯始终与菲亚特汽车集团保持着千丝万缕的联系,是意大利工业界引以为豪的代表。球迷 们一直怀疑尤文图斯受到了不正当偏袒。不过,那不勒斯以及其它三个城市的调查人员指出,舞弊行为绝 非只尤文图斯一家俱乐部才有, (译者按:“corrupt practice”是一名词短语,表示“舞弊,行贿”。)好几支球队都 涉嫌舞弊,其中之一就是 AC 米兰。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①q________(vi. to leave a job, school etc, especially without finishing it completely) ②r________(vt. to guess a number or amount, without calculating it exactly) ③p________(vt. to make someone suffer because they have done something wrong) ④s________(vi. to think that something is probably true, especially something bad)

2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. rig vt. to dishonestly arrange the result of an election or competition before it happens [= fix]:操纵(竞选或比

赛结果) 2. intercept vt. to stop something or someone that is going from one place to another before they get there: 中途阻止;截留 3. amenable adj. 1)willing to accept what someone says or does without arguing:听话的,顺从的(与 to 连用) 2)suitable for a particular type of treatment(与 for/to 连用)适合……的 4. reprisal n. something violent or harmful which you do to punish someone for something bad they have done to you [≈ revenge, retaliation]:报复,报仇(against) do sth. in reprisal (for something)为了报复……而…… 5. tamper with sth. to touch something or make changes to it without permission, especially in order to deliberately damage it 擅自接触某物或进行改动(尤指为了故意破坏);篡改 6. unduly adj. more than is normal or reasonable 不正常地,不合理地;过分地 如:unduly worried/concerned/anxious etc 过分担心/关心/焦虑

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①quit 退出,离职;②reckons 估算;③punishing 惩罚(用分词,与前面的 rewarding 对应);④suspected 怀���

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 26

Another big hug 另类热情拥抱(陈继龙 编译) May 18th 2006 | CAIRO From The Economist print edition “THE United States is a damned country that deserves only to be cursed. It declares its own occupation of our lands legitimate, but brands our resistance as terrorists.” This was not the Libyan leader, Muammar Qaddafi, speaking 20 years ago, when his country was a pariah[1] and he was the butt[2] of international scorn. The words were spoken only last month, by the Libyan parliament's deputy speaker, Ahmed Ibrahim, at a g________① in Tripoli, Libya's capital, to commemorate its bombing by American aircraft in 1986. “美国是一个可恶的国家,理所当然应该受到诅咒。它口口声声说占 领我们的国土是合法的,却诬蔑我们的抵抗力量是恐怖分子。”这不是 利比亚领导人穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲 20 前说的,那个时候利比亚是一个世 所不容的国家,卡扎菲也被国际间当作嘲弄的对象。这话出自利比亚 国会发言人艾哈迈德·易布拉希姆之口,他上个月刚刚在利比亚首都 的黎波里举行的一次集会上说了这番话。此次集会旨在纪念 1986 年美 国飞机轰炸利比亚事件。 Mr Ibrahim's stridency[3] was, perhaps, inspired by America's decision, in March, to keep Libya on its official list of state sponsors of terrorism, a dubious distinction it has held since 1979. All the more striking, then, that the American administration should have decided, this week, to restore full diplomatic relations. 易布拉希姆的话之所以如此不中听,可能是因为今年 3 月美国决定继续将利比亚列入官方的“支持恐怖主 义国家”名单——从 1979 年起,利比亚就开始享有此项有争议的“殊荣”。可接下来让人错愕不已的是, 本周美国政府竟然决定全面恢复同利比亚的外交关系。 In fact, the two countries have been edging closer for years—for reasons of pure realpolitik[4]. Mr Qaddafi's regime is certainly less bad than it was. It has not t________② anyone outside its own borders for a long time. It has opened its economy a crack to foreign investors, invited tourism and slightly lifted oppressive controls on its own citizens. (1)But none of those things matters as much to America as big oil, alliances in the fight against Islamist extremism and the scoring of points in the current stand-off[5] over Iran's nuclear ambitions. 事实上,多年来两国已经越走越近——纯粹是因为强权政治。卡扎菲政权肯定要比过去有所改善,很久以 来都未在本国领土以外进行过恐怖活动,经济上渐渐对外国投资者开放,并开始发展旅游事业,对本国公 民的高压管控也有所放松。但是对于美国而言,这些都算不了什么。丰富的石油、结盟对抗伊斯兰极端主 义以及在当前伊朗核危机僵局中赢得优势,才是美国真正想要的。 (译者按:本句的主结构应该是“none of those things matters as much as……to America”,意为“对美国而言,比起……来,那些都无关紧要。 ”) Libya has the largest oil reserves in Africa, safely distant from the Persian Gulf, and has historically cosy[6] relations with American oil firms. More crucial to the Bush administration has been Libya's importance in Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong countering al-Qaeda and its offshoots. (2)Mr Qaddafi's intelligence services, once feared as global troublemakers, are among the most ruthless in the region. Ever since Libya's leader was himself targeted for assassination by Muslim radicals (at least twice in the 1990s), he has been one of their keenest foes. 利比亚是非洲最大的石油储备国,因远离海湾地区而又十分安全,并且历史上与美国诸多石油公司关系暧 昧。对于布什政府而言,更为至关紧要的是利比亚在制衡基地组织及其党羽中的重要作用。曾经让全世界 人心惶惶的麻烦制造者、卡扎菲的情报部门在情报领域最为冷酷无情。然而从卡扎菲自己成为穆斯林激进 分子暗杀目标(上世纪 90 年代就至少有两次)到现在,他已经成为他们的死敌之一。 Seizing the opportunity of the attacks on America in 2001, Libyan intelligence has co-operated fulsomely[7] with sister agencies. It has helped i_______③ prisoners at Guantánamo and joined in an American-sponsored plan to track and contain Islamist guerrillas across the Sahara. (3)Among other rewards, it has secured the “rendition[8]” of Libyan Islamists nabbed[9] by the Americans as far afield as Afghanistan, Thailand and Hong Kong. 利比亚情报部门以 2001 年美国遭到恐怖袭击为契机,已与美情报部门展开了亲密合作,如协助审问关塔 纳摩的囚犯、加入一项由美国提供资助的搜捕撒哈拉地区伊斯兰游击队的计划。在其它方面,利比亚情报 部门也收获颇丰,比如已成功将美国人远在阿富汗、泰国和香港等地抓获的利比亚裔伊斯兰分子“引渡” 回国。 (译者按:本人对这句的翻译着实费了一番脑筋,但仍觉不着边际,主要是“rendition”一词,按《朗文当代英语词 典》,它就两个意思,即“表演”和“翻译”,但我觉得句子本身并不包含其中任何一个意思。查别的辞典发现, “rendition” 在古语中有“引渡逃犯”之意,这就非常贴合文章了。)

Equally significant was Mr Qaddafi's decision, in 2003, to let British and American experts take apart his secret weapons programme, bringing a windfall of information about global smuggling networks. (4)The Americans parade this change of heart as a model for countries such as Iran and North Korea. 同样重要的还有卡扎菲在 2003 年作出的决定,即允许英美专家参与其秘密武器研制计划,透露了一大批 令人意外的全球走私网络情报。美国人得意地说,利比亚的幡然悔悟应成为某些国家的榜样,比如伊朗和 朝鲜。 (译者按:“change of heart”表示“change in attitude”,即“态度的转变”、“看法的转变”。既然美国人是“炫耀”, 所以在他们看来,利比亚这是一种“悔悟” 。) Still, why the rush to e________④ ambassadors? One reason may be a rising feeling in Tripoli that being nice to America has brought little reward. (5)Rumblings[10] of dissent, such as Mr Ibrahim's speech, may have prompted the Americans to make a gesture to prevent Mr Qaddafi from again slipping out of the fold. This week President Bush sent Congress a report on Libya which should lead to its removal from the list of state sponsors of terrorism. 可是,两国为什么要急于互派大使呢?原因之一可能是的黎波里愈发觉得善待美国对自己没什么好处。风 传的种种不和谐声音,比如易布拉希姆的讲话,对美国人而言是一个鞭笞:要想防止卡扎菲再度背道而驰, 就必须有所表示。 (译者按:“the fold”的意思是“the group of people that you belong to and share the same beliefs and ideas as” ,“同道之人” 。)本周布什总统给国会递交了一份关于利比亚的报告,认为应该将利比亚从“支持恐怖主 义国家”的名单中删除。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①g________(n. a meeting of a group of people) ②t________(vt. to deliberately frighten people by threatening to harm them) ③i________(vt. to ask someone a lot of questions for a long time in order to get information) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ④e________(vt.

to give someone sth. and receive the same kind of thing from them at the same time)

2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. pariah n. someone who everyone hates and avoids [= outcast]为众人所痛恨并抛弃的人 2. butt n. (be the butt of something)to be the person or thing that other people often make jokes about 笑柄 3. stridency n. 刺耳;尖锐 4. realpolitik n. politics based on practical situations and needs rather than on moral principles or ideas 实力 政治;现实政治 5. stand-off n. a situation in which neither side in a fight or battle can gain an advantage 和局,平衡,相互 抵消;制衡 6. cosy adj. having a close connection or relationship, especially one you do not approve of 关系亲密的;暧 昧的;勾结的 7. fulsome adj. a fulsome speech or piece of writing sounds insincere because it contains too much praise, expressions of thanks etc 过分的;过度的;过于做作的;令人感到不快的(恭维) 8. rendition n. 表演;翻译 9. nab vt. 1)to catch or arrest someone who is doing something wrong:捉住;逮捕 2)to get something or someone quickly, especially before anyone else can get them:抢夺 10. rumblings n. remarks that show that people are starting to become annoyed, or that a difficult situation is developing 风言风语;谣传

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 美利关系的历史沿革 自卡扎菲执掌利比亚后,美国和利比亚的关系历经风雨。 1969 年,卡扎菲推翻了亲美的利比亚国王伊德里斯。1970 年 6 月,利比亚宣布收回美国设在利比亚 首都的黎波里附近的军事基地。1980 年,美国宣布利比亚为“支持恐怖主义国家”,关闭了驻利比亚大使 馆。1981 年,美国海军的飞机击落了两架利比亚飞机,两国断了交。1986 年,美国总统里根下令停止与 利比亚的经济和贸易关系,冻结利比亚在美国的资产。此后,美利接连发生军事冲突,里根下令空袭利比 亚。1988 年 12 月,美国泛美航空公司的一架波音 747 客机从德国法兰克福飞往美国纽约途中,在苏格兰 洛克比镇上空发生爆炸,机上的 259 名乘客和地面 11 人罹难。美英两国情报机构组成的调查组认定,洛 克比空难是两名利比亚人所为。 1999 年 4 月,利比亚交出了洛克比空难的两名嫌疑犯。2000 年 3 月,美国官方代表首次访问利比亚。 2003 年 3 月,利比亚同意承担洛克比空难的民事责任,承诺向遇难者家属赔偿总计 27 亿美元。2003 年 12 月 19 日,卡扎菲宣布放弃研制大规模杀伤性武器,接受国际社会的武器核查,美利关系出现缓和。 2006 年 5 月,美国宣布全面恢复与利比亚的外交关系。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①gathering 集会;②terrorized(或 terrorised)恐吓;③interrogate 审讯;④exchange 交换) 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 27

The kindest cut 最友善的砍伐(陈继龙 编译) May 25th 2006 From The Economist print edition DEPRESSING reports about how quickly the world's tropical forests are being f________① are commonplace. But depressing reports about the state of the trees that are still standing are much rarer. In fact, a new study from the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO), an offshoot of the United Nations, claims to be the first exhaustive survey of tropical-forest management ever undertaken. Its findings, although grim, do contain a kernel[1] of hope. 有关全球热带森林遭到乱砍滥伐、令人痛心的报道极为常见,但是痛陈现存林木状况的报道却少之又少。 事实上,联合国分支机构——国际热带木材组织(ITTO)新近开展的一项研究,据称是首次对热带森林 管理现状进行深入调查。其发现虽然令人沮丧,但从中我们还是看到了一线希望。 The ITTO examined “permanent forest estate”, meaning land that the governments of its 33 members have formally set aside for forests, and is therefore subject to some form of regulation or protection. The category includes both national parks and timber concessions, in both public and p________② hands. It covers 814m hectares, and accounts for roughly two-thirds of the world's tropical forests. ITTO 调查的对象是“永久性森林地产” ,也就是被 ITTO 所属 33 个成员国政府正式划作森林地域,从而 受到某种形式的管理或保护的土地。它涉及国家森林公园和木材的特许经营,包括国营和私营。地产总面 积达 8.14 亿公顷,约占全球热带森林面积的三分之二。 The concept is important, explains Duncan Poore, one of the authors of the report, because it is not always possible, or desirable, to protect every last grove against encroaching[2] farms or homes. Instead, governments should c__________③ on maintaining the forests that are the most commercially and scientifically valuable. Yet the ITTO's researchers found that only 15% of the permanent forest estate has a management plan, and less than 5% of it is sustainably managed. That still amounts to an area the size of Germany, the report notes, and represents a dramatic improvement since 1988, when an earlier and less extensive survey found that only one country in the tropics—Trinidad and Tobago—had any well-run forests at all. But relative to the area of forest that has disappeared over the same period, the well-managed area is negligible. 此项研究报告的作者之一邓肯·玻尔解释说,这一概念意义重大,因为我们不可能,也不值得对每一片濒 临消失的小树林都一直进行保护以避免其被农田或住宅侵占。相反,政府应当集中精力养护好那些最具有 商业和科学价值的森林。可是 ITTO 的研究人员却发现,在“永久性森林地产”中,仅 15%有着相应的管 理方案,而能坚持贯彻执行这一方案的只有 5%。报告中提到,整个地产所涵盖的区域相当于一个德国的 大小,自从 1988 年以来已经得到了极大改善。当年一项粗略的早期调查发现,热带地区国家中只有特立 尼达和多巴哥对森林管理较为完善。但是,相对于同期已然消亡的森林而言,这片管理得当的森林是微不 足道的。 The crux[3] is bad government. Poor countries do not always have good forestry laws. Even when they do, they rarely have the capacity to enforce them. It is no coincidence that M__________④, the country with the highest proportion of prudently managed forest in the study, is also one of the richest. Countries with the worst run forests, meanwhile, are war-torn places such as Congo and Cambodia. 问题出在政府管理不力。穷国常常缺乏有效的森林法规,即便是有,大多情况下也无力强制实施。本研究 Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 中提到的马来西亚得到妥善管理的森林面积比例最大,而它恰恰也是热带地区最富裕的国家之一,这不能 说是巧合。与此同时,对森林管理最为不善的国家都曾遭到战争破坏,比如刚果和柬埔寨。 More surprising, perhaps, is the difference the report found between forests where l________⑤ is allowed, and those that have been earmarked[4] for conservation. Some 7% of “production” forests, it turns out, are in good shape, compared with just 2.4% of “protection” forests. As Dr Poore points out, it is easy to undertake to preserve a forest, but difficult to do so in practice. Timber concessionaires at least have an incentive (and probably the wherewithal) to look after their property, while ill-paid and ill-equipped forestry officials often have neither. Exploiting forests may prove the best way to preserve them. 可能更为令人吃惊的是,该报告还发现,允许伐木的森林与受到专门保护的森林存在差异。研究表明,大 约 7% 的“产出型”森林生长状况较佳,而“保护型”森林仅有 2.4%。玻尔博士指出,保护森林说说容 易,实际做起来却很难。 (译者按:be undertake to do sth. 承诺做���…,答应做……)木材经营商看护好自己的森 林财产至少还有利可图(并且可能还有必要的维护资金),而报酬低、装备差的林业官员却一无所有。也 许事实会证明,开发森林才是保护森林的最佳途径。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①f________(vt. to cut down a tree) ②p________(adj. not related to, owned by, or paid for by the government) ③c________(vt. to think very carefully about something that you are doing) ④M________(n. a country in Southeast Aisa, of which the capital is Kuala Lumpur) ⑤l_________ (n. the work of cutting down trees in a forest)

2. 将划线部分英文翻译成中文:

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. kernel n. 1)the most important part of a statement, idea, plan etc [= core]核心,要点,精髓(kernel of)

如:This evidence is the kernel of the defendants' case. 2)a very small part or amount of something 少许(kernel of)如:There may be a kernel of truth in what he says.他的话可能有一点点是真的。 2. encroach vt. to gradually cover more and more land 侵占(土地),蚕食(encroach into)如:The fighting encroached further east. 3. crux n. the most important part of a problem, question, argument etc 症结;关键点 4. earmark vt. to decide that something will be used for a particular purpose or have something done to it in the future 指定用途;拨款作……用

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①felled 伐木;②private 私有的,私营的;③concentrate 集中(精神);④Malaysia 马来西亚;⑤logging 伐木业 )

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 28 Investing in art

Monet1-maker 摇钱画(陈继龙 编译) (译者按:Monet-maker 可能谐形谐义自 money-maker,后者指“会赚大笔大笔钱的人”或“赚钱的东西”又或“赚钱的生 意”,而本文所分析的艺术品投资也正是指的是当前人们将印象派创始人 Monet 等名家的作品作为投资对象,以获取高额利 润。)

Jun 1st 2006 From The Economist print edition EVER since the 1870s, when a group of French landscape painters produced work d__________① unacceptable for the Paris Salon but went on to sell rather well, malnourished artists have comforted themselves with the thought that the market would one day put a proper value on their work. For many (mostly long-dead) artists, this finally appears to be happening. (1)Investors in financial assets may have had a jumpy few weeks, but salesrooms have notched up[1] record prices in May. 19 世纪 70 年代,一群法国风景画家的作品被认为登不了巴黎画展的大雅之堂,可销路却一直很好。从那 以后, “营养不良”的画家们就总是想“市场早晚会给他们的作品一个合适的估价” ,聊以自慰。对于许多 画家而言,最后好像确实梦想成真了(大多数是在去世多年以后)。过去几周,金融资产投资者们的日子 也许过得心惊肉跳,可拍卖行却拍出了 5 月份的最高成交价。 (译者按:这句话就是说这几周艺术投资行情看涨, ) 金融投资如履薄冰。Jumpy 的意思是“nervous and anxious, espically of fear and guilt”。 Emerging markets are doing particularly well: Sotheby's2 recently held a sale of Latin American art that f________② a record $22m, including $5.6m for Raices (Roots) by Frida Kahlo3 (pictured above). Even living artists are selling for unprecedented sums. Collectors bought $432m of contemporary art at Christie's2, Phillips de Pury2 and Sotheby's, almost as much as they spent a week earlier on Impressionists and Modern art. 新兴市场运行尤为顺畅:苏富比拍卖行最近拍卖了一系列拉美艺术作品,总成交价又创新高,达 2200 万 美元,其中包括芙烈达•卡罗的《根》 ,成交价为 560 万美元。就连健存画家的作品也创下了前所未有的高 价。收藏家从佳士得、菲利浦·德·普瑞、苏富比等拍卖行竞买的当代画家作品总价值达 4.32 亿美元, 几乎等于他们一周之前竞买印象派和现代派画作所给出的总价。 All this has helped art outperform equities in recent years, at least on some price-performance measures. According to an index compiled by Jianping Mei and Michael Moses of New York University, fine art has outperformed the S&P 500 in each of the past five years. This is historically o________③. Other measures show that prices of art did far worse than equities over the past 25 years and slightly worse during the past half-century.____________________________________________________? (那么最近何以使得画布比纸 张更受人青睐呢?) Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 总的来看,这种情形促使艺术品比股票获得更多收益,至少从性价比上衡量是如此。 (译者按:这个句子中, “outperform”在经济学上交“超出大盘”或“跑赢大盘”,股市术语。 “price-performance (ratio)”是指“价格与表现(之比)” , 也就是我们常说的“性价比”。)根据纽约大学梅建平和迈克尔·摩西创建的艺术品指数,美术作品的收益超 出了过去五年任一年的标准普尔指数 500。这一现象历史上极为罕见。其它一些衡量标准显示,从过去的 25 年看,艺术品投资回报率远低于股票,而就近半个世纪来看,艺术品投资回报率与股票相差无几。(译 者按:这句翻译让我很挠头,欢迎给出最佳翻译。它应该涉及一种投资回报率的问题,短期投资来看,艺术品投资不如股 票;而长期(50 年)来看,则相差无几。也就是说艺术品适宜于用作长期投资。)那么,最近何以使得画布比纸张更 受人青睐呢?

Three things, according to James Goodwin, author of a forthcoming book on art markets. First, rich people have got much richer. At last count, 8.3m people across the world had more than $1m in financial wealth, according to a report by Capgemini and Merrill Lynch, up 7.3% on the p_________④ year. These ever-wealthier folk bid up the prices of positional goods4—those in short supply that become highly sought after. This may explain why, for example, Willem de Kooning5's painting “Untitled XVI” recently sold for $15.7m—double its estimate—at Sotheby's in New York. “If you're bidding against a Bill Gates or a Steve Jobs,” says David Barrie of the Art Fund, a British charity, to illustrate the point, “you're going to lose.” 即将出版的一本关于艺术品市场的书的作者詹姆斯·古德温认为,原因有三。首先,富人更富了。根据凯 捷咨询公司和美林公司一项报告,迄今全世界有 8300 万人财产超过 100 万美元,比上年增长了 7.3%。这 些富翁哄抬地位性商品(即求购者众的紧缺商品)的价格。比如说,威廉·德·库宁的画作《无题十六》 最近在纽约苏富比拍卖行以 1570 万美元的价格卖出,比预期翻了一番。英国慈善家、艺术基金会的戴维·巴 里对此进行了形象地比喻,他说:“假如你跟一个比尔·盖茨或者是一个史蒂夫·乔布斯(注:美国苹果电 脑公司创办人、苹果电脑公司现任董事长兼临时 CEO)去竞拍,你指定会输。 ” Second, buyers are spread across the world, which makes for a global market. Also, (2)they often buy patriotically, which is one reason why Russian art has done well of late, and why dealers are excited about the p________⑤ for price rises in the artworks of emerging markets, such as India and China. 其次,购买者遍布全世界,促进了艺术品市场全球化。此外,他们常常出于爱国情结去购买艺术品。这也 是俄罗斯艺术品近来为什么走俏的原因之一,同时也是新兴市场如印度、中国的艺术品的升值潜力让商人 们蠢蠢欲动的缘故之一。 Third, art is a lagging indicator. It is hard to value, and buying and selling incurs high transaction costs. Thus liquidity[2] in the market is low: buyers have held on to work for 30 years on average over the past 125 years. (3)But art is less removed from the fates of other assets than it might look. It seems to do well during periods of above-trend growth and inflation. In a steady economy, it rises and falls slowly. Every so often, it suffers a spectacular crash. (4)Not that the painters lying in Paris's cemeteries mind very much now. 第三,艺术品属于一种滞后指标(译者注:经济学术语,变动时间则往往落后于一般经济情况的变动)。 其价值难以估量,买与卖都可能付出高额交易代价。这样一来,艺术品市场的资产折现力就低:过去 125 年里,买方平均要用 30 年才把手中的艺术品卖出。不过,相比其它资产,艺术品的命运并不像表面上看 上去那样能好多少, (译者按:这里最好不要把 removed 一词理解为 remove 的过去分词,而是应看做是一个形容词,即 表示“远离的,大相径庭的” ,这样整个句子就好懂了。)似乎只有在增长超过趋势和通货膨胀时期才有出色表现。 在一个稳定的经济环境中,艺术品价格波动就小,而有时候,艺术品也会带来巨大的损失。反正现如今, 巴黎公墓内长眠的画家们也不太在意这些啦。 (译者按:牛津在线词典对“not that”给出的两个解释是:1)used to say you are not suggesting something,如:She wouldn’t tell me how much it cost.----Not that I was really interested. 2)used to say you don’t think something is important, 如:Not that I mind, but why didn’t you phone yesterday?此句中,我倾向于选择第一种 解释,至于汉语如何表达,倒值得思量。) Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (译后:各位读者,本文涉及很多经济学术语,很抱歉无法一一给出注释,且本人才识浅薄,完全凭感觉 翻译,难免有很多不到之处,望行家里手多多指点。当然,全文的大意我应该是理解了的。)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母提示和英文释义,补全单词: ①d_______(vt. to consider or judge something in a particular way) ②f_______(vt. to be sold for a particular amount of money) ③o_______(adj. not happening often) ④p_______(adj. happening or existing before something or someone else) ⑤p_______(n. someone's or something's ability to develop, achieve or succeed)

2.英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文): 3.汉译英(根据空白后译文提示补全文章):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. notch up v.+adv.

to achieve something, especially a victory or a particular total or score 完成,达到(一 个特定的总数或分数):The Houston Astros have notched up another win. 2.liquidity n. when a business or a person has money or goods that can be sold to pay debts 资产折现力

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 莫奈·克劳德(Monet Claude):印象主义的创始人,1840 年 11 月 14 日生于法国巴黎,从小对画画有 着浓厚的兴趣。1872 年莫内完成他一部日后非常出名的作品-「日出·印象」,并且在同年的 1 月以其画 名「印象」与同好成立印象派团体。但在 1874 年的一次展览中受到官方评论家的激烈的抨击。直到 1865 年莫内以两福描绘塞纳河畔风景入围画展,这也是他第一次的作品受到官方的肯定。之后,莫内画了许多 探讨光线变化的的作品,无论是以火车、铁道或是钢铁建筑等题材都是充分显出当时绘画的时代,也都表 现出他对现代性主题的浓厚兴趣。并且开始有系统的一自然界的光线如:天气、阳光的变化,绘制出一系 列经典的作品,有「麦草堆」、 「白杨木」都有这些特征。1890 年,莫内画出以池塘睡莲为主题的著名画 作「睡莲」 (Water Lilies) ,这也是他特地为位在法国巴黎协和广场旁的橘园美术馆一楼两间大厅所绘的装 饰壁画。六年后的 12 月 5 日莫内离开人间。来年,这幅「睡莲」作品才公开在是人的面前。 ☆何谓印象派?印象派画家主要以科学的光学理论,主张色是在光的照射下产生的,在不同的时间、 环境和气候的客观条件下,受到光不一样的变化而有不同色彩。经由写生而发现到一般不被重视色彩现象, 所以在当时绘画界引起重大的革新。 2. 苏富比拍卖行(Sotheby’s):世界最大的商业拍卖,与其几乎并驾齐驱的就是佳士得拍卖行(Christie’s)。 它们控制着全世界艺术品拍卖 95%的份额,曾联手操纵拍卖市场,制造了哄动一时的“行业佣金”大丑闻。 两家拍卖行均起源于英国,其中苏富比可以称得上是世界现代拍卖行的鼻祖,它于 1744 年由英国人萨缪 尔·贝克(SAMUEL BAKER)创立,距今已有 260 年的历史。22 年以后,即 1766 年,另一个英国人詹 姆士·佳士得(JAMES CHRISTIE)成立了佳士得。此后的二百多年,苏富比和佳士得一直相伴相随,在 各种拍卖领域里,特别是艺术品的拍卖,展开了激烈的角逐。 1983 年 9 月,苏富比被一个叫阿尔佛雷德·陶 布曼(ALFRED TAUBMAN)的美国房地产商买去了。并于 1984 年 6 月将总部从伦敦迁到纽约。现在, 陶布曼家族拥有苏富比 21%的股份和 63%的投票权。而佳士得则在 1998 年 5 月找到了一个叫弗朗索·皮 诺(FRANCOIS PINAULT)的新东家。皮诺是一个法国商人,他为这笔交易花费了 12 亿美元。早在 20 世纪 60 年代,苏富比就已将目光瞄准了英国以外的更广阔的市场,而佳士得却一度在实行扩张策略上犹 豫不前,直至 1977 年才在美国设立了一家海外分公司。这一个犹豫使得佳士得在以后的几十年里都只能 紧跟在苏富比的后面。目前,佳士得在全球设有 100 多个分支机构,而苏富比的势力显然要超出这个数字。 在中国香港和内地,它们也已经设立有分支机构。18 世纪下半叶,英国,特别是伦敦,许多有钱人或贵 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 族去世后,其家人都会将其生前的藏书变卖掉。苏富比的创始人贝克正是从中发现了一个巨大的市场,从 而开始了拍卖书籍的业务。 而佳士得则更妙,他看到世界各地有许多富人都以到伦敦旅行、搜集古董为 时尚,伦敦作为一个艺术品的买卖集散地的地位日益明显,于是走上了拍卖的道路。很多价值连城的稀世 之宝,经过它们的拍卖,得以重见天日或重新确立珍贵的价值。比如梵·高的《向日葵》,1987 年在佳士 得以近 4000 万美元的天价成交,以此为开端,世界名画的身价陡涨。 此外,还有一家名为“菲利浦、德普瑞和卢森堡”(Phillips, de Pury & Luxembourg)的拍卖公司,正 致力于具备高度的竞争力,并据称已是第三大拍卖公司。 3. 芙烈达·卡罗(Frida Kahlo, 1907.7.6~1954.7.13):近代墨西哥的传奇人物。她的父亲是德犹混血,母亲 是墨西哥土著。她的一生多坎坷,一九一六年感染小儿麻痹,不良于行;一九二五年发生车祸,靠着许多 手术始得全性命。她一九二九年嫁予墨西哥著名壁画家狄耶哥·里维拉(Diego Rivera, 1886~1957),那是充 满了爱恨纠缠的恶兆婚姻。在思想上,他们夫妇都属于那种混合了无政府主义和马列主义的墨西哥式共产 主义的信徒,并且是墨西哥共党的重要成员。一九三○年代末期俄共内部整肃,扎洛斯基流亡到墨西哥, 即蒙受他们夫妇的收容与照顾。而除了列名于近代共产主义运动之外,他们夫妇也是近代墨西哥国族主义 艺术���兴的重要先驱。一九五三年截肢,一九五四年逝世。 4.位置商品(positional goods):也称为定位性或地位性商品,或叫位置相关商品等等。弗兰克(Frank)是 第一个明确提出位置商品这一概念并对位置消费理论贡献最大的经济学家。按照弗兰克的分析,所谓“位 置商品”,是指其价值依赖于与他人比较的相对效果的商品,而不是象通常意义上的商品或非位置商品 (Nonpositional goods)那样只依赖于其绝对水平。现实生活中的一些相对比较性商品,如闲暇、孩子的教育 程度、相对消费水平、安全性保险福利、能有助于显示“个人能力信号”的商品(如汽车、住房)等,都属 于位置商品的范畴。 5. 德·库宁(Willem De Kooning,1904—):是抽象表现主义的灵魂人物之一。他生于荷兰的鹿特丹,曾 就学于鹿特丹美术学院。1926 年来到美国,从事过商业艺术和壁画等的创作。德·库宁对抽象艺术的探 索始于 40 年代以前,至 40 年代中期崭露头角。1948 年他举办了首次个展,随后声名鹊起,成为国际上 有影响力的画家。《女人与自行车》是德·库宁 50 年代早期的女人体系列中的一幅。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①deemed;②fetched;③odd;④previous;⑤potential) 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3. What has happened recently to make canvas preferable to paper

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 29

Hard to digest 不好消化(陈继龙 编译) Jun 2nd 2006 From The Economist print edition BACTERIA, like people, can be divided into friend and foe. Inspired by evidence that the friendly sort may help with a range of ailments[1], many people c________① bacteria in the form of yogurts and dietary supplements. (1) Such a smattering[2] of artificial additions, however, represents but a drop in the ocean. There are at least 800 types of bacteria living in the human gut. And research by Steven Gill of the Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Maryland, and his colleagues, published in this week's Science, suggests that the collective genome of these organisms is so large that it contains 100 times as many genes as the human genome itself. 细菌和人一样也有敌我之分。有益的细菌有助于防治多种疾病已经得到证实,这使得许多人都食用细菌制 成的酸奶以及补品。然而,人为地补充这么一点点,只能是杯水车薪。人消化道内生活着至少 800 种细菌。 马里兰州洛克威尔基因组研究中心的史蒂文·吉尔及其同事们在本周《科学》杂志上发表的一篇研究报告 认为,这些生物体有着庞大的宏基因组,所包含的基因总数是人类基因组的 100 倍。 Dr Gill and his team were able to come to this conclusion by extracting bacterial DNA from the faeces of two volunteers. Because of the complexity of the samples, they were not able to reconstruct the e_______② genomes of each of the gut bacteria, just the individual genes. But that allowed them to make an estimate of numbers. 吉尔博士和他的研究小组是通过提取两位志愿者粪便中的细菌 DNA 后得出这一结论的。鉴于标本的复杂 性,他们无法重建消化道所有细菌的全部基因组,而只构建了个别基因。但这使得他们能够对基因总数作 出估计。 What all these bacteria are doing is tricky to identify—the bacteria themselves are difficult to cultivate. (2)So the researchers guessed at what they might be up to by comparing the genes they discovered with published databases of genes whose functions are already known. 所有这些细菌的活动状况尚难以确定——细菌不易培养。所以,研究人员将所发现的基因与功能已经明确 且已公布的基因数据库进行比较,从而推测出细菌“大概在干什么”。 (译者按:tricky 在此句中是指“something that is difficult to deal with or do because it is complicated and full of problems”,即“棘手的,难以处理的”。be up to 在这里略 显口语化,表示“doing something secret or something that you should not be doing” , “偷偷摸摸地做……”,比如:The children are very quiet. I wonder what they're up to.孩子们很安静,我不知道他们到底在搞什么东东。)

(3)This comparison helped Dr Gill identify for the first time the probable enzymatic processes by which bacteria help humans to digest the complex carbohydrates in plants. The bacteria also contain a plentiful supply of genes involved in the synthesis of chemicals essential to human life—including two B vitamins and certain essential amino acids—although the team merely showed that these metabolic pathways exist rather than proving that they are used. N_________ ③ , the pathways they found leave humans looking more like ruminants[3]: animals such as goats and sheep that use bacteria to break down otherwise indigestible matter in the plants they eat. 通过比较,吉尔博士首次确定了细菌利用酶反应帮助人类消化植物中糖化合物的大致过程。此外,细菌还 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 含有大量参与合成人类生命必需化学物质(包括 2 种 B 类维生素和某些必需氨基酸)的基因。不过,研 究小组仅指出了此类代谢途径的存在,但未予证实。话说回来,他们发现的这些途径让人觉得人类看起来 更像是反刍动物:比如山羊和绵羊,这类动物都是用细菌来消化所食植物中其它无法消化的物质。 The broader conclusion Dr Gill draws is that people are superorganisms whose metabolism represents an amalgamation[4] of human and microbial attributes. The notion of a superorganism has emerged before, as researchers in other fields have come to view humans as having a diverse internal ecosystem. ________________________________.〔有人提出,这对研制个性化药物具有重要意义,因为不同的人由 于拥有不同的微生物群落(microbial flora) ,因而会对药物产生不同反应。〕Accordingly, the next step, says Dr Gill, is to see how microbial populations vary between people of different ages, backgrounds and diets. 吉尔博士进一步得出结论:人是集人类与微生物代谢功能于一身的超生物体。关于超生物体的观点以前就 有,当时其它领域的研究人员认为人类拥有一套不同的内部生态系统。有人提出,这对研制个性化药物具 有重要意义,因为不同的人由于拥有不同的微生物群落,因而会对药物产生不同反应。吉尔博士据此说道, 接下来要弄清的是,年龄、生活背景以及饮食习惯不同的人在其所含的微生物种群上有何差异。 Another area of research is the process by which these helpful bacteria first c_______④ the digestive tract. Babies acquire their gut flora as they pass down the birth canal[5] and take a gene-filled gulp of their mother's vaginal and faecal flora.(4)It might not be the most delicious of first meals, but it could well be an important one. 另一研究领域是关于这些有益细菌最初是如何“进占”消化道的。婴儿在经过产道并充分“摄取”富含细 菌基因的母体阴道分泌物和粪便菌落之后,细菌便开始进入胃肠道。这头一餐也许不是最可口的,但肯定 是最重要的。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①c________(vt. to eat or drink, especially a lot of something) ②e________(adj. whole or complete, with nothing missing) ③N________(adv. despite what has just been said or referred to) ④c________(vt. to send people to live in and govern another country)

2.英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文): 3.汉译英(根据译文提示,写出相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1.ailment

n. an illness that is not very serious 疾病(尤指微恙)

2. smattering

n. 1)a small number or amount of something 少数,少许如 a smattering of applause 稀

稀拉拉的掌声 2)have a smattering of something

to have a small amount of knowledge about a

subject, especially a foreign language 略知一二 3. ruminant n. 反刍动物 4. amalgamate

1)vt.或 vi. if two organizations amalgamate, or if one amalgamates with another, they join

and make one big organization [= merge]合并 2)vt. to combine two or more things together to make one thing 融合,混合 6. birth canal

—amalgamation n. 如:an amalgamation between two companies 两公司合并

n. 产道

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 宏基因组(collective genome): 也可译为 Metagenome,是特定环境全部生物遗传物质总和,决定生物群体生 命现象。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①consume 吃喝;②entire 全部的,完整的;③Nevertheless 不过;④colonize(英国:colonise)开拓 殖民地,移民于殖民地

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.This, suggest some, will be crucial to the success of personalised medicine, as different people will have different responses to drugs, depending on their microbial flora.(注:可不拘泥于原文,但应向其学习。)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 30

Klinsmann's castle 克林斯曼的去留(陈继龙

编译)

(译者按: “castle”一词乍一看是“城堡”的意思,但似乎与全文主旨并无多大关系。所以,需要注意 “castle”另一个意思,那就是指国际象棋中的“车”,它可以顺着平行于棋盘边的路随便走多少方格, 假如没有其它棋子阻挡的话,也可译为“rook”。而文章的中心思想恰好就是“改革遭遇阻力的克林斯曼 何去何从”。另外,注意中国象棋中的“车”为“chariot” 。) Jun 8th 2006 | BERLIN From The Economist print edition EVERY time Germany wins football's World Cup, some pundits[1] assert, the country takes a turn for the better. Thus 1954 saw the start of the economic miracle, 1974 the birth of modern Germany and 1990 unification. The causality seems implausible, although some economists are talking up the 2006 t________ ① , which starts this weekend, and is being staged (like 1974's) in Germany. (1)A clearer link exists between the country and its football association (DFB), since they display similar strengths and weaknesses. 权威人士断言,每逢德国赢得世界杯足球赛冠军,这个国家的状况就会好转,例如,1954 年开始的经济 奇迹,1974 年现代化德国的诞生以及 1990 年实现统一。某些经济学家现在正大肆宣扬本周末将在德国举 行(与 1974 年一样)的 2006 年世界杯(译者按:talk up 意为“to make something appear more important, interesting, successful etc than it really is”,即“大加吹捧,大肆宣扬”) ,但这里面的因果联系看似并不可信,倒是该国与其足 协(DFB)之间存在一种较为明显的联系,因为它们有着相似的优缺点。 The DFB, with 6.3m members, acts like a state within a state. In common with other German sports organisations, it has its own rules and enforcement methods.(2) Even more than the political system, it is built for stability, not speed. It has its own parliament, which meets every three years and is made up of delegates from 21 regions. Its presidents' average age and tenure in office almost match those of popes. 德国足协拥有 6300 万会员,其职能相当于“国中之国”。同德国其它体育组织一样,它有自己的规定和执 行办法。相比政治体系,建立该组织的目的更多地是为了保持稳定,而不是寻求快速发展。它拥有自己的 议会,由 21 个地区的代表组成,每三年开一次会。历届足协主席的平均年龄和任期堪比罗马教皇。 Predictably, change comes slowly to the DFB. It was not until 1970 that it a________② an official women's league. Only in 2001 did the DFB allow the top clubs to create their own subordinate governing body. Were it not for the World Cup, especially the staging of the final in the stadium originally built for the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, the DFB would still not have officially admitted its questionable activities during the Third Reich1. 足协的改变姗姗来迟,这并不意外。直到 1970 年它才批准正式举办女子足球联赛,而直到 2001 年才允许 顶尖俱乐部设立各自的下属管理机构。若非因为世界杯,特别是决赛将在 1936 年奥运会时修建的柏林体 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 育场举行,德国足协可能仍然不会正式认可纳粹德国时期在该体育场举办的“问题赛事”。 Yet until recently the DFB was highly successful.(3) Because it saw market forces as incompatible with amateur sport, the DFB started a single professional league, the Bundesliga, only in 1963. This gave birth to the most modern league of the time, which may be why Germany was so good at football, says Thomas Kupfer, who has written a book on football management. 然而也只是在最近一段时间,足协的变革才大获成功。眼见市场力量与业余体育运动相冲突,德国足协遂 于 1963 年发起了一项职业联赛,即德国足球甲级联赛(Bundesliga,德语“联邦联赛” ),一时成为最有现 代水准的联赛。曾写过一本足球管理著作的托马斯·库弗尔说,德国足球水平之所以高可能就因为职业联 赛的举行。 (4)It was only a matter of time before stability turned into disadvantage. In 1990 the national coach, Franz Beckenbauer, promised that “working together with the eastern Germans, we will be i________③ for years.” But the DFB failed to make top clubs professional enough or to foster modern training methods. Nor was young talent encouraged and brought on. German football, like the economy, began to decline, which became obvious when the team was thrashed[2] by England in 2001. Three years later, it took a drubbing[3] at the 2004 European championships. 过于求稳而导致自己处于不利地位,这是迟早的事。1990 年,国家队主教练弗朗茨·贝肯鲍尔保证说, “团 结东德人民,我们将所向披靡”。可是,德国足协未能进一步推动顶尖俱乐部的职业化,也没有创造先进 的训练方法,对优秀青年球员的培养和扶持也不够。于是,德国的足球水平跟它的经济一样开始走下坡路, 到 2001 年国家队惨败英格兰队后表现尤为明显。三年后,它在 2004 年欧洲杯上再次铩羽而归。 Enter Jürgen Klinsmann, a former star footballer, hired as national coach mainly because of a lack of alternatives—just as Angela Merkel became boss of the Christian Democrats2 in 2000. Mr Klinsmann planned not only to win the World Cup, but also to reform the entire DFB.(5)Always a maverick, he capped his career as a player by moving to California to start a sports consulting business. 再说说尤尔根·克林斯曼,他曾是一位足球明星,能担任国家队主教练主要是因为没有别的合适人选—— 恰逢安吉拉·默克刚刚在 2000 年成为基督教社会主义民主党的领导人。克林斯曼不但计划夺取世界杯, 还打算对整个德国足协进行改革。独树一帜的他在职业生涯结束后前往加利福尼亚,成功创办了一家体育 运动咨询公司。 (译者按:maverick 是指“an unusual person who has different ideas and ways of behaving from other people, and is often very successful”,即“观点和行为脱俗且往往获得成功的人”。 “to cap…by something”指“to have something very good or very bad at the end of an event” ,也就是“给……画上圆满的句号” 。)

He has indeed proved a reformer. He has centralised power so that he can prepare his team properly. He has decreed a more offensive strategy, and tried out many younger players. He has h_______④ trainers versed[4] in modern methods, including an American fitness guru[5]. He is fond of management fads, communicating by e-mail and using motivational training. (6)Despite (or perhaps because of) this, Mr Klinsmann has been vilified—not least for continuing to live in California. The DFB's board has rejected his candidate as chief talent scout, even though this job is central to his plans. 事实证明,他的确是一名改革家。他要求大权独揽,以便于对国家队进行全面调教。他制定了攻击性更强 的战术,并且选拔了许多年轻球员。他雇请了包括一名美国体能教练在内的许多深谙现代足球规律的教练 员。管理上,他追逐时尚,比如用电子邮件进行联络、采用走训制。尽管(也许正因为)如此,克林斯曼 还是遭到了非议——很重要的一个原因是他仍居住在加利福尼亚。 (译者按:“not least”这里是用来强调“某事 ,即便这 十分重要” ,not least for 就是指“相当重要的原因是……”。)足协董事会已经拒绝他竞选“首席选秀官” 一工作是其计划的重中之重。 (译者按:talent scout 意为“人才发掘者”,也就是常说的“选秀”。be central to 表示“more Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong important and having more influence than anything else”,即“对……很重要,有较大影响”,注意介词“to”,不是“for”。)

____________________________________________.(世界杯后克林斯曼会继续留任 [stick around] 吗? 舆论认为,这要看德国队在世界杯上表现如何。 )But he may also wonder if the DFB can ever change. Even were Germany to win, which looks unlikely, Mr Klinsmann might prefer to go back to California. That would make it hard to tout[6] any victory as a harbinger[7] of further reform, not just of Germany's football association, but of the country as a whole. 世界杯后克林斯曼会继续留任吗?舆论认为,这要看德国队在世界杯上表现如何。 (译者按:“stick around” 是指“to stay in a place a little longer, waiting for something to happen” ,意为“逗留,继续等待”。conventional wisdom 指“the opinion that most people consider to be normal and right, but that is sometimes shown to be wrong” ,即“大多数认为合理正确、

)不过,他也许反而对德国足协能否有所改变感到彷徨。德国队就算是胜 有时候也可能被证明是错误的意见”。 利了——这看上去不太可能,克林斯曼可能仍然宁愿重返加利福尼亚。这样一来,无论对于德国足协,还 是对于整个德国,要想借助吹捧胜利来推动进一步改革就很难了。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①t________(n. a competition in which players compete against each other in a series of games until there is one winner) ②a________(vt. to officially accept a plan, proposal etc) ③i________(adj. too strong to be destroyed or defeated) ④h________(vt. to employ someone for a short time to do a particular job)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. pundit n. someone who is often asked to give their opinion publicly of a situation or subject 提出意见者;评

论家;专家 2. thrash vt. to defeat someone very easily in a game 轻易击败 如:Brazil thrashed Italy 5-0.巴西以 5:0 轻取意大利。 3. drubbing n. an occasion when one team easily beats another team in sport:痛宰,彻底击败 4. versed adj. be (well) versed in something to know a lot about a subject, method etc 精通 5. guru n. someone who knows a lot about a particular subject, and gives advice to other people 博学的指 导者 6. tout vt. to praise something or someone in order to persuade people that they are important or worth a lot 吹捧(be touted as something) 7. harbinger n. a sign that something is going to happen soon 先兆,预兆

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 第三帝国(the Third Reich):在德国 1000 多年的历史上曾经历过三个帝国,这期间也有一个共和国。 德国历史上的第一帝国是指公元 962-1806 年的神圣罗马帝国。1806 年,帝国被拿破仑一世推翻。第二帝国是 指 1871 年-1918 年的德意志帝国,它是普鲁士通过三次王朝战争统一起来的。1870 年在普法战争中,普鲁士 击败法国,1871 年 1 月 18 日普鲁士国王威廉一世在法国凡尔赛宫加冕为德意志皇帝。1914 年开始的第一次 世界大战以德国的失败和第二帝国的瓦解而告终。战争也导致德国第一次建立了联邦共和国。由于共和国宪法 是在魏玛城召开的国民议会上通过的,一般称之为《魏玛宪法》,因此这个共和国又称为魏玛共和国。1933 Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 年 1 月 30 日,以希特勒为首的德国国家社会主义工人党(即纳粹党)上台执政,建立了法西斯独裁统治,宣告了 魏玛共和国的终结。 第三帝国是指 1933-1945 年的法西斯德国,希特勒自称第三帝国。于 1939 年 9 月 1 日 发动了第二次世界大战。1945 年 5 月 8 日,德国在投降书上签字,第三帝国宣告完结。德国为美、英、法、 苏四国分区占领。 2.基督教民主党或基督教民主联盟(the Christian Democrats):德国实行多党制,主要的政党有:◆德 国社会民主党(Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands),简称社民党;联盟 90/绿党(Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen); 基督教民主联盟(Christlich-Demokratische Union Deutschlands),简称基民盟,最大的政党; 基督教社会联盟(Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern e.V.),简称基社盟;自由民主党(Freie Demokratische Partei),简称自民党;民主社会主义党(Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus),简称民社党;德国的共 产党(Deutsche Kommunistische Partei);共和党(Die Republikaner)。 3.1936 年柏林奥运会:

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①tournament 锦标赛,杯赛;②approved 批准;③invincible 不可战胜的;④hired 雇用;⑤deadlines 截止时间,最终期限;⑥strength 优点 )

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.Will Mr Klinsmann stick around after the World Cup? Conventional wisdom says that the answer depends on how well Germany does.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 31 The 20th century

Time's mortuary 时代的殓房(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 1st 2006 From The Economist print edition WHAT was the 20th century's most distinctive feature? It is a historians' parlor game[1], but there can be no definitive answer. For some, it would be getting men to the moon, discovering penicillin, splitting the atom or some other great scientific a________ ① . For others, it would be the fastest and most sustained period of economic growth in history. Or the end of the age of empires, which had dominated the politics and economics of the world for centuries. For Niall Ferguson, however, only this last description comes close and even then only as background. In his view, the century's most distinctive feature was violence: the slaughter, and not only in war, of millions upon millions of people. His new book seeks to describe and, as far as possible, explain why this happened. 二十世纪最鲜明的特征是什么?这是一个历史学家们讨论的问题,但可能谁也无法准确回答。有的人认为 是人类登月、发现青霉素、原子裂解以及其它一些伟大的科学成就,而有的人则认为是史上经济增长速度 最快、最稳定的时期,也有人认为是统治世界政治经济数百年的帝国时代的终结。然而,对于尼尔·弗格 森而言,只有最后一种说法才是最贴切的,也只有这一点才是值得参考的时代背景。在他看来,二十世纪 最鲜明的特征就是暴力——不计其数的人惨遭屠戮,而且不仅仅因为战争。他新近出版的著作就是要寻求 记述并尽可能阐明这一切发生的原因。 For a book with the word “war” in the title, it is interesting that few battles are mentioned. The first world war breezes past in just a few pages. Some short passages look at Hitler's advance into the Soviet Union in 1941 and at the Japanese imperial army's advance on the then Chinese capital of Nanking in 1937, but this is not a military history. The e_______② is firmly on causes and consequences, whether political, sociological, technological or economic. As the author points out,(1) what was notable about the century's violence was the fact that, for all its global reach, the causes—and indeed much of the killing—were centred on the most developed and advanced part of the world, home of the supposed Enlightenment: Europe. 一本标题包含“战争”字眼的书竟然很少提及战事,这很有意思。该书寥寥几页便将第一次世界大战轻松 带过,关于 1941 年希特勒挺进苏联以及 1937 年日本帝国军队进占中国当时的首都南京,该书也仅用了较 短的篇幅,但并非是记录军事斗争的历史。该书始终着眼于从政治、社会、科技以及经济角度对历史事件 的前因后果进行分析。作者指出,二十世纪的暴力突出表现为,波及全球的所有暴力事件(当然包括众多 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 杀戮事件)的导火索都是在世界上最为发达和先进的地方、所谓启蒙运动的故乡——欧洲被引燃的。 Mr Ferguson, a Glasgow-born Harvard professor, whose two-volume “House of Rothschild” is still regarded, after nearly ten years, as one of the finest studies of its kind, has since become what his more academic colleagues call a popular historian. E________③, this means that his themes are broad and ambitious, his books are a good read, he appears on television a lot and sells a lot of copies. (A)___________________________. (但是,除了这些优点之外,也有些许缺憾。 ) 弗格森先生出生于(苏格兰)格拉斯哥,是哈佛大学的一名教授,他的《罗特希尔德家族》 (上下册)出 版近十年后依然被认为是同类研究中最杰出的著作之一。如今,他那些更多地倾向于搞学术研究的同事们 都说,他已成为一位深受大众欢迎的历史学家。这实质上也就是说,他视野开阔,豪情满天,写的书可读 性强,自己常常在电视上露面,书也卖出去很多。但是,除了这些优点之外,也有些许缺憾。 One is that his books try a bit too hard to make eye-catching claims. A small but particularly irritating example comes right at the start when Mr Ferguson chooses to look at “the world on September 11th 1901”, a date which proves to have no relevance whatsoever if it hadn't been for the events a century later. A bigger example is the claim, promoted in particular by his publishers, that in his view “the biggest u_______④ of the 20th century was the decline of the western dominance over Asia”, shown by Japan's defeat of Russia in 1904-05 and now the rise of China. (2)If that were really Mr Ferguson's view, one might have expected rather more of the book to have been devoted to it. As it is, this reviewer was left suspecting that the claim was an afterthought, designed to make a book that is mainly about Europe catch the eye of those who are currently—and understandably—obsessed by China. 缺憾之一就是,他的书太过追求标新立异。本书开篇就有这样一个不起眼但特别令人气愤的例子,弗格森 竟然把目光盯在了“1901 年 9 月 11 日的世界”。若非一百年之后发生的 911 事件,这个日子其实毫无意 义。更为明显的例证是,作者在出版商的鼓动下,坚持认为“20 世纪最重要的剧变是西方国家统治亚洲 力量的衰退” ,表现在 1904 至 1905 年日本战胜俄罗斯以及当今中国的崛起。如果这真是弗格森的本意, “be devote to”指“致 那么本书就应该不惜笔墨地对此详加论述。 (译者按:本句是虚拟语气,it 所指代的是“view”, 力于” ,这里结合前面的“more of the book”一起意译为“不惜笔墨以表明这一观点”。 )可照现在看来,这一观点很可 能是后来补充进去的,其目的是为了让一本关于欧洲的书能吸引那些眼下被中国问题弄得心神不定(这可 以理解)的人。 (3)The most important weakness, however, is one that goes some way to justifying the claims of Mr Ferguson's academic colleagues who carp at his embrace of the popular. It is that his books seem to be written to d________⑤ set by television series—this one starts in Britain on Channel Four on June 19th—rather than by his research or thinking. The result is an odd combination of bravura[2] writing, clear and original insights, and incoherence. Some long and detailed passages seem undigested, the output, it would seem, of an army of research assistants rather than the outstanding writer and thinker that Mr Ferguson plainly is. The final chapter begins by dating the end of “the War of the World” as July 27th 1953, the armistice that brought the Korean war to a close, but then appears to contradict that conclusion with long sections on the Cuban missile crisis, the wars in Vietnam and Cambodia, the fall of the Soviet Union and the Balkan wars. 不过,这本书最致命的弱点还是在于,它从一定程度上证明了对弗格森的大众化吹毛求疵的那些同仁所言 非虚。 (译者按:go some way to(或 towards)doing something,亦作 go a long way towards doing something,意思是“to help a little or a lot to make something happen” ,指“对某事或多或少起到推动作用”。)他的截稿时间似乎都是根据电视节 目安排而确定的(这本书有关的节目将在 6 月 19 日英国四频道播出),而与研究或思维进程无关,结果导 致精彩的著述、清晰独特的视角以及杂乱无章的文法奇怪地掺杂在一起。有些描写详尽的长篇段落似乎未 经整理,让人以为是一大群助理研究人员共同写成的,而非出自杰出的作家和思想家弗格森先生一人之手。 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 最后一章开头就断定,“世界大战”结束时间是在 1953 年 7 月 27 日朝鲜战争停战后,但是随后又长篇累 牍地讲述古巴导弹危机、越南和柬埔寨战争、苏联垮台以及巴尔干半岛战争,前后自相矛盾。 (B)_____________________________________ .(不过,批评归批评,弗格森的书仍然非常值得一读。) His introductory essay on the part played in the century's violence by ideas of racial superiority amid the ethnic mish-mash[3] that was central and eastern Europe is especially good—although he could have made more of the role of empires, including the British one that he has admired in previous books, in fostering[4] that racist delusion. 不过,批评归批评,弗格森的书仍然非常值得一读,尤为精彩的是对多民族杂居地——中欧和东欧地区的 种族优越观在二十世纪暴力事件中所起作用的介绍性评论。他本可以更多地强调封建帝国对种族主义幻想 的促进作用,包括他在以前的作品中所推崇的大英帝国。 Another s________⑥ is the way he blends together economic, financial and political analysis in a manner that far too few historians are equipped to do. He is a fine debunker: for example, his view is that Britain's success in the second world war owed less to Winston Churchill's brilliance and more to managing the war effort by committee, and thus making fewer spectacular errors. He is also admirably even-handed, offering equal space and scrutiny to Allied slaughter of civilians in bombing raids and Allied shootings of prisoners as to atrocities committed by the Japanese and German forces. (4)It was all part and parcel of the violence, after all. 本书另一个优点是作者采取了从经济、财政与政治等多角度综合分析的方式,有能力做到这一点的历史学 家屈指可数。弗格森是一个善于揭露事实真相的大师,例如,他认为英国人在二战中的成功更多地取决于 (特别行动)委员会对战争的驾驭进而避免了很多大局性失误,而不是温斯顿·丘吉尔一人的才智。此外, 令人信服的是,他在记述和审视盟军空袭中杀害平民、枪杀战犯的问题与日德军队犯下的暴行时,态度不 偏不倚,同等对待。毕竟,这些都是暴力事件不可或缺的组成部分。(译者按:“be part and parcel of sth.”是指 ) “to be a necessary feature of something”,即“必不可少的一部分”。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①a________(n. something important that you succeed in doing by your own efforts) ②e________(n. special attention or importance) ③E________(adv. used when stating the most basic facts about something [= basically]) ④u________(n. a very big change that often causes problems:) ⑤d_________ (n. a date or time by which you have to do or complete something) ⑥s_________(n. a particular quality or ability that gives someone or something an advantage)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. parlor game (or: parlour game n. a game that can be played indoors, such as a guessing game or a word

game 室内游戏(如猜谜、填词游戏等) 2. bravura n. great skill shown in the way you perform, write, paint etc, especially when you do something very difficult 出色的表演、技能(尤其是面对困难时) 3. mish-mash n. a mixture of a lot of very different things that are put together in a way that is not organized [= hodge-podge]混杂物;杂烩;杂集 4. foster vt. 1)to help a skill, feeling, idea etc develop over a period of time [= encourage, promote]鼓励; 培育; 培养;助长 2)to take someone else's child into your family for a period of time but without becoming their Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong legal parent 养育;抚养:The couple wanted to adopt a black child they had been fostering.

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 启蒙运动(the Enlightenment):18 世纪的一个哲学运动,强调运用理智来审视先前被接受了的信条和传 统,该运动带来了许多人道主义改革。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①achievement 成就;②emphasis 重点;③Essentially 实质上;④upheaval 剧变;⑤deadlines 截止时 间,最终期限;⑥strength 优点 )

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3. (A)In addition to those virtues, however, there are some vices. (B)For all those criticisms, however, Mr Ferguson's book is well worth reading.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 32

Deadly beauty 致命美景(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 8th 2006 | SAN FRANCISCO From The Economist print edition KEVIN HINES, a manic-depressive, was 19 and in one of his weekly downswings on an o_______ ① Monday morning in 2000. He went to the nearby Golden Gate Bridge to kill himself mostly because, with only a four-foot (1.2-metre) railing to leap, “I figured it was the easiest way.” He dived over, but flipped and hit the water at 75mph with his feet first. His legs were crushed, but he somehow stayed conscious and started paddling[1] with his u_______② body until the Coast Guard fished him out. 凯文·海因斯是一个 19 岁的躁狂抑郁症患者。在 2000 年一个天气阴沉的星期一早晨,他像往常一样感到 浑身不得劲。于是,他走到附近的金门大桥,之所以选择在那里了断余生,主要是因为只需要翻过一排四 英尺(1.2 米)高的栏杆, “我觉得这样自杀最简单。”他越过栏杆,纵身跳下,但在空中翻了几个跟头之 后,他的脚先碰到了水面,腿摔折了,不过意识还有些清醒,于是上身开始用力扑腾,直到海岸巡逻队队 员把他捞上岸。 Mr Hines is one of 26 people who have s_______③ suicide attempts at the bridge, but 1,223 are known to have succeeded (ie, were seen jumping or found floating). ________________________________(每个月就有两人 从这座桥上跳下), which makes it the most popular place in the world for suicides. (1)One book on the subject says that the Golden Gate is “to suicide what Niagara Falls is to honeymooners”. 在金门大桥自杀未遂的一共有 26 人,海因斯就是其中之一,不过据知还有 1223 人都“成功”了(也就是 说,人们目睹他们跳入海中或者发现他们的尸体漂浮在海上)。每个月就有两人从这座桥上跳下,它也因 此成为世界上最有名的自杀场所。对此,有一本书写道,金门大桥“之于自杀者的意义就如同尼亚加拉瀑 布之于度蜜月的人”。( “自杀者就像人们喜欢到尼亚加拉瀑布度蜜月一样喜欢光顾金门大桥。” ) Many San Franciscans think that the solution is to emulate[2] the Empire State Building, the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the Eiffel Tower, St Peter's basilica[3] and other such places and put up a simple barrier. (2)This, however, is a decision for the 19 board members of the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District, an entity that oversees the bridge itself and the buses and ferries that operate in the area. Most of its revenues come from t______④ and fares, and the district loses money. A barrier would cost between $15m and $25m. 许多旧金山人认为,解决这一问题的办法就是要仿效帝国大厦、悉尼港湾大桥、埃菲尔铁塔、圣彼得大教 堂和其它一些地方的做法,建造一个简易的防自杀屏障。不过,这得金门大桥高速公路运输行政部门(负 责监管大桥以及该地区营运公车和渡船的机构)董事会的 19 名董事来拿主意。该部门的收入主要来自过 路过桥费和车船乘载费,但通常都入不敷出,而修建防自杀屏障将耗资 1500~2500 万美元。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong So the Psychiatric Foundation of Northern California, which has adopted the barrier as its cause, considers it a success that the board has merely allowed a feasibility study, for which various private and public donors have raised $2m. Mel Blaustein, a director at the foundation, has heard several arguments against a barrier over the years—too ugly, too expensive, and so forth—(3)but the most persistent has been that people would simply kill themselves somewhere else, so why bother? This is nonsense, he says; “Most suicides are impulsive and preventable.” A bridge without a barrier, adds Pat Hines, Kevin's father, is “like leaving a l_______⑤ gun in the psychiatric ward.” 尽管董事会只是同意就修建防自杀屏障开展可行性研究,而且许多私人和政府也为此捐助了 200 万美元。 但是热衷于修建防自杀屏障的北加利福尼亚精神病基金会认为,这说明事情有了进展。多年来,基金会主 管梅尔·布劳斯特恩屡次听到反对修建防自杀屏障的声音,说那样太不美观、太昂贵等等,不过说的最多 的还是,人们完全可以在别的地方自杀,何必管太多呢?他说,这是一派胡言,“大多数人自杀都是出于 一时冲动,完全是可以阻止的。”凯文的父亲帕特·海因斯也说,一座没有防自杀屏障的桥,就“好比把 一支装好子弹的枪丢到精神病房里。 ”

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①o________(adj. very cloudy and dark) ②u________(adj. in a higher position than something else) ③s________(v. to continue to live after an accident, war, or illness) ④t________(n. the money you have to pay to use a particular road, bridge etc) ⑤l_________ (adj. containing bullets)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. paddle v. to swim with short, quick movements(以短暂而快速的动作)游水 2. emulate vt. to do something or behave in the same way as someone else, especially because you admire them [= imitate]仿效 3. basilica n. 长方形基督教堂

[word focus] WEATHER 天气 good weather:sunny /fine nice/lovely/glorious:天气非常好,阳光充足 bright:阳光明媚;光芒四射 there isn't a cloud in the sky:天空晴朗 dry:天气干燥的,不下雨的 fair:晴朗的(无风无雨),常用于天气预报 rain: wet/rainy/damp

多雨的

unsettled:天气多变的(常下雨) drizzle:细雨,毛毛雨 shower:阵雨 downpour:倾盆大雨,暴雨 it's pouring down (British English)/it's pouring rain(American English) 下着瓢泼大雨 it's drizzling:下着毛毛细雨 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong snow:

snowy 多雪的

sleet:雨夹雪 slush:雪泥;部分融化了的雪和冰混合物 hail/hailstones:冰雹 blizzard:暴风雪 frost:霜 wind: windy 刮风的,多风的 blustery :风特别大的 breeze:微风,和风(breeze and drizzle 和风细雨) hurricane(in the Atlantic Ocean) /typhoon(in the Pacific Ocean):飓风(大西洋)/台风(太平洋) cloudy: 多云的 grey/dull:灰蒙蒙的;阴沉的 overcast:多云的,阴沉的(要下雨) hazy:烟雾弥漫的,雾蒙蒙的 hot: boiling /scorching /sizzling/blazing/burning/baking/broiling (hot)

都表示“非常热”

sweltering 闷热的,湿热的 warm

暖和的

balmy

温和的,和煦的

heatwave 热浪;酷暑期 cold:

freezing (cold)

arctic

极为寒冷的(常常冰天雪地)

特别寒冷

wintry 严寒的,像冬天的 crisp

清新的,干冷的

chilly

比较冷(让人感觉不舒服)

cool 凉快的;凉爽的 cold snap/cold spell 寒流/春寒

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 金门大桥(the Golden Gate Bridge):Joseph B. Strauss 在 1917 年提出建造金门大桥的构想,但由于渡 口船家担心生计,军事领袖和工商业界关心造桥影响港口运输等因素影响,在历经十二年的强烈反弹之后,到 1930 年才通过了建桥计划。1933 年开工,造价约 3300 万美元, 于 1937 年 5 月 27 日开放通车. 它不仅能承 受 21 英呎(水平)及 10 英尺(垂直)幅度的摇晃,亦能在一口气承载满满六线车道的各式大小车辆,以及站满了 行人步道的人群之后,屹立于狂风巨浪而不摇。金门大桥是加州唯一不受州法管辖的桥梁. 它目前由 Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District 管理与维护, 所收取的 3 元美金过桥费主要用于大众交通 运输, 渡口及公交车等服务,从而减少交通堵塞.

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①overcast 多云的;晦暗的;②upper 上面的;③survived 幸存;④tolls 过路费,过桥费;⑤loaded 装 填子弹的 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.People are throwing themselves off the bridge at the rate of two a month(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少 你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 33

Busy signal 信号忙(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 8th 2006 From The Economist print edition LONDON responded to terrorist attack on July 7th ______① true Blitz1 style: rescuers were heroic, and ordinary citizens showed compassion and fortitude. (1)Or so the politically correct version goes. A report this week from the London Assembly2 takes a sterner line. In fact, radios failed to work, medical supplies were lacking, some ambulances arrived inexplicably[1] late and traumatised people were left to wander off. 伦敦方面应对 7 月 7 日恐怖袭击时的情景跟当年遭遇德军闪电般空袭时如出一辙:救援人员英勇无比,平 民百姓富有同情心而且不屈不挠。从政治角度来看,这么做大概无可非议。不过,伦敦议会本周发表的一 份报告则较为苛刻地指出了其中存在的问题,比如无线电通讯不畅,医疗支援不足,有的救护车还莫名其 妙地姗姗来迟,以至于受伤群众无人过问。 ______________________________________. (这是关于去年造成 56 人丧生、数百人受伤的地铁和公共 汽车爆炸事件的第三份官方报告。)In May the Home Office offered a “narrative” of events but cast blame only ______② the terrorists. (2)A parliamentary investigation concluded that the intelligence services, stretched thin, had done their best. The London Assembly's take on the matter will not satisfy those who want an independent public inquiry. But it has, at least, got beneath the gloss[2]. 这是关于去年造成 56 人死亡、数百人受伤的地铁和公共汽车爆炸事件的第三份官方报告。今年五月,英 国内政部首先对此事件进行了“陈述”,但把全部责任都归咎于恐怖分子。后来,英国议会组织对事件进 行调查后认为,人手捉襟见肘的情报部门并没有玩忽职守。对于那些希望进行独立公众调查的人而言,伦 敦议会对该问题的态度并不能让他们感到满意,不过它至少让问题浮出了水面。(译者按:sb's take on sth 是指“someone's opinion about a situation or idea”,即“某人对……的见解”) The response to the July 7th bombings was chaotic, and in ways that ought to have been preventable. The emergency services had no coherent plan ______③ place to care for those who survived, the report suggests. (3)But most crippling were the communication failures. “七·七”爆炸事件发生时,有关方面成了无头苍蝇,方寸大乱。报告指出,各紧急救援部门没有一个适 当的、协调一致的幸存者救护方案。不过,最关键的问题还是通讯故障。 Police, ambulance workers and firefighters were unable to talk to each other underground; only the radios of the transport police worked in the tunnels. The emergency services had to rely on runners to pass information to and ______④ disaster areas. Yet a report on a big fire at King's Cross tube station had drawn attention to precisely this problem in 1988. 在地下,警察、救护人员、消防员之间无法相互沟通。在隧道里,只有交警的无线电才能正常使用。各紧 急救援部门只好靠人跑步把信息送到或送出事发地点。1988 年,一份关于地铁国王十字站发生大火的报 告就恰恰曾指出过这一问题,然而时至今日却未能引起重视。 Communications above ground were not much better. (4)Rescue workers competed with bewildered bystanders for access to overloaded mobile-phone networks. The City of London Police, for its part, asked one wireless operator to favour certain rescue workers by limiting service for ordinary users. Earlier, a body Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong headed by the Metropolitan Police had decided this was unnecessary. 地面的通讯也好不到哪去。救援人员竭力疏散不知所措的旁观人群,希望避免手机信号网络过于拥堵。伦 敦市警察局则委派一名无线电报员通过限制大众用户的通讯服务来保证救援人员通讯无阻。然而之前大伦 敦警察厅下属的一个机构已经认定此举毫无必要。 Richard Barnes, who chaired the assembly's July 7th review committee, says the report is not meant to disparage [3] the work of the rescuers but rather to fix the problems they encountered. Almost a year later, the situation has barely improved: a new digital radio network for London's underground, for example, is running ______⑤ schedule. (5)The assembly plans new hearings in November to hold various feet to the fire. 伦敦议会“爆炸事件调查委员会”主席理查德·巴恩斯称,报告无意贬损救援人员所做的工作,而是希望 解决他们遇到的问题。事发近一年了,情况依然没有明显好转——原计划在伦敦地下建立的一套新型数字 无线电网络,但这一计划至今仍被束之高阁。伦敦议会打算在 11 月召开新一轮听证会,以期引起各方面 对这一问题的高度重视。 (译者按:to hold various feet to the fire,就我的理解看,可能相当于“让人如坐针毡”)

[QUIZ](愿意做多少题就做多少题,均有奖) 1. 在文中空白处填入适当的介词: ①______ true Blitz style ②cast blame only ______ the terrorists ③had no coherent plan ______ place ④pass information to and ______ disaster areas ⑤running ______ schedule

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. inexplicable adj.

too unusual or strange to be explained or understood [= incomprehensible, strange]:

无法理解的,莫名其妙的 2. gloss n.(beneath the gloss of) an attractive appearance on the surface of something that may hide something less pleasant 表面地或虚假的吸引人的形象;假象 3. disparage vt. to criticize someone or something in a way that shows you do not think they are very good or important 毁谤,贬损

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 伦敦闪电战(the London Blitz):是指 1940 年和 1941 年德国飞机对英国的空袭。 2.伦敦(the London Assembly):由 25 人组成,四年一届,负责督查伦敦市长的工作表现。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①in;②on;③in;④from;⑤behind 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.This is the third official report into the bombs on tube and bus that killed 56 people last year and injured hundreds more

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 34

Bad news about bad guys 关于坏蛋的坏消息(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 15th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition AMERICANS worry about crime. In a big country with hyperactive media, any sensational horror is quickly broadcast from coast to coast, making many people n______①. Last year, for example, after a teenager shot dead ten people in and around a Minnesota high school, pollsters asked a sample of Americans how likely it was that a similar massacre might occur in their own town._________________________. (近四分之三的人说“很有可 能”或“大概会” 。) 美国人为犯罪发愁。在一个媒体极为活跃的大国,任何骇人听闻的恐怖事件很快就能广为人知,让许多人 紧张不安。比如说,去年一位少年在明尼苏达一所中学里及其周边地区开枪打死 10 人之后,民调者对美 国人进行了随机抽样调查,询问类似的杀人案件在他们当地发生的可能性有多大,近四分之三的人说“很 有可能”或“大概会”。 The FBI's announcement this week that violent crime rose by 2.5% between 2004 and 2005 will soothe[1] no nerves. Nor will the news that murders jumped by 5%—the biggest spike[2] in 15 years. The new numbers should be treated with c______②; they do not yet take account of population growth, which is about 1% a year. (1)But still, some experts worry that America's long run of success in reducing crime may be over. FBI 本周宣布,暴力犯罪活动在 2004 年到 2005 年间增加了 2.5%,这令所有人都感到坐立不安。同样令 人不安的还有,有消息称谋杀犯罪发生率上升了 5%,为 15 年来之最。应该谨慎对待这些数字——它们未 将每年大约 1%的人口增长因素纳入考虑范围。不过,有些专家仍然担心,美国长期以来在减少犯罪方面 取得的成就可能就到此为止了。 Why did it fall? Some credit “zero-tolerance” policing. (2)Some think long jail terms keep the worst offenders out of circulation. Others look at d_______③ factors, such as the legalisation of abortion in 1973, which some argue, controversially, prevented many potential criminals from being born. Now their number is rising again. 为什么以前犯罪率会下降呢?有的人把它归因于“毫不留情”的执法,有的人认为是长期关押让那些坏透 了的罪犯无法到处流窜,还有人则考虑到人口统计因素,比如 1973 年饱受争议的流产合法化让许多潜在 的犯罪分子无法降临人世。现如今,这些数字又增加了。 The sharpest increases in murders last year occurred in the Midwest, in cities such as Omaha and Milwaukee. (3)Granted, a 55% increase in Omaha is only 11 more murders. But the numbers highlight a trend for the big gangs of New York and Los Angeles to spread into heartland towns. “A small group of youths are carrying guns, wearing colours and killing each other over t______④ disputes,” says George Kelling of the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. Mostly, it is not about turf[3], but about “dissing[4]”, he says. 去年谋杀犯罪率上升最为显著的是在中西部地区城市如奥马哈和密尔沃基。就奥马哈而言,谋杀犯罪率上 升 55%,也就相当于多了 11 件谋杀案,这毋庸讳言,但是对于纽约和洛杉矶来说,这些数字则充分表明 “granted”一般用来表示“you admit that something is true”,即“承 大批犯罪分子已经开始向中心城市涌动。 (译者按: 认某事没错” ,是一个副词。这句话的含义可以通过一个例子来理解:某地原本只发生了 1 件谋杀案,后来又发生了 1 件, 增长率就是 50%。如原本有 100 件,增长率则只有不到 1%。也就是说,奥马哈的犯罪率本来不高,增加多一点,不是很 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 严重,但象纽约、洛杉矶这些犯罪率本来就高的城市,再增加一点,就很严重了,说明那里犯罪几乎无处不在了。)Rutgers

大学刑事司法院的乔治·凯林说:“一小伙年轻人背着枪,佩戴着各色标志,为了一点点小事不和就你打 我杀。 ”他说,这与帮会斗争无关,而是“犯上作乱”。 (译者按:“colour”这里是指“a flag, shirt etc that shows that someone or something belongs to or supports a particular team, school, club, or country” ,也就是“表明某人或某物属于或支持某 一特定队伍、学校、俱乐部或国家的旗帜、衣服等,常用复数。)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①n________(adj. worried or frightened about something) ②c________(n. being very careful to avoid danger or risks) ③d________(adj. of or relating to the study of human populations and the ways in which they change) ④t________(adj. not serious, important, or valuable)(提示:琐细的)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. soothe

v. to make someone feel calmer and less anxious, upset, or angry 使平静,安慰,缓解(压力)

★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE 缓解(某人)的不安、悲伤、焦虑等,可用下列词汇: Comfort 安慰 • make somebody feel better • cheer somebody up 使振奋 • console 慰藉• reassure 使安心; 打消疑虑• soothe • cheer up 振奋 • don't worry 别担心 2. spike n. a sudden large increase in the number or rate of something(数字或比例)激增;骤增 3. turf n. 区域,势力范围,活动范围;帮派,帮会;地盘 4. diss v. to say unkind things about someone you know 对(认识的人)出言不逊 ★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE 当表达“某人对老师、父母无礼”时,可用下列词汇: 形容词—— disrespectful 失礼的 • cheeky 无礼的,放肆的 • impertinent 无礼的,鲁莽的 • impudent 放肆 无礼的,厚颜无耻的• insolent 傲慢无礼的• sassy 无礼的,厚脸皮的 动词—— disrespect 不尊敬• diss 出言不逊

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] Midwest(美国中西部):美国中北部五大湖区及密西西比河上游河谷周围的地区。通常认为包括俄亥俄州、 印第安那州、伊里诺斯州、密歇根州、威斯康星州、明尼苏达州、爱荷华州、密苏里州、堪萨斯州及内布拉斯 加州。该地区以肥沃的耕地及高度工业化的工业中心而闻名。 Omaha(奥马哈):美国内布拉斯加州东部一城市,位于密苏里河与衣阿华州交界附近。在 1854 年随着内布 拉斯加地区的开放而建立的,并在向西部移民的过程中成为一供应站,尤其是在 1869 年铁路延伸到奥马哈后, 情况更是如此。它在 1855 年至 1867 年间是地区首府。 Milwaukee(密尔沃基):美国威斯康星州东南部一城市,位于密执安湖。1795 年成为一皮毛贸易点,19 世 纪后半期成为德国移民的主要聚居地,其酿酒厂和肉类加工厂久负盛名。是该州最大的城市。 New York(纽约):美国纽约州南部的一个城市,位于哈得逊河口的纽约湾。由荷兰始建时叫新阿姆斯特丹, 后来以纽约郡基督的名义改为英语名字。它是全国最大的城市和金融、文化、商业、船运和通运中心。最初只 包括曼哈顿岛,1898 年重新划定包括今天曼哈顿的五个行政区:布隆克斯、布鲁克林、昆士和斯特提岛。 Los Angeles(洛杉矶):美国加利福尼亚州南部一城市,位于一大片都市地区中,太平洋沿岸。所谓的天使 之城由西班牙人于 1781 年建立,并几次作为殖民地首府。19 世纪 70,80 年代铁路修通和 90 年代在该地区发 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 现石油后,该城开始真正的成长。如今是一个重要的造船业、制造业、通讯、金融和集散中心,其娱乐业尤为 著名。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①nervous 神经紧张的;②caution 小心谨慎;③demographic 人口统计学的;④trivial 琐细的 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.Nearly three-quarters said it was “very” or “somewhat” likely(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学 习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 35

Blogging off 走出博客(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 15th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition “I LOVE Microsoft and Microsoft did not lose me,” protested Robert Scoble, a little too loudly, on his blog last week, in a bid to end feverish speculation in the blogosphere about why, exactly, he had decided to leave Microsoft. The software g_______ ① 's “technical evangelist”, Mr Scoble has become the best-known example of a corporate blogger. On his blog, called Scobleizer, which he started in 2000, he writes about Microsoft's products, and has sometimes criticised them fiercely—(1)thereby both establishing his credibility and, by its willingness to tolerate him, helping to humanise his employer. “我热爱微软,微软也没有失去我。”罗伯特·斯考伯上周在他的博客上义正词严地说。他这么说是希望 博客界不要再对他为何决定离开微软妄加臆测。作为这一软件巨头的“技术专员”,斯考伯先生已经成为 企业博客最知名的典范。他的博客名叫 Scobleizer,始建于 2000 年,主要写一些与微软产品有关的文章, 有时候也会对其提出严厉批评——如此一来,不但树立了他的声望,也藉微软对他的宽容大度体现了微软 的人性化。 (2)As blogging's influence has grown, so has Mr Scoble's—both inside and outside Microsoft. Last year, after he blogged against Microsoft's decision to abandon support for a law prohibiting d________② against gays, the company's managers backed down[1]. He helped write a book, “Naked Conversations: How Blogs are Changing the Way Businesses Talk With Customers”, published in January, that has become essential reading for any boss trying to define a new-media strategy for his business. 博客的影响力越来越大,斯考伯的博客也不例外——无论是在微软内部,还是在外界。去年,他在博客中 抨击了微软关于不再支持一项禁止歧视同性恋的法律的决定,公司管理人员后来只好收回成命。他还参与 著述了《推心置腹的对话——博客是怎样改变与客户的商务交流方式的》一书,今年 1 月出版,现已成为 所有试图在生意上建立一个新型媒体战略的公司老板的必读之书。 So why leave? Mr Scoble has denied several of the theories circulating in the blogosphere, including that he had become fed up with having his expenses challenged or with sharing an office; that Microsoft challenged his views too often; that he had become frustrated; and that the firm had not tried hard enough to keep him. Still, his friend Dave Winer, another blogger, described Microsoft as a “stifling[2] organisation” before observing that “when he finally decided to leave, it's as if a huge weight came off him, and all of a sudden, the old Scoble is back.” __________________________________(他认为,斯考伯的离去证明微软公司无法与时俱进): “I'm glad to see my old friend didn't go down with the ship.” Another blogger says that his departure h_______③ the “end of honest blogging”. 那他为什么要离开微软呢?博客界流传着好几种说法,有的说他受够了别人对自己的业务开支说三道四, Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 有的说他无法容忍与别人共用一个办公室,有的说微软公司三番五次对他的观点提出质疑,有的说他遭到 了挫折,有的说公司没有竭尽全力挽留他,对此他都予以了否认。此外,他的朋友戴夫·温纳(也是博客 作家)说, “他下定决心离职时感到如释重负,刹那间人们熟悉的那个斯高伯又回来了。”然后又说微软是 一个“不开明的公司”。他认为,斯考伯的离去证明微软公司无法与时俱进, “很高兴看到我的老朋友没有 与微软一起走向没落。”另一个博客作家说,他的离开昭示着“诚实博客的终结”。 (3)The real reason may be less sinister—though troubling for the growing number of employers encouraging their employees to blog. Blogging allows staff to build a personal brand separate from that of their firm; if they are good at it, and build up a readership, that brand may be more valuable to them elsewhere. Mr Scoble is off to join PodTech.net, a rising star in video podcasting, which is now far more fashionable than blogging and potentially far more lucrative[3]. It seems that Mr Scoble is most impressed by Rocketboom, one of whose founders, Amanda Congdon, is said to be drawing 300,000 viewers a day to her videoblog, and is about to start c________④ advertisers $85,000 a week—almost as much, Mr Scoble is reported as saying, “as I made in an entire year working at Microsoft.” 真正的原因也许并没有多少不祥的兆头——尽管它令越来越多鼓励员工写博客的老板们不胜其烦。(译者 按: “sinister”表示“预兆不祥的,不吉的” ,恰好跟上段最后一句中的“herald”呼应,意指“人们纷纷揣测斯考伯离职是 因为这样那样的对微软乃至对整个博客界不利的原因,甚至“他的离开可能预���着以后的博客不再敢于说真话了”,而事实 上他离职的真正原因是本段后面所说的“另谋高就”,意图寻找更赚钱的工作,比如播客。)博客让员工可以创造一个

独立于公司之外的品牌,假如做得不错并拥有一定的读者群,这一品牌或许对公司能起到“无心插柳柳成 荫”的作用。斯考伯之所以离职,是因为准备加入 PodTech.net 公司(注:位于硅谷),这是一家新兴的视 频播客公司,而播客如今比博客更时尚,也更有利可图。给斯考伯先生印象最深的还是 Rocketboom 公司。 该公司创始人之一阿曼达·康登的播客据说每天拥有 30 万的浏览量,她正打算开始向广告客户收取每周 85000 美元的广告费——有报道引用斯考伯的话说,这几乎等于“我在微软公司干一年挣的钱” 。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①g________(n. a very large successful company; a extremely tall strong man) ②d________(n. unfair treatment because of someone's race, sex, age) ③h________(v. to show that something is going to happen) ④c________(v. to take or ask for an amount of money in return for something you are selling)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. back down 2. stifling

to admit that you are wrong or that you have lost an argument 作出让步;认输

adj. a situation that is stifling stops you from developing your own ideas and character (环境)

令人窒息的;压抑的;沉闷的 3. lucrative

adj. a job or activity that is lucrative lets you earn a lot of money [= profitable]有利可图的;

赚钱的 ★ACTIVATE YOUR LANGUAGE

words for describing a job that you earn a lot from well-paid/highly paid • pay well • lucrative

when a business produces a profit(当生意赚钱时) profitable • lucrative • money-spinner 赚大钱的人(事) • goldmine 财源 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1.博客起源及 blog 一词的理解和使用: http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong/articles/358503.html 2. 何为播客?(起源、种类、发展及中国播客现状): http://blog.hjenglish.com/chenjilong/articles/358508.html

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①giant 巨人,巨头;②discrimination 歧视;③heralds 预示;④charging 收费,索价 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.He views Mr Scoble's departure as evidence that Microsoft has been unable to move with the times(注: 答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 36

Ulterior motives 居心叵测(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 22nd 2006 | OTTAWA From The Economist print edition IN ONE of the more shameful episodes of its past, Canada imposed a hefty head tax _______① all Chinese immigrants in 1885, then banned their entry altogether from 1923 to 1947. For the 15,000 or so Chinese men who had come to build Canada's transcontinental railway and the many more that came thereafter, it became first prohibitively expensive and then impossible to send for their wives and children. 1885 年,加拿大开始向所有华人移民征收沉重的人头 税,后来又在 1923 年至 1947 年间完全禁止华人移民 入境,这是该国历史上发生的较不体面的事件之一。对于到加拿大修建横跨大陆铁路(即太平洋铁路)的 大约 15000 名以及其后到来的更多中国男子而言,要想把他们的妻小接到加拿大,先是代价高得令其望而 却步,后来连一点可能也没有了。 _______② decades, Canadians of Chinese descent have demanded an apology and redress[1]. Successive federal governments ignored them, apologising to various other groups, including 14,000 Japanese-Canadians, who also received C$21,000 each for their internment and property expropriation during the second world war. Fearing this might open the floodgates, a Liberal government declared in 1994 that the past was the past and that no further compensation would be forthcoming. 数十年来,加拿大华裔一直要求道歉和赔偿,可继任的各届联邦政府都置之不理,倒是向其它许多种族进 行了道歉,其中包括 14000 名日裔加拿大人,并给每人发放了 21000 加元,作为对其在二战时期身遭拘禁 和财产被征用的赔偿。由于担心一发不可收拾,1994 年自由党政府宣布,过去归过去,以后不会再有进 一步的赔偿了。 Given this, the decision this week by Stephen Harper, the Conservative prime minister, to offer both an apology and compensation to Chinese-Canadians might seem surprising—but not if the politics behind it are taken into account. While only about 20 of those who paid the head tax are still alive and fewer than 300 of their widows, Chinese-Canadians now form a community of around 1m with considerable political and economic clout. And its members form a crucial link _______③ Canada's burgeoning trade with China. 若果真如此,本周保守党总理斯蒂芬·哈珀关于要对华人进行道歉和赔偿的决定就有点出人意料,但要想 想其背后隐藏的政治因素,就一点也不会感到奇怪了。虽然当年缴纳人头税的只有大约 20 人和不到 300 名遗孀仍健在,但如今加拿大华人已经构成了一个拥有 100 万左右成员的社团,有着相当大的政治和经济 影响力。而且,这些人已成为中加贸易发展的重要纽带。 Before January's general election, the former Liberal government angered the group by offering a programme of acknowledgment and education to cover all wronged ethnic groups, but no explicit apologies. Mr Harper, whose party lacks support in urban and immigrant communities, adroitly[2] stepped in with a campaign promise both to Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong apologise and to compensate.____________________. (他说到做到。 ) 在一月份的大选前,上一任自由党政府提出了一项面向所有曾遭受不公平待遇的种族的承认(历史)和教 育计划,但并未明确表示歉意,这让华人社团很是愤怒。哈珀的保守党本来是得不到城市居民和侨民团体 支持的,这一次他灵机一动站了出来,在竞选中许诺要进行道歉和赔偿。他说到做到。 Whether this will set a precedent for many other aggrieved[3] groups is doubtful. Some, like the Canadian Jewish Congress, want only acknowledgment rather than financial compensation (for the government's refusal to allow the 907 German Jewish refugees _______④ board the St Louis to land in Canada in 1939). The federal government did set aside C$2.2 billion in the last budget to compensate the children of aborigines[4] who were taken from their parents and abused in residential schools. But that was to resolve a mountain of lawsuits that it was in danger of losing. 这是否会成为其它许多受过不公平对待的种族的先例尚且无法确定。有些团体比如加拿大犹太人代表大会 就不需要赔款,只希望政府承认曾于 1939 年拒绝让圣·路易斯号船上的 907 名德裔犹太人登陆加拿大。 联邦政府确实从上年度财政预算中划拨了 22 亿加元,用以赔偿那些被强迫离开父母并在寄宿学校遭到虐 待的原住民儿童,可这么一来它就要处理一大堆极有可能输掉的官司。 (译者注:第一个 that 指代的是上一句 所提到的赔款,第二个 that 引导的是一个定语从句,修饰 a mountain of lawsuits,后者作为从句中 lose 的宾语,it 指代上一 句中的 the federal government,即 the government was in danger of losing a mountain of lawsuits. lose a lawsuit 意为“败诉” 。)

Still, there is hope for others if they follow the Chinese-Canadians' lead. A federal election is expected as early as next spring, when Mr Harper hopes to turn his minority _______⑤ a majority. An immigrant group concentrated in an urban area is certain to get the ear of any Conservative candidate. And perhaps an apology too. 其他人如果步加拿大华人的后尘,也是有希望的。联邦选举预计最早将在明年春天举行,哈珀希望到时自 己能从少数派成为多数派。所有保守党的候选人肯定都会洗耳恭听市区聚居的侨民团体的诉说,也许还要 “get/have somebody's ear”表示“to be trusted by someone so that they will listen to your advice, opinions 道个谦吧。 (译者注: etc” ,即“得到某人信任从而愿意听取你的意见和建议”。第二句为省略句,省略了上句中的主语和谓语以及定语,可还原 为“…… is certain to get an apology of any Conservative canditate too”。 )

[QUIZ] 1. 在文中空白处填入适当的介词: 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1.redress n.

money that someone pays you because they have caused you harm or damaged your

property [= compensation]赔款;赔偿 2. adroit

adj. clever and skilful, especially in the way you use words and arguments (用词、论辩)机敏

的;熟练的 3. aggrieved

adj. having suffered as a result of the illegal actions of someone else 受虐待的,受侵害的

4. aborigines n.原住民;土著

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 加拿大征收华人人头税事件: Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①on;②For;③in;④on;⑤into 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.He has been true to his word(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 37

Brothers in arms 袍泽之情(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 | TORONTO From The Economist print edition RAY BLANCHARD, a researcher at Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, was reviewing some data a few years ago when he noticed something odd: gay men seemed to have more older brothers than straight men. 几年前,多伦多毒瘾与心理健康中心研究员雷·布朗夏尔在回顾一些数据时注意到一个奇怪的现象——同 性恋男子的哥哥似乎比异性恋男子多。 Intrigued—and sceptical—he decided to investigate. He recruited 302 gay men and the same number of heterosexual controls and inquired about their families. How many siblings[1] did they have, _______① what sex, and how had the births been spaced? How old had their parents been when they had had them? Dr Blanchard found that only one detail seemed to predict sexual orientation: the more elder brothers a man had, the more likely he was to be gay. (1)Neither elder sisters nor younger siblings of either sex had any effect, but each additional elder brother increased his chance of being gay by about 33% from the population average of one man in 50. 由于对此感到好奇和怀疑,他决定做个调查。他招募了 302 名同性恋男子和一样多的异性恋男子,并问及 一些与家庭有关的问题:有几个兄弟,几个姐妹,前后出生间隔多长时间?出生时父母多大年龄?布朗夏 尔博士发现,预示性取向的似乎只有一个细节:哥哥越多,成为同性恋的可能性就越大。姐姐以及弟妹的 数量对某人的性取向没有任何影响。一般而言,平均 50 个男人中就有 1 人可能成为同性恋,每多一位哥 哥,此人成为同性恋的可能性就增加 33%左右。 (译者注:这句有些费解,我的理解是:from the population average of one man in 50 中的“from”与前面的“increase”相对应,也就是在此基础上增加了 33%。这个基础就是指“平均每 50 个男人中就有一个人可能成为同性恋”,这是一般而言的,如果这“一个”人多一位哥哥,他成为同性恋的可能性就增加 33%,也就是这个“50 分之一”发生的可能性增加 33%。有点乱,仅供参考。)

It was a rather perplexing discovery. It implied either that being brought _______② with a lot of elder brothers affects a boy's sexual orientation, or that a mother's body is somehow able to keep count of how many sons she has conceived, and that this count affects the orientation of future children. (2)Hard as it was to explain, though, the finding was replicated again and again, across different cultures, eras and even psychiatric groups. 这一发现很是令人费解。它意味着和许多哥哥一起成长会影响某个男孩的性取向,抑或是指母体有可能计 下了其曾经孕育的男孩数,而这一计数过程则会影响后出生男孩的性取向。这一现象虽难解释,但是在不 同文化、不同时期甚至不同心理状况的人身上都得到了反复再现。 Those who argued for a social explanation suggested that having lots of elder brothers makes a boy more likely to engage _______③ same-sex play, and might also increase the chance he is a victim of sexual abuse. But, regardless of whether either of these conjectures[2] is true, neither playing with other boys nor sexual abuse has been scientifically linked to homosexuality. 那些认为应该从社会学角度解释这一现象的人指出,哥哥多会使得一个男孩与同性别的人在一起玩耍的可 能性加大,也更有可能使之成为不正当性行为的受害者。不过,不管这两个猜测哪一个正确,从科学的角 度看,同别的男孩一起玩耍或者不正当性行为都与同性恋毫无关联。 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Anthony Bogaert of Brock University in St Catharines, Ontario, therefore decided to examine the other hypothesis—that the phenomenon is caused by something that happens in the womb. He has just published his results in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 因此,安大略省圣卡他林斯布罗克大学的安东尼·博加尔特决定验证一下另一个假说,亦即此现象是由子 宫中发生的某种情况所引起的,其验证结果刚刚发表在《国家科学院学报》上。 Dr Bogaert reasoned that if the effect were social, elder brothers would wield[3] the same power even if they had not been born _______④ the same mother. Lots of half- or step-siblings, or adopted brothers, for instance, would also cause their younger brothers to be gay. On the other hand, if the effect were really due to birth order, biological brothers would make their younger brothers more likely to be gay even if they did not grow up together; indeed, even if the younger boy grew up without any older boys around at all. 博加尔特推论,如果影响来自社会生活,哥哥们即便不是出生自同一个母亲,也会对其弟弟造成同样的影 响。例如,许多同父异母或被收养的哥哥也能导致其弟弟成为同性恋。从另一点看,如果影响来自出生顺 序,那么嫡亲哥哥更可能使其弟弟成为同性恋,就算他们不是在一起长大,亦即年纪小的男孩成长过程中 周围没有任何年长男孩。 Dr Bogaert collected a new sample of several hundred men, this time specifically recruiting those who had grown up with “brothers” to whom they were not biologically related. He collected information on how long they had been reared with each sibling, as well as about biological siblings _______⑤ whom they had been separated. 博尔加特集中研究了另外 700 名男子,此次专门招募了那些未曾和与自己有血缘关系的“哥哥”一起成长 的人。他收集了他们与每一个兄弟共同被抚养的时间以及是否有亲兄弟但被隔离开来等有关资料。 He found that only the number of biological elder brothers had an impact on a later-born boy's sexual orientation; non-biological siblings had no effect. This was true even when a boy had grown up surrounded by an enormous gaggle[4] of non-biological elder brothers. (3)By contrast, elder brothers raised in a separate household “influenced” their younger brothers' sexual orientation in exactly the same way as they would have done had they been living with them. 他发现,仅亲哥哥的数量对后出生男孩的性取向有影响,而非亲兄弟则没有。就算一个男孩成长中周围有 一大群嬉笑打闹的非亲哥哥也是如此。相比之下,生在兄弟彼此分离的家庭环境中的哥哥对其弟弟性取向 的影响,实际上同与之共同生活时一样。 Like many of the best pieces of research, this one raises questions, as well as answering them. One is, how does the mother's body keep count of how many sons she has conceived? A second is, how does that change the environment in the womb? A third is, how does that change affect sexual orientation? And a fourth is, is this an accidental effect, or has it evolved for some reason? 像众多杰出的研究一样,这一研究在提出问题的同时也解决了问题。第一个问题是,母体如何数怀孕过男 孩的数目?其二是,这样会造成子宫发生何种改变?其三是,这种改变如何影响性取向?第四个问题则是, 这种影响是偶然性的,还是出于某种发育进化上的原因? To these questions, Dr Bogaert has no answers, though in some cases he has his suspicions. He speculates that, for reasons as yet unknown, a mother's immune system takes note of the number of male offspring and that each succeeding male fetus is subjected to increased levels of antibodies. These somehow affect its development. (4) Clearly, something strange is going on, because things other than sexual orientation are also affected by birth order. Boys with elder brothers are also likely to have larger-than-normal placentas while in the womb. Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong And despite that apparent nutritional advantage (for a larger placenta should be able to draw more food from the mother's bloodstream), they are also likely to have lower birth-weights than would otherwise be expected. 博加尔特博士并没有回答这些问题,但就某些个案提出了自己的猜想。他推测,由于一些尚不为人知的原 因,母体免疫系统可监测男性子代的数量,并且升高的抗体水平会影响每一个后孕男胎。这些对胎儿的发 育会有一定的影响。不过显然,出生顺序并不单单会影响性取向,因此奇怪的现象层出不穷,比方说,有 哥哥的男孩在子宫中的胎盘可能比正常大,而且,尽管具有明显的营养优势(因为大胎盘能从母体血流中 摄取更多的养料),他们出生时的体重仍可能比预计的要轻。 (5)Dr Blanchard, meanwhile, calculates that about one gay man in seven can chalk his orientation up to having elder brothers. But _______⑥ the question of whether there is some evolutionary advantage for a mother who has many sons to include a gay one among them, neither he nor Dr Bogaert has an answer. 与此同 时,布朗夏尔统计发现,大约七分之一的同性恋男子认为其性取与自己有哥哥有关。 (译者注:chalk sth. up to 是指“把……记在……” ,引申为“把……归因于”)但是,至于是否存在某种进化优势而使得多子母亲的儿子中 出现一个同性恋,无论他还是博尔加特博士,均未给出答案。

[QUIZ] 1. 选择适当的介词或副词填入文中空白处: a. a. a. a. a. a.

from b. with c. of d. by about b. forth c. out d. up in b. on c. with d. for by b. from c. to d. in by b. from c. to d. with for b. with c. on d. to

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. sibling n. 兄弟姐妹 2. conjecture n. 推断;臆说;猜测 3. wield v. 行使权力,施加影响;挥舞 4. gaggle n. (吵闹的)一群人;鹅群

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. c(of what sex ……性别);d(bring up 抚养长大);a(engage in 从事于);c(to);b(be separated from); d(an answer to)

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 38

A stilted story 踩高跷的故事(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 From The Economist print edition IF THERE were a Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ants, Matthias Wittlinger of the University of Ulm, in Germany, would probably be top of its hate list. The reason is that Dr Wittlinger and his c________① have, as they report in this week's Science, been chopping the feet off ants. And not only that. They have been making other ants walk around on stilts. 假如有一个皇家防止残害蚂蚁协会的话,德国乌尔姆大学 的马提亚·威特林格可能会首当其冲地成为其憎恨对象。 这是因为威特林格博士和他的同事们在本周《科学》杂志 上报道说他们砍去了一些蚂蚁的脚。这还不算,他们还让 别的蚂蚁踩着高跷走路。 Saharan desert ants of the genus Cataglyphis have to travel long distances to discover food in their i________②, sandy environment. How they find their way home once they have done so is a mystery. Ants in more temperate climates often lay down chemical trails, but Cataglyphis, apparently, does not. Like honeybees and ancient mariners, they can n_______③ by the sun, so they know the general direction in which to travel. But, also like ancient mariners (who knew their latitude, but not their longitude), such solar reckoning cannot tell them when to stop. 撒哈拉沙漠的箭蚁不得不在贫瘠的沙质环境中长途跋涉寻找食物。它们找完食物后如何返回蚁巢却一直是 个谜。温和气候环境下的蚂蚁往往会在路途中留下化学记号,可箭蚁显然不会。它们跟蜜蜂和古代海员一 样,可以通过日照导航,从而知道出行的大致方向。但是也跟古代海员一样(他们只会辨认纬度不会辨认 经度) ,这种根据太阳测算位置的方法无法告知它们该在何时结束行程。 Dr Wittlinger, therefore, decided to investigate a century-old h_______④ that desert ants have internal pedometers—in other words, they count their steps out, and they count them back. When one total matches the other, they are home. To test this idea he trained his ants to walk from their nests to a feeding station through a ten-metre-long channel. When they had picked up the food, he caught them and made them return through a different channel, which also led to the nest. (1)When they made this return journey, they began their characteristic nest-searching behaviour, quartering the ground in detail looking for the entrance, after travelling about ten metres. 所以,威特林格博士决定验证一下一个世纪猜想——沙漠蚂蚁体内含有步数计(里程表),换言之,它们 在出行时算好步数,然后再一步步数着返回。等到两者总数吻合时,就“到家”了。为此,威特林格博士 对其养殖的蚂蚁进行了训练,让它们经过一条十米长的沟从蚁巢走到一个饲喂点。当它们获取食物后,就 把它们捉住,让它们通过另一条通往蚁巢的沟返回。返回时,它们特有的觅巢行为就开始了,即在行走了 大约 10 米远后,它们会在地上仔细地刻下指向蚁巢入口的标记。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Once the ants had m_______⑤ this trick, the experiment proper began. Some ants, when they arrived at the feeding station, had the ends of their legs amputated[1], to shorten their stride length. Others were fitted with stilts in the form of pig-bristles[2] glued to their feet. Both lots were then returned to the feeding station, to make the journey home. 等到蚂蚁学会了这一窍门,实验才真正开始。有的蚂蚁抵达饲喂点后,就将其腿部末端切除,以缩短其步 长。其它的蚂蚁则在其脚部粘上猪鬃,做成高跷。然后,两群蚂蚁均被放还至饲喂点,让其返回蚁巢。 (2)As predicted, the ants on stilts, whose stride-length meant their internal pedometers[3] had not clicked enough times, walked blithely[4] past their nests, and were left stranded almost five metres on the far side before they started looking for the hole. Meanwhile, the poor stumped[5] ants travelled only about six metres before they started their search. 不出所料,踩高跷的蚂蚁由于其步长造成体内步数计无法运作足够次数,因此竟似闲庭信步一般走过了蚁 巢,结果在离蚁巢近 5 米远的地方愣住了,然后才开始继续寻找洞穴。与此同时,遭“截肢”的那些可怜 的蚂蚁只走了大约 6 米远就开始寻找洞穴。 The story, however, has a happy ending. Having proved his point, Dr Wittlinger returned both stumped and stilted ants to the nest and gave them a few days to recover. Then he let them out for another run. Now that they could re-count their outbound journeys, they were able to calculate the journey home correctly. _________________________________(蚂蚁也许并不太聪明,但似乎天生就是算术高手。) 不过,这个故事的结尾还是令人高兴的。威特林格博士证实其猜想后,又把“截肢”蚂蚁和踩高跷蚂蚁都 放回蚁巢,给它们几天时间来康复。然后,他把它们放出去开始又一轮试验。这一次它们可以重新计算出 行步数,因此也就可以准确地计算出返程的步履了。蚂蚁也许并不太聪明,但似乎天生就是算术高手。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①c________(n. someone you work with, used especially by professional people) ②i________(adj. very poor) ③n________(v. to find which way you need to go when you are travelling from one place to another) ④h________(n. an idea that is suggested as an explanation for something, but that has not yet been proved to be true) ⑤m_________ (v. to learn a skill or a language so well that you have no difficulty with it)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. amputate

v. 切除(手臂、腿等)

2. pig-bristle n. 猪鬃 3. pedometer n. 步数计 4. blithely

adv. 无忧无虑地;悠然自得地

5. stump v. 脚步沉重地行走;绊倒;难住

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①colleagues 同事;②impoverished 贫困的;③navigate 航行;行走;④hypothesis 猜想,假设;⑤ mastered 掌握,学会 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

3.Ants may not be very bright, but it seems they have a head for figures. (注:答案肯定不是唯一,但 至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 39

Come to sunny Colombia (陈继龙 到阳光明媚的哥伦比亚来吧!

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 | CIUDAD PERDIDA, COLOMBIA From The Economist print edition MENTION Colombia, and most people think of cocaine, kidnappings and guerrilla violence. ( 1 ) These have served to keep all but the most danger-loving tourists away for decades. But under Álvaro Uribe, Colombia's president since 2002, violence has fallen steadily and many parts of the country have become safe. Now the government is trying to r_______① conventional images of Colombia with different ones: white-sand beaches, colonial cities, jungle-clad mountains and placid coffee farms. 一说起哥伦比亚,大多数人都会想到可卡因、绑架案和游击队。几十年来,除了那些特别喜欢冒险的人之 外,几乎所有游客都对这里望而却步。不过,在 2002 年上任至今的哥伦比亚总统阿尔瓦罗·乌里韦治下, 暴力事件已经稳步减少,大部分地区都已变得安全。政府现在正努力改变哥伦比亚的传统形象,给人们呈 现一派迥然不同的景象:洁白的沙滩,殖民时代风格的都市,丛林密布的山岳,还有那静谧的咖啡庄园。 The tourism campaign has begun at home. This month, during the mid-year school holidays, thousands of Colombians have enjoyed the newly-recovered freedom to travel, using specially policed routes from major cities to favourite holiday spots.________________________(就现在来看,此举旨在打消外国游客的顾虑。 )With a promotional b_______② of just $4m this year, the tourism agency is concentrating its efforts on tour operators and cruise[1] and airline executives. This spring, it invited 130 of them to see the country's beaches, its coffee farms and the Amazon region. 旅游发展计划已率先在国内实施。本月正值学校年中假期,成千上万的哥伦比亚人沿着警方专门指定的路 线,从大都市走向他们最喜爱的度假胜地,享受着新近恢复的旅游自由。就现在来看,此举旨在打消外国 游客的顾虑。今年政府预拨了 400 万美元用以发展旅游业,有了这笔款项,旅游局得以把主要精力集中到 旅行社以及游船和航空公司的管理人员身上。今春,它邀请其中的 130 位参观了哥伦比亚海滩、咖啡庄园 以及亚马逊河流域。 Mr Uribe has himself l_______③ bosses of cruise-ship firms. (2)This seems to have paid off. In May, Royal Caribbean announced that from next year some of its ships would call at Cartagena, a colonial walled port on the north coast. The Florida Caribbean Cruise Association held its annual meeting in the city last week. 乌利比总统本人也已游说了游船公司的老板,结果看来是一帆风顺。 (译者注:根据 LONGMAN,“if something you do pays off, it is successful or has a good result”,因此文中的“pay off”是指游说成功,因为其与船有关,故引申为“一 帆风顺” 。)今年 5 月,皇家加勒比海公司宣布,明年起其部分船只将停靠卡塔赫纳(位于哥伦比亚北海岸、

殖民时期建造的港口城市)。佛罗里达加勒比海游船协会上周还在该市召开了年会。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Tourism officials expect 1.5m foreign visitors this year, more than 50% up from the 925,000 in 2005. (Mexico, Latin America's top tourist destination, a_______④ 20m foreigners a year.) Lonely Planet, a travel publisher, has chosen Colombia as one of its top ten travel hotspots for 2006, in large part because of the improvement in safety. 旅游官员预计今年将有 150 万名外国游客前来观光,比 2005 年的 92.5 万多出 50%以上。 (拉丁美洲地区 最大的旅游目的地墨西哥平均每年吸引 2000 万游客。) “孤独行星”旅游出版公司已将哥伦比亚评为 2006 年度“十大旅游热点地区”之一,这主要得益于其安全状况的改善。 But care is still needed. Lonely Planet advises tourists to steer clear of[2] Chocó on the Pacific coast, Putumayo in the far south and “anywhere east of the Andes”, where there are still guerrillas. America's State Department and the British Foreign Office also w________⑤ travellers against wandering into rural areas. 不过还是要留点神。 “孤独行星”公司建议游客避开太平洋沿岸的乔格、最南端的普土马由河地区以及“安 第斯山脉东部各地区”,因为这些地方仍有游击队出没。美国国务院和英国外交部也提醒游客不要到乡下 去。 Even so, groups of foreign h________⑥ have recently taken to visiting Ciudad Perdida, one of the largest and oldest pre-Columbian settlements in the Americas, in the jungles of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. The area is still home to leftist[3] guerrillas and remnants of their arch-enemies[4], the right-wing paramilitary militias. (3) But the fact that many other parts of what is a large and physically beautiful country are now safe to visit amounts to progress. 即便如此,成群结队的外国徒步旅行者最近还是纷纷前往位于内华达山脉圣马尔塔的丛林中的,美洲地区 最大、最古老的早期土著定居地丘达特-佩尔地达。该地区至今仍是左翼游击队和右翼民兵残余势力(左 翼的死敌)的大本营。但是,在这个疆域辽阔、风景秀丽的大国,其它大部分地区都是可以放心游览的, 而且实际状况仍在不断改善之中。 (译者注:physically 是指“按自然性质地”。)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①r________(v. to put something new in the place of something old, damaged, or broken) ②b________(n. the money that is available to an organization or person) ③l________(v. to try to persuade the government or someone with political power) ④a________(v. to make someone interested in something, or make them want to take part in something) ⑤w________ (v. to tell someone about something before it happens so that they are not worried or surprised by it) ⑥h_________ (n. someone who walks long distances in the mountains or country for pleasure)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. cruise

n. 乘船游览;(在大船上度过的)假期

2. steer clear of 3. leftist

避开,绕开

n.&adj. 左翼(的);左派(的);左撇子(的)

4. archenemy

n.主要敌人

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①replace 替换,替代(近义词:renew,change) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ②budget 预算; ③lobbied 游说(lobby for/against;lobby sb. to do sth.) ④attracts 吸引; 〔附注〕 (1)“使某人喜欢或想要做某事”可用:attract, tempt, seduce (2)“使某人想去某地”可用:attract, draw, bring in, lure (3)“两性之间有吸引力”, “迷人、魅惑”可用:be attracted to, fancy, be interested in, want, lust after ⑤warn 提醒 〔附注〕 “提醒(警告)某人某事”可用:warn • give somebody a warning • warn off • caution • tip off • alert • sound/raise the alarm • forewarn • I told you!/I told you so! ⑥hikers 远足者;徒步旅行者

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.The aim now is to convince foreigners.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 40

Selling the sage of Qufu 推销孔圣人(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 6th 2006 | TOKYO From The Economist print edition THE old man would surely be proud. This week some 300 representatives, from 35 different countries, gathered in Beijing's Great Hall of the People for the first-ever Confucius Institute conference. (1)This was no philosophical pow-wow[1], but the world's largest-ever conference on teaching Chinese as a foreign language. Confucius Institutes are China's answer _______① the Alliance Française, Germany's Goethe Institut and the British Council, and officials hope they will help meet a growing global demand for Chinese-language education. 孔老夫子肯定会感到自豪。本周,来自 35 个国家的近 300 名代表在北京人民大会堂召开了首届孔子学院 大会。这不是一次讨论哲学思想的会议,而是迄今为止最大的一次研究对外汉语教学的大会。孔子学院的 意义如同法兰西联谊会、德国歌德学院和英国文化协会,中国官员希望它将有助于满足全球对汉语教学日 益增长的需求。 (译者注: “sb’s answer to somehitng”是指“someone or something that is considered to be just as good as a more famous person or thing”,即“与……一样有名、出色”、“具有与……等同的意义或重要性”) Confucius Institutes have got _______② to a roaring start. The first was established in Tashkent in Uzbekistan in June 2004, the 75th in Cracow in Poland exactly two years later. No other Chinese international franchise has done as well. Officially, they are overseen by Hanban, the agency charged by the Education Ministry with promoting the teaching of Chinese overseas. (2)But Hanban's staff of only around 50 can barely cope with the volume of applications, on top of[2] its other duties which include administering Hanyu Shuipin Kaoshi, the standard test of proficiency in Chinese. 孔子学院一开始发展就非常迅猛。 (译者注:get off to a bad/good start 意为“开局不顺/顺利”,roaring 表示 “迅猛的”)第一所孔子学院于 2004 年 6 月在乌兹别克斯坦塔什干成立,短短两年后在波兰克拉科夫就成 立了第 75 所。目前中国还没有哪一家国际机构能与之媲美。这些孔子学院的官方主管部门为国家汉办(国 家汉语国际推广领导小组办公室),后者是教育部下属机构,负责海外汉语教学推广。不过,仅有 50 名左 右工作人员的汉办实在难以应付纷至沓来的办学申请,而且它还担负其它一些职责比如汉语水平考试管理 (考查汉语掌握程度的标准考试)。 So Hanban has let the network grow organically. One key to its success has been the use of joint ventures. The institutes are not run by Hanban, but by partnerships between Chinese universities and local universities in the host country. _____________________________________________(所在国大学负责安排校舍,而中方则负 责提供师资和教材。) 因此,汉办有条不紊地扩大办学网络。其成功的秘诀之一是采取合资办学的方式。这些学院不归汉办管理, 而归一些中国大学和所在国大学联合主办。所在国大学负责安排校舍,而中方则负责提供师资和教材。 (3)A second advantage is the institutes' ability to adapt to local demands, rather than following a set curriculum. Thus, in Nairobi, you can learn how to make Tianjin dumplings, while in Singapore you can sign _______③ for a 14-day study tour of the sage's hometown, Qufu, in Shandong province. 这种做法的第二个好处在于,学院可以因地制宜,而不用遵循固定课程模式。这样一来,在内罗毕可以学 做天津包子,而在新加坡则可以报名参加赴孔圣人故乡——山东曲阜的为期 14 天的学术旅行团。 Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (4)Hanban claims that the primary role of the Confucius Institutes is to teach Chinese, but their name is also evocative of China's former influence in Asia, and its growing presence now. Despite the iciness of official relations between China and Japan, universities there are falling _______④ each other to set up the next institute. Already there are four, the most in any Asian country; the number is set to double by the end of the year. Even in the 21st century, Confucius is proving to be China's best ambassador. 汉办称,孔子学院的首要任务是汉语教学,但是它们的名字也让人想起了中国在亚洲曾经拥有的影响力及 其越来越重要的地位。虽然目前中日官方之间关系冷淡,但是日方的大学都在争先恐后地申办孔子学院。 日本现已有 4 所孔子学院,居亚洲各国之首,到今年年底这一数字肯定还会翻一番。虽说已经到了 21 世 纪,但事实表明孔子仍是中国最杰出的使者。

[QUIZ] 1. 选择适当介词或副词填入空中: ①a. on b. of c. to d. for ②a. off b. out c. with d. up ③a. in b. up c. over d. on ④a. upon b. over c. at d. for

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. pow-wow n. (北美印第安人)议事会;会议,聚会 2. on top of 另外,紧接着(祸不单行)

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①c. to ②a. off ③b. up (sign up 报名) ④b. over (fall over each other 竞争,争夺) 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.The host university takes the responsibility for housing the institute; its Chinese partner provides the teaching staff and materials.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 41

The bane of Italy 祸起意大利(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 From The Economist print edition ALEXANDER STILLE'S new book on Silvio Berlusconi, the flamboyant[1] former Italian prime minister, is neither a b________① nor a work of investigative journalism. Its real value is that it represents the first attempt, in English at least, to recount in a readable fashion the story, not of Mr Berlusconi himself, but of Berlusconi-ism. (1)That gives it a wide appeal, for, as its author argues persuasively, Berlusconi-ism is the extrapolation[2] to grotesque[3] extremes of a phenomenon that has gradually, and all too imperceptibly, become widespread. 亚历山大·斯蒂莱的新作写的是个性张扬的意大利前任总理西尔维奥·贝鲁斯科尼,但它并非是一本传记, 也不是新闻调查作品。其真正的价值在于,它首次尝试以一种可读性较强的风格,记述了“贝鲁斯科尼主 义”而不是贝鲁斯科尼的生平。这也是本书独具魅力之所在,因为诚如作者很有说服力地论证的那样, “贝 鲁斯科尼主义”是对某种现象怪诞至极时的推论,这种现象日趋普遍而所有人却都浑然不觉。 Mr Stille is at his best when he describes how a man with a corporation with billions of dollars of d_______② succeeded in less than eight months, between 1993 and 1994, in turning himself into his country's leader. (2) Along the way, he identifies various keys to Mr Berlusconi's success. 斯蒂莱先生最出彩的描写是,一个拥有一家债台高筑的公司的人,如何在 1993 年至 1994 年间的短短 8 个月内,成功地使自己成为国家领导人。他在书中一一揭示了贝鲁斯科尼的成功要诀。 One was the u________③ application of modern business methods to Italian politics. Mr Berlusconi's campaign organisers set up pay-as-you-go[4] phone numbers so voters paid to listen to Mr Berlusconi and the stars of his television empire. Party candidates were required to spend the equivalent of $800 on a kit, similar to a salesman's kit, with a manual on how to communicate with voters. Advice included: “___________________________” (要是你上公共厕所,但厕所很脏,那就弄干净它,否则随后进来的人会以为是你弄脏的。 ) 其一,史无前例地将现代商业手段运用于意大利政治。贝鲁斯科尼的竞选策划人开通了付费电话,选民可 以付费打电话给贝鲁斯科尼及其所属电视集团的明星们。党内各候选人必须花 800 美元购置一个工具包 (类似于销售员的工具包),包里面揣一本选民沟通指南。其中指导建议包括: “要是你上公共厕所,但厕 所很脏,那就弄干净它,否则随后进来的人会以为是你弄脏的。” (3)Then there was Mr Berlusconi's own exploitation of “anti-politics”, his depiction of himself as an outsider—a technique that allowed him to tap into a rich vein[5] of support among mainly poor, rural and poorly educated voters who distrusted the institutions. Finally, of course, there was television. Mr Stille produces evidence to demonstrate its influence: “A study of female former Christian Democrat voters showed that an astonishing 75% of those who watched four or more hours of TV a day cast their b_______④ for Berlusconi, while only 40% of those who watched two hours or less did so.” 其次,贝鲁斯科尼独创了“反政治学”,亦即把自己说成是“一个局外人”——这一伎俩使他赢得了贫困、 乡村以及没怎么受过教育的选民的支持,这些人往往都不信任政府机构。最后,当然还有电视。斯蒂莱先 生充分举证了贝鲁斯科尼的影响力: “对前基督教民主党女性选民的调查显示,每天收看 4 小时以上电视 节目的女选民中,竟有 75%的人投票给贝鲁斯科尼,而收看 2 小时以下的只有 40%。” Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong He acknowledges that his subject's rise to power (and, to an even greater extent, his return to power in 2001 after six years in opposition) was fostered by some of the specific characteristics of Italian society. Italians were, and are, largely unconcerned by Mr Berlusconi's conflicts of interest. Indeed, a survey during the 2001 election found that almost a quarter of voters thought that Mr Berlusconi's personal interests meant he would “govern the country better”. (4)Nor are Italians overly concerned by the sort of illegality of which their former leader has been repeatedly accused by the judiciary. Above all, though, Mr Stille argues, Italy is a “weak democracy with few institutional checks and balances.” 贝鲁斯科尼承认,他之所以能掌权(并且从更大程度上说他能在下野 6 年后于 2001 年再次掌权),完全拜 某些意大利社会特色所赐。过去和现在的意大利人大都对贝鲁斯科尼的利益纷争无动于衷,事实上 2001 年选举期间开展的一项调查也发现, 几乎 1/4 的选民认为贝鲁斯科尼的个人利益就是指他会 “把国家管好”。 意大利人对司法部一再指控他们的前任领导人所谓的违法行为也漠不关心。不过,斯蒂莱先生认为,主要 还是因为意大利是一个“机构上几乎缺乏相互制衡的脆弱的民主国度” 。 Mr Stille's book is ill-timed: Mr Berlusconi has just been voted out of office and, at 69, his chances of returning are s_______⑤. But the Berlusconi formula, which Mr Stille sums up as “money + media + celebrity = political power”, is by no means applicable only to Italy. Some or all of the same basic elements are there in other politicians, particularly in America: in Arnold Schwarzenegger, Michael Bloomberg and Jesse Ventura, a former professional wrestler who became governor of Minnesota. (5)“Silvio Berlusconi”, writes Mr Stille, “may appear at times a caricature, but in fact he is a reflection of ourselves in a fun-house mirror, our features distorted and exaggerated but distinctly recognisable.” 斯蒂莱先生的这本著作没赶上好时候——贝鲁斯科尼刚刚落选离任,69 岁的他要想东山再起机会渺茫。 不过,斯蒂莱先生归纳的“贝鲁斯科尼公式” ,即“金钱+媒体+名流=政权”,绝不仅仅适用于意大利。 其中一些或者所有的基本组成要素同样存在于其他政客,尤其是在美国——阿诺·施瓦辛格、迈克尔·彭 博以及耶西·文图拉(前职业拳手,后成为明尼苏达州州长)。斯蒂莱先生写道: “西尔维奥·贝鲁斯科尼 可能时常成为人们讽刺的对象,但实际上他好比一面哈哈镜,从他身上,我们看到了我们自己,看到我们 扭曲、夸张而又清晰可辨的一面。”

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①b________(n. a book that tells what has happened in someone's life, written by someone else) ②d________(n. a sum of money that a person or organization owes) ③u________(adj. never having happened before, or never having happened so much) ④b________(n. a piece of paper on which you make a secret vote) ⑤s________ (adj. very small in amount or number [= slender])

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文)���

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. flamboyant adj. behaving in a confident or exciting way that makes people notice you 自命不凡的;神气 活现的;浮华的;耀眼的;引人注目的 2. extrapolation n. 推论,推知;外推 3. grotesque adj. 非常讨厌的;无礼的;怪诞的,奇异的 4. pay-as-you-go adj. 付费的(电话或网络服务) 5. a (rich) vein of (很)有几分 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①biography 传记 ②debt 债 〔附注〕 (1)表示“某人欠的钱” :debt 债 • overdraft 透支 • liabilities 债务• borrowings 借款 • IOU(I owe you) 借据 (2)表示“欠许多钱”:be deep/heavily in debt 债台高筑• be up to your neck/ears in debt 欠一屁股债 (3)表示“欠某人债” :owe 欠钱• be in debt 负债 • be overdrawn 透支 • be in the red 负债,亏损• be in arrears 欠账 • be behind with 拖欠 (4)表示“开始欠债”:get into debt 负债 • run up a debt • default 拖欠 ③unprecedented 史无前例的,空前的(be unheard of) ④ballot 选票 〔附注〕 “选举”有关的:election 选举• electoral 选举的• referendum 公投• ballot 选票;投票• polls 投票站 • polling 投票表决(选举) • show of hands 举手表决 ⑤slim 微小的;渺茫的(机会、可能)

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.If you use a public toilet and it's dirty, clean it, otherwise those who come after you will think you dirtied it. (注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 42

Little love lost 爱意难寻(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 | PARIS From The Economist print edition “THIS is a marriage of reason,” said Joseph Kinsch, chairman of Arcelor, when he presented the proposed merger of the Luxembourg-based steelmaker and Mittal Steel to the press on June 26th. It was certainly not love at first sight. For almost five months Mr Kinsch and Guy Dollé, the company's chief executive, used every defence they could to rebuff[1] Mittal's h_______① bid. They mobilised politicians, bankers, public-relations advisors and—in what was meant to be the fatal blow to Mittal's bid—a white knight in the guise of[2] Severstal, a Russian steelmaker. (1)But clarity came after a nine-hour meeting on June 25th when Arcelor's board at last agreed to sell the company to Mittal Steel for cash and stock valued at €25.6 billion ($32.2 billion). 6 月 26 日,阿塞洛公司董事长约瑟夫·金希向新闻界宣布该钢铁公司(总部位于卢森堡)与米塔尔公司 的合并计划时说: “这是一次理智的联姻。”这肯定不是一见钟情。近 5 个月来,金希和该公司 CEO 盖伊·道 勒千方百计阻止米塔尔公司不怀好意的收购。他们发动政治家、银行家、公共关系顾问来帮忙,甚至请俄 罗斯 Severstal 钢铁公司扮演“白衣骑士”,意欲给米塔尔的收购以致命的一击。不过,6 月 25 日,经过长 达 9 个小时的会议之后,一切都水落石出。会上,阿塞洛董事会最终同意将公司以“现金加股票”的方式 卖给米塔尔,总价为 256 亿欧元(约合 322 亿美元)。 The merger will create by far the world's largest steelmaker in terms of market value, r_______② and output. It is good news for Arcelor, for Mittal—and the whole steel industry. The two companies complement each other in geography and the types of steel they produce. Their union is likely to inspire more mergers and takeovers that will increase the industry's efficiency. One banker in the deal says all steelmakers are now asking themselves what they should do next. 综合市场价值、销售收入和钢产量来看,此次并购将造就迄今为止世界上最大的钢铁公司。这对阿塞洛、 米塔尔乃至整个钢铁工业来而言都是好消息。两家公司在地理范围和产品类型方面都有较强的互补性。它 们的联合有可能激励更多的公司实施并购和接管,从而将提高整个产业的生产效率。参与此次并购的一位 银行家说,现在所有的钢铁公司都在盘算下一步的行动。 (2)Because about half of the global steel market is still parochial[3] and fragmented, size brings many advantages. Big companies have more power to negotiate with suppliers and are better able to withstand the industry's cycle. They can exploit synergies in purchasing, and in manufacturing as well as in marketing and trading. Some small producers with a focus on a niche in the market, such as Sweden's SSAB, a company specialising in high-strength steel, are very profitable. But small steelmakers without their own technological e_______③ are unlikely to survive. 由于全球近半数的钢铁市场仍带有较强的地方色彩,而且都处于各自为政的状态,因此企业规模可以带来 许多有利条件。大型公司在与供应商谈判时更有底气,也更善于应对产业周期带来的冲击。它们在采购、 制造以及营销和贸易等方面可以充分发挥协同作用。一些小型公司则瞄准一些利基市场,比如瑞典的瑞钢 集团就是专营高强度钢铁,利润十分可观。但是缺乏自身技术优势的小钢铁公司则将难以立足。 Further consolidation is likely to make the industry healthier. After a painful crisis it has returned to profitability thanks to robust economic growth. In Europe consolidation came to a halt after three big mergers at the end of the Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong last decade. Thyssen and Krupp of Germany joined forces in 1997. Two years later British Steel and Hoogovens of the Netherlands formed Corus. And in 2001 Arcelor was born after Usinor of France merged with Luxembourg's Arbed and Aceralia of Spain. Corus is considered a takeover target while ThyssenKrupp is determined to stay independent—at least for the moment. Hence most of the mergers will probably be in emerging economies. _____________________________________(例如,虽然中国的钢铁需求量现占全球 的三分之一,但其最大的钢铁公司宝钢[Baosteel]仍然比阿塞洛小许多。 ) 进一步的行业整合将会令整个钢铁工业更加健康。由于经济增长有力,钢铁工业虽然会经历一段痛苦的危 机,但很快就能获得较好的回报。在欧洲,自从上世纪 90 年代末三次强强联手以后,行业整合便已告一 段落。1997 年,德国 Thyssen 和 Krupp 联合。两年后,英国钢铁公司与荷兰的 Hoogovens 合并为 Corus 公司。2001 年,法国 Usinor 与卢森堡 Arbed 和西班牙 Aceralia 并组建成了阿塞洛公司。现在有公司正考 虑接管 Corus,而 Thyssen-Krupp 公司则决定独善其身——至少目前是这样。所以,未来大多数并购可能 发生在一些新兴经济体系。例如,中国的钢铁需求量现占全球市场的三分之一,但其最大的钢铁公司宝钢 仍然比阿塞洛小许多。 Lakshmi Mittal, the boss of Mittal Steel, believes that (3)ultimately the industry is likely to be dominated by a handful of producers of more than 100m tonnes a year. His proposed behemoth[4], at any rate, will produce some 120m tonnes a year. But the deal is not quite done yet. First, on June 30th, at least half Arcelor's shareholders must vote against the proposed merger with Severstal to stop it. 米塔尔公司老总拉克什米·米塔尔认为,钢铁工业最终将会成为少数年钢产量超过 1 亿吨公司的天下,而 他一手策划的钢铁巨擘年产量至少将达到 1.2 亿吨。不过,此项收购尚未大功告成。首先必须要做的是, 阿塞洛公司至少半数的股东必须于 6 月 30 日通过投票反对与 Severstal 钢铁公司的合并。 That seems likely. Mr Mittal's bid is now 49% higher than it was in January. (4)He has made further concessions to get Arcelor's bosses to concede defeat, contenting himself with a 43.6% stake in the new company. He gave Arcelor four of the seven s______④ on the management board. Mr Kinsch will be chairman of Arcelor Mittal, as the company will be called, and a bitterly disappointed Mr Dollé will depart. 这看来是有可能的。米塔尔现在的出价要比一月份时高出 49%。为了让阿塞洛高层人员投子认输,他还 作出了进一步让步,即甘愿只要新公司 43.6%的股份。新公司将命名为阿塞洛-米塔尔公司,他将新公司 董事会的 7 个席位留了 4 席给阿塞洛。金希将担任新公司总裁,而失望透顶的道勒则将离职。 Several shareholders, including Romain Zaleski, Arcelor's biggest, with a 7.8% stake, have decided to vote against a merger with Severstal. Even if the Russian deal is approved, Mr Mittal can still scupper[5] it, by buying 73% of Arcelor shares through his own tender offer before it e_______⑤ in July. Again, Mr Zaleski has promised his backing. 包括罗曼·扎尔斯基(阿塞洛最大股东,拥有 7.8%股份)在内的几位股东已经决定投票反对与 Severstal 的合并。即便与俄罗斯人的合并案获得通过,米塔尔仍可以在 7 月份收购要约失效以前通过购买阿塞洛 73%的股权来达成自己的目标。扎尔斯基对此再次表示了支持。 Mr Kinsch, for one, seems resigned to the merger going ahead. He said that he hopes that it will eventually become a marriage of hearts. He also d_______⑥ any regret for the insults he and his lieutenants hurled[6] at the Indian-born entrepreneur's company and culture, including a dismissal[7] of Mittal shares as “monkey money[8]”. Such behaviour was forgotten, he declared, as soon as everyone sat down together at the same table. (5)That sentiment would have sounded more convincing coming from Mr Mittal. 单就金希来说,他似乎已经默许了这次合并。他说他希望这最终会是一次真心诚意的联姻。可对于他和他 的副手曾经恶语中伤这位印度企业家的公司和文化,以及将米塔尔所占股份看成是“猴子钱”而对其不屑 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 一顾,他并不感到后悔。他声称,等到大家坐到一起的时候,就会把这些事忘掉。如果这是米塔尔的感想, 听上去就会更加令人心悦诚服了。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①h________(adj. unfriendly) ②r________(n. money that a business or organization receives over a period of time; income) ③e________(n. something that gives you an advantage over others;advantage) ④s________(n. a position as an elected member of a government, or as a member of a group that makes official decisions) ⑤e________ (v. To come to an end; terminate; run out) ⑥d_________ (v. to refuse to give someone something)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. rebuff v. 回绝;怠慢 2. in the guise of 3. parochial 4. behemoth

打着……的幌子

adj. 受地方限制的;狭隘的 n. 庞然大物

5. scupper v. 破坏(计划) 6. hurl

v. (at)对……破口大骂

7. dismissal

n. 解除;不予考虑

8. monkey money

n. 公司临时股票;外国货币

[TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1.白衣骑士(white knight):为鼓励另一家企业进行成功的公司兼并,一个善意的第三方加入以击退另一竞买 者。 2.猴子钱(monkey money):公司的临时股票,外国货币。米塔尔是一家印度公司,这么说有种族歧视的意 味。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①hostile 不友善的;怀有敌意的(表示“不友善的”:unfriendly/not friendly • cold 冷淡的• inhospitable 不好客的 • hostile • antagonistic 敌对的 • give somebody the cold shoulder 对某人冷淡 • cliquey/cliquish 派系的,小集团的) ②revenue 收入 ③edge 优势 ④seats 席位 ⑤expires 到期 ⑥denied 拒绝(refuse,withhold)

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.For instance, although China accounts today for one-third of global demand, Baosteel, its biggest producer, is much smaller than Arcelor.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 43

Shrinking wireless 微缩无线(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 From The Economist print edition THE miniaturisation of the components of computer chips has proved unstoppable. In each new generation, those components are smaller and more tightly packed than they were in its predecessor. (1)Progress has been so rapid that chip designers are approaching apparently fundamental barriers to further reductions in size and increases in density. One of these is imposed by the need to wire the components in a chip together, so that they can exchange signals. But, in a miniaturised version of the s_______① to wireless communication in the macroscopic world, a group of researchers led by Alain Nogaret of the University of Bath, in England, think they can make chips whose components talk to each other wirelessly. 事实证明,计算机芯片元件的微型化已经势不可挡。新一代芯片的元件越来越小,压缩也越来越紧密。发 展如此之快,致使芯片设计者在进一步缩小元件尺寸、提高元件密集度上逐渐遇到了许多根本性难题。其 中之一就是必须将某一芯片中的所有元件用线连接起来,以便于各元件之间可以交换信号。不过,英国巴 思大学的亚莱恩·诺加雷特负责的一个研究小组认为,通过在微型条件下实现宏观意义上的无线通信,他 们可以制造出具有无线信息交互元件的芯片。 At present, the electronics that transmit and receive the radio waves used in wireless devices are too large to be used within individual chips. But Dr Nogaret believes he can o________② this. Last week he and his colleagues at three other British universities, another in Belgium and a research institute in France won the money to try to build such a device. 当前,无线设备中采用的无线电波输送和接收电子器件都过大,无法应用于单个芯片。但是诺加雷特博士 相信可以解决这一问题。上周,他和来自另外三所英国大学、一所比利时大学以及法国一研究院的同事们 争取到了研制这一设备的资金。 The researchers intend to use the standard lithographic[1] techniques employed in chipmaking to coat a semiconductor with microscopic magnets. (2)These magnets will generate local magnetic fields that point in opposite directions at different points on the chip's surface. Electrons have a property called spin[2] that is affected by magnetic fields, and the team hopes to use an effect called inverse electron-spin resonance to make electrons passing through the chip emit microwaves. 研究人员拟应用芯片制作中所用的标准平版印刷技术,将许多极小的磁铁包被到一块半导体上。这些磁铁 可产生局部磁场,从相反的方向作用于芯片表面不同位点。电子具有一种自旋特性,可受磁场影响,因此 研究小组希望利用一种“反电子自旋谐振”效应,让穿过芯片的电子发射微波。 The technique they are proposing is the r_______③ of the process in medical magnetic-resonance imaging. (3) In MRI, the patient is placed in a strong magnetic field that causes some of his body's atomic nuclei, which act like tiny magnetised spinning tops, to align[3] themselves with the field. These nuclei are then zapped[4] briefly with a second magnetic field that knocks them out of alignment with the first one. The coils in the scanning apparatus detect these magnetic changes, which are used to build up a map of the part of the body being examined. After a few seconds, the nuclei realign themselves with the field, radiating small amounts of energy as heat or, more rarely, as radio waves. Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 他们计划采用的此项技术与医学上的核磁共振成像(MRI)过程恰好相反。MRI 是将患者置于某一强磁场 中,该磁场可让患者机体原子核(其运动类似于磁化的陀螺)顺着磁场方向排列。然后,用第二个磁场短 时轰击这些原子核,使其脱离第一个磁场阵列。扫描仪上的线圈探测到这些磁场变化,并以此构建出患者 受检部位的图谱。几秒钟后,原子核沿磁场方向重新排列,同时放射出少量热能或者无线电波(较少见) 。 In chips, Dr Nogaret proposes to use the spin of the electron rather than the spin of the atomic nucleus. Electrons flowing through the chip would “see” a magnetic field that flips from one direction to the opposite every few hundred nanometres (billionths of a metre). This is the equivalent of zapping a stationary object with an oscillating[5] magnetic field of the sort used in MRI. The changing magnetic field would force the electrons to oscillate, too, but would not allow them to radiate heat. As a result, they would be forced to emit radio waves—or, rather, microwaves, which are s________④ but of shorter wavelength. 而就芯片而言,诺加雷特博士打算利用电子而非原子核的自旋。穿过芯片的电子可以“识别”某一磁场, 该磁场每隔几百纳米(十亿分之一米)就变换一次方向。这相当于不断摆动 MRI 中的磁场,并令其轰击 某一静止物体。不断变化的磁场也可促使电子来回摆动,但不使其散射热能。这样一来,电子仅可发射无 线电波或者更好是微波,后者与无线电波类似,但波长较短。 (4)Dr Nogaret envisages great advances that would stem from the success of his work, and these are not confined to the possibility of packing components yet more tightly. In today's chips, the failure of a single connection can put the whole circuit out of action. This should not happen with a wireless system because it could be programmed to re-route[6] signals. Manufacturers could thus r_______⑤ their standards and produce chips that were cheaper than, but as reliable as, their predecessors. 诺加雷特博士设想此项工作一旦成功将会带来重大突破,而且不仅仅局限于将各元件压缩得更为紧密。目 前的芯片某一条连接出现故障就可能导致整个电路无法运转,而采用无线系统就不会发生这样的问题,因 为可以通过程序控制将信号改道。这样的话,制造商就可以放宽标准,生产出比以前便宜但质量同样可靠 的芯片。 ______________________.(这个项目不会是一帆风顺的。)Generating microwaves powerful enough to transmit data reliably will probably involve stacking several layers of magnets and semiconductors together and encouraging the electrons in them to oscillate in unison[7]. But if it works, a whole new wireless world will be opened up. 这个项目不会是一帆风顺的。如要形成足以准确传输数据的强大微波,可能不但需要叠加数层磁铁和半导 体,而且要促使其中的电子协调一致的摆动。可它一旦获得成功,就将开启一个全新的无线世界。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①s________(n. a change in the way people think about something, in the way something is done etc) ②o________(v. to successfully control a feeling or problem that prevents you from achieving something) ③r________(n. the exact opposite of what has just been mentioned) ④s________(adj. almost the same) ⑤r________ (v. to make a rule or law less strict)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 1. lithographic adj. 平版印刷的 2. spin n. 自旋 3. align v. 排列 4. zap v. 打击;轰击 5. oscillate v. 持续振荡,摇动;摇摆不定 6. re-route v. 变向发送;改道 7. in unison 完全一致;完全协调

[TIPS & BACKGROUNDS] 核磁共振的基本原理 自然界中任何原子核的内部均含有质子和中子,统称核子,都带正电荷。核子具有自旋性,由此产生 自旋磁场。具有偶数核子的许多原子核在自旋磁场中相互抵消,不能产生核磁共振现象。只有具有奇数核 子的原子核才能产生磁场,如 1H(氢)、13C(碳)、19F(氟) 、31P(磷)。氢原子是人体内数量最多的 物质,原子核中只含有 1 个质子而不含中子,最不稳定,最易受外加磁场的影响而产生核磁共振现象。氢 质子带有一个正电荷,又能自旋,其周围形成一个小磁场,产生了某一方向的磁矩。 在无外加磁场的时候,平常人的氢质子杂乱无章的排列着,磁矩方向不一,相互抵消。人体进入强大 均匀的外加磁场 B0 后,体内所有自旋的混杂的氢质子,其磁矩将重新定向,按量子力学规律纷纷从杂乱 无章状态变成顺着外加磁场 B0 的方向(E 方向)排列,绝大部分与 B0 方向一致(处于低能级),少数与 B0 方向相反(处于高能级),最后达到动态平衡。通过表面线圈施加一个与 B0 方向垂直的射频脉冲,受 检部位的氢质子吸收能量向垂直与 E 方向的 XY 平面偏转;射频脉冲中断后,氢质子放出吸收的能量并回 到 E 方向;释放出的能量转化为 MR 信号;在梯度磁场辅助下转化为 MR 图像。 因此, “核”的意思是指核磁共振成像主要涉及到的原子核(尤其是氢原子核)。 “磁”有两个含义:1、 强大均匀的外加磁场 B0。2、叠加一个小的射频磁场和梯度磁场。 “共振”是宏观世界中常见的自然现象。 原子核间能量的吸收及释放可产生共振,处于低能级的氢原子核吸收的能量恰好等于跃至高能级的能级 差,处于高能级的氢原子核释放的能量恰好等于跌落回低能级的能级差。原子核的这种升降波动是在一个 磁场中进行,因此称之为“核磁共振” 。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①shift 转变,转换(表示“一种情况逐渐转变为另一种情况”的词有:transition 转变,过渡,跃迁 • shift 变化,移转 • trend 趋向,通向 • move 移动,迁移 • movement) ②overcome 克服(conquer) ③reverse 相反,反面 〔附注〕 (1)表示“相反的意见、言论等” :opposite n.& adj. 相对的,对立的(事物)• opposing adj.对立的 • diametrically opposed 完全相反• on the contrary 正相反• just the opposite/reverse 恰恰相反 (2)表示“完全不同于别的人或事物的某人或某事”:the opposite 对立面• the reverse 反面 • the other way around 相反(方向)地• vice versa 反之亦然• go to the opposite extreme/go from one extreme to the other 从一个极端走到另一个极端 ④similar 类似的 ⑤relax 放宽

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.The project will not be plain sailing.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 44

Heavyweight metal 举足轻重的金属(陈继龙

编译)

Jun 29th 2006 From The Economist print edition FIRST it was metals, now it is the companies that mine them. In May prices for copper, nickel and other metals rose to record levels, although they have since fallen a bit. Now three mining firms are proposing the most expensive merger in the industry's history. (1)The $40 billion deal, in which an American company, Phelps Dodge, plans to take over two Canadian ones, Inco and Falconbridge, would create the world's biggest producer of nickel, the number two in copper, and the fifth-ranked mining firm overall. The records may not stop there: two other mining firms, Xstrata and Teck Cominco, had previously bid for Falconbridge and Inco r________①, and could make further offers. 一开始价格不断攀升的是金属,而今是矿业公司。5 月,铜、镍和其它金属价格升至创纪录新高,尽管此 前曾有小幅度下跌。而现在,三家矿业公司正在谋划该产业有史以来最昂贵的一次合并。此宗涉及美国菲 尔普斯-道奇公司并购加拿大 Inco 镍业公司和鹰桥公司的交易总额达 400 亿美元,合并后的公司将成为 全球最大的镍生产商和第二大铜生产商,公司整体规模也将位居世界第五。纪录也许还会进一步被刷新 ——此前,另外两家矿业公司瑞士 Xstrata 和 Teck Cominco 公司也曾各自对鹰桥和 Inco 提出过收购要约, 并且有可能进一步抬高价码。 Soaring commodities prices have left mining firms flush with cash and k_______② to expand. One way would be to search for more metal in the ground, instead of on the stockmarket. But organic growth is expensive at the moment; as firms rush to increase their output to take advantage of high prices, every conceivable input, from engineers to mining trucks' huge tyres, is in desperately short supply. Developing new mines is also slow. (2) Mining executives worry that projects that get the go-ahead[1] when prices are high will not look so attractive when the next slump comes. 日用品价格的飞涨让矿业公司现金充足,同时也急欲把业务做大。做大业务的办法之一就是开采更多的金 属,而不是在股市坐收渔利。不过眼下有机增长代价昂贵;当各公司都急于增加产量以借高价之机狠赚一 笔的时候,从工程师到采矿车的巨大轮胎,凡是能想到的各项投入都严重供不应求,而且新矿的开发也太 慢。采矿管理人士担心,到下一轮经济萧条时期来临时,金属高价期间获准开采的工程将风光不再。 That could be true of the proposed merger too, of course. Phelps Dodge offered a premium of 23% over the price of Inco's shares and 12% over Falconbridge's. Those shares, in turn, have been rising for several years along with the firms' wares—nickel, for the most part, at Inco, and nickel and copper at Falconbridge. 上述合并案当然也是这样。菲尔普斯-道奇公司的出价较 Inco 镍业公司、鹰桥公司股市收盘价分别高出 23%和 12%。几年来,随着产量日益增多(主要是 Inco 镍业公司的镍与鹰桥公司的镍和铜) ,这些公司的 股价也持续上扬。 The bosses of the firms insist that the mark-up[2] is justified, for several reasons. For one thing, they r_______③ they can squeeze savings of $900m a year out of the combined entity by 2008, by sharing equipment and personnel among adjacent mines, for example, and pooling their marketing staff. (3)More importantly, they argue that the size and diversity of the new company will make it less vulnerable to mining's painful cycles, and so more attractive to investors. Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 三家公司老总都坚称,这次高价收购完全合情合理。首先,他们估算,截至 2008 年,通过设备和人力资 源共享(如整合销售人员),可以为联合后的新公司每年节省 9 亿美元成本。尤为重要的是,他们认为新 公司的规模和产品多样性将有利于公司免受周期性矿业周期阵痛带来的冲击,因而对投资者就更具吸引 力。 The biggest and most diversified mining companies, such as BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, do boast higher share valuations. They produce everything from aluminium to zircon[3], and so are less susceptible to f_________④ in the price of any particular metal. (4)By the same logic, the more mines a firm is running or developing, and the more countries it operates in, the less risk each individual project poses to profits. 几家世界最大、产品最富多样性的矿业公司,如 BHP Billiton 和 Rio Tinto 公司,也确实推崇定高股价。它 们的产品包罗万象,从铝到锆石不一而足,故而不易受到某一种金属价格波动的影响。同理,一家公司运 营或开发的矿井越多,并且业务涉足越多的国家,某一项工程面临的利润风险就越低。 The merged trio will certainly have a broader geographical spread, with mines in five continents. But its main projects, in stable places like the United States, Canada and Chile, never seemed that risky in the first place. Furthermore, despite having sidelines[4] in cobalt[5] and molybdenum[6], the new firm's fortunes will depend chiefly on the price of copper and nickel—two of most v________⑤ metals of late. 从地理上看,三家公司合并后业务范围肯定将进一步拓展,全球五大洲都将有它们的矿井。但在一些(矿 产量?)稳定的地方如美国、加拿大和智利,其主要项目似乎风险并不太大,这是其一。此外,新公司尽 管还附带经营钴、钼等产品,但决定其命运的主要还是铜和镍的价格,这两种金属最近价格波动最大。 Some analysts m_______⑥ that Phelps Dodge embarked on the merger chiefly to save itself from being taken over. Investors seem to share their doubts: Phelps Dodge's shares fell by 8% after it announced the deal, despite a simultaneous pledge to spend $5 billion on a share buy-back[7] scheme once the merger is concluded. 一些分析人士暗自抱怨说,菲尔普斯-道奇公司进行此次合并,主要是为了让自己免于被别人兼并。投资 者似乎也有同感——虽然菲尔普斯-道奇公司同期投放了 5 亿美元保证金,一俟合并完成,就对股票进行 回购,但在其宣布并购之后,上市股价仍然下跌了 8%。 (5)On the other hand, the price of nickel and copper jumped on the news. Traders seem to have assumed that the companies would have contemplated[8] such an expensive deal only if they thought that metals would remain in short supply for some time. The more money that mining firms spend buying one another, rather than exploring for and developing new mines, the likelier that is. 另一方面,镍和铜的价格总是没完没了地上涨。 (注: “报道”赶不上“变化”快。)交易商好像已经猜到, 这三家公司可能认为一段时间内金属仍将供不应求,才想到此次天价合并交易。矿业公司互相收购(而不 是进行新矿勘探或开发)耗资越多,这种可能性也就越大。

〔译后〕本文属经济类文章,经济学术语较多,本人才疏学浅,翻译起来着实头疼,很多地方可能理解并 不准确,而且用词可能不太规范,望多加谅解并请有关专家友情给予指正。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①r________(adv. in the same order as the things you have just mentioned) ②k________(adj. wanting to do something or wanting something to happen very much [= eager]) ③r________(v. to guess a number or amount, without calculating it exactly) ④f________(n. a change in a price, amount, level etc [= variation]) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ⑤v________ (adj. often changing or likely to change) ⑥m_________ (v. to speak in a low voice, especially because you are annoyed about something, or you do not want people to hear you)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. go-ahead n. (give sb. the go-ahead 或 get the go-ahead)许可 2. mark-up n. 涨价;提价 3. zircon

n. [金属]锆

4. sideline n. 副业;局外旁观;边线 5. cobalt

n. [金属]钴

6. molybdenum n. [金属]钼 7. buy-back

n. 产品返销

8. contemplate

v. 考虑;想到;接受(事实);冥思苦索

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①respectively 各个地 ②keen 急切的;热心的 〔附注〕表示“热心的” (enthusiastic)可用: enthusiastic • keen • eager • be full of enthusiasm • be/get excited about something • be raring to go • zealous ③reckon 估算 ④fluctuations 波动 ⑤volatile 易变的(variable) 〔附注〕表示“易变的或多变的”还有:changeable • erratic • volatile • unstable • variable • inconsistent • unsettled ⑥mutter 嘀咕 〔附注〕表示“低声或模糊地说话”还有:whisper • mutter • mumble • murmur • say something under your breath • grunt

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.The aim now is to convince foreigners.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 45

Blues' delight 痛并快乐着(陈继龙

编译)

(译注:blue 作名词,原意为“蓝色” ,或“蓝色衣服” ,而意大利的队服颜色恰好为蓝色。复数形式 blues 则有“忧郁、沮丧”之意。本标题直译可为“蓝衣军团的快乐”,但显然无法突出文章中心思想——意大 利足球的痛苦与欢乐。) Jul 13th 2006 | ROME From The Economist print edition (1)HE MAY be lumbered[1] with a nine-party coalition and a one-seat majority in the upper house of parliament. But Italy's prime minister, Romano Prodi, seems to have something that could yet offset these h________①: luck. As he himself noted, Italy's win against France in the World Cup final on July 9th was as narrow as his own victory in the election in April. Tied 1-1 after extra time, the Italians won a penalty shoot-out when a Frenchman (who ironically plays for an Italian club, Juventus) hit the crossbar. That gave Italy's captain, Fabio Cannavaro, the trophy—and Mr Prodi a boost, politically and maybe even economically. 无论是九党联盟,还是参议院中仅一个席位的领先优势,也许都让意大 利总理罗马诺·普罗迪感到憋屈。不过他现在似乎拥有了某种可以消除 这些不利影响的东西——运气。他指出,7 月 9 日世界杯决赛中意大利 队战胜法国队, 其过程之艰险,与他自己 4 月份在选举中胜出毫无二致。 加时赛后双方 1 比 1 战平,点球决战中一名法国队员(具有讽刺意味的是,该队员效力于意大利的尤文图 斯俱乐部)击中横梁,意大利人获胜。这场胜利为意大利队的队长法比奥·卡纳瓦罗带来了大力神杯,而 对普罗迪而言,从政治上甚至从经济上看,也是一种鼓舞。 Analysts at ABN Amro, a Dutch bank, have estimated that a World Cup victory adds 0.7% to the winner's GDP, mostly through e_______② demand. Research by another bank, JPMorgan, has found that consumption in European countries that won the cup in recent decades rose afterwards by more than the EU average. Some analysts remain sceptical of a “World Cup effect”, arguing that it merely brings forward spending. But Mr Prodi's own finance minister, Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, thinks (2)Italy's win will have a positive effect “because it has an impact on confidence and signifies that ambitious goals are within our reach”. 荷兰 ABN Amro 银行的分析人士估计,在世界杯上每胜一场,就会使获胜国的 GDP 增长 0.7%,主要是 通过扩大消费需求。另一家银行 JPMorgan 的研究显示,最近几十年获得过世界杯冠军的欧洲国家的消费 均超过欧洲平均水平。但有些分析人士对“世界杯效应”仍持怀疑态度,认为它仅仅是拉动提前消费而已。 不过普罗迪的财政部长托马索·帕多阿-斯基奥帕相信,意大利胜利的效应将是积极的,因为“它不但增 强了信心,也意味着我们雄心勃勃的目标是可以实现的。” (3)Yet the benefits of Italy's victory could be offset by the loss of esteem it would suffer were it to use the triumph as an excuse for taking the easy way out of another challenge. Not the least remarkable aspect of Italy's success is that it was achieved against a background of spectacular footballing strife back home. Thirteen of the 23 members of the Italian squad in Germany play for clubs that are threatened with relegation[2] over a match-fixing scandal. Most at risk is Juventus, a publicly quoted club that supplied five of the players (including Mr Cannavaro). It could be relegated from the first to the third division by a sports tribunal in Rome. The Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong v_______③ were expected to be handed down by the end of this week. 然而,假如意大利以为胜利了就能轻易走出它目前面临的另一个困境的话,就会让人瞧不起,其夺冠带来 的利好效应也会因此消失一空。意大利队的成功最非凡之处在于,它是在国内发生声势浩大的足球纠纷的 情况下获得的。参加世界杯的意大利 23 名队员中,有 13 人效力于因假球丑闻而面临降级的球队。情况最 为不妙的是尤文图斯,这支饱受争议的俱乐部为意大利队输送了 5 名队员(包括卡纳瓦罗)。罗马的体育 法庭有可能把它从甲级降到丙级。判罚结果有望在本周末前公布。 The justice minister, Clemente Mastella, had suggested that the national team's victory might earn the clubs a reprieve[3]. (4)Encouragingly, Mr Prodi would have none of it. His sports minister, Giovanna Melandri, branded the proposal “idiocy”. Just as importantly, some of the players themselves rejected the idea. Gennaro Gattuso, a midfielder who plays for AC Milan, the club owned by Silvio Berlusconi that could also be relegated, said: “_____________________________.(犯了错就应该受到惩罚。)” That is a welcome new thought in Italy. 司法部长克莱门特·马斯特拉暗示说,国家队的胜利也许能为俱乐部赢得喘息之机。好在普罗迪并不同意 这么做。(译注:would have none of something 表示“不允许,不同意”)他的体育部长乔瓦纳·梅兰德里 认为这一提议纯属“白痴行为”。有些队员本人也反对这一提议,这同样重要。效力于 AC 米兰(前总理 贝鲁斯科尼的球队,这次也有可能降级)的中场队员热纳罗·加图索说: “犯了错就应该受到惩罚。”这种 新观念在意大利受到了一致欢迎。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①h________(n. a physical or mental problem that makes someone disabled;disability) ②e________(adj. more of something, in addition to the usual or standard amount or number) ③v________(n. an official decision made in a court of law, especially about whether someone is guilty of a crime or how a death happened)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. lumber v. 1)[vi 始终与副词或介词连用] 笨重、缓慢地移动(lumber up/towards/into/along 等) 2)[vt](get/be lumbered with something)强迫给予某人一项工作;强加责任于某人 如:A career was less easy once I was lumbered with a husband and children. 3)[vi](美国英语)伐木(以准备出售) 2. relegate vt. 1)降级,降职(降到次要位置)relegate somebody/something to something 2)球队降级[反义词:promote] —relegation n. 3. reprieve n. 1)暂缓,喘息之机 [↪ respite] (reprieve from) 2)(死刑)缓期执行 give/grant somebody a reprieve

[TIPS & BACKGROUNDS] 意大利假球案完全审判结果 北京时间 7 月 15 日,拖沓了两个多月的意大利假球案终于正式公布具体审判结果。 涉案球队: Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 尤文图斯:剥夺 2004/05 赛季联赛冠军,不授予 2005/06 赛季联赛冠军。以联赛最后一名降入 2006/ 07 赛季乙级联赛,同时在 2006/07 赛季乙级联赛以负 30 分开始赛季。 AC 米兰:扣除 2005/06 赛季甲级联赛积分 44 分,不能参加明年冠军联赛。同时在 2006/07 赛季甲级 联赛以负 15 分开始赛季; 拉齐奥:以联赛最后一名降入 2006/07 赛季乙级联赛,并以负 7 分开始赛季; 佛罗伦萨;以联赛最后一名降入 2006/07 赛季乙级联赛,同时在 2006/07 赛季乙级联赛以负 12 分开始 赛季。 涉案俱乐部官员:莫吉(前尤文总经理):禁赛 5 年; 吉拉乌多(前尤文董事长):禁赛 5 年; 加利亚尼(AC 米兰副主席):禁赛 1 年; 梅亚尼(前 AC 米兰经理):禁赛 3 年 6 个月; 安德雷亚.德拉瓦莱(佛罗伦萨主席):禁赛 3 年 6 个月, 迭戈.德拉瓦莱(佛罗伦萨名誉主席):禁赛 4 年; 洛蒂托(拉齐奥主席):禁赛 3 年。涉案足协人员: 卡拉罗(前足协主席):禁赛 4 年 6 个月; 马齐尼(前足协副主席):禁赛 5 年。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①handicaps ②extra ③verdicts 〔附注〕词语搭配 consider a verdict (=think about what decision to make) reach/arrive at a verdict (=make a decision) return/deliver/record a verdict (=tell the court your decision) majority verdict (=when most of thejury agrees) 多数票裁定 unanimous verdict (=when the whole jury agrees) 一致裁定 guilty verdict/verdict of guilty 有罪判定 not guilty verdict/verdict of not guilty 无罪判定 verdict of accidental death/suicide/unlawful killing etc 判定为意外死亡/自杀/他杀 open verdict British English (=a decision that the cause of someone's death is not known)存疑判决

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.Those who have committed offences ought to be punished.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学习 作者的写法)

Page 3 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 46

Wag the dog 尾巴摇狗(陈继龙

编译)

(译注:英语中有这样一种说法,即“It’s a case of the tail wagging the dog” ,直译为“这可是一件尾巴摇狗的事。” , 比喻“某个不重要的事物占据主导地位”。)

Jul 6th 2006 From The Economist print edition FOR the past two years in Silicon Valley, the centre of America's technology industry, conference-goers have entertained themselves playing a guessing game: how many times will a speaker mention the phrase “long tail”? It is usually a high number, thanks to the influence of the long-tail theory, which was first developed by Chris Anderson, the editor of Wired magazine, in an article in 2004. (1)Though technologists and bloggers chuckle[1] at how every business presentation now has to have its long-tail section, most are envious of Mr Anderson, whose brainwave quickly became the most fashionable business idea around. 过去两年来,美国科技产业中心——硅谷中参加各类会议的人们都自娱自乐地玩着一种猜谜游戏:一位演 讲者会多少次提到“长尾巴”一词?一般而言,次数会很多。这是“长尾巴理论”的影响使然,《连线》 杂志编辑克里斯·安德森于 2004 年在一篇文章中首创了这一理论。对于如今每个行业都必须表现出其自 身的“长尾巴”,技术专家和博客作家们都觉得很可笑,不过他们多数人都很妒忌安德森,此人的灵感竟 然迅速成了风靡一时的商业理念。 Whether a b_________① film, a bestselling novel, or a chart-topping rap song, popular culture idolises the hit. Companies devote themselves to creating them because the cost of distribution and the limits of shelf space in physical shops mean that profitability depends on a high volume of sales. But around the beginning of this century a group of internet companies realised that with endless shelves and a national or even international audience online they could offer a huge range of products—and make money at the same time. 无论是大片、畅销小说还是领先排行榜的说唱音乐,所有通俗文化都对“热销作品”推崇备至。各公司之 所以致力于打造这些“热销作品”,是因为商品流通的成本以及现实商店货架空间的局限性都意味着卖得 多才赚得多。但在本世纪初前后,一些互联网公司认识到,拥有了无限的货架空间和来自全国甚至全世界 的在线观(听)众,它们所能提供的产品范围就非常广,同时也就可以挣到钱了。 The niche, the obscure and the specialist, Mr Anderson argues, will gain ground at the e_______② of the hit. As evidence, he points to a drop in the number of companies that traditionally calculate their revenue/sales ratio according to the 80/20 rule—where the top fifth of products contribute four-fifths of revenues. Ecast, a San Francisco digital jukebox[2] company, found that 98% of its 10,000 albums sold at least one track every three months. Expressed in the language of statistics, the experiences of Ecast and other companies such as Amazon, an online bookseller, suggest that products down in the long tail of a statistical distribution, added together, can be highly profitable. (2)The internet helps people find their way to relatively obscure material with recommendations and reviews by other people (and for those willing to have their artistic tastes predicted by a piece of software) computer programs which analyse past selections. 安德森认为,那些瞄准市场特殊领域、市场定位模糊或者针对专业人士的产品虽然不能“热销”,但也会 逐渐发展壮大。为了证明这一点,他指出,一直以来通过“二八定律”来计算收入/销售比的公司数量已 经有所减少。根据“二八定律” ,80%的收入都来自销售额居前 5 位的产品。旧金山数字唱片公司 Ecast 发现,在 1 万张唱片中,有 98%的唱片每 3 个月就至少售出 1 个曲目。从统计学角度看,Ecast 以及亚马 Page 1 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 逊在线书店等其它公司的此类经验表明,对分布在统计图中“长尾巴”区域的产品进行集中销售,可以获 取高额利润。互联网帮助人们通过他人的推荐和评点,找到那些市场定位相对比较模糊的产品。对于那些 喜欢利用软件来鉴别其艺术品味的人而言,则可通过计算机程序来分析以往人们的选择情况,从而也能找 到此类产品。 Long-tail enthusiasts argue that the whole of culture will benefit, not just commercial enterprises. Television, film and music are such bewitching[3] media in their own right that many people are quite happy to watch and listen to what the mainstream provides. But if individuals have the opportunity to pick better, more ideally suited entertainment from a far wider selection, they will take it, according to the theory of the long tail. Some analysts reckon that entire populations might become happier and wiser once they have access to thousands of documentaries, independent films and sub-genres[4] of every kind of music, instead of being subjected to what Mr Anderson calls the t________③ of lowest-common-denominator[5] fare. That might be taking things a bit far. But the long tail is certainly one of the internet's better gifts to humanity. 热衷“长尾巴理论”的人认为,受益于这一理论的将是文化整体,而不仅仅是商家。影视和音乐等媒体必 须有一定实力才能让人为之着魔,因此许多人都十分喜欢观看和收听主流媒体提供的节目。但是,根据“长 尾巴理论”,假如一些个人有机会在更大的选择范围中挑选更精彩、更适合自己口味的娱乐节目,他们也 会接受。有分析人士估计,一旦得以欣赏到数以千计的纪录片、独立制作的电影和各种非主流音乐,而不 是受制于安德森所���的“最小公分母”(也就是“随大流”),大家都会更高兴,也更明智。这么说可能有 点言过其实了,但是“长尾巴”肯定是互联网赐予人类的上佳礼物之一。 Conglomerates[6], such as Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, on the other hand, regard the long tail as another swing at them from a dragon-like blogosphere which resents the “mainstream media” or MSM, as bloggers often call it. Lowest-common-denominator hits, after all, are an important part of their business. Like many people connected to the technology industry, Mr Anderson (formerly a journalist for The Economist) clearly relishes[7] the way the internet is challenging traditional media companies. Perhaps because of this, he is a little too dismissive of hits. Some are indeed manufactured and cynical: the music industry b_______④ radio stations to blitz people with tracks they have picked; book publishers pay retailers for the spot in the window; and Hollywood holds back films from honest reviewers lest a bad write-up[8] spoil an opening. But most hits are popular because they are of high quality. As Mr Anderson's book acknowledges, there is an awful lot of dross[9] in the tail. (3)And the way in which the internet makes it easy for people to share likes and dislikes about entertainment will help hits as well as more obscure material. 另一方面,像鲁珀特·默多克新闻公司这样的大集团却认为,“长尾巴”是虎视眈眈的博客圈对它们的又 一轮冲击,而博客圈都对博客作家们通常所谓的“主流媒体” (简称 MSM)深恶痛绝。毕竟对他们行业而 言,属于“最小公分母”的“热销作品”是一个重要组成部分。显然,安德森(曾在《经济学家》担任记 者)喜欢互联网对传统媒体公司的这种挑战。也许正因为此,他对“叫座作品”有点太不屑一顾了,有的 地方甚至带有捏造和挖苦的意味——音乐行业对广播电台施以恩惠,使之将选好的曲目铺天盖地地播放给 人们收听;图书出版商为了能在橱窗中占得一席之地就要掏钱给零售商;好莱坞担心实话实说的影评人乱 说一气搞砸了影片首映而对其避而远之。其实,大多数“热销作品”之所以受欢迎是因为其一流的品质。 诚如安德森的书中所承认的那样,“长尾巴”的确有着许多糟糕的粗制滥造品。对“热销作品”以及许多 市场定位模糊的产品而言,互联网这种让人们轻松分享对娱乐节目好恶的方式都是有帮助意义的。 Mr Anderson has backed away somewhat from his original article in Wired in which he suggested that the long tail would be a bigger market than the hits. His book says, more cautiously, that “all those niches can potentially add up to a market that is as big as (if not bigger than) the hits.” Perhaps the true effect of unlimited digital distribution on individual media choices will be even more positive than he imagines. It may be that only the Page 2 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong middling, manufactured sort of hit will fall by the wayside: the g________⑤ popular variety will remain just as powerful. Most hits start somewhere in the long tail and move up; so as content in the tail becomes easier to discover, the hits that emerge from it should also be of higher quality. 相比原先在《连线》杂志撰写的那篇文章中所阐述的观点而言,安德森现在已经有所收敛。当时,他认为 “长尾巴”将比“热销作品”拥有更大市场。而他的这本书却比较谨慎地写道, “从发展潜力上看,市场 所有特殊领域将构成一个与‘热销作品’市场一样大(如果不是更大的话)的市场。 ”数字发行量的无限 性对个人选择媒体的真正影响也许比他想象得要更具有积极意义。或许只有那些质量一般、胡编乱造的所 谓“叫座作品”才会无法长久立足,而真正受欢迎的作品仍将一如既往地强势。大多数“热销作品”最开 始也属于“长尾巴”,后来才得以步步攀升;只要“长尾巴”中的产品更容易被人发现,从中涌现的“热 销作品”也应当具有较高的品质。 One weakness of this otherwise excellent book is that it tries to apply the theory of the long tail to fields far beyond entertainment and e-commerce. Offshoring, for instance, is the long tail of labour, says Mr Anderson, and there is also a long tail of national security, in which a “short head” of state violence has been challenged by niche producers such as gangs and terrorists. (4)In trying to find long tails everywhere, Mr Anderson risks diluting some of his idea's meaning and novelty. 这本书虽说十分优秀,但也存在不足之处,那就是它试图将“长尾巴”理论应用于远远超出娱乐和电子商 务之外的领域。比如说,安德森认为外包业是劳动力中的“长尾巴”,还认为国家安全也存在“长尾巴” , 国家行政暴力由于“考虑不周”而被一些帮派和恐怖主义者等机会分子钻了空子。安德森冒昧地刻意淡化 其某些观点的意义和新奇性,企图表明“长尾巴”放之四海而皆准。 The cover of Mr Anderson's book promises to answer the question: “Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More”. But his book may alarm as well as help businessmen. Karl Marx once described a communist society in which “nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes...to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner.” Mr Anderson suggests that the long tail is bringing about something similar. ( 5 ) The tools of media production—computers, desktop printers, video cameras—are now so widely and cheaply available that a generation of young people are becoming amateur journalists, commentators, film-makers and musicians in their spare time, rather as the philosopher imagined. Amateurs offering their work free of charge will contribute a significant portion of the long tail, so at the very end there will be a “non-monetary economy[10],” says Mr Anderson. If true, that could prove to be the most fascinating long-tail effect of all. 从封面上看,该书似乎要回答这样一个问题——“未来大买卖为什么越做越小”。不过,本书对商人们而 言,既具警示意义,也有帮助作用。卡尔·马克思曾如此描述共产主义社会: “人们的活动都不是孤立的, 但每个人不管做什么事情,只要如其所愿,都能驾轻就熟……早晨狩猎,下午垂钓,傍晚养畜,晚餐后指 点江山。”安德森认为, “长尾巴”也在产生类似的效应。如今媒体制作工具如计算机、打印机、摄像机等 都十分普及,价钱也不贵,以致于年轻一代闲来无事都成了业余记者、评论员、电影出品人和音乐家,这 跟马克思所设想的颇为类似。安德森说,业余爱好者由于免费提供其作品,因此将在“长尾巴”中占相当 大的比例,于是最终会形成一种“物物交换经济”模式。设若果真如此,那将可能是最富魅力的“长尾巴” 效应。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①b________(n.

a book or film that is very good or successful) Page 3 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ②e________(n. the amount of money that you spend on something) ③t________(n. cruel or unfair control over other people) ④b________(v. to illegally give someone, especially a public official, money or a gift in order to persuade them to do something for you) ⑤g________ (adv. actually; honestly; really)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. chuckle v.(at) 轻声地笑,暗自发笑 2. jukebox n. 投币式自动点唱机 3. bewitching adj. 令人着迷的,让人着魔的 4. genre n. 流派 5. lowest-common-denominator n. 最小公分母(的);〔引申〕被大多数人接受的 6. conglomerate n. 大公司,联合企业,集团 附注:大公司(a big company): corporation, multinational, conglomerate 互联网公司(an Internet company): dot-com 子公司(a company that is owned by a larger company): subsidiary, affiliate 公 司 名 缩 写 形 式 ( abbreviations used in company names ) : Ltd (Limited) ; Co. (Company) ; Corp. (Corporation);PLC (英国人用法,Public Limited Company,澳大利亚和南非则用 Pty.,即 Proprietary) 7. relish v. 欣赏,品味 8. write-up n. (关于新书、电影的)评论;报道 9. dross n. 次品,废物,渣滓 10. non-monetary economy 物物交换经济

[TIPS & BACKGROUNDS]

长尾巴理论:根据 wikipedia 的解释,长尾(Long Tail)是 2004 年 Chris Anderson 在给连线杂志的文章中 首次使用的词汇,用以描述某种经济模式如 Amazon.com 或 Netflix。长尾术语也普遍使用于统计学中,如 对财富分布或词汇应用的统计。长尾理论的基本原理是:只要存储和流通的渠道足够大,需求不旺或销量 不佳的产品所共同占据的市场份额可以和那些少数热销产品所占据的市场份额相匹敌甚至更大。即众多小 市场汇聚成可与主流大市场相匹敌的市场能量。Google 被认为是安德森长尾理论的最佳例证。Google 所 服务的客户正是那些品牌影响力不够强大,而且渠道不健全的中小企业。Google 的 Adsense 服务 80%的 产业尾巴,从而获得成功。 二八定律:又称 80/20 法则,由意大利经济学家帕累托 1897 年提出,他的统计结论显示,20%的人口拥 有 80%的财富。虽然这并非严格的准确数字,80/20 法则还是被广泛用以指导商业活动,比如营销学中认 Page 4 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 为 20%的客户购买了 80%的产品,因而营销将面向这些主流客户。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①blockbuster 轰动(影片、著作)(best-seller, hit) ②expense 代价;损失(at the expense of 归……付费;在损害……的情况下) ③tyranny 〔附注〕 表示“a government that controls people's lives too much”:dictatorship 独裁 • police state 极权国家• junta 军政府• tyranny 暴政,专制 • totalitarian 极权主义者 • oppressive 压迫性的 ④bribes(kickback 回扣,小费;backhander 回扣;bung 好处费,小施恩惠) ⑤genuinely 真正地 〔附注〕 (1)表示“when someone really feels something”:really • real • sincere • genuine • heartfelt • from the heart • truly • true (2)表示“not false or artificial”:real • genuine • authentic • bona fide 真诚的(地) ;真实的(地) • natural • the real thing 上等货,原装货,地道货 • the genuine article • the real McCoy 真品,真货

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

Page 5 of 5


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 47

Who's your Daddy? 你爸爸是谁?(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 13th 2006 | HONG KONG From The Economist print edition (1)SO CHINA got its way after all. The takeover battle for PCCW, Hong Kong's incumbent telecoms company, ended this week before it had even properly begun. On July 10th Francis Leung, a local t_______ ①, stepped in to buy a 23% stake in PCCW held by its founder and chairman Richard Li, for HK$9.2 billion ($1.2 billion). Mr Leung's offer, for the moment at least, scuppers[1] bids from two private-equity firms, Australia's Macquarie Bank and America's TPG-Newbridge, which were both willing to pay HK$60 billion for all of PCCW's telecoms and media assets. 中国这次总算如愿以偿了。本周,一场争夺香港电信公司 PCCW(电讯盈科)控股权的较量甚至还没有真 正开始就收场了。7 月 10 日,香港大实业家梁伯韬介入,以 92 亿港元(12 亿美元)的价格收购了电讯盈 科公司创始人及总裁李泽楷持有的该公司 23%的股份。至少从目前看,梁伯韬的出价让两家私有股份公 司——澳大利亚麦格理银行和美国 TPG 新桥投资集团的竞购落了空。这两家公司均希望支付 600 亿港元 以收购电讯盈科全部电信和媒体资产。 (2)That Mr Leung appeared on the scene so quickly is surprising; the original bids became public just a few weeks ago. That he has appeared at all is less so. The Chinese government, through China Netcom, a state-owned telecoms group that owns 20% of PCCW, opposed a “foreign” takeover and wanted the Hong Kong firm to stay in local hands. Netcom believed that Mr Li's attempt to sell the firm's assets v________② a pact that gave Netcom a say in any sale of the company. That Mr Li apparently did not mention this pact to the private-equity bidders suggests that he knew his planned sale would displease his Chinese partner. 梁伯韬这么快就亮相,着实令人感到惊讶;公开竞购也就是几个星期前的事。本来,他的出现早在人们意 料之中。(译注:less so 应该指代 less surprising,at all 表示“根本上”。全句大概意思是:考虑到梁本人与政府的关系, 他的出现是迟早的事,人们本来不会感到特别意外,但他会这么快就“闪亮登场”就有些出人意料了。)中国政府由持 有电讯盈科 20%股份的国有电信公司——中国网通出面,反对由“外资”控股,希望这家香港公司能继 续掌握在本地人手中。网通认为,李泽楷擅自出售电讯盈科资产,违反了一条关于网通对参与公司任何出 售行为均拥有发言权的协定。李泽楷对那两家私有股竞购公司只字不提这一协定,表明他明知他筹划的这 次出售会令中方感到不快。 Though Macquarie and Newbridge were prepared to bring Netcom and Hong Kong investors into their consortia[2] and d________③ themselves into a minority position, it was not enough. As the co-founder of Peregrine Investments, a Hong Kong investment bank that pioneered the flotations[3] of “red chip” mainland companies on the Hong Kong stockmarket in the 1990s, Mr Leung's strong links with China proved decisive. Though Peregrine went bust during the Asian financial crisis of 1997-98, Mr Leung emerged unscathed[4] and went on to hold senior jobs, including one at Citigroup Asia. Most importantly, he is the favourite banker of Li Ka-shing, Hong Kong's richest man and the father of Richard Li, whose takeover of Hong Kong Telecom by PCCW Mr Leung helped to organise in 2000. 麦格理和新桥虽然已经准备好将网通和香港投资者纳入它们的企业集团,并且打算逐渐减少控股数,但还 是不够火候。事实证明,作为香港百富勒投资银行创办人之一的梁伯韬,他同中国政府的密切关系起到了 决定性作用。上世纪 90 年代,百富勒一度成为“根正苗红”的内地公司在香港股市发行股票的开路先锋。 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 虽然该银行在 1997 年至 1998 年间发生的亚洲金融危机过程中破产,但梁伯韬本人却安然无恙,并且继续 步步高升,其中包括曾在花旗银行担任高级职务。最为重要的是,这位银行家很受香港首富、李泽楷之父 李嘉诚青睐,而李泽楷用于并购香港电讯公司的电讯盈科就是在 2000 年由梁伯韬协助组建的。 This week's deal means that Hong Kong's main telecoms assets stay in local hands, but are in effect controlled by Netcom. Macquarie and Newbridge go away empty-handed, at least for now.(3)One person close to events, however, believes they could end up taking a stake in any consortium formed by Mr Leung to finance the purchase of his stake. 本周的这场交易意味着香港电信核心资���虽仍掌握在香港人手中,但实际上却处于网通的操控之下。麦格 理和新桥两手空空地打道回府了,至少目前如此。然而,某知情人士认为,无论梁伯韬为了筹资购股将组 建怎样的企业财团,它们可能最终还是会参股。 It is PCCW's public minority shareholders who are the clear losers. Mr Li hopes to appease them by paying them around HK$0.35 a share as a special d________④ from his own pocket. That is the difference between PCCW's share price before takeover talks started and Mr Leung's offer: Mr Li is, in effect, giving away his premium.(4) Even so, minority shareholders stood to gain far more from a sale to one of the two private-equity bidders; and PCCW's share price has fallen more than 90% since 2000. 很显然,电讯盈科的小股东才是输家。李泽楷希望通过自掏腰包,向他们支付每股约 0.35 港元的特别股 息,从而平息其愤怒。这一特别股息相当于并购商谈开始之前电讯盈科每股售价与梁伯韬报价之间的差价 ——事实上,这就等于李泽楷在派发自己的交易溢价。即便如此,假如电讯盈科是出售给那两家私有股份 公司,这些小股东得到的好处将远不止这些;何况 2000 年以来,电讯盈科的股价已经下跌了超过 90%。 Mr Li comes out smiling, having struck what was probably the best deal he could get. He collects cash for most of his stake (though he is allowing Mr Leung to pay 70% of the total price later) and can now focus on other ventures. (5)The chief damage is to his ego. Mr Li's attempt to escape from his father's shadow by building up PCCW over the past few years has failed. All the talk in Hong Kong is that his exit, via Mr Leung, was at least partly arranged by Dad. At the same time, this sorry s_______⑤ demonstrates with equal clarity that Hong Kong's real daddy is Beijing. 李泽楷笑盈盈地退出了电讯盈科,同时对什么才是最划算的交易心里也有了底。他的大多数股票都得以套 现(虽然他后来同意梁伯韬可以延后支付 70%的款项),现在可以把目光对准其它投机生意了。要说受到 伤害,主要还是他的自尊心。过去几年来,李泽楷一直试图通过发展电讯盈科走出其父亲的阴影,可最终 还是功亏一篑。所有香港人都说,他能够藉梁伯韬介入之机退出电讯盈科,至少部分出于其父亲的安排。 与此同时,这一令人感到遗憾、富有传奇色彩的事件同样也清楚地表明,香港真正的“父亲”是北京。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据首字母以及括号内的词性提示和英文释义填入单词(注意复数、时态形式变化等): ①t________(n. ②v________(v. ③d________(v. ④d________(n. company) ⑤s________ (n.

someone who is successful in business or industry and has a lot of money and power) to disobey or do something against an official agreement, law, principle etc) to make a quality, belief etc weaker or less effective;water down) a part of a company's profit that is divided among the people with shares in the a long story about events that happen over many years)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. scupper v.破坏计划(多用于新闻报道,=scuttle);故意沉船,凿沉 2. consortium n. (pl. consortia)财团;企业集团 3. flotation n. 股票发行(时间) 4. unscathed adj. (escape/emerge ~)未受伤的;安然无恙的

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①tycoon 大亨,巨头(media/property/business/newspaper tycoon) ②violated 违反(表示“to not obey a rule or law”:disobey 违反,不服从 • break a rule/law 违反规则; 违犯法律 • violate • disregard 漠视;忽视• contravene 违犯;与……相抵触• flout 侮辱,轻蔑;无视 ③dilute 削弱;淡化 ④dividend 股息;红利 ⑤saga 传奇;长篇故事(与“故事”有关的词汇:story 故事• tale 故事;传说• fiction 小说;虚构的 故事 • myth 神话 • legend 传说;传奇• anecdote 奇闻轶事 • saga • epic 史诗;伟大事迹)

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 48

Friendship and trade 友谊与贸易(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 20th 2006 | DANDONG From The Economist print edition CHINA'S main lifeline to North Korea, a narrow road-and-rail bridge _______① the Yalu river, does not suggest there is much business to do on the other side. A trickle[1] of trucks flows along its single-lane carriageway, which stretches for less than 1km (barely half a mile). Hours go by _______② a train.(1)The North Koreans hoped a few years ago to create a busy investment zone on their side, but all they have is a shabby town of mostly idle factories. At night it is an expanse of darkness with only a few pinpricks[2] of light. 中国与朝鲜之间的重要交通线——一座横跨鸭绿江的狭窄的公路、铁路两用桥——并不表示江对岸有多少 生意可做。在这条全长不到 1 公里(约半英里)的单车道上,仅稀稀拉拉地行驶着几辆卡车。几个小时里 都没有一列火车通过。朝鲜几年前曾希望在它们那头建成一个繁忙的投资区,但它们现在拥有的只是一 座满是停产工厂的破旧城市。到了晚上,这里到处都是漆黑一片,只有零星的几点灯光。 (2)Yet trade is picking up. Chinese trucks crossing the Friendship bridge—built by the Japanese in 1943 and bombed by the Americans during the Korean war—are filled _______③ more than just the bare necessities of life. China still props up North Korea with supplies of grain and oil. But in the past few years the trucks have begun transporting more machinery for factories and electronic products such as television sets for a small but affluent elite. And North Korean businessmen have become a familiar sight in Dandong, ________④ the Chinese end of the bridge, staying at the best hotels in what to them must seem a fantasy land of bourgeois luxury. 但是现在鸭绿江两岸的贸易却有了起色。 (译注:pick up 指“改善,有起色”)驶过这座友谊桥——1943 年由 日本人建造,朝鲜战争中被美军炸毁——的中国卡车满载的不再仅仅是生活必需品。虽然中国仍通过供应 粮食和石油来支撑朝鲜,但在过去的几年里,这些卡车开始为朝鲜工厂运送它们所需的机器设备,为极少 数有钱人运送电视机之类的电子产品。在这座桥中国一端的丹东常常可以看见朝鲜商人的身影,他们住在 当地的一流宾馆里——对他们而言那就像是一块享尽资产阶级奢华的乐土。 China exported $1.08 billion-worth _______⑤ goods to North Korea last year, 35% more than in 2004 and 122% more than in 1995, according to Chinese statistics. More than half of all trade in 2005 was handled by Dandong. Less promisingly for North Korea, exports to China fell by 14.8% to $499m. (3)North Korea makes little of interest to the Chinese, as the paltry array of North Korean trinkets on sale in Dandong suggests. But there is demand _______⑥ North Korea's raw materials. Dandong's tour boats take visitors close to the North Korean bank where they can see timber piled up ready for shipment across the river—close to a hotel that rarely has guests and a fairground[3] Ferris wheel that never moves. 中国统计数字表明,去年中国向朝鲜出口额达到 10.8 亿美元,较 2004 年增长 35%,比 1995 年增长 122%。 2005 年全年超过一半的贸易是在丹东完成的。朝鲜的情况则不太妙,对中国的出口额减少了 14.8%,仅为 4.99 亿美元。从朝鲜人在丹东销售的一些廉价小装饰品上可以看出,朝鲜人在中国几乎挣不到什么钱。 (译 注:interest to the Chinese 是指“吸引中国人的地方” ,make little of…则表示“几乎没有利用上”,也就是说朝鲜有吸引中国 人之处,但不善加以利用,只会做一些小本买卖,因而很难赚钱。注意:此句不是“of little interest to sb.” ,后者指“对……

)但中国人需要朝鲜的原材料。当丹东的游船载着游客靠近朝鲜岸边时,他们会看见成堆 没有多少吸引力”。 的随时将被跨江运往中国的木材——紧挨着的却是一家门庭冷落的旅馆和一台从不转动的游乐场转轮车。 Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Some Chinese even show interest in investing in North Korea. (4)Sinuiju, the town on the North Korean side of the bridge, has attracted little attention since North Korea declared it to be an investment zone in 2002. The Chinese-born Dutch businessman named by North Korea to run the zone was jailed for fraud by China soon afterwards. North Korea has since devoted more attention _______⑦ developing Kaesong near its border with South Korea. 一些中国人甚至对到朝鲜投资萌生了兴趣。自 2002 年朝鲜宣布将新义州(位于友谊桥朝鲜一端)变成投 资区以来,该地并没有吸引多少人的注意。被朝鲜指定经营这一地区的那位荷兰籍中国商人后来不久就因 诈骗被中国拘禁。从那以后,朝鲜将更多的注意力放在开发位于朝韩边界附近的开城上。 _______________________________________.(但是最近十来家丹东公司已在朝鲜开业了,其中包括饭店 和一家打火机厂。 )In Dandong's main bookshop, the only book on North Korea is a guide for investors. It advises Chinese businesses not to rush in blindly, not to expect quick returns and not to comment _______⑧ North Korean politics. 但是最近十来家丹东公司已在朝鲜开业了,其中包括饭店和一家生产打火机的厂。在丹东最大的书店,有 关朝鲜的书只有一本投资指南。它建议中国企业家不要盲目投资朝鲜,不要指望很快获得回报,不要对朝 鲜政治说三道四。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文,在空白处填入适当介词: (备选:to, at, across, up, for, on, in, of, over, through, with, without, by) 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. trickle n.滴,淌;稀疏的人流、车流、货流 2. pinprick n.一小片(点);小孔;小烦恼 3. fairground n. 露天市场;集市

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①across ②without ③with ④at ⑤of ⑥for ⑦to ⑧on

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3. But a dozen or so Dandong firms have recently set up businesses, ranging from restaurants to a factory making cigarette lighters.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 49

Mr Bush's first veto 布什首次动用否决权(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 20th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition

FIVE and a half years into his p_______①, George Bush finally vetoed a bill this week. (1)Oddly enough, it was one that most Americans support: it would have expanded federal funding for embryonic[1] stem-cell research. The House and Senate had both passed the bill by wide, but not veto-proof margins, so Mr Bush's word is final, at least until after the mid-term elections in November. 本周,乔治•布什最终对一项法案行使了他担任总统五年半以来的第一次否决权。说也奇怪,这是一项大 多数美国人都支持的法案——加大联邦政府对胚胎干细胞研究的资助。虽然参众两院均通过了此项法案, 但并未获得可以避开总统否决权的多数票,(译注:根据美国法律,总统无权否决在国会获三分之二多数 通过的法案。 )因此布什的意见是决定性的,至少在 11 月中期选举前是如此。 Stem cells are cells that have not yet decided what they want to be when they grow up. That is, they can become blood cells, brain cells, or pretty much any other type of cell. Their versatility makes them extremely useful for medical research. The e_______② snag[2] is that the best stem cells are harvested from human embryos, killing them. For the most ardent pro-lifers[3], including Mr Bush and many of his core supporters, that is murder. Proponents of embryonic stem-cell research point out that hordes[4] of embryos are created during fertility treatment, and the vast majority of these are either frozen indefinitely or destroyed. _______________________. (难道将它们应用于可能具有挽救生命意义的研究真的错了吗?) (2)Yes, said Mr Bush on July 19th, flanked[5] by some families who had “adopted” other people's frozen embryos and used them to have children of their own. 干细胞是一种尚未确定成熟为何种细胞的细胞。也就是说,它们可以变成血细胞、脑细胞或者几乎所有其 它类型的细胞。它们的多功能性使其对医学研究极为有用。阻碍干细胞研究的伦理问题在于,最好的干细 胞都是在将人类胚胎杀死之后从中采集的。对包括布什及其核心支持者在内的大多数坚决反对堕胎的人而 言,这就是谋杀。支持干细胞研究的人指出,研究所用的胚胎都是通过人工受孕形成的,而且绝大多数将 被无限期冷冻或者杀死。难道将它们应用于可能具有挽救生命意义的研究真的错了吗?7 月 19 日布什说, 是的。一些“领养”了他人冷冻胚胎、并用来怀上自己孩子的家庭也站在了他这边。 Mr Bush's veto does not kill stem-cell research. Scientists who spurn[6] federal cash may do as they please. The government still pays for research on stem cells taken from adults, a process that does not kill the d_______③. (3)And a decision by Mr Bush in 2001 allows federally-funded scientists to experiment on the few dozen embryonic stem-cell “lines” that already existed then, which can be propagated[7] in a laboratory. 布什的否决没有彻底封杀干细胞研究。对联邦政府资助不屑一顾的科学家们只要愿意,还是会照搞不误。 政府仍将为成人干细胞研究提供资助,此类研究不用杀死干细胞供者。布什 2001 年决定同意获政府资助 的科学家仅对少量已经采集到的干细胞“系”进行实验,这些干细胞系可以在实验室中繁殖。 Nonetheless, scientists are furious with Mr Bush. Federal funding would surely push them faster towards those e_______④ cures. Research based on adult stem cells may be promising, but not nearly as promising as that based on embryonic ones. There are worries that those few dozen embryonic stem-cell lines represent too narrow a gene pool, and that they cannot be endlessly extended without damaging them. (4)Other countries, such as Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Britain and China, are enthusiastically experimenting on embryonic stem cells. But the world's most innovative nation is hanging back. 但是,科学家们仍对布什非常不满。联邦政府的资助必将推动他们更快找到根治那些疑难杂症的方法。虽 然成人干细胞研究也许有着不错的前景,但仍比不上胚胎干细胞。还有人担心那些极少数的冷冻胚胎干细 胞系所包含的基因谱过窄,如若不被破坏,应用范围就得不到拓展。英国和中国等一些其它国家正在热火 朝天地开展胚胎干细胞实验,而美国这个世界上最具创新精神的国家却打起了退堂鼓。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文及英文释义,完成单词填空: ①p______(n. the period of time during which someone is president) ②e______(adj. relating to principles of what is right and wrong [= moral]) ③d______(n. someone who gives blood or a body organ so that it can be used in the medical treatment of someone else) ④e______(adj. difficult to achieve or understand) 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文): 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. embryonic adj.胚胎的 2. snag n.暗桩;阻碍,障碍 3. pro-lifer n. 反对堕胎者 4. horde n.群;游牧部落 5. flank v.在……的两侧;夹击 如:Lewis entered flanked by two bodyguards. 刘易斯进去了,身边左右各有一名保镖。/mountains flanking the road 马路两旁的山峦 6. spurn v.傲慢地拒绝;拒斥 7. propagate v.繁殖(reproduce);传播,宣传

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①presidency 总统任期 ②ethical 合乎道德的(表示“morally good behaviour”的词汇:good • right • ethical • decent 正派的, 端庄的• honorable 值得尊敬的 • be above/beyond reproach 无可指摘的) ③donor 供体(如:blood donor 献血者) ④elusive 难懂的;难找的 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3. Is it really wrong to use them for potentially life-saving research?

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 50

Hero or bully? 英雄抑或恶霸?(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 20th 2006 From The Economist print edition (1)WHEN lawyers speak, laymen are often baffled. So it is refreshing to hear an exchange such as the following, between the attorneys-general of New York and California, as reported in the American Lawyer. “You want to step outside, that's fine! I grew up in the Bronx!” said Eliot Spitzer, New York's attorney-general. “No problem,” shouted Bill Lockyer, California's attorney-general, “I grew up in east LA. Let's go!” In the end, the two men settled their dispute without v________①. 当律师们说话的时候,外行人通常都感到匪夷所思。所以,下面这段争吵听上去让人感觉很新鲜。据《美 国律师》报道,争吵发生在纽约和加里福利亚两位首席检察官之间。纽约的首席检察官艾里奥特·斯皮策 说: “您想出去遛遛,那好!我可是在布朗克斯(译注:纽约一行政区)长大的。”加里福利亚首席检察官 比尔·洛基尔则大叫道: “没问题,我是在洛杉矶东部长大的。咱们走吧!”最终两人和风细雨地结束了论 辩。 What does this i_______② tell us about Mr Spitzer, who is likely to be elected governor of New York state this year? As the title of Brooke Masters's new biography suggests, Mr Spitzer is a combative fellow. He can be admirably plain-spoken, too. (2)But his aggression is not always channelled to useful ends, and he sometimes talks up a tempest but fails to follow through. 就今年可能当选纽约州州长的斯皮策而言,这段小插曲意味着什么呢?布鲁克·马斯特斯的新传记标题表 明,斯皮策是个好斗之人,同时也因说话直来直去而受人钦佩。不过,他的好斗并不总是善始善终,有时 为了点小事大做文章,却不能坚持到底。 To his boosters, Mr Spitzer is a paragon among prosecutors: diligent, imaginative and incorruptible. (3)He gets up at five and, after a run and shower, works tirelessly to bring mighty malefactors[1] to justice. He cut his teeth breaking up a mob-connected trucking cartel[2]. On becoming New York's top prosecutor in 1998, he went after bigger targets. In 2002, for example, he wrung[3[ a $1.4 billion settlement out of ten investment banks for hyping[4] dud[5] stocks to small investors, among other transgressions[6]. His record of fighting for the little guy makes him an ideal Democratic candidate. 在斯皮策的拥护者看来,他是检察官中的典范——工作勤奋、富有想像力而且清廉。他早上五点起床,跑 跑步,再洗个澡,然后不知疲倦地工作,直到顽固的犯罪分子受到法律制裁。在打破勾结犯罪团伙垄断货 车运输业的某卡特尔一案中,他小试牛刀。 (译注:cut one’s teeth [on sth.]初学乍练)1998 年成为纽约最高 检控官后,他开始追求更大的目标。例如在 2002 年,他迫使十家投资银行签订了一份价值 14 亿美元的补 偿协议。这些银行涉嫌用无效股票欺诈小本投资者等多项犯罪。他这种为小人物而战的经历使他成为一名 理想的民主党候选人。(译注:本人对股票不甚了了,不太清楚这个 dud stocks 到底指的是什么,不过下 面这段话可能有助于你我了解:Some people are getting rich off the internet; you could too. But every investor must ask themselves if they can handle and afford the risk. You could pick a dud stock and lose all your money, but on the other hand, you could pick the next Yahoo, Ebay (EBAY) or Amazon (AMZN) and become a multi-millionaire.) To his detractors[7], Mr Spitzer is a bully who abuses his office to further his political career. Bashing[8] Wall Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Street generates vote-wooing headlines. But his critics charge that he sometimes disregards due process. He makes accusations amid media fanfare[9] and then quietly drops them when he cannot find evidence that would stand up in court. By threatening to indict[10] whole companies—spelling certain bankruptcy—he forces their managers to settle. Ms Masters, a Washington Post reporter, is studiously even-handed in telling the story, but it is clear where her sympathies lie. Her first chapter is e_______③: “When markets need to be tamed”. 对于诋毁他的那些人来说,斯皮策则是一个为了提高政治地位而滥用职权的恶霸。非难一下华尔街就可以 成为头版头条的新闻,还能争取到选票。但是,批评人士指责他有时置正常的诉讼程序于不顾。他先提出 指控,搞得媒体沸沸扬扬,然后当他无法找到有效的证据时又悄悄地撤回。他威胁要起诉所有公司——从 某种程度上看,这将意味着破产——从而迫使这些公司的经理们达成和解协议。马斯特斯(《华盛顿邮报》 记者)在记述中很注意保持一视同仁的态度,但她到底同情谁还是一目了然。本书第一章的标题就是—— “当市场需要压制之时” 。 Her book is thorough and often engaging. (4)We learn that Mr Spitzer came from a competitive family where Scrabble routinely sparked friendly but intense squabbles[11]. His father, a squillionaire[12] property developer, once reduced young Eliot to tears during a game of Monopoly. “He said, _____________________, (借钱不还就有你好看的。)” Mr Spitzer recalled. 她的书记述很全面,也有不少吸引人的地方。据说斯皮策生于一个喜爱竞争的家庭,在这个家庭中,就算 是拼字游戏也照样能引发友好而激烈的口角。他的父亲是一个腰缠万贯的房地产开发商,曾在一次“大富 翁”游戏中把年幼的艾里奥特给逼哭了。斯皮策回忆道:“他说,借钱不还就有你好看的。 ” Mr Spitzer's combativeness, says Ms Masters, has led some observers to wonder whether he has “the temperament to serve effectively as governor, a multifaceted executive job that require[s] both administrative and conciliation skills.” (5)Or, as the Wall Street Journal more pithily[13] put it, New Yorkers should question “whether Mr Spitzer's habit of publicly smearing individuals while bringing no charges in court is appropriate behaviour by any prosecutor, much less one running to be New York's governor.” 马斯特斯说,斯皮策的好斗性格让一些观察人士怀疑他是否具有“胜任州长这一需要管理和调解双重技能、 涉及面广的行政工作的气质”。或者像《华尔街杂志》更为直截了当地说的那样,纽约人应当质疑“斯皮 策公开诬蔑个人却不诉诸法庭的习惯对于一名检控官——更遑论一个即将成为纽约州长的人——而言是 否得体。”

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,完成单词: ①v________(n. behaviour that is intended to hurt other people physically) ②i________(n. an event, especially one that is unusual, important, or violent) ③e________(v. to give a name to)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. malefactor n.坏人;罪犯 2. cartel n.卡特尔;同业联盟 3. wring v.(out of)强迫获得;逼迫某人说出(真相) 4. hype v.大肆宣传;大作广告 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 5. dud n.无用之物;作废的东西 6. transgression n.越界;违法犯罪 7. detractor n.诽谤者;诋毁者 8. bash v.严责;非难;重击 9. fanfare n.大张旗鼓;炫耀;号曲 10. indict v.起诉;控告 11. squabble n.口角;为琐事争吵 12. squillionaire 亿万富翁〔squillion 表示极大的数字(在 trillion 之上),该词在诸如韦伯、朗文、剑桥等 词典上都没有摘录,通过 google,尚知其意,是一个上世纪 80 年代才创造出的新词,类似的还有 zillion〕 13. pithily adj.简洁的;精练地 Monopoly: a very popular type of board game that has been sold since the 1930s. Players use toy money to buy streets and buildings on squares on the board, and then make other players pay rent if they move onto those squares. The squares on the board show the names of real streets in cities in the US (=in an American Monopoly set), London (=in a British Monopoly set), or other big cities around the world. People sometimes use the expression Monopoly money to mean a very large amount of money(类似于台湾的“大富翁”游戏)

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①violence 暴力 相关用词搭配:act of violence 暴力行为 physical violence 发生身体接触的暴力 domestic violence (=violence between a man and woman in their home)家庭暴力 racial/ethnic violence (=violence between different groups of people)种族暴力 use/resort to violence (=behave violently)使用暴力;动武 violence erupts/explodes (=there is suddenly a lot of violence)突发大规模暴力事件 ②incident 事件;事变 ③entitled 命名

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3. you're going to learn what happens when you borrow and you don't repay

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 51

The seven-year itch 七年之痒(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 27th 2006 | MACAU From The Economist print edition THE army of workers operating along what used to be Macau's waterfront is conducting “land reclamation[1]”: dumping sand into the water to create more land on which to build ever more casinos, resorts and hotels in the formerly Portuguese playground. Cranes and bulldozers beaver away[2] throughout the territory, building new high-rises. Like most of China's booming conurbations[3], Macau is paying an environmental price; the air is thick with smog and dust, and the Pearl River has transferred some of its p_______① to Macau's seas. (1)But the damage pales when set against[4] the promise of growth, and billboards proudly herald the coming of “the Las Vegas of Asia”. 在过去曾是澳门码头的沿线地区,成群结队的工人们正在“填海造田”:把沙子倒进水中以形成更多的陆 地,从而在这片曾经是葡萄牙人的一亩三分地上建造更多的赌场、度假村和饭店。起重机和推土机无处不 在,全力以赴地建造着新的高楼大厦。同中国大多数飞速发展的大都市一样,澳门正在为此付出环境上的 代价。空气中弥漫着烟雾和灰尘,一些来自珠江的污染物也流入了澳门附近海域。但是,展望未来发展, 这种损失算不了什么。一张张广告牌自豪地昭示着“亚洲的拉斯维加斯”即将来临。(译注:pale 指“逊 色、失色”,此处的 when set against 可以用“before”或“beside”来代替,意为“相比……”) Amid all the buzz, the music from a boat docked at the inner harbour sounds a strange note. The red-robed musicians and their audience are Taoists engaged in a religious ceremony. As the musicians play their instruments, the believers on board burn incense and e_______② scraps of food into the water as an offering to the gods.(2) The contrast of ancient ritual with feverish modernisation is the story of modern Macau: the story of development transforming a once-sheltered nook[5]. 内港码头边停靠的一艘小船上传来的音乐夹杂在一切喧嚣之中,调子听上去怪怪的。身着红袍的乐师及其 听众们都是一些道教信徒,他们正在举行一个宗教仪式。乐师们演奏着乐器,船上的信徒们一边烧香,一 边将供品倒进水中。古老的仪式与狂热的现代化之间的这种反差诉说着这样一个关于现代澳门的故事—— 让一个曾经偏僻的小地方面貌一新的发展故事。 Macau's stunning economic boom—2004 saw its GDP grow by 28%—has been powered by gambling, tourism and the construction necessary to support such endeavours. Since Stanley Ho, Macau's most famous casino mogul[6], found his monopoly on the gambling industry broken in 2001, American firms such as Wynn Resorts and Las Vegas Sands Corporation have stepped in to build impressive new f_______③. (3)Visitors include rich and powerful Chinese, wishing to indulge in games of chance illegal on the mainland, as well as tourists from nearby countries like South Korea and Singapore. 赌博、旅游以及相关的支撑性建设推动澳门经济发生了令人瞠目结舌的增长——2004 年其 GDP 增长 28 %。自从澳门最有名的赌场大亨何鸿燊对博采业的垄断在 2001 年被打破以来,永利度假村有限公司和拉 斯维加斯金沙公司(注:建造了金沙会展中心)之类的美国公司逐步登陆澳门,建造了许多面目一新的设 施。参观者中包括有钱有势的中国人,他们希望在赌博中碰碰运气,而赌博在内地是非法的。此外,还有 来自邻近国家如韩国和新加坡的旅游观光者。 There has been a price. Construction firms are eager to hire immigrants from Fujian, Guangdong and even Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Shanghai who are willing to work for lower wages than the local Macanese. (4)The ill-will thus created was evident last May 1st, when locals (quite a few of whom were also illegal immigrants when they first arrived) rioted. They protest that outsiders are finding jobs in the new economy while many middle-aged Macanese remain j_______④. 增长是有代价的。建筑公司都迫切希望雇用来自福建、广东甚至上海的移民,这些人要求的薪水要比澳门 本地人少。当地人对外乡人由此萌生的敌意从去年 5 月 1 日当地人(其中相当一部分人初到澳门时也属于 非法移民)发生的骚乱中就可见一斑。他们抗议说,在新经济形势下,外乡人都找到了工作,而许多澳门 本地的中年人却仍然没有工作。 Ethnic tension is growing too. Macau is thoroughly cosmopolitan[6], with Nepalis, Brazilians and Filipinos working beside Portuguese and Chinese. But the relationship between them and the newly arrived mainlanders is problematic. “The mainland Chinese are rude and look down on us,” says a Nepali security guard, a sentiment echoed by many locals. And though the authorities have failed to keep mainlanders out, foreigners who have worked there since long before the handover are finding it hard to bring their families over. “My daughter won't be joining me because it's hard to get a work p_______⑤ now,” says one Filipino, who has worked in Macau for 24 years. 种族之间的关系也日益紧张。澳门完全是一个“世界性的大家庭”,在这里工作的除了葡萄牙人和中国人 之外,还有尼泊尔人、巴西人和菲律宾人。不过他们与最近到来的内地人之间的关系出现了问题。一名尼 泊尔保安说: “内地人很粗野,还瞧不起我们。”这一观点引起了许多本地人的共鸣。还有,当局不禁止内 地人进入澳门,可移交之前很早就在这里工作的外国人却发觉难以将其家人接过来。一名在澳门已经工作 了 24 年的菲律宾人说:“由于现在很难拿到工作许可证,我的女儿不能来到我身边了。” It is not only racial harmony that is under threat. Under Portugal Macau escaped many of the depredations of the Cultural Revolution, and it remains one of the last r_______⑥ of traditional Chinese culture. Figurines[7] depicting the god of wealth sit outside most doors, attended by burning sticks of incense. The temples of Tin Hau, Kum Iam and Pak Tai continue to draw the faithful, who take pride in pointing out that their religion has survived both the rule of Portuguese Christians and the handover to atheist China. (5)Such piety[8], however, sits uncomfortably with the gambling, the neon lights and prostitution that are forever gaining ground. 面临威胁的不仅仅是种族和睦。在葡萄牙的管辖下,澳门避免了文化大革命的破坏,它现在仍旧是传统中 国文化最后的宝库之一。大多数人家门口都坐立着财神像,守护它的是一根根燃烧的焚香。天后庙(妈祖 阁)、观音堂(普济禅院)和菩提禅院一如既往地吸引着虔诚的信徒,他们自豪地说,无论是在葡萄牙基 督教的统治下,还是在移交给信奉无神论的中国之后,他们始终都能坚持自己的宗教信仰。然而,这种虔 诚却艰难地与没完没了的赌博、霓虹灯以及卖淫共存着。 (6)The old order, at least, is not particularly pleased by the prospect. “It used to be just a sleepy fishing village when I was a child,” recalls a middle-aged resident. “We used to pump water up from hand-wells.” He sighs. “I have no idea what it's going to look like a year from now.” 至少可以讲,未来的发展与旧的生活秩序有一点格格不入。(译注:直译可为“至少可以说,未来的希望 并没有让旧的生活秩序感到特别满意。”)一位中年居民回忆说:“在我还是一个孩子的时候,这里只是一 个静寂的渔村。”他叹了口气说道: “过去我们常常从自己打的水井中舀水,不知道再过一年会是什么样。 ”

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文及英文解释,完成单词: ①p_______(n. substances that make air, water, soil etc dangerously dirty) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ②e________(v. to remove everything that is inside something) ③f________(n. [often pl.] rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose) ④j________(adj. unemployed) ⑤p_______(n. an official written statement giving you the right to do something) ⑥r________(n. a place or container in which large quantities of something are stored)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. reclamation n.开垦;改造(v. reclaim) 2. beaver (away) v. 努力工作 n.海狸(毛皮) 3. conurbation n. 有卫星城的大都市(adj. conurban 大都市的;城市圈的;卫星城的) 4. nook n. 僻静处;隐蔽处;犄角旮旯 5. mogul n.显要人物;大家;有权势之人 6. cosmopolitan adj.世界性的;全球的 n.四海为家之人 7. figurine n.小雕像;小塑像 8. piety n.虔诚;孝行

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①pollution 污染物 〔附注〕 a.表示“good for the environment”:environmentally friendly 环境友好的;不妨害环境的, eco-friendly 生态友 好的, sustainable 可持续的, recyclable 可回收的,可重复利用的, biodegradable 生物可降解的, renewable 能 再生的, organic 有机的 b.表示“people who want to protect the environment”: greens 绿色和平主义者, eco-warriors 生态保护斗 士 c.表示“things that cause harm to the environment”: pollution 污染物, greenhouse gases 温室气体, global warming 全球变暖, acid rain 酸雨, deforestation 森林采伐 ②empty 倒 ③facilities 设施 ④jobless 失业的;无业的(表示“to not have a job”:not have a job/be without a job • be out of work • unemployed • jobless • be on the dole 领取固定救济金的) ⑤permit 许可证(warrant,license) ⑥repositories 仓库;宝库 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 52

India's deadly Maoists 要命的印度毛派分子(陈继龙

编译)

(译注:Maoism 其实就是毛泽东思想,是西方对毛泽东思想不准确的称呼。Maoist 则表示坚持毛泽东思 想的人,“毛派分子”属于比较右的译法。这里站在印度角度看,如此译相对恰当一点,毕竟他们势力不 大。在印度有一个纳萨尔派(Naxalite),说它是“毛派” ,正因为其是由主张通过农民武装斗争夺取政权 的共产党人所组成的。至于 deadly 的译法,请参见文章的最后一句话。 ) Jul 26th 2006 | DELHI From Economist.com “ THE single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country,” is how Manmohan Singh, India’s prime minister, in April described its Maoist rebels, known as “Naxalites”. Many were taken aback: a violent i_______ ① in Indian-administered Kashmir has claimed tens of thousands of lives; its north-eastern states are wracked[1] by dozens of secessionist movements; and its cities have been subject to repeated terrorist atrocities—c_______② in this month’s bomb attacks in Mumbai, which killed nearly 200 people. 4 月,印度总理曼莫汉·辛格这样描述该国的毛派叛乱分子(亦即纳萨尔派分子)——“我国国内安全面 临的一个最大考验”。印属克什米尔地区的一场暴乱夺去了数以万计人的生命;印度东北部各邦被数十个 分裂组织搞得支离破碎;许多城市不断遭受恐怖分子肆虐——这在本月孟买发生的炸弹袭击事件中更是达 到极致,造成近 200 人丧生。所有这些都让许多人感到非常震惊。 Compared with such well-known horrors, the Naxalite threat is low-key, insidious[2], and, to the city-dweller, largely i_______③. Yet it now affects at least 170 of India’s 602 districts: a “red corridor”, running from the Nepali border in the north to the state of Karnataka in the south. It takes in some of the poorest parts of India, and in particular forests inhabited mainly by tribal peoples. In some places Naxalites have, in effect, replaced the state, running local affairs through their own councils, and administering their own rough justice. (1)The Indian government estimates that the Naxalites, heirs to a 40-year old movement that splintered[3] and then united in 2004, now have some 10,000 armed fighters, and a further 40,000 full-time supporters. 相比此类众所周知的恐怖事件,纳萨尔派分子造成的威胁则不太引人注目,其动机也比较阴险,而且对于 城市居民而言,大部分都未曾亲眼目睹。然而,它的影响现在却波及印度 602 个区(亦即印度的县)中的 至少 170 个,形成了一条从北部与尼泊尔接壤地区绵延到南部卡纳塔卡的“红色走廊”。这条“走廊”覆 盖了印度一些最贫穷的地区,尤其还包括主要是部落人群定居的森林地带。在一些地方,纳萨尔派分子事 实上已经取代州政府,通过自己的议会来管理当地事务,并自行草草行使司法审判。印度政府估计,纳萨 尔派现在大约拥有 1 万名武装分子,此外还有 4 万名忠诚支持者。当年,一个存在 40 年之久的组织发生 瓦解,但在 2004 年又重新集结,就此组成了纳萨尔派。 They have also executed ever-larger military operations: attacking trains, arranging jail-breaks and, most recently, arranging a co-ordinated attack on a police station, a paramilitary base and a resettlement camp for people Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong displaced by the conflict. In one attack, on July 17th, some 800 Naxalites were involved, and more than 30 people were killed—mostly h_______④ to death with axes. 他们也已实施过几次较大的军事行动,如袭击火车、组织劫狱,而且就在最近,他们对一个警察局、一座 议会办公大楼和一所安置冲突中转移人群的安置营地发动了一次协同突击。大约有 800 名纳萨尔派分子参 与了 7 月 17 日的一次袭击,超过 30 人在袭击中丧生——大多是被斧头砍死。 That came in Dantewada, a remote, forested, dirt-poor and sparsely populated district in the south of Chhattisgarh state. Dantewada has become the main focus of the war with the Naxalites, following the e_____⑤ in the district, a year ago, of an anti-Maoist movement, known as Salwa Judum. This is usually translated as meaning “peace march” in the local language, Gondi, but is perhaps closer to “purification drive”. (2)Portrayed as a spontaneous response to Maoist exactions[4], Salwa Judum is now—and many say always has been—an arm of the state, where about 5,000 local tribal people have been armed as “special police officers”, and pitted against[5] the Naxalites. 我们来说说丹德瓦达。这是一个森林密布、人烟稀少的偏远穷困地区,位于查蒂斯加尔邦南部。一个名叫 “萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”的反毛派组织一年前在丹德瓦达揭竿而起,随后该地区就成了与纳萨尔派交战的中心。 按当地方言“冈德语” , “萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”一词为“和平进军”之意,不过译作“净化运动”可能更为贴 切。人们把“萨尔瓦-朱杜姆”说成是一个回应毛派分子强硬行为的自发组织,它现已成为——而且许多 人都说从来都是——一支政府军。政府将大约 5000 名土著武装成“特别警官”,锋芒直指纳萨尔派分子。 As part of this campaign, villages have been emptied, supposedly in order to protect the residents from the Maoists, but often, in practice, in order to root out Maoist sympathisers. Another aim may have been to p______ ⑥ the Maoists into violent retaliation, and so lose them local support. (3)The result has been a bloody local war in which at least 350 people have so far lost their lives, and nearly 50,000 are holed up[6] in relief camps, with little prospect of being allowed back to their villages, and harbouring well-founded anxieties about the state’s ability to protect them. 作为这一打击的一部分,许多村庄都被清空,据说是为了保护村民不受毛派分子攻击,但通常实际上都是 为了肃清毛派支持者。另外,还有一个目的就是激惹毛派分子实施武力报复,从而使其丧失民心。一场地 区性血腥戮战已经由此暴发,迄今至少有 350 人丧生,近 5000 人躲到难民营中,他们几乎看不到任何能 够重返村庄的希望,也完全有理由为政府对他们的保护能力感到担忧。 A huge swathe[7] of Dantewada, where no roads penetrate the forest, remains outside the government’s control. There, the Maoists are well-entrenched[8]. Nearly 60 years after independence, the Indian state has still failed to deliver to these parts even r_______⑦ development: roads, schools, health-care. A big iron mine in the district employs mainly outsiders and pollutes a river. It is easy to see why a crude, violent ideology, discredited even in its homeland, might take root, and why Mr Singh might be right about the Naxalite threat. (4)Other terrorists attack the Indian state at its strongpoints—its secularism, its inclusiveness and its democracy. Naxalism attacks where it is weakest: in delivering basic government services to those who need them most. 丹德瓦达地区辽阔而狭长,森林中没有一条公路,可谓是天高皇帝远。毛派分子在那里的根基十分稳固。 独立近 50 年来,印度政府甚至没有将一些根本性的发展举措比如修路、建校、医疗带到这些地区。当地 的一个大型铁矿雇用的大都是外国人,而且还污染了一条河流。如此看来,为何一个粗糙的、暴力性的, 甚至在本国都遭到质疑的意识形态(译注:这里,世界观以及历史背景的不同导致本文作者对这一拯救中 国人民于水深火热之中的伟大理论所作的评论有失偏颇,读者自当权衡,不可听而信之。)能够在印度生 根结果,为何辛格那样描述纳萨尔派分子的威胁是正确的,就很容易明白了。别的恐怖分子对印度政府都 是攻其所“长”——它的世俗、包容和民主,而纳萨尔派分子却是攻其所“短”——为那些最需要的人提 供政府式的服务。 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,完成单词: ①i_______ (n. an attempt by a group of people to take control of their government using force and violence [= rebellion]) ②c_______( v. to reach the highest point or degree; climax) ③i_______(adj. cannot be seen) ④h_______(v. to cut something roughly or violently;chop) ⑤e________(n. when something begins to be known or noticed) ⑥p________(v. to make someone angry, especially deliberately) ⑦r________(adj. very basic and not advanced)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. wrack v. 亦作 rack,毁坏;破坏 2. insidious adj. 暗藏危害的;阴险的 3. splinter v. 裂成碎片;(组织)分裂 4. exaction n. 强征;索要 5. pit against 使对立;使竞争 6. hole up 避难或藏匿 7. swathe n. 长而窄的地带 8. entrenched adj. 确立的;不容易变动的(in)

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①insurgency 叛乱 ②culminating 达到顶点 ③invisible 看不见的,无形的 ④hack 砍 (类似词汇:cut 切,砍 • snip 剪断• slit 切开,撕裂• slash 猛砍,鞭抽• stab 刺 • hack) ⑤emergence 浮现;出现 ⑥provoke 激怒;煽动 ⑦rudimentary 根本的;未充分发展的

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 53

The dream of the personal computer PC 之梦(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 27th 2006 From The Economist print edition NOT many 25-year-olds can reasonably claim to have changed the world. The IBM personal computer, which was launched in 1981 and celebrates its 25th birthday in August, is a rare e_______①. Other personal computers had been launched before; but it was the IBM PC that ended up defining the standard around which a vast new industry then coalesced[1]. IBM, the titan of the computing world at the time, quickly lost control of its own creation, allowing others to reap the benefits.(1) But leave aside what the PC has done for the fortunes of particular companies, and instead step back and consider what the PC has done for mankind. 没有多少 25 岁的人或者公司可以理智地断言自己改变了这个世界。IBM 个人电脑(PC)是个特例,它 1981 年投放市场,今年 8 月将迎来 25 周年庆。早前也有其它的 PC 投放市场,但最终确立 PC 标准的则是 IBM, 随后这一标准便成为一个庞大的新产业结合点。作为当时计算机领域的巨头,IBM 很快就对自己的成果 失去了控制,使得其它公司从中受益。但是,我们姑且不论 PC 给个别公司所带来的财富,先退一步想想 PC 为人类所做的贡献。 The PC's most obvious achievement has been to help make computers cheaper, more widely available and more useful than ever before. Before it appeared, different computers from different m________② were mostly incompatible with each other. (2)The PC's architecture was not perfect, but its adoption as an industry standard made possible economies of scale in both hardware and software. This in turn reduced prices and enabled the PC to democratise computing. PC 最显著的成就在于使得计算机比以前更便宜、更普及、更有用了。在 PC 面世之前,不同生产商制造 的不同计算机大都互不兼容。PC 的结构设计并不完美,但作为一种产业标准,它的采用让软硬件方面的 规模经济成为可能,从而也降低了价格,使得 PC 可以实现计算机大众化。 It is also worth celebrating the innovation that has been unleashed[2] by the PC. Its flexible, general-purpose architecture has made it the platform on which new technologies, from voice-over-internet calling to peer-to-peer file-sharing, have been incubated. Most important of all, the PC has, in the past decade, turned primarily into a communications device, thanks to the rise of the internet. (3)Cheap, fast global communication, online commerce, the ability to find the answer to almost any question on the web using a search engine and the many other wonders of the internet are all underpinned[3] by the widespread availability of inexpensive, powerful PCs. 同样值得庆祝的还有,PC 为创新打开了局面。它灵活多用的结构设计使其成为互联网对话和点对点文件 共享等新技术的开发平台。最为重要的是,由于互联网的发展,PC 在过去十年里已经开始变成一种通讯 设备。廉价而快捷的全球通讯、在线商务、可以使用搜索引擎在网上找到几乎所有问题答案以及其它许多 互联网奇迹,都是以价格不高、功能强大的 PC 的普及应用作为支撑的。 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong But although the PC has its m______③, it also has its faults. (4)Its flexibility has proved to be both a strength and a weakness: it encourages innovation, but at the cost of complexity, reliability and security. And for people in the developing world, PCs are too bulky, expensive and energy-hungry. When it comes to extending the benefits of digital technology—chiefly, cheap and easy access to information—to everyone on the planet, the PC may not be the best tool for the job. 不过,PC 有其优点,也有其缺点。事实已经证明,它的灵活适用性可谓有利有弊——促进了创新,却失 去了复杂性、可靠性和安全性。而且,对于发展中国家的人来说,PC 体积过大,价格不菲,且耗电量多。 如果就数字技术带给这个星球上所有人的好处——主要是获取信息既便宜又容易——而言,PC 也许并非 最好的工具。 Look on the streets of almost any city in the world, however, and you will see people clutching tiny, pocket computers, better known as mobile phones. Already, even basic handsets have simple web-browsers, calculators and other computing functions. Mobile phones are cheaper, simpler and more reliable than PCs, and market forces—in particular, the combination of pre-paid billing plans and microcredit schemes—are already putting them into the hands of even the world's poorest people. (5)Initiatives to spread PCs in the developing world, in contrast, rely on top-down funding from governments or aid agencies, rather than bottom-up adoption by consumers. 然而,站在世界上几乎任何一个城市的大街上,你都将看到人们手持极小的袖珍计算机,也就是手机。就 连一些基本配置的手机都已经拥有简单的网络浏览器、计算器和其它数据处理功能。手机比 PC 便宜,操 作简单,也更为可靠。而且,市场力量——尤其是预付费设计和小额存款方案——已经把手机带到了世界 上最贫穷的人的手中。与手机不同的是,PC 能在发展中国家得到普及,则主要依靠政府或援助机构自上 而下的专项资助,而非消费者自下而上的(自主)选用。 Merchants in Zambia use mobile phones for banking; farmers in Senegal use them to m_______④ prices; health workers in South Africa use them to update records while visiting patients. All kinds of firms, from giants such as Google to start-ups such as CellBazaar, are working to bring the full benefits of the web to mobile phones. (6) There is no question that the PC has democratised computing and unleashed innovation; but it is the mobile phone that now seems most likely to carry the dream of the “personal computer” to its conclusion. 赞比亚的商人用手机存款,塞内加尔的农民用手机监控价格,南非的卫生工作者访视患者时用手机更新记 录。各种各样的公司,包括像 Google 这样的巨头和 CellBazaar 之类的小公司,无不在努力将所有网络优 势整合到手机上。毫无疑问,PC 使计算机变得大众化,并为创新打开了局面,而现如今手机却似乎最有 可能终结这一“PC”梦想。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,完成单词: ①e________(n. something or someone that is not included in a general statement or does not follow a rule or pattern) ②m________(n. a company that makes large quantities of goods) ③m________(n. an advantage or good feature of something) ④m________(v. to carefully watch and check a situation in order to see how it changes over a period of time)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3.汉译英(根据译文提示和上下文,在空白处填入相应英文): Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. coalesce v. (into/with) (事物或观点)结合,接合 2. unleash v. 发泄,放纵;给狗解开皮带 3. underpin v. 巩固;支撑,支持

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①exception 例外 ②manufacturers(maker, producer)制造商 ③merits 优点 ④monitor 监控 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 54

The bird flu capital of the world 世界禽流感之都(陈继龙

编译)

Jul 27th 2006 | JAKARTA From The Economist print edition LAST week, Indonesia announced its 43rd human death from bird flu. It has now recorded more fatalities than any other nation, and in stark[1] contrast to all other countries its death toll is c_______① regularly. _________________________________(现在看来,情况似乎不但未见好转,反而要愈发地糟糕。 ) 印尼上周宣布本国第 43 人死于禽流感。它的死亡纪录现已超过其它任何一个国家,并且与其它各国形成 鲜明对比的是它的死亡人数还在不断攀升。现在看来,情况似乎不但未见好转,反而要愈发地糟糕。 The Indonesian government claims to be committed to fighting the disease, caused by the H5N1 virus, but it does not seem to want to spend much of its own money doing so. (1)After the international community pledged $900m in grants and slightly more in very soft loans to combat the spread of bird flu globally and to help nations prepare for a possible human flu pandemic[2], Indonesia put in a request for the full $900m—all of it in grants. 虽然印尼政府声称有责任与这一由 H5N1 型病毒所致的疾病作斗争,但是它似乎并不希望自己为此投入很 多资金。国际社会承诺捐款 9 亿美金,同时提供稍多数额的超低息贷款(译注:软贷款是指借款国可用本国软 货币偿还的贷款。软货币即软通货,如纸币,区别于硬通货如黄金。此类贷款利息很低,主要用于帮助别人) ,以阻止禽 流感在全球扩散,并帮助各国做好可能发生的人流感大范围流行的防范准备,可是此后印尼竟然要求将全 部 9 亿美金据为己有——而且全部以捐款的形式。 A national bird-flu commission was created in March to co-ordinate the country's response but it has yet to be given a budget. Its chief, meanwhile, has just been given a second full-time job—h_______② efforts to rebuild the part of Java devastated by an earthquake in May. 今年 3 月,印尼成立了全国禽流感委员会,旨在协调本国应急反应工作,不过其所需专项资金至今仍未到 位。其间,该委员会主席正好又被安排了第二份专职工作——负责遭 5 月份地震毁坏的爪哇岛部分地区灾 后重建工作。 (译注:此段是指“虽然有了组织机构,但由于缺乏资金以及有关领导无法专心工作,禽流感防治工作不能 取得进展。) Observers say that the available money is being mis-spent, with the focus on humans rather than on animals. The agriculture ministry, for example, is asking for less money for next year than it got this year. (2)This is despite hundreds of thousands of hens dying every month, to say nothing of infected cats, quails, pigs and ducks. Farmers are being c________③ at only 2,000 rupiah (21 cents) per bird, well below market price, thereby discouraging them from reporting outbreaks. The country's veterinary[3] surveillance services are inadequate. Pledges to vaccinate hundreds of millions of birds have not been met. 观察家说,现有资金使用不合理,投放重点应该是动物而不是人。例如,农业部为明年申请到的资金就比 今年少。这等于是对每月死去的成百上千只鸡坐视不理,更不用说被感染的猫、鹌鹑、猪和鸭了。农民们 每只家禽得到的补偿仅为 2000 卢比(21 美分) ,远低于市场价格,这使得他们不再积极报告发病情况。 该国的兽医监督服务力度也不够,要为数千万只家禽注射疫苗的承诺到现在都没有兑现。 (3)The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation is starting to establish local disease-control centres to Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong cope with the effects of a virulent mutation, should one occur, but reckons that only one-third of the country will be covered by year's end. A bunch of international do-gooders[4] that is trying to plug some of the gaps is finding it hard to raise money. 联合国粮农组织正在准备建立地方疾病控制中心,以应对可能发生的病毒突变所造成的后果。不过该组织 估计到今年底印尼全国只有 1/3 的地区将建成此类中心。国际上众多想法天真的慈善家也在竭力填补这其 中的一些缺口,却发现难以筹措所需资金。(译注:do-gooder 不是“做好事的人” ,而是指“真心实意有 志于为社会谋福利或进行改革,但通常是不现实的人道主义者——一般带有过于天真或浮躁鲁莽,徒劳无 功等贬义”。 ) (4)In fairness, Indonesia has many priorities to deal with. It is contending with the a________④ of earthquakes, a volcanic eruption and a tsunami—all in the last seven weeks. More than 1,500 children die every day from treatable illnesses such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, dengue fever and malaria. Besides, many Indonesians either do not believe the hype—they point to the SARS threat in 2003 that never materialised[5]—or say that if outsiders are so worried they should pay for the necessary measures. 平心而论,除了禽流感,印尼还有许多更重要的事情要处理。(译注:priority 需要优先考虑的事)过去 7 个星期内发生的地震、火山爆发以及海啸等灾后工作已经让它应接不暇。每天还有超过 1500 名儿童死于 可以医治的疾病,如肺炎、肺结核、登革热和疟疾。此外,多数印尼人要么认为那些宣传实属危言耸听 ——他们指出,2003 年的 SARS 疫情威胁并没有真的到来——要么就说,外人要是这么担心,那他们就 应该自己花钱采取必要的措施。 The UN's bird flu tsar[6], David Nabarro, is a diplomat. (5)He calls the issues involved “really tricky” and says recrimination[7] achieves little. It will take “many, many months”, he thinks, for Indonesia to get on top of bird flu. Keep your fingers crossed. 联合国禽流感事务高级协调员戴维·纳巴罗则是一个擅长使用外交辞令的人。他称这里面的问题“实在棘 手”,并说一味指责只会收效甚微。他认为,印尼尚需“很多、很多个月的时间”才能完全控制禽流感疫 情。但愿如此吧。(译注:get on top of 完全控制;keep sb’s fingers crossed 祝成功)

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①c_______(v. to increase in number, amount, or level) ②h_______(v. to be in charge of a team, government, organization etc) ③c________(v. to pay someone money because they have suffered injury, loss, or damage) ④a________(n. the period of time after something such as a war, storm, or accident)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : 3. 汉译英(根据中文,在空白处写出英文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. stark adj.刻板的;死板的;完全的;刺耳的;刺目的 2. pandemic adj.&n. 大范围流行的(疾病);大流行的(疾病) 3. veterinary adj. 兽医的 4. do-gooder n. someone who helps people who are in bad situations, but who is annoying because their help is not needed - used to show disapproval 爱管闲事的人;一厢情愿的乐善好施者(通常用于表示不赞成) 5. materialize v. 使具体化;实现,成真 6. tsar n.(czar)沙皇;掌权者;被任命的有特权的官员 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①climbing 上升;增长(表示“increase”的词汇有:increase • go up/rise • grow • climb • gain • escalate • pick up • widen • be on the increase • intensify • expand • build up) ②heading 负责;领导 ③compensate 赔偿;补偿 ④aftermath 灾后时期 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) 3.It looks as though things will get worse before they get better.(注:答案肯定不是唯一,但至少你可以学 习作者的写法)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 55

Evolve or die 不进 则 退(陈 继 龙

编译)

Jul 27th 2006 From The Economist print edition (1)THE personal computer spawned[1] a new industry. But many of the firms that initially flourished in the PC era are now finding life difficult. Dell, the leading PC-maker, issued a profit warning last week that sent its share-price to a five-year low. Intel is trying to regain ground lost to AMD, its increasingly confident competitor. Microsoft has just announced that it will buy back 8% of its shares for around $20 billion—a sign that its high-growth days are behind it. 个人计 算机(PC)造就了一个新产 业 。然而,众多最初在 PC 时 代兴 盛一时 的公司如今却发 现 举 步 维 艰 。头 号 PC 制造商戴尔 公司上周发 布了一则 利润 警报 ,造成其股价跌至五年来最低水平。因特尔 也在设 法夺 回被其信心与日俱 增的对 手——AMD 所 占领 的市场 。微软 则 刚 刚 宣布将以 200 亿 美元左右的价格回购 其 8%的股份——这 意味着它曾经 的高速增长 时 代已成过 眼烟 云。 (2)But none of these firms is in mortal danger. That is more than can be said for many of the smaller firms of a similar vintage[2] to the PC. Novell's two top executives departed in June following a string of poor results. Silicon Graphics filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in May. 3Com replaced its boss earlier this year following lacklustre[3] performance. Borland shed one-fifth of its workforce and is preparing to sell the best-known part of its business; this month its finance chief r_______①. 不过 ,这 些公司还 没有哪一家面临 灭 顶 之灾,而许 多同期开 始生产 PC 的小公司就说 不准了。Novell 公司的两位最高执 行官由 于一连 串糟糕的业 绩 已于 6 月份离职 。硅谷制图 公司则 于 5 月份申请 了《破产 法》第 11 章规 定的破产 保护 。3Com 公司的老总 也因无出众成绩 而于今年早些时 候被免职 。Borland 公司则 裁减了五分之一的员 工,并拟 转 让 公司部分知名业 务 ;其财 务 主��� 也已在这 个月辞职 。 All four firms are c_______② of the IBM PC, the creatures of a distant era when only around 200 institutions were connected to the internet. (3)Each had a bold vision of technology, but then failed to evolve as the very innovations they pioneered became commonplace. 这 四家公司与 IBM 个人计 算机均处 于同一时 代,都出自那个久远 的年代——当时 只有 200 家左右的公共机构接通了互联 网。

在技术 上,它们 个个都曾有着大胆的洞察力,可当它们 开 创 的新技术 广为 应 用时 ,自己却止步 不前了。 Novell prospered by selling networking software to link up computers and enable group-working. Yet the firm failed to keep up with its rivals, c_______③ Microsoft and IBM. It then shifted strategy and acquired an open-source software company in 2004, leaving users of its earlier products feeling neglected. Novell 依靠销 售连 接计 算机并实 现 群组 工作的网络 软 件获 得成功,可是最终 却被它的对 手(主要是微软 和 IBM)甩到了后面。 后来,它又转 变 战 略,于 2004 年接手了一家开 放源代码 软 件公司,这 又让 其前期产 品的用户 有一种 被怠慢的感觉 。 Silicon Graphics, founded in 1982, makes sophisticated computers for modelling things such as cars and aeroplanes. But as PCs became more powerful, the firm was wrongfooted[4] by the shift to commoditised hardware: its last profitable year was 1999. (The firm has kept itself afloat by selling its lavish office buildings to Google, the technology industry's d______④ today.) 成立于 1982 年的硅谷制图 公司生产 用于绘 制汽车 、飞 机之类 模型的高尖端计 算机。但是随着 PC 功能日趋 强 大,硬件商品化 的转 变 将该 公司逼入了尴 尬境地:它最近一个创 收年还 是 1999 年。(该 公司已将其奢华 的办 公大楼卖 给 了当今技术 产 业 新宠 Google 公司,从而得以走出困境。)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Similarly, 3Com, which makes computer-networking gear, floundered[5] as such products turned into low-cost commodities. (4) And Borland, which makes programming tools, was squeezed between industry giants on the one hand and free software on the other. 同样 ,生产 计 算机网络 设 备 的 3Com 公司由于此类 产 品沦 为 廉价商品而感到不知所措。还 有生产 程序设 计 工具的 Borlan 公司 可谓 腹背受敌 ,一边 是各大公司,另一边 则 是自由(免费 /少许 收费 )软 件。 (5)Companies that start off with a wildly successful product often fail to stay the course, explains Jim Collins, the author of “Built to Last”. “If you have a great idea, it creates a false sense that you are stronger and more successful than you actually are,” he says. Failure to evolve can then lead to e_______⑤. 《以建设 谋 持久》一 书 作者吉姆•科林斯解释 说 ,依靠某 种 红 极一时 的 产 品发 家的公司常常都无法坚 持到最后。(译 注:按照 Longman 注解,wildly 一词 有两个意思,一是“in a very uncontrolled or excited way”,即“失控地,兴 奋 地,狂热 地”,二是 “extremely”,即“极度,非常”。这 句话 的意思是指:有些公司刚 开 始推出一种 产 品并大获 成功,从而得以扬 名立万,可由于缺 乏与时 俱 进 的意识 而原地踏步 或者干脆倒闭 。这 句话 为 后面的引语 作了铺 垫 。“有了一个好主意”是不够 的,不能吃老本,要 不断“想出好主意”,不断进 步 。)他说 :“如果你想出一个好主意,就会给 你一种 错 觉 ,以为 你自己很强 大,很成功,其实 并非 如此。”不进 则 退啊(不能进 化就会走向灭 绝 )。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释 义 ,补 全单 词 :

①r_______(v. to officially announce that you have decided to leave your job or an organization) ②c_______(n. someone who lived or was in a particular place at the same time as someone else) ③c________(adv. mostly but not completely [= mainly]) ④d________(n. used when speaking to someone you love;the most popular person or thing in a particular group or area of activity) ⑤e________(n. when a particular type of animal or plant stops existing) 2. 英译 汉 (将划线 部分英文翻译 成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. spawn v. 产卵,大量繁殖后代;造成,产生 2. vintage n. 葡萄酒酿造年期;制造年期 3. lackluster adj. 无光泽的;黯淡的,不活跃的 4. wrongfoot v. to surprise and embarrass someone, especially by asking a question they did not expect 使难堪; 使窘促不安: Woo's political skill and ability to wrongfoot the opposition 5. flounder v. 挣扎;踌躇,不知所措;有很多问题且极有可能失败

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①resigned 辞职(表示“to leave a job or organization”:leave • quit • resign • retire • hand in your notice/resignation 递交离职通知/辞职书 • pack/jack it in 辞掉;离开;停止) ②contemporaries 同时代的人(物) ③chiefly 首要地;主要地(用于表达“the main reason for something or the main part of something”的词有: mainly • largely/chiefly • primarily/principally • above all • first and foremost) ④darling 心爱的人;宠儿 ⑤extinction 消灭;灭绝 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 56

Something new 新意(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 3rd 2006 | BEIJING From The Economist print edition AFTER years of prospering as the world's workshop, China now wants to be its laboratory as well. “Innovation” has become a national buzzword[1], and Chinese leaders have been tossing it into their speeches since the beginning of the year, when President Hu Jintao started an ambitious campaign to drive China's economy further up the value chain. (1)True, new campaigns and catchphrases[2] are declared by the government and the Communist Party in China all the time, and mostly end up fizzling out[3] in puddles[4] of rhetoric. But there are signs that the government i_______① to back its innovation campaign with more than just words. 中国作为“世界工场”,多年来发展蒸蒸日上,但现在它也希望成为“世界实验室”。 “创新”已经成为举 国上下一个时髦词儿。今年年初,胡锦涛主席启动了一项雄心勃勃的规划,旨在推动中国经济进一步与价 值链接轨。从那以后,中国领导人在讲话中就经常提到“创新”一词。确实,中国政府和中国共产党总是 宣布各种新计划,创造各种新术语,可最终都因流于表面文章而不了了之。不过,许多迹象表明,中国政 府正准备用实际行动来支持这次创新规划。 In launching their “National Medium- and Long-Term Programme for Scientific and Technological Development (2006-20)”, Mr Hu, the prime minister, Wen Jiabao, and other top officials have v______② to spend more on science and technology, and to insist on business reforms. Their goal is to move China beyond its dependence on natural resources and cheap labour, and stake its place among the economies that depend on education and information technology. 在推出《国家中长期科学与技术发展规划纲要(2006-2020) 》后,胡锦涛主席、温家宝总理和其他高级 官员都许诺要加大科技投入,并坚持行业改革。他们的目标是推动中国不再过于依赖自然资源和廉价劳动 力,并投身于依靠教育和信息技术的经济体系之中。 Officials say privately that the new policy emerged only after years of contentious internal debate.(2) One divide was between nationalists, who advocated a go-it-alone approach towards developing indigenous technology, and others who were more open to international collaboration. There were also disagreements as to whether the campaign should concentrate on scientific mega-projects or incremental innovation. 有官员私下里说,这一新政策是在国内多年的激烈争论之后才出台的。分歧之一就是,民族主义者提倡采 取独立自主的办法开发本土技术,而其他人则比较倾向于国际合作。关于这一规划应该专注于发展大型科 技项目还是进行渐进性创新,也存在不同意见。 One target is to reduce China's dependence on imported technology to 30% or less by 2020. According to Professor Fang Xin, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the initiative is a matter of necessity. China must learn to innovate if it is to s_______③ growth. Foreign firms, she notes, reap more than 60% of the profits from China's high-tech exports. Other officials say that, on average, China's 20,000 large and medium-sized enterprises undertake fewer than five new development projects and generate only two and a half new products each year. 此规划的目标之一是到 2020 年将中国对引进技术的依赖降低到 30%。中国科学院教授方新(音)认为, 采取这一行动有其必然性。中国要想持续发展,必须学会创新。她指出,外国公司在中国高技术出口商品 中获利超过 60%。其他官员普遍认为,中国 2 万家大中型企业每年承担的新开发项目不到 5 个,生产的新 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 产品也仅有 2.5 个。 The plan also calls for an increase in research and development spending from its current 1.23% of GDP to 2.5% by 2020, putting China in the same range as OECD countries' current scores. Ms Fang says banks and government departments will be told to help out with their credit, taxation and currency-exchange policies. According to Denis Simon of the State University of New York's Levin Institute, who advises the Chinese government on science policy, this m______④ comes just in time. (3)“If China doesn't do this right,” he says, “it risks becoming a good 20th-century industrial economy just when it needs to figure out how to be a 21st-century knowledge-based economy.” 此规划还要求到 2020 年将对研究和开发的投入从现在占国民生产总值的 1.23%增加到 2.5%,使中国在同 一领域达到经合组织(OECD)各国目前的水平。方教授说,各银行和政府部门将被要求通过其存款、税 收和汇兑政策来帮助解决这一问题。中国政府科学政策顾问、纽约州立大学列文学院的丹尼斯·西蒙认为, 这一举措十分及时。他说:“假如中国这件事做得不好,它就会成为一个出色的 20 世纪工业经济型国家, 这是很危险的,它需要解决的是如何成为一个 21 世纪知识经济型国家。 ” But to succeed, says Mr Simon, China needs to attend to other matters as well. These include an “internal brain drain[5]” that sees much of the country's best talent going to work for foreign firms in China, and the country's n_______⑤ lax[6] regime for protection of intellectual-property rights. (4)Mr Simon predicts that such protection will improve as more local businesses with an interest in the matter join the chorus of complaints from foreigners. 不过西蒙说,中国要想获得成功,还应该关注其它一些问题。这其中包括“国内人才流失”问题,亦即该 国许多出类拔萃的人才纷纷涌向开在中国的外国公司。还有该国对知识产权的保护出了名的不严格。西蒙 预测,随着自身利益也牵扯到这一问题的更多本土企业和外国企业交相表示不满,保护状况将得到改善。 (5)Another huge obstacle is the nature of China's educational system, which stresses conformity and does little to foster independent thinking. Confucian philosophy reveres the teacher above all. More innovative Western economies, according to Ms Fang, operate under Aristotle's maxim[7]: “I love my teacher Plato greatly, but I love truth more.” 另一个巨大障碍是,中国教育制度从根本上强调人云亦云,几乎不鼓励独立思考。儒家哲学最讲究尊崇师 者。方教授认为,越来越多的西方创新型经济体却秉承亚里士多德的格言——“吾爱吾师(柏拉图),吾 尤爱真理。”

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①i_______(v. to have something in your mind as a plan or purpose) ②v_______(v. to make a serious promise to yourself or someone else[=promise]) ③s________(v. to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time [= maintain]) ④m________(n. something that you decide to do in order to achieve something) ⑤n________(adv. famous or well-known for something bad [= infamous]) (解释是针对此词形容词形式)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. buzzword n. 专门术语;时髦词语;漂亮口号 2. catchphrase n. 口头禅 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 3. fizzle out 逐渐停止或消失(尤指由于人失去热情或兴趣) 4. puddle n.一小池液体(尤指雨水);小水坑 5. brain drain 人才流失 6. lax adj. 松散的;不严格的(=slack) 7. maxim n. 箴言;格言;名人名言

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①intends 打算,想要 表示“打算做某事”:intend to do something • mean to do something • be going to do something • plan to do something • be looking to do something • set out to do something • be out to do something • it is somebody's intention to do something • with intent to do something 表示“不打算做某事”:not intend to do something • not mean to do something • have no intention of doing something • have no plans to do something/not have any plans to do something • not be serious ②vowed 发誓,许诺 ③sustain 维持,持续 ④move 行动,举措 ⑤notoriously 臭名昭著地

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 57

The brand of me 自我标榜(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 10th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition “WHAT'S the difference between God and Larry Ellison?” asks an old software industry joke. Answer: God doesn't think he's Larry Ellison. The boss of Oracle is hardly alone among corporate chiefs in having a reputation for being rather k________① on himself. (1)Indeed, until the bubble burst and the public turned nasty at the start of the decade, the cult of the celebrity chief executive seemed to demand bossly narcissism[1], as evidence that a firm was being led by an all-conquering hero. 过去软件业有一个笑话说: “上帝和拉里·埃利森有什么不同?”回答是:上帝认为他不是拉里·埃利森。 在各公司领导人中,以自恋闻名的并非仅仅这位甲骨文公司老板一个人。事实上,在十年前 IT 业泡沫破 裂、公众骤然失去理智之前,对知名首席执行官的顶礼膜拜似乎使得自恋一直都是老板们必须具备的条件, 因为它表明一个公司是在一位无敌英雄的领导之下。 (译注:根据 Longman, “the bubble bursts”是指“a very successful or happy period of time suddenly ends”,即“一段非常成功或者欢乐的时期突然结束”。 “get/turn nasty”相当于“suddenly start behaving in a threatening way”,即“行为突然之间变得有危险性”。) Narcissus met a nasty end, of course. And in recent years, boss-worship has come to be seen as bad for business. In his management b________②, “Good to Great”, Jim Collins argued that the truly successful bosses were not the self-proclaimed stars who adorn[2] the covers of Forbes and Fortune, but instead self-effacing[3], thoughtful, monkish[4] sorts who lead by inspiring example. 当然,希腊神话中顾影自怜的那喀索斯最后还是不得善终。近年来,人们已经渐渐发现“崇拜上司”对企 业不利。吉姆·科���斯在他的管理学畅销书《听大人物的话》中指出,真正成功的老板不是那些装点《福 布斯》和《财富》杂志封面的所谓明星,而是那种为人谦卑、考虑周全、心无杂念并通过干一些鼓舞人心 的事来领导公司的人。 (2)A statistical answer may be at hand. For the first time, a new study, “It's All About Me”, to be presented next week at the annual g________③ of the American Academy of Management, offers a systematic, empirical analysis of what effect narcissistic bosses have on the firms they run. The authors, Arijit Chatterjee and Donald Hambrick, of Pennsylvania State University, examined narcissism in the upper echelons[5] of 105 firms in the computer and software industries. 这方面的统计结果也许即将出炉。一项名为“围着我转”的新研究将于下周在美国管理学会年会上首次公 诸于世,该研究根据实际经验,系统分析了自恋型老板对其管理的公司所产生的影响。研究报告作者、宾 西法利亚大学的阿里伊特·查特叶和唐纳德·汉姆布里克调查了 105 家计算机和软件公司的上层人士自恋 状况。 (3)To do this, they had to solve a practical problem: studies of narcissism have hitherto relied on surveying individuals personally, something for which few chief executives are likely to have time or inclination. So the authors devised an index of narcissism using six publicly available indicators obtainable without the co-operation of the boss. These are: the prominence of the boss's photo in the annual report; his prominence in company press releases; the length of his “Who's Who” entry; the frequency of his use of the first person singular in interviews; and the ratios of his cash and non-cash compensation to those of the firm's Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong second-highest paid executive. 为此,他们必须解决一个实际问题——迄今为止有关自恋症的研究都是依靠面对面个体调查,而首席执行 官们可能很少有人有时间或愿意接受这种调查。因此,作者应用 6 种无需老板合作、通过公众渠道获取的 指征,制定了一个自恋症状目录。这些指征是:老板照片在年度报告中的突出位置;他在公司新闻发布会 上的突出地位;他的“名人录”记录了多少名人;他在面试时使用第一人称单数( “我”和“你” )的次数; 他对薪水位居公司第二位的主管人员给予的现金与非现金补偿比率。 Narcissism naturally drives people to seek positions of power and influence, and because great self-esteem helps your professional advance, say the authors, chief executives will tend on average to be more narcissistic than the general population. How does that affect a firm? Messrs Chatterjee and Hambrick found that highly narcissistic bosses tended to make bigger changes in the use of important resources, such as research and development, or in spending and leverage[6]; they carried out more and bigger m_______④ and acquisitions; and (4)their results were both more extreme (more big wins or big losses) and more volatile than those of firms run by their humbler peers. For shareholders, that could be good or bad. 自恋症必然会驱使人们寻求有权有势的地位。而且作者认为,由于强烈的自尊心有助于提升人的职业地位, 因此大多数首席执行官都比一般人更容易有自恋倾向。这对一个公司会产生怎样的影响呢?查特叶和汉姆 布里克两位先生发现,高度自恋的老板在研究和开发之类重要策略的使用或者开支和举债经营方面,往往 会作出比较大的改变。他们实施较多、较大的兼并与收购项目;相比那些由较为谦卑的首席执行官所管理 的公司,他们的业绩更容易走向极端(要么大举获胜,要么一败涂地),也更不稳定。对股东们而言,这 可能有利也有弊。 (5)Although (oddly) the authors are keeping their narcissism ranking secret, they have revealed that Mr Ellison did not come top. Alas for him, that may be because the study limited itself to people who became the boss after 1991—well after he took the helm. In every respect Mr Ellison seems to be the c________⑤ narcissistic boss, claims Mr Chatterjee. There is life in the old joke yet. 作者虽然对受调查老板的自恋状况孰重孰轻秘而不宣(有点出乎意料) ,但透露说埃利森并不是最严重的。 这可能是因为研究本身仅限于调查 1991 年以后成为老板的人——而他在 1991 年前就早已掌舵,对他而言 这未尝不是一件憾事。 (译注:alas 此处作副词,用于“mentioning a fact that you wish was not true” 。)查特 叶断言,埃利森在任何方面看起来都是典型的自恋型老板。这就是过去的那个笑话在现实生活中的写照。 (这样的老笑话在生活中还有很多。 )

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①k_______(adj. fond of something or someone) ②b_______(n. a popular product, especially a book, which many people buy) ③g________(n. a meeting of a group of people) ④m________(n. the joining together of two or more companies or organizations to form one larger one) ⑤c________(adj. typical)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. narcissism n. 自我陶醉,自恋 2. adorn v. 装饰(decorate) 3. self-effacing adj. 谦虚的(modest);谦卑的 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 4. monkish adj.僧侣的;苦行僧般的;禁欲的 5. echelon n.等级,阶层 6. leverage n. 影响作用;杠杆作用;举债经营

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①keen (be keen on 喜爱) 表示“喜欢,喜爱某物或某人” :like • be into 对……着迷 • be fond of • be keen on • appeal to 对……有吸 引力• go down well 广受欢迎,受到一致好评 • be to your liking 投其所好 ②bestseller 畅销书 ③gathering 集会,会议 表示“会议”的词:meeting 会议 • conference 讨论会,协商会 • convention 大会 • summit 峰会• gathering 集会 ④mergers 合并 ⑤classic 典型的 表示“a typical person or thing”:typical 典型的 • representative 有代表性的 • archetypal 原型的 • classic • textbook case /example 典型案例(范例) • stereotype 陈规;典型;固定模式

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 58

A president in paradise (恍如置身)天堂的总统(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 10th 2006 | VICTORIA From The Economist print edition (1)BEST known as a destination for honeymooners in search of perfect white beaches and swaying palms, the Seychelle islands rarely make any sort of headlines. Few tourists would even have noticed the presidential election on July 30th, in which James Michel, leader of the Seychelles People's Progressive Front, was returned with 54% of the ballot. For Mr Michel, it was the first time he had faced the islands' 62,000-odd[1] voters, having been promoted from vice-president two years ago by his predecessor, Albert René, who had ruled the islands for 27 years since taking power in a c________① in 1977. 说起塞舌尔群岛,许多人只知道它是度蜜月者找寻美丽的白色沙滩和摇曳的棕榈树的目的地之一,除此之 外,几乎很少有媒体对其进行报道,就连游客们也很少有人注意到 7 月 30 日该国举行的总统选举。这次 选举中,塞舌尔人民进步阵线领导人詹姆斯·米歇尔获得了 54%的选票。对于米歇尔而言,这是在他两 年前被前任总统阿尔伯特·雷纳从副总统提拔为总统后,首次面对该岛 6.2 万余名选民。雷纳自 1977 年 在一场政变中上台以后已经统治该岛国 27 年。 To the casual eye, Seychelles seems both fortunate and well-governed. (2)The 115 islands, most of them uninhabited, cover a mere 445 square kilometres (175 square miles) of the Indian Ocean, north of Madagascar, and enjoy several advantages over most of the rest of Africa. The weather is never e_______②. There is no malaria. The islanders have free education and health care. Their multiracial society is pretty harmonious. With GDP at around $8,000 a head, there is almost no discernible poverty. 乍一看,塞舌尔似乎很幸运,治理得也比较好。它位于印度洋上、马达加斯加以北,全国共有岛屿 115 个 (其中大多数无人定居) ,总面积仅为 445 平方公里(175 平方英里)。相比非洲其它国家,它拥有不少优 势。不冷不热的天气,没有疟疾,岛民们享受免费教育和医疗,他们的多种族社会十分和谐。由于人均 GDP 大约有 8000 美元,因此几乎没有明显的贫困现象。 But this standard of living has come at a cost: the IMF says its public debt is too high and may be unsustainable. Mr Michel's main opposition, the Seychelles National Party, which scored 46% in the elections, claims that Seychelles, per person, is the world's most i_______③ country. (3)A black market in foreign currency already exists as speculation persists that the government, unable to meet its obligations, may be forced to devalue. Basic consumer goods sometimes run out. If, as the IMF predicts, GDP falls by over 1% this year, Mr Michel may find his next five years in power more testing than he had hoped. 不过,达到这种生活水准是要付出代价的——国际货币基金组织说,该国国债过高,可能难以为继。米歇 尔的主要反对党、在本次选举中获得 46%选票的塞舌尔民族党断言,塞舌尔是世界上人均负债最多的国家。 由于投机买卖屡禁不止,外币交易黑市已然形成,因此无法尽职尽责的政府或许将被迫对货币进行贬值。 (译注:meet/fulfil a obligation 指“do something that is your duty”)基础性消费商品有时候也消耗一空。 根据国际货币基金组织预测,如果今年 GDP 下降超过 1%,米歇尔就会感到在随后的五年执政岁月中,他 要接受比他所期望的更多的考验。 The country needs more ways of making money. In the cold war, it was easy. (4)The Seychelles played each side off against the other, remaining a member of the Commonwealth as well as the Non-Aligned Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Movement and taking military aid from the Soviet Union while leasing a satellite tracking station to the Americans. Since those streams of revenue dried up, the main Seychellois streams of revenue have been from tourism—l________④ land to foreign hoteliers—and from tuna[2]: the government earns about $200m a year from selling tuna-fishing licences to Spain, France and South Korea. 这个国家需要更多赚钱途径。这在冷战时期是很容易的。塞舌尔当时仍然是英联邦以及不结盟运动的一员, 它一边接受苏联提供的军事援助,一边又把一个卫星跟踪站租给了美国人,可谓两头得利。 (译注:play off one against another 挑拨离间,从中得利)自从那些收入来源枯竭之后,塞舌尔人收入主要源自旅游业— —出租土地给外国宾馆经营者——和金枪鱼(政府依靠向西班牙、法国和韩国出售金枪鱼捕渔许可证,每 年可挣得 2 亿美元)。 (5)But conflict in the Middle East has brought Seychelles an unexpected bonus: Western warships stop off[3] in the islands, which offer rest and recreation. The soldiers and sailors scuba[4]-dive, sail and drink Seybrew, the local beer—and pay for it all in hard currency. 不过,中东冲突已经给塞舌尔带来了一份意外收获——该岛为经停的西方战船提供休闲和娱乐场所。士兵 和水手们在那里潜水,玩帆船,喝当地人酿造的啤酒——全都用硬通货(美金)买单。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①c_______(n. a sudden and sometimes violent attempt by citizens or the army to take control of the government) ②e_______(adj. very great in degree) ③i________(adj. owing money to someone) ④l________(v. to rent buildings, cars, or equipment over a long period of time, especially for business use)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. odd adj. 挂零的(常用于组成复合词) 2. tuna n. 金枪鱼 3. stop off 中途停留 4. scuba n.自携式水下呼吸器;水肺

[TIPS & BACKGROUNDS] 塞舌尔(Seychelles)国家概况 位于非洲东面印度洋西部的群岛上,距非洲大陆 1500 公里,大小岛屿 92 个。全部岛屿分为 4 个岛群:马 埃岛及其周围卫星岛;锡卢埃特岛和北岛;普拉斯兰岛群;弗里吉特岛及其附近礁屿。塞舌尔山为马埃岛上最 高点,海拔 905 米。全境多丘陵山地,无河流。属热带雨林气候。岛上森林面积为 2000 公顷,可耕地少,蓄 水困难,不利于农业。岛屿周围有 200 海里经济区,盛产金枪鱼。 居民主体为克里奥尔人和班图黑人,还有法国人、印度人、华人、巴基斯坦人后裔。克里奥尔语为国语, 英、法语亦通用。90%居民信奉罗马天主教。保有古老习俗,常有人戴一只耳环,据说可避邪。有婚礼游行之 俗,重视女子婚前的贞操。喜舞蹈,民间村社常在夜间燃起篝火跳穆蒂王舞、四组舞。 经济不发达,农业落后,工业基础薄弱,旅游业为其经济支柱。岛上无铁路,运输以公路为主,岛屿之间 靠水运和空运。公路总长 269 公里。维多利亚港是印度洋国际航道上的重要的中继站,年吞吐量 25 万吨。塞 舌尔国际机场为印度洋上重要的航空枢纽。 首都维多利亚,塞舌尔唯一城市。位于马埃岛东北角。占全国人口 1/3 以上。是全国商业和文化中心。有 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 各类小型加工工厂。公路通马埃岛主要城镇。港口有深水区,可停泊大型船舶,设有国际航空站。市内有一建 于 1901 年的动植物园。是重要旅游胜地。阿尔达布拉岛和普拉兰是吸引游客的重要旅游区,阿尔达布拉岛因 珍奇植物繁多和生态环境保持完好被联合国教科文组织命名为“世界遗产”;普拉兰岛上的“五月谷”是风景 惊人的著名观赏地。

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①coup 政变(coup d'état • military takeover) ②extreme 极端的,极度的 ③indebted 负债的 ④leasing 出租,租借 hire, rent, lease 之区别: (1)rent 是指“有偿居住或使用他人的建筑物” ,如:We rented an apartment together.我们合租了一间公寓。 在美国英语中,也可以指“租借汽车或电器设备”。如:The TV is rented.这台电视已经出租。在英国英语 中,rent 和 hire 均可使用,但通常都说“hire a car” 。如:You can hire a car at the airport. 你可在机场租一 辆车。 (2)lease 是指“长期租借某建筑物、汽车或装备,多用于商业活动”。如:If you upgrade computers regularly, it may work out cheaper to lease them.如果你定期对电脑进行升级,租借价格就会比较便宜。

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 59

A ticket for corruption 罚单,为腐败而开(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 10th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition “THE UN needs a good smack in the face,” fumed one city councillor. New York has long been fed up with the United Nations and its diplomats. (1)The city has 1,700 of them, about 1,699 too many. Their meetings cause endless traffic jams and annoying multi-car motorcades[1]. As for their outstanding fines for traffic violations (more than $18m at the last count), these have so infuriated[2] Michael Bloomberg, New York's mayor, that in 2002 he vowed to tow away illegally parked consular[3] vehicles. Colin Powell, then secretary of state, had to step in to broker[4] a c_______①. 一位市议员怒气冲天地说: “该狠狠地给联合国一记耳光。”长期以来,纽约已经受够了联合国和它的那些 外交官员们。对于这座城市来说,就算只有一名这样的外交官也嫌多,何况却有 1700 名。他们开会造成 无休无止的交通堵塞,会议用车组成的长长的车队也让人烦恼不已。至于他们违反交通规则却不缴罚款一 事(最新统计数字显示超过 1800 万美金),更是让纽约市长迈克尔•布卢姆伯格感到大为光火,以致于他 在 2002 年就发誓要将那些违规停靠的领事馆车辆拖走。(译注:outstanding 这里是“未付清的,有待偿 还的”的意思。at the last count 是指“according to the latest information about a particular situation”)时任国 务卿的科林•鲍威尔不得不从中斡旋,最后双方才达成妥协。 Can anything be done? In 2002 Chuck Schumer and Hillary Clinton, New York's senators, added an a_______② to a foreign-aid bill that allowed the city to recoup[5] unpaid parking tickets from foreign-aid disbursements to offending countries. But now a new weapon has been discovered: shame. (2)Two economists have found a direct correlation between the number of people who park by the city's fire hydrants and in its loading bays[6], and the level of corruption in their home countries. 难道真的一筹莫展吗?2002 年,纽约两位参议员恰克•舒梅尔和希拉里•克林顿对一项外援法案提出了一 个修正意见,即允许该市从援助那些违规官员所在国家的资金中抽取部分用于补偿违规停车罚款欠款。不 过,纽约现在又找到了一个新的对付手段,那就是“羞辱”。两位经济学家认为,那些将车停靠在该市消 防栓和码头(注:在纽约,这属于绝对禁止停车的地方,一旦违规,惩罚非常重)附近的人的数量,与他 们本国的腐败程度直接相关。 A study by Raymond Fisman and Edward Miguel, economists at Columbia University and the University of California, Berkeley, gives a rare picture of how people from different cultures perform under new cultural n_______③. For instance, between 1997 and 2002 diplomats from Chad averaged 124 unpaid parking violations; diplomats from Canada and the United Kingdom had none. The results from 146 countries were strikingly similar to the Transparency International corruption index, which rates countries by their level of perceived sleaze[7]. In the case of parking violations, diplomats from countries with low levels of corruption behaved well, even when they could get away with breaking the rules. (3)The culture of their home country was imported to New York, and they acted accordingly. 哥伦比亚大学和加利福尼亚大学伯克利分院的经济学家雷蒙•费斯曼和爱德华•米盖尔通过研究令人惊奇 地发现,来自不同文化的人在新的文化准则下的表现都有所不同。例如,在 1997 年至 2002 年间,乍得的 外交官平均每年有 124 次未缴罚金的停车违规,而加拿大和英国的外交官则一次也没有。对 146 个国家进 行研究的结果与“透明国际”腐败目录惊人地相似,后者是根据各国腐败现状对其进行排名。就违规停车 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 而言,来自腐败程度较低的国家的外交官员表现较好,即便他们可能有时会侥幸逃脱违规处罚。他们本国 的文化习惯被他们带入纽约,他们的行为也因此受到了本国文化的约束。 The same a_______④ to high-corruption countries. (4)Their diplomats became increasingly comfortable with parking where they liked; as they spent more time in New York, their number of violations increased by 8-18%. Overall, diplomats accumulated 150,000 unpaid parking tickets during the five years under review. 对那些腐败程度较为严重的国家,道理也是一样。这些国家的外交官员在停车方面越来越随心所欲,想停 哪里就停哪里。随着他们在纽约生活的时日增多,违规停车的次数也增加了 8%至 18%。通过回顾调查, 五年内外交官员未予缴付的停车罚单总计达 15 万张。 (5)Yet any moral superiority New Yorkers may feel should be tempered by the behaviour of the American embassy in London. Last year, embassy s_______⑤ stopped paying the congestion[8] charge—now £8, or over $15—for bringing cars into central London. The growing pile of unpaid charges now stands at $716,000. 不过,美国大使馆在伦敦的行为会让纽约人可能产生的任何道德优越感都荡然无存。去年,使馆人员开车 到伦敦市中心不再缴纳交通堵塞费(现为 8 英镑或 15 元多的美金),目前累计欠缴达到 71.6 万美金。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①c_______(n. an agreement that is achieved after everyone involved accepts less than what they wanted at first, or the act of making this agreement) ②a_______(n. a small change, improvement, or addition that is made to a law or document, or the process of doing this) ③n________(n. generally accepted standards of social behaviour) ④a________(v. to have an effect on or to concern a particular person, group, or situation) ⑤s________(n. the people who work for an organization) 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. motorcade n. 车队 2. infuriate v. 让某人感到极度愤怒 3. consular adj. 领事的 4. broker v.从中调解,安排;斡旋 5. recoup v. 补偿;弥补;挽回损失(recover) 6. loading bay 码头(=loading dock) 7. sleaze n. 不道德的行为(与性及谎言有关) 8. congestion n. 交通堵塞

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①compromise 折衷方案;妥协 ②amendment 修改,修正(modification; adjustment) ③norms 准则,行为规范 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ④applied 适用于 ⑤staff 全体工作人员;职员 表示“某公司、组织或国家的所有工作人员”:staff • workforce 劳动力;职工总数 • labour 劳动力 • personnel 全体员工• manpower 人力;劳动力 表示“在店里卖东西的人”:shopkeeper 店主 • proprietor 经营者• merchant 零售商 • sales assistant 售货 员 • salesman/saleswoman/salesperson(男、女)售货员 • sales staff 销售人员 • vendor 卖方;卖主 表示“为某公司、个人工作”:work for • be employed • be on the payroll 薪资名册上• be on the staff 在 职在编人员• be with somebody 为某人效力• employer 老板 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 60

Newcomers don't like the smells 城里人闻不惯那味儿(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 10th 2006 | GILBERT, PRESCOTT AND SCOTTSDALE From The Economist print edition GEORGE WILLIAMS, one of Scottsdale's last remaining cowboys, has been r_______① horses and cattle on his 120 acres for 20 years. (1)The cattle go to the slaughterhouse, the horses to rodeos[1]. But Mr Williams is stomping[2] mad. 乔治•威廉斯是斯科特斯德(注:亚利桑那州中南部城市)仅存的牛仔之一,20 年来他一直在他那 120 亩 地里饲养牛马。牛儿进了屠宰场,马儿上了竞技场,而威廉斯却疯也似的跺着脚。 His problems began last year when dishonest neighbours started to steal his cattle. Then other neighbours, most of them newcomers, took offence at his horses roaming on their properties. Arizona is an open-range[3] state: l_______② have the right of way and there is no fine for trespassing[4]. This has been on the law books since 1913. (2)Mr Williams, who is elderly and in poor health, is angry that he has to spend so much of his time fielding[5] complaints and retrieving stolen cattle. 去年,有些不厚道的邻居开始偷他的牛,之后他的麻烦便接踵而至。有的邻居(大多数都是刚刚迁来的人) 还攻击他那些跑到他们地里的马。亚利桑那是一个开阔的“草原之州”,家畜在公路上享有优先通行权, 对家畜侵入他人土地也不予罚款。(译注:“the right of way”可指“优先通行权”和“允许在别人的土地 上穿行”,根据上下文,这里是指前者,因为后面的 trespass 有“进入别人的私人土地”的意思。)自 1913 年以来,这就一直有法律明文规定。威廉斯很生气,因为年老体弱的他不得不花很多的时间来回应别人的 怨言和找回被偷的牛。 Such grumbles are common in Arizona. The most recent Department of Agriculture census shows that 1,213 of Arizona's 8,507 farms closed down between 1997 and 2002. Many cattlemen are moving out to more remote parts of the state. Arable[6] farmers are struggling, too. Norman Knox, a respected grain farmer in Gilbert, recently learned that the owner of his rented land wants to build condos. Mr Knox is 72 and has to move. He r_______③ that 50-70% of the farmland in Gilbert has been sold for development in the past two years. 这样的怨言在亚利桑那到处都可以听到。农业部最近一次人口普查结果显示,1997 年至 2002 年间,亚利 桑那 8507 家农场中有 1213 家已经关闭。许多牧民正在朝该州一些偏远的地区迁徙。种地农民也是苦不堪 言。诺曼•诺克斯是吉尔伯特一位德高望重的粮农,他最近得知,他租种的那块地的主人打算在那儿修建 公寓楼。今年 72 岁的诺克斯只好搬走。据他估算,两年来,吉尔伯特的农田已经有 50%~70%被出售用 于开发。 This affects not only cowboys and farmers, but small businessmen too.(3)For 20 years, Gary Young, owner of Gilbert's Higley Feed, sold range blocks and cubes to cattlemen who fed them to cattle during the droughts. But 18 months ago he switched to selling pet food and baby chicks to new home-owners. 这不但影响了牛仔和农民,也影响到了小商业者。吉尔伯特 Higley 饲料公司老板盖瑞•扬二十年来一直向 牧民销售固体块状浓缩牧用汤料(译注:range 此处是指“草原”,与前文的“open-range”一致;block 指 块状物体,cube 指立方体,这里应该代指块状饲料或“浓缩草料”等,即可能是将牲畜所需饲料进行固 化、压缩并切割成块状。是不是类似于“压缩饼干”?另,在英语中 stock cube 是指“固体浓缩汤料”, 加上后面提到的“干旱时饲喂”,因此准确的译文可能为“固体块状浓缩牧用汤料”) ,干旱时牧民们就用 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 这些汤料来喂牛。可是,一年半前他已经转行向新来的住户售卖宠物食品和小鸡了。 Doc Lane is an executive at the Arizona Cattlemen's Association, a trade group. He says Arizona's larger ranch owners are making d_______④ profits from selling. It is the smaller players who are the victims of rising land values, higher mortgages and stiffer city council rules. (4)What happens all too often is that people move in next to a farm because they think the land pretty. But soon they start complaining to the council. In Mr Williams's case it was the horses that annoyed them. Other newcomers don't like the noise, the pesticides and the smell of manure. 道克•莱恩是商业性组织、亚利桑那州牧民协会的一位业务主管。他说,亚利桑那较大的牧场场主经营收 入还算过得去,而那些小牧主却成为地价上涨、房贷抵押金增高、政府规定日趋严格的牺牲品。人们搬迁 到农场附近居住,因为他们觉得那一带的风景优美。这种情况屡见不鲜。不过他们不久就开始向市议会诉 苦。就威廉斯一事而言,他们是抱怨他的马打扰了他们,而其他新来的住户则是讨厌这里的噪音、杀虫剂 和肥料的气味。 Locals worry about the precious, dwindling cowboy culture. Arizona's tourism boards like to promote a steady interest in all things cowboy and western[7]. Last year more British and German tourists came than usual, and many of them were looking p_______⑤ for that. (5)Arizona's Dude[8] Ranch Association fills its $350-a-night luxury ranches most of the year; roughly a third of the guests are European. 当地人对宝贵的牛仔文化日渐萎缩感到担忧。亚利桑那州旅游管理人士希望这里一切与牛仔和西部电影有 关的东西都能产生经久不衰的吸引力。去年,来此地的英、德两国旅行者要多于往年,而且他们当中许多 人恰恰就是为了寻找牛仔和西部电影而来。亚利桑那农场度假协会拥有的农场全年大部分时间都客满,其 中约有三分之一的客人是欧洲人,而每晚的住宿费高达 350 美金。 (6)Many of the ranchers themselves see all this tourism as a cheeky[9] attempt to commercialise a real and vanishing culture. In Prescott, estate agents promote “American Ranch-style” homes with posters of backlit[10] horse riders. On the other side of the street is Whiskey Row, a famous strip of historic cowboy bars. But in Matt's Saloon on Saturday night, real cattlemen could not be found. 在很多农场主看来,这种旅游完全是一种厚颜无耻的行径,它试图让一个行将消失的、真正意义上的文化 成为商品。在普雷斯科特,房地产经纪人推销具有“美国农场风格”、贴着光芒骑士海报的房屋。街道的 另一边是著名的牛仔酒吧区——威士忌街。不过,星期六晚上在马特酒吧却见不到一个真正的牛仔。 Farm folk like Mr Knox and Mr Williams are weighing up their options. Many will migrate to remoter places where land is cheaper and not crowded with city people. (7)Younger ones take on side-jobs as contractors and are cattlehands part-time. Older cowboys aren't sure what to do. 像诺克斯和威廉斯这样的牧农们正在认真考虑着出路。许多人将迁往较为偏远的地方,那里土地比较便宜, 城市人也不多。年轻的牛仔承包了牧场干起副业,并兼职做驯牛师。年纪较大的牛仔还不知道该干什么。 The Arizona Cowboy College in Scottsdale, which trains cattlehands, conducts the school for profit but also for m________⑥ the cowboy culture. The six-day courses include cattle-herding, rustling[11] and ranch-survival skills. The owner, herself a rancher, says the courses are popular, especially with retired businessmen. 位于斯科特斯德的亚利桑那牛仔学院专门培训驯牛师,其办学宗旨不但是为了赚钱,也是为了维护牛仔文 化。课程为期六天,内容包括放牧、窃取牲口以及农场生存技能培训。院长本人也是一名农场主,她说, 这些课程很受欢迎,特别是受到退休商人的欢迎。

[QUIZ] Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①r_______(v. to look after animals or grow plants so that they can be sold or used as food) ②l_______(n. animals such as cows and sheep that are kept on a farm) ③r________(v. to guess a number or amount, without calculating it exactly) ④d________(adj. of a good enough standard or quality) ⑤p________(adv. exactly the right thing) ⑥m________(v. to make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before) 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. rodeo n. 牛仔驯马、用绳索捕捉牲畜、骑马赛跑等娱乐活动;牧马技术表演 2. stomp v. 踩踏;跺脚 3. open range 开放牧场;开旷草原 4. trespass v.(未经允许)进入别人的私人土地 5. field v. to answer questions, telephone calls etc, especially when there are a lot of them or the questions are difficult 回答(问题、电话访问,尤指较多或较难回答时) 6. arable adj.与种植或耕种有关的(arable land 可耕地) 7. western n. 西部电影(尤指反映 19 世纪美国西部牛仔生活的电影) 8. dude n. 在西部牧场度假的城里人;纨绔子弟 9. cheeky adj.无礼的;厚颜无耻的 10. backlight v. 从后面照亮 11. rustle v.偷(牛、马等牲畜)

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①raising 饲养 ②livestock 家畜 ③reckons 估算 ④decent 尚可的,不错的 与 good 有关的词汇: 表示“very good”:excellent 极好的, fantastic 绝妙的,极好的, wonderful 惊人的,极好的, great 美妙的, 好极了的, terrific 非常棒的,妙极了的, neat 极好的,极佳的 , superb 极好的,一流的, amazing 惊人的,了 不起的, outstanding 杰出的,出色的, brilliant 超群的,才华横溢的, impressive 给人留下深刻印象的, fine, first-class 一流的, out of this world 超级的,超一流的 表示“of good quality”high quality, top quality, superior, deluxe 精品的, classy 上等的,优等的 表示“morally good”: decent 大方的,得体的, virtuous 善良的,有道德的, respectable 可敬的, honorable 可敬的,光荣的, upright 正直的,诚实的, beyond reproach 无可指摘的 ⑤precisely 正好 ⑥maintaining 保持,维持;保养(continue/carry on • perpetuate 使永存,使不朽 • keep up 维持,继续 • preserve 维持,维护,保存) 2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 61

How green is your Apple? 你的“苹果”有多绿?(陈继龙

编译)

Aug 25th 2006 From The Economist print edition ( 1 ) DISPOSING of computers, monitors, printers and mobile phones is a large and growing environmental problem. Some 20m-50m tonnes of “e-waste” is produced each year, most of which ends up in the developing world. According to the European Union, e-waste is now the fastest-growing category. Last month new rules came into force in both Europe and California to oblige the industry to take responsibility for it. In Europe the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive limits the use of many toxic materials in new electronic products sold in the European Union. In California mobile-phone r________① must now take back and recycle old phones. 废旧电脑、显示器、打印机和手机的处理是一个日趋严重的环境问题。每年大约有 2~5 千万吨“电子废 品”形成,其中大部分是在发展中国家。欧盟认为“电子废品”是目前增长速度最快的一类“产品”。上 个月,欧洲和美国加里福利亚均出台了新规定,要求电子产业要为此负责。欧洲的《有害物质限制使用规 定》对在欧盟范围内销售的新电子产品涉及的众多有毒物质都进行了使用限定。加里福利亚则规定手机零 售商现在必须对旧手机进行回收和废物处理。 Many technology firms are already eliminating certain chemicals and offering recycling schemes to help their customers dispose of obsolete equipment. Yet there is a wide variation in just how green different companies are, according to Greenpeace, an environmental l_______② group that launches a new e-waste campaign on August 25th. (2)It has ranked the top mobile-phone and PC-makers based on their progress in eliminating chemicals and in taking back and recycling products. 许多科技公司都正在去除产品中所含的特定化学物质,并向客户提供废物处理方案,以帮助其处理陈旧设 备。不过据绿色和平组织称,不同公司的环保状况存在很大差异。该组织是一个环境问题游说团体,它于 8 月 25 日发起了一项新的“电子废品”运动。它根据手机和个人电脑制造商在去除化学物质以及产品回 收和废物再利用方面的进展情况,对一些顶级制造商进行了排名。 The RoHS rules ban products containing any more than trace amounts of lead, mercury, cadmium[1] and other hazardous substances, including some nasty materials called brominated flame-retardants (BFRs)[2]. To do well in Greenpeace's rankings, firms must make sure both products and production processes are free of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)[3] and some BFRs that are not on the RoHS list. (3)Greenpeace also wants companies to adopt a “precautionary principle” and avoid chemicals if their environmental impact is uncertain. 《有害物质限制使用规定》禁止生产含有超量铅、汞、镉以及包括某些难闻物质即溴化阻燃剂(BFR)在 内的其它有害物质的产品。至于要想在绿色和平组织的排名中有出色表现,各公司还必须确认产品及生产 过程中未使用聚氯乙烯(PVC)和《有害物质限制使用规定》中未列出的某些 BFR。同时,绿色和平组织 还希望各公司采取“预防原则”,从而避免使用某些对环境影响作用不确切的化学物质。 Although not everyone will agree with Greenpeace's methodology, its ranking still has some merit. Nokia does well: the world's biggest handset-maker has already got rid of PVC from its products and will eliminate all BFRs from next year. But, Greenpeace g________③, it is not sufficiently “precautionary” in other areas. Dell, however, Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong scores well in this regard and on recycling, but loses marks for not having phased out PVC and BFRs yet, though it has set a deadline for doing so. 虽然绿色和平组织的这套方法没有得到所有人的认同,但它的排名仍旧具有一定的价值。诺基亚表现出色 ——这个全球最大的手机制造商已经从其产品中去掉了 PVC,并从明年起将去除所有溴化阻燃剂。(注: 诺基亚排名第一)不过,绿色和平组织抱怨说,诺基亚在其它化学物质的“预防”使用上做得还不够。戴 尔公司在这方面以及废物再利用上表现得就很好,但是由于尚未去除 PVC 和 BFR 而被扣分,尽管它已经 为此制定了最后期限。(注:戴尔排名第二) Perhaps the biggest surprise is the poor rating of Apple. (4)Despite having an image steeped in California's counterculture[4], it is one of the worst heel-draggers, says Zeina Al-Hajj of Greenpeace. The company insists that it has a strong record in recycling and has eliminated BFRs and PVC from the main plastic parts in its products. It scores badly because it has not eliminated such chemicals altogether, has not set time limits for doing so, does not provide a full list of regulated substances and is insufficiently precautionary for Greenpeace's t_______④. As for recycling, the 9,500 tonnes of electronics Apple says it has recycled since 1994 is puny[5] given the amount of equipment the firm sells, says Ms Al-Hajj. Apple responds that many of its products (such as the iPod music-player) are small and light. Greenpeace points out that Nokia also makes tiny devices, but is much better at recycling them. 最出人意料的可能是苹果电脑的糟糕名次。绿色和平组织的哈吉说,虽然苹果公司深受加里福利亚反传统 文化的熏陶而给人以不拘一格的印象,但它的表现仍然最糟糕(拖了清除电子废品运动的后腿) 。该公司 坚称有记录表明自己在废物再利用方面做得很好,而且也已经去除了其产品的主要塑料部件中的 BFR 和 PVC。它之所以得分低,是因为它并未完全消除此类化学物质,也没有为此制定最后期限,没有给出一份 完整的校准物质名单,没有按照绿色和平组织的意思完全做到防患于未然。至于废物回收再利用问题,哈 吉女士说,苹果公司自称从 1994 年以来已回收了 9500 吨电子元件,但相比其产品总销量而言,这是微不 足道的。苹果公司回应说,其多数产品体积都比较小,也不重(如 iPod 音乐播放器),而绿色和平组织却 指出,诺基亚生产的也是小型装置,但在回收再利用方面表现得就比苹果公司好很多。 (5)Alas for Apple, whatever the pros and cons of Greenpeace's ranking criteria, consumers are likely to be influenced by it anyway. Comically, Greenpeace is now considering a plan to promote its e-waste campaign via podcasting—a technology that Apple helped to p_______⑤. 无论人们赞成还是反对绿色和平组织的排名标准,苹果公司都会不好受,因为消费者多少都有可能受到 这一排名的影响。搞笑的是,绿色和平组织目前正考虑计划通过播客来推进其电子废品行动,而这一技术 恰恰就是苹果公司帮助推广的。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①r_______(n. a person or business that sells goods to customers in a shop) ②l_______(n. an attempt to persuade a government to change a law, make a new law etc) ③g________(v. to keep complaining in an unhappy way [= moan]) ④t________(n. the kind of things that someone likes) ⑤p________(v. to make something well known and liked)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. cadmium n. 镉 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 2. brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) n. 溴化阻燃剂 3. polyvinyl chloride (PVC) n. 聚氯乙烯 4. counterculture n. 反正统(主流)文化 5. puny adj. 小的,微不足道的

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①retailers 零售商(wholesaler 批发商) ②lobby 游说(团) ③grumbles 抱怨,发牢骚 ④tastes 偏好,喜好 ⑤popularize 普及,推广

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 62

China's pied piper 马首是瞻(陈继龙

编译)

(译注:pied piper 原意为“吹笛手”,源自一则古老的故事,说的是一个人通过吹笛子将老鼠引入河中淹 死,从而清除了德国一座小镇上的所有老鼠。可后来他由于没有得到任何报酬,就再次吹起笛子把镇上所 有的小孩都带走了。后来人们用“pied piper”比喻“有很多追随者、受到人们喜爱或崇拜的人” 。) Sep 21st 2006 From The Economist print edition ON A rainy weekend this month 10,000 businessmen, hobby traders and “netheads” gathered in Hangzhou, a pretty Chinese city near Shanghai, to talk about e-commerce. Most went to meet and s_______① tips with other online traders. All came to the “Alifest” to sit at the feet of Jack Ma, a pixie[1]-sized, boyish 42-year-old who is the founder of Alibaba, an e-commerce firm, and is regarded as the godfather of the internet in China. In a country where businessmen are viewed with suspicion, his popularity is unusual. (1)When he was invited recently to speak in Beijing's Great Hall of the People, Mr Ma needed six bodyguards to escape a mob[2] of online traders waiting outside to give him a hug. 9 月的一个周末,天下着雨,一万名商人、业余生意人和“网络老手”聚集在上海附近的美丽的中国城市 ——杭州,谈起了电子商务。过去他们大多数人都是在网上与其他商人互相交流经验,而这次他们都来参 加“阿里巴巴盛宴” ,拜会马云。马云身材瘦小,42 岁,看上去像一个男孩,他是阿里巴巴电子商务公司 的创始人,被认为是中国互联网的“教父”。在一个人们都对商人心存疑虑的国度,他能受到广泛欢迎, 非同寻常。最近他应邀赴北京人民大会堂演讲时,为了避开在外等候与他拥抱的众多网络生意人,他不 得不找来了 6 个贴身护卫。 Mr Ma's rock-star status reflects how he has enabled thousands of his countrymen to become their own bosses, build businesses and make money. Alibaba has become the world's largest online business-to-business (B2B) marketplace, Asia's most popular online auction site and, as a result of it’s a________② of Yahoo! China, the 12th most popular website in the world. That combination makes Alibaba one of the few credible challengers to the global online elite of Google, eBay, Yahoo! and Amazon. 从马云的巨星地位可以看出,他是如何使得数以千计的中国人成为老板,从而能够经营自己的生意并挣到 钱的。阿里巴巴已经成为世界最大的 B2B 交易场所、亚洲访问人次最多的在线拍卖站点,而且在并购雅 虎中国之后成为访问人次位居世界第十二位的网站。这一并购也使得阿里巴巴成为 Google、eBay 以及 Amazon 等全球网络精锐公司为数不多的几个值得信任的对手之一。 Alibaba is far from being just a Chinese knock-off[3] of these American giants. Indeed, they have borrowed ideas from him. “Jack is not just a Chinese v_______③, but a global one. Western companies are taking pages from the Alibaba book,” says Bob Peck, an analyst at Bear Stearns. At Alibaba's heart sit two B2B websites (alibaba.com and china.alibaba.com), one a marketplace for firms from across the world to trade in English, the other a domestic Chinese service. Rival e-commerce outfits, such as America's Ariba and Commerce One, sought to cut multinationals' procurement[4] costs. (2)In contrast, Alibaba's intention was to build markets for China's vast number of small and medium-sized enterprises, which make everything from cufflinks[5] to motorcycles, by allowing them to trade with each other and linking them to global supply chains. Today, traders in America buy from Alibaba and resell on eBay. 阿里巴巴绝非仅仅是这些美国顶尖公司在中国的一个“仿制品”。实际上,这些公司还曾借鉴过马云的经 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 营理念。Bear Sterns 的分析家鲍勃·佩克说:“马云不仅在中国是一个有着远见卓识的人,在全球同样也 是 。 西 方 公 司 正 在 向 阿 里 巴 巴 学 习 。” 阿 里 巴 巴 的 核 心 部 分 是 两 个 B2B 网 站 ( alibaba.com 和 china.alibaba.com),一个是供全世界的公司用英语进行交易的场所,另一个则服务于中国国内。诸如美国 Ariba 和 Commerce One 公司这样的电子商务竞争者已经试图削减跨国采购成本,而阿里巴巴的目标却是 通过让包括生产衬衫链扣、摩托车在内的绝大多数中国中小型企业进行贸易往来,并把它们与全球连锁 供应商连到一起,从而为其打造市场。今天,美国的商人开始从阿里巴巴那里采购,然后拿到 eBay 上转 售。 Mr Ma has also led the charge into online communities and social networking, both now booming areas. In 2003 he added a consumer auction site, Taobao, that allowed instant-messaging—a feature later added to his business sites. In contrast with eBay's relative anonymity, Taobao lets buyers and sellers get chummy[6] through messaging and voicemail, and by posting photographs and personal details on the site. Turning e-commerce into a community of “friends” has been critical in a country beset by a lack of trust. And with 70% of China's web users aged under 30, Taobao's informal, blog-like format struck a chord[7]—attracting more than 20m users. Many have now gone professional, buying goods w________④ on Alibaba and reselling them on Taobao. (3)The story goes that, shortly after visiting Alibaba's offices and seeing Taobao, Meg Whitman, eBay's boss, bought Skype, an internet-telephony start-up, for its instant-messaging. 马云还是第一个把收费服务引入网络社区和社交网络的人,如今这两个领域发展速度都非常快。2003 年, 他增建了一个消费者拍卖站点即淘宝网,实现了即时通讯功能。这一功能后来也被他加入了他的贸易网站。 同 eBay 匿名交易不同的是,淘宝网通过即时通讯和语音邮件,以及在站点上张贴照片和个人详细资料, 使得买卖双方建立了亲密的关系。在一个深受诚信不足困扰的国家,将电子商务变成一个遍布���朋友”的 社区已然成为关键之举。而且,对于 70%30 岁以下的中国网络用户而言,淘宝网不拘一格的博客式风格 让他们都怦然心动——已经吸引了超过 2 千万的用户。许多人现在都已经逐渐走向职业化,他们从阿里巴 巴批发商品,然后再到淘宝网上转售。据报道,eBay 老总梅格·惠特曼在访问阿里巴巴办公室并了解淘 宝网后不久,就收购了新兴网络电话公司 Skype,原因就在于它具有即时通讯功能。 Alibaba has also outflanked[8] the opposition in online payments. Aware that most Chinese do not have credit cards, Mr Ma introduced AliPay, a system that keeps cash in escrow[9] until goods arrive. That trick for getting round settlement risk was later adopted in China by eBay. (3)China's powerful banking regulator has a hawkish eye on AliPay, which is, in effect, an online bank with thousands of credit histories (something mainland banks crave). Taobao's success has been startling. Its market share jumped from 8% to 59% between 2003 and 2005, while eBay China's slid from 79% to 36%. Mr Ma trumpets that it is “game over” for eBay China. Many industry watchers expect eBay to retreat and sell out to a local outfit such as Tencent (a rising star in auctions) or Alibaba itself—as Yahoo! China did. 在在线付款方面,阿里巴巴也有过人之处。马云认识到大多数中国人都没有信用卡,于是就引入了 Alipay (支付宝),它可以在到货之前将所付金额一直交由第三方保管。这一降低货款交付风险的技术后来也被 eBay 在中国采用。强大的中国银行业调控部门对 Alipay 的态度则比较强硬,因为 Alipay 实际上是一个拥 有数千条存款记录(而这又是中国大陆银行所渴望的)的网络银行。淘宝网的成功令人咋舌。2003 年至 2005 年间,它的市场占有率已从 8%跃升到 59%,而 eBay 在中国的市场占有率则从 79%跌至 36%。马 云不无自豪地宣称,eBay 中国的“游戏结束”了。产业界众多观察人士预计,eBay 将退出中国,并全部 转售给一家中国公司,比如腾讯(拍卖业后起之秀)或者就是阿里巴巴,一如雅虎中国的选择。 Mr Ma is also at the forefront of the trend to integrate paid search with e-commerce. Alibaba's takeover of Yahoo! China last October gave the firm a search engine just as Google was demonstrating the huge potential of paid search, and the deal a________⑤ eBay's link-ups with portals (Yahoo! in America, and Google elsewhere). Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Baidu, China's main search engine, is a strong rival. But online advertising is surging in China and small firms are the biggest users of paid search, giving Alibaba an edge. 马云同样也走在了搜索付费与电子商务整合潮流的前沿。去年十月收购雅虎中国后,正当 Google 展示付 费搜索的巨大发展潜力之时,阿里巴巴也拥有了自己的搜索引擎,比与许多门户网站如美国雅虎和中国以 外的 Google 等建立链接的 eBay 抢先一步。中国最大的搜索引擎——百度是阿里巴巴的一个强劲对手。不 过由于在线广告正在中国兴起,并且小型公司使用付费搜索都比较多,因此阿里巴巴也获得了一定的优势。 Mr Ma seldom mentions technology. Whereas most internet e________⑥ are geeks[10] (think of Yahoo!'s or Google's founders), Mr Ma first touched a computer in 1995 on a trip to Seattle. “Someone as dumb as me should be able to use technology,” he says. He insists on simplicity. A new feature is rejected unless he can understand and use it. Mr Ma's approach to running the company is similarly independent. (4)He reads neither business books nor case studies, and ascribes Alibaba's survival and success to the fact that he “knew nothing about technology, we didn't have a plan and we didn't have any money.” In truth, Mr Ma had powerful backers early on, including Goldman Sachs and Softbank. Yahoo!'s Jerry Yang—who joined Mr Ma at the Alifest—is also a longtime friend. In any case, he has money aplenty today: as part of its takeover by Alibaba, Yahoo! paid $1 billion for a 40% stake in the company. 马云很少谈及技术问题。大多数互联网创业人士都是行家里手(比如雅虎和 Google 的创始人) ,可马云却 是在 1995 年前往西雅图的旅途中才第一次接触电脑。他说: “跟我一样傻乎乎的人应该能够利用技术。” 他力求简单。一个新的特色必须要让他能懂会用,否则就得被放弃。马云管理公司的方式也同样不拘一格。 他既不读商务书籍,也不看商业案例分析。在他看来,阿里巴巴能够站住脚并获得成功,归根结底是因 为他“对科技一无所知,没有任何计划,也没有一分资金。 ”事实上,马云很早就有了强有力的支持后盾, 包括高盛公司和日本软件销售商 Softbank。参加马云“阿里巴巴盛宴”聚会的雅虎总裁杨致远也是马云的 多年好友。不管怎么说,如今马云已经有了丰裕的资金——作为阿里巴巴接收雅虎中国的一部分,雅虎支 付了 10 亿美金以获得该公司 40%的股份。 (5)Only one thing is missing: profits. As the boss of a private company in no rush to join the stockmarket, Mr Ma is relaxed. Revenues should double to more than $200m this year. But Alibaba has so far pursued market share rather than revenue. The global business site charges its users, but Taobao does not; an attempt to do so this year failed. Mr Ma says it is too early: only 30m of China's 120m online users have bought anything online. He wants to help the market grow—creating 1m jobs in China in the next three years—not stifle it with charges. He will have to t________⑦ profitability if he is really to call the tune[11]. 惟一不简单的就是利润。作为不紧不慢迈入股市的一家私有公司的老板,马云可谓优哉悠哉。今年总收入 应该会增加一倍,达到 2 亿美金以上。不过,阿里巴巴迄今一直追求的并不是收入,而是市场份额。全球 的商务网站都要对用户收费,而淘宝网却不;今年本来曾经有过收费的尝试,但最终还是取消了。马云说 现在收费还为时尚早——中国 1.2 亿网络用户中仅有 3 千万人曾在网上购物。他希望促进这个市场进一步 壮大——今后三年内在中国创造 100 万个就业岗位,而不是用收费来扼杀之。假如他当真想成为市场的主 宰,那他就将不得不努力解决好盈利的问题。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①s_______(v. to give something to someone and get something in return [= exchange]) ②a_______(n. the act of getting land, power, money etc) ③v________(n. someone who has clear ideas and strong feelings about the way something should be in the future) ④w________(n. the business of selling goods in large quantities at low prices to other businesses, rather Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong than to the general public) ⑤a________(v. to do something before someone else) ⑥e________(n. someone who starts a new business or arranges business deals in order to make money, often in a way that involves financial risks) ⑦t________(v. to try to deal with a difficult problem)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. pixie n. 小精灵,小仙子 2. mob n. 群,帮 3. knock-off n. 仿制品,冒牌货 4. procurement n.获得,取得 v. procure 5. cufflink n. 男子衬衫袖的链扣 6. chummy adj.友好的,关系亲密的(=friendly) 7. struck a chord 亦作 touch a chord (with somebody) 指 to do or say something that people feel is familiar or true,即触动心弦,使人回想起某事,引起共鸣,摸透别人的心意 8. outflank v. 包抄;胜过(对手,尤指策略上) 9. escrow n. 契约,合同(由第三者代为保管)(如:a property to be held in escrow 由第三者代为保管的 财产) 10. geek n. techie(计算机领域的行家)一词的非正式用法,有贬低的意思。Longman 的解释为:someone who is not popular because they wear unfashionable clothes, do not know how to behave in social situations, or do strange things [= nerd],古板的人,古怪的人,不合群的人 11. call the tune 指“to be in a position of authority so that you can give orders and make decisions”,即 “颐指气使,发号施令”

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①swap 交换 ②acquisition 获得;买进 ③visionary 有远见的人 ④wholesale 批发,趸售 ⑤anticipated 比……抢先一步 ⑥entrepreneurs 企业家,创业者 ⑦tackle 处理,解决

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 63

Sickening spinach 讨厌的菠菜(陈继龙

编译)

Sep 21st 2006 | PETALUMA, CALIFORNIA From The Economist print edition A SMALL card sits above an empty shelf in the Whole Foods store in Petaluma, California. “Consumers are advised NOT to eat fresh bagged spinach at this time. (1)As a precaution, Whole Foods Market has temporarily removed ALL fresh spinach and fresh salad mixes containing spinach from its stores.” 加利福尼亚佩塔卢马的“全有食品”商店一座空货架上方悬挂着一张小卡片,上面写着:“特此通知各位 消费者,暂时请勿食用袋装新鲜菠菜。为了预防起见,‘全有食品店’已临时撤走所有新鲜菠菜及含有来 自该食品店的菠菜的新鲜沙拉混合料。” On September 14th the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta issued the first of several daily alerts concerning an outbreak of E. coli 0157:H7, a potentially lethal pathogen typically associated with adulterated[1] beef. Investigators had traced it to consumption of fresh r_______① spinach sold in bags. (2) A few days later, an investigation conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had narrowed down the culprits to a California-based grower, Natural Selection Foods, and at least one of its distributors. So far, a 77-year-old woman in Wisconsin has died from eating spinach traced back to Natural Selection, and 146 people in 23 states are ill, some very seriously. Half of the victims have been hospitalised, a high rate that may indicate an especially virulent strain of E. coli. 9 月 14 日,亚特兰大疾病控制与预防中心发布了第一份有关 O157:H7 大肠杆菌暴发传染的每日警报,此 后又发布了数次。O157:H7 大肠杆菌是一种可能导致死亡的病原菌,一般与掺假牛肉有关。调查人员已经 在消费者购买的袋售新鲜生菠菜中发现了这种病菌。几天后,美国食品与药品管理局(FDA)缩小了调 查范围,专门对位于加利福尼亚的菠菜种植商“天然选择食品”公司及其至少一家经销商展开了调查。 迄今为止,威斯康星州一名 77 岁的妇女由于食用了“天然选择”菠菜而死亡,并且已有 23 个州共 146 人发病,其中有些人病情非常严重。半数受害者都已住院,如此高的住院率表明这可能是一种毒性特别强 的大肠杆菌菌株。 Investigators continue to search for the cause of the outbreak. (3)They have scoured the company's processing plant as well as the farms that grow the spinach, looking at everything from irrigation water to the proximity[2] of livestock, with no sure connections made so far. The fact that Natural Selection is in California's Salinas Valley has raised alarms, however. According to the FDA, fresh produce from the valley, including spinach, has been the s________② of nine E. coli outbreaks since 1995. 调查人员继续对暴发根源进行了调查。他们对该食品公司的加工厂和菠菜农场进行了仔细检查,检查内容 包括灌溉用水和周边的家畜等所有情况,到目前为止尚未发现确切相关的问题。不过,“天然选择”公司 位于加利福尼亚萨莱纳山谷这一情况已经引起了调查人员的警觉。FDA 称,1995 年以来,有 9 次大肠杆 菌暴发感染的源头都是产自萨莱纳山谷、包括菠菜在内的新鲜食品。 Moreover Natural Selection, which supplies several supermarket c_______③ across the United States with conventionally produced fresh spinach, is also the nation's largest grower and shipper of certified organic produce, under its Earthbound Farm brand. (4)If organic spinach becomes implicated, the financial consequences for the organic sector of the fresh produce market, which prides itself on its purity, could be severe. Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 此外, “天然选择”也是美国最大的、持有许可证的有机食品生产商和货商,经营商标是“Earthbound Farm”, 向全美数个连锁超市供应按常规生产的新鲜菠菜。假如这次事件真的涉及到有机菠菜的话,对于以纯净自 居的新鲜有机食品市场而言,可能会造成严重的经济后果。 (5)But with the FDA advising consumers not to eat fresh spinach from any source until further notice, the outbreak could ruin California's whole spinach industry. The state grows about three-quarters of the American crop. In recent years the market for fresh spinach has benefited hugely from what one producers' spokesman calls “a great health profile”. In 2005, per capita consumption[3] in America was f________④ at 2.2 pounds (one kilogram), up from just 0.6 pounds ten years ago. That total isn't likely to increase again for a while. 不过由于 FDA 已建议消费者在接到进一步通知之前不要食用任何来源的新鲜蔬菜,这一暴发事件很可能 殃及整个加利福尼亚蔬菜业。该州种植的农作物占美国总量的四分之三。一名生产商发言人将新鲜菠菜称 作是“重要的保健食品” ,这使得新鲜菠菜市场近年来从中获利颇丰。据估计,1995 年美国人均菠菜消费 量仅为 0.6 磅,到 2005 年已升至 2.2 磅(1 公斤)。这一总数暂时是不太可能再增长的了。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①r_______(adj. not cooked) ②s_______(n. a thing, place, activity etc that you get something from) ③c________(n. a number of shops, hotels, cinemas etc owned or managed by the same company or person) ④f________(v. to make a statement saying what is likely to happen in the future, based on the information that you have now [= predict])

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. adulterate v. 掺假,伪造次品 2. proximity n. 接近,邻近,附近 3. per capita consumption 人均消费

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①raw 生的,未加工的(undercooked 火候不足的) ②source 来源 ③chains 连锁店 ④forecast 预测,预报(=foretell,≈prophesy, second-guess)

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 64

Testament of youth 青春作证(陈继龙

编译)

Sep 21st 2006 From The Economist print edition Political parties start talking to an elusive constituency MOST marketing operations pay close attention to what young people are buying and thinking. Not Britain's political parties, however, for the simple reason that the under-30s are unlikely to go anywhere near a p______① booth. In 1964, 11% of those aged 18 to 24 claimed not to vote, according to the British Election Study. At the general election last year that figure rose to 55%. (1)A report this week by Reform, a think-tank, suggests that this reticence[1] is costing them dearly. Changes in government policy, it argues, have turned being young into a terrible bore. 大多数经营机构都密切关注年轻人的所购所想,然而英国各政党对年轻人却不感兴趣,原因很简单,那就 是在投票站附近不可能见到 30 岁���下的年轻人。据《英国选举研究》称,1964 年,有 11%年龄介于 18 至 24 岁之间的年轻人声称不会去投票。去年大选时这一数字已升至 55%。一家名为“改革”的研究机构 本周发布的一项报告表明,年轻人正在为这种漠不关心的态度付出昂贵的代价。报告指出,政府的政策 变革已经让他们开始感到做一个年轻人真是没劲透了。 (2)There are already two powerful economic forces working against the so-called “IPOD generation” that are beyond the government's control. First, the ageing of the population is fast increasing the ratio of people in r_______② to those of working age. So the young can look forward to handing over a rising proportion of their pay to support the oldies in their decline. Second, the cost of buying a house in places where people want to live has shot up beyond the reach of the young. In 1995 24% of all first-time homebuyers were under 25; today, less than 15% are, according to the Halifax, a bank. 不服政府管束的所谓的“IPOD 一代”目前已然受制于两种巨大的经济压力。首先,人口的老化正迅速提 高退休人口与在岗人口的比率,因此为了维持老年人的晚年生活,年轻人支出比例升高指日可待。其次, 在人们都希望居住的区域购买房屋的价格飞速蹿升,年轻人已经难以企及。Halifax 银行称,1995 年首次 置业者中有 24%在 25 岁以下,而如今却不到 15%。 This much is uncontroversial. But the report also argues that the Labour government has made life worse for young people, in three ways. First, increased spending on health care has tended to benefit the old, who use the NHS[2] more than the young. Second, tilting the tax and benefit system towards people with children has transferred money from the young to the middle-aged. Third, higher t_______③ fees are landing university graduates with hefty debts.(3)And the future doesn't look much better: the government's proposed pension reforms, along with the decline of defined-benefit company-pension schemes, make grim reading for the under-30s too. 这些都是毋庸置疑的。不过该报告也指出,让年轻人生活变得更糟的是工党政府,理由有三:首先,增大 的医疗投入倾向于惠及使用国民医疗服务较年轻人多的老年人。其次,将税收与福利制度向有子女的人倾 斜使得年轻人的钱转向中年人群。第三,高昂的学费使大学毕业生背上了沉重的债务。而且,未来似乎也 没有好转的迹象——由于政府拟进行养老金改革,加之固定给付式养老金计划即将取消,30 岁以下的人 将面临严峻的形势。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong “These changes ought to have brought about a re-examination of the burden of taxation on this age group,” says Nick Bosanquet of Imperial College London, one of the authors of the report. He reckons that, after paying various taxmen and lenders, graduates take home only around half of their salaries. The average for all salaried workers is about three-fifths. 该报告作者之一、伦敦帝国学院的尼克·博桑基特说:“在进行这些变革的同时,应该重新审视一下年轻 人所背负的纳税负担。”他估算,大学毕业生在缴纳了各种各样的税款和贷款后,能够带回家的工资就只 剩下一半左右,而就所有拿工资的工人而言,这一平均数字大约是五分之三。 Are things really that bad? When examined in a freeze-frame[3], being young does not look much fun financially. But welfare states are meant to transfer resources from the vigorous to the f_______④. Some benefits are merely deferred: today's 25-year-olds will have babies and hip[4] replacements one day. (4)And although people in their 20s and 30s tend to be heavily indebted this passes when they sink into their 40s and 50s, says Richard Disney of Nottingham University. 情况真的如此糟糕么?静止地看,年轻人在经济状况上是高兴不起来的,但福利制度本身就意味着“锄强 扶弱” ,而且有些福利只不过是延期到来而已——今天 25 岁的人总有一天会生儿育女,并且将被新的弄潮 儿所取代。此外,诺丁汉大学的理查德·迪斯尼说,虽然人们在二、三十岁的时候重债在身,但到了四、 五十岁时,这些债务终将成为过去。 Even so, the feeling that young people are being s_______⑤ presents a political opportunity for the opposition parties. David Willetts, the Conservative shadow education secretary, said in a speech last year that (5)the young “could be forgiven for believing that the way in which economic and social policy is now conducted is little less than a conspiracy by the middle-aged” against them. The Liberal Democrat commission on tax policy worried in August about inter-generational unfairness too. 话虽如此,认为年轻人遭到了压榨的这种情结还是让反对党在政治上有隙可乘。保守党影子内阁教育大臣 大卫·威莱茨在去年的一次演讲中说,年轻人“认为现行的经济与社会政策无异于是中年人对他们所策划 的一场阴谋” ,这“是可以谅解的”。今年 8 月,自由民主党税收政策委员会也对两代人之间的不公平表示 了担忧。 There will be more of such talk. For the Tories[5], it offers a way to discuss reducing spending without sounding as if they are merely the mouthpiece[6] of the wealthy. It gives Lib Dem leaders a way to argue activists out of promising to out-spend Labour. And it might even persuade some of those gloomy 25-year-olds to vote. 诸如此类的言论定会不绝于耳。对于保守党而言,它可以让人们就削减财政支出展开讨论,而不会让人觉 得自己无非是有钱人的传声筒而已。至于自由民主党,它的领导人则因此找到了一个劝阻激进分子在支出 上与劳工党攀比的由头。而且,这样也可能会说服那些抑郁的年轻人投上一票。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①p_______(n. when people vote in a political election) ②r_______(n. the period after you have stopped work) ③t________(n. the money you pay for being taught) ④f________(adj. a weak physical condition because of illness) ⑤s________(v. to strictly limit the amount of money that is available to a company or organization)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) : Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. reticent adj. unwilling to talk about what you feel or what you know [= reserved]闭口不谈的,保持缄默 的 reticence n. 2. NHS National Health Service (英国)国民医疗服务制度 3. freeze-frame n. when you stop the action on a video at one particular place 定格,停帧,凝镜 4. hip adj. doing things or done according to the latest fashion [= cool]赶潮流的,新潮的,时髦的 5. Tory (英国)保守党党员 6. mouthpiece n. a person, newspaper etc that expresses the opinions of a government or a political organization 代言人,传声筒

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①polling 投票选举 ②retirement 退休 ③tuition 学费 ④fragile 软弱的,虚弱的(注意比较 frail,feeble) ⑤squeezed 压榨,使经济困难

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 65

The horror 恐怖(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 5th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition (1)TO JOURNALISTS, three of anything makes a trend. So after three school shootings in six days, speculation about an epidemic of violence in American classrooms was inevitable, and wrong. Violence in schools has fallen by half since the mid-1990s; children are more than 100 times more likely to be murdered outside the school walls than within them. 在新闻记者看来,任何事情发生三次就代表了一种趋势。因此,在 6 天之内发生 3 起校园枪击事件后,就 必然会有人推断美国校园暴力开始泛滥了,但这种推断并不准确。上世纪中期以来,校园暴力已经减少了 一半;孩子们在校外被杀害的可能性要比在校内要高出 100 多倍。 Of course, that average is not wholly comforting. Most children who are murdered are murdered by someone they know. But most parents know with certainty that neither they nor their friends or relations are killers, so their worries f_______① on strangers. (2)Their fears are inevitably stoked[1] by the breathless coverage of school shootings. 当然,这样的平均水平并不能完全令人放心。大多数被害儿童都是被他们所认识的人杀害的,但是大多数 家长肯定清楚,凶手不会是他们的亲朋好友,因此他们主要是担心陌生人。频频发生的校园枪击事件也就 不可避免地增添了他们的恐惧。 On September 27th a 53-year-old petty criminal, Duane Morrison, walked into a school in Bailey, Colorado, with two guns. He took six girls h_______②, preferring the blondes, molested[2] some of them, and killed one before committing suicide as police stormed[3] the room. 9 月 27 日,犯罪情节较轻、现年 53 岁的杜安纳·莫里森携带两支枪走进科罗拉多州贝利的一所学校,挟 持了 6 名女孩(均为金发碧眼)作为人质,对其中的一些女孩进行了性骚扰,并在警方冲进教室后准备自 杀前杀害了一名女孩。 On September 29th a boy brought two guns into his school in Cazenovia, Wisconsin. Prosecutors say that 15-year-old Eric Hainstock may have planned to kill several people. But staff acted quickly when they saw him with a shotgun, calling the police and putting the school into “lock-down”. The head teacher, who c_______③ him in a corridor, was the only one killed. 9 月 29 日,一名少年携带两支枪进入了位于威斯康星州卡泽诺维亚他所就读的学校。检察人员称,现年 15 岁的艾里克·哈因斯多克原企图射杀数人,但当工作人员看到他携有一支霰弹枪后迅速采取了行动, 一边报警,一边下令全校进入“一级防范禁闭状态”。与之在一间走廊中对峙的学校校长是唯一遇害的人。 And on October 2nd a 32-year-old milk-truck driver, Charles Roberts, entered a one-room Amish[4] school in Nickel Mines, Pennsylvania. His suicide notes mentioned recurring dreams of molesting children, but it is unclear whether he did so. He lined the girls up, tied their feet and, after an hour, shot them, killing at least five. He killed himself as police broke into the classroom. 10 月 2 日,32 岁的送牛奶卡车司机查尔斯·罗伯茨闯进了位于宾夕法尼亚镍矿地区的一所仅有一间教室 的安曼教会学校。他在自杀遗言中提到自己多次梦见猥亵儿童,不过他到底有无干过这种事尚不清楚。他 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 将女孩们排成一列,捆住她们的脚,并在一个小时后向她们开枪射击,至少打死 5 人。当警察破门而入时 他便开枪自杀了。 What to make of such horrors? Some experts see the Colorado and Pennsylvania cases as an extreme m_______ ④ of a culture of violence against women. Both killers appeared to have a sexual motive, and both let all the boys in the classroom go free. (3)But it is hard to extrapolate[5] from such unusual examples, and one must note that violence against women is less than half what it was in 1995. 这些恐怖事件是什么原因造成的呢?有些专家认为发生在科罗拉多和宾夕法尼亚的案例是反妇女暴力文 化的极端表现,两名凶手都有明显的性侵害动机,并且两人均释放了教室中所有的男孩。但是,我们不可 轻易从这类反常案例中作出推断,而且必须注意的是,现在的反妇女暴力事件还不到 1995 年的一半。 Other experts see all three cases as symptomatic of a change in the way men commit suicide. Helen Smith, a forensic[6] psychologist, told a radio audience “men are deciding to take their lives, and they're not going alone anymore. They're taking people down with them.” True, but not very often. 有的专家则认为这三宗案例预示着男人自杀方式的一种变化。法律心理学专家海伦·史密斯在接受一家电 台采访时说, “男人决定结束自己生命的时候,不再希望一个人独行,于是就杀死别人来陪伴自己。”话是 没错,可这种情况毕竟不常见。 Gun-control enthusiasts think school massacres show the need for tighter restrictions. It is too easy, they say, for criminals such as Mr Morrison and j_______⑤ such as Mr Hainstock to obtain guns. (4)Gun enthusiasts draw the opposite conclusion: that if more teachers carried concealed handguns, they could shoot potential child-killers before they kill. 积极支持枪支管控的人士认为,校园杀人事件表明更为严格的限制枪支的措施是有必要的。他们说,对于 像莫里森这样的犯罪分子和像哈因斯多克这样的青少年而言,获取枪支再容易不过了。然而,积极反对禁 枪的人却得出了截然相反的结论:假如更多的老师能身藏枪支的话,就可以在凶手可能杀害儿童之前打死 凶手。 George Bush has now called for a conference on school violence. Will it unearth anything new, or valuable? After the Columbine massacre in 1999, the FBI produced a report on school shooters. (5)It concluded that it was impossible to draw up a useful profile of a potential shooter because “a great many adolescents who will never commit violent acts will show some of the behaviours” on any checklist[7] of warning signs. 乔治·布什现已准备召开有关校园暴力的会议。这次会议会发现什么有新意、有价值的情况吗?1999 年 科隆比纳惨案发生后,联邦调查局撰写了一份关于校园枪手的报告,认定不可能仅从外在表现来判断一个 人是否可能为凶手,因为“很多从来都不会作出暴力举动的青少年也会有某些越界(应当受到警告的)表 现”。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①f_______(v. to give special attention to one particular person or thing) ②h_______(n. someone who is kept as a prisoner by an enemy so that the other side will do what the enemy demands) ③c________(v. to face someone in a threatening way, as though you are going to attack them) ④m________(n. a very clear sign that a particular situation or feeling exists) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ⑤j________(v. young people who are not yet adults)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. stoke v. (stoke fear/anger/envy etc) to cause something to increase 使增长,助长,增添 2. molest v. to attack or harm someone, especially a child, by touching them in a sexual way or by trying to have sex with them [= abuse]伤害,骚扰,调戏(儿童) 3. storm v. 猛攻,突袭 4. Amish

安曼教派:17 世纪晚期从门诺教派脱离出来的一个再洗礼派正统教派,现在主要存在于美国宾夕

法尼亚州东南部 5. extrapolate v. to use facts about the present or about one thing or group to make a guess about the future or about other things or groups 推论,推断 6. forensic adj. relating to the scientific methods used for finding out about a crime 法庭的,法院的,与犯 罪行为论证方法有关的 7. checklist n. a list that helps you by reminding you of the things you need to do or get for a particular job or activity 清单,一览表

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①focus (on)关注 ②hostage 人质 ③confronted 对抗,面对 ④manifestation 表现 ⑤juveniles 青少年

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 66

A natural choice 天生我���必有用(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 12th 2006 From The Economist print edition BORN in the trough[1] of the Great Depression, Edmund Phelps, a professor at Columbia University who this week won the Nobel prize for economics, has spent much of his intellectual life studying slumps of a different kind. The Depression, which cost both of his parents their jobs, was exacerbated[2] by the monetary authorities, who kept too tight a grip on the money supply. (1)Mr Phelps is interested in unemployment that even open-handed central bankers cannot cure. 本周获得诺贝尔经济学奖的哥伦比亚大学教授埃德蒙· 菲尔普斯生于经 济大萧条谷底时期。作为一名学者,他几乎全身心地投入在了一种不同 类型的经济萧条的研究之中。当年,由于金融主管当局对货币供应控制 过严,导致经济大萧条每况愈下,菲尔普斯的父母也因此双双失业。菲 尔普斯感兴趣的恰恰就是连出手大方的中央银行家们都无法解决的失 业问题。 Most scholars stand on the shoulders of giants. But Mr Phelps won his laurels[3] in part for kicking the feet from under his intellectual forerunners. In 1958 William Phillips, of the London School of Economics, showed that for much of the previous hundred years, unemployment was low in Britain when wage inflation was high, and high when inflation was low. Economists were quick—too quick—to conclude that policymakers therefore faced a grand, macroeconomic trade-off, embodied in the so-called “Phillips curve”. (2)They could settle for unemployment of, say, 6% and an inflation rate of 1%—as prevailed in America at the start of the 1960s—or they could quicken the economy, cutting unemployment by a couple of percentage points at the expense of inflation of 3% or so—which is roughly how things stood in America when Mr Phelps published his first paper on the subject in 1967. 大多数学者都站在巨人的肩膀之上,而菲尔普斯之所以能够获得此项殊荣,一部分却是因为他敢于突破前 辈们在学术上的桎梏。1958 年,伦敦经济学院的威廉·菲利普斯指出,此前一百年中大多数时候,英国 的失业与工资提高引起的通货膨胀呈反相关的关系。于是,经济学家们就匆匆断定,决策者因此将面临重 要的宏观经济平衡问题,所谓的“菲利普斯曲线”就是这种平衡的具体表现形式。比方说,6%的失业率 加上 1%的通货膨胀率对于决策者而言是可以接受的,20 世纪 60 年代初期的美国就普遍维持在这个水平。 又譬如说,决策者以通货膨胀上升到 3%左右为代价,可使失业率降低 2%,从而加快经济发展。1967 年 的美国情况也大致如此。同年,菲尔普斯发表了第一篇关于这一问题的论文。 In such a tight labour market, companies appease workers by offering higher wages. They then pass on the cost in the form of dearer prices, cheating workers of a higher real wage. Thus policymakers can engineer lower unemployment only through deception. But “man is a thinking, expectant being,” as Mr Phelps has put it. Eventually workers will cotton on[4], demanding still higher wages to offset the rising cost of living. (3)They can be duped[5] for as long as inflation stays one step ahead of their rising expectations of what it will be. 在劳动力市场十分紧缩的情况下,各公司稳定劳动者队伍的方法就是提高工资水平,然后再以抬高物价的 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 方式转移这一成本,并对劳动者隐瞒了其实可以更高的工资。这样的话,决策者只需要采取欺骗手段就可 以实现较低的失业水平。不过正如菲尔普斯所说, “人是有思维的并有所期望的。 ”总有一天劳动者会恍然 大悟,并且会索取更高的工资来弥补日益增长的生活费用。只有通货膨胀水平始终高于他们对其不断上升 的期望值,他们才可能上当受骗。 The stable trade-off depicted by the Phillips curve is thus a dangerous mirage. The economy will recover its equilibrium only when workers' expectations are fulfilled, prices turn out as anticipated, and they no longer sell their labour under false pretences. But equilibrium does not, sadly, imply full employment. Mr Phelps argued that inflation will not settle until unemployment rises to its “natural rate”, leaving some workers mouldering[6] on the shelf. (4)Given economists' almost theological commitment to the notion that markets clear, the presence of unemployment in the world requires a theodicy[7] to explain it. Mr Phelps is willing to entertain several. But in much of his work he contends that unemployment is necessary to cow workers, ensuring their loyalty to the company and their diligence on the job, at a wage the company can afford to pay. 如此一来,菲尔普斯曲线所描绘的稳定的平衡关系就成了一种危险的幻想。除非劳动者的期望得以满足, 物价合情合理,而且他们不会再在受到蒙蔽的情况下出卖自己的劳动力,经济才会恢复平衡。不过可惜的 是,平衡并不意味着充分就业。菲尔普斯认为,在失业达到“自然率”、出现闲置劳动力之前,通货膨胀 问题是得不到解决的。经济学家几乎如同信奉神灵一般地信奉这样一种观点,即市场终究是要出清的。有 鉴于此,全球的失业现状就需要一种神学理论来加以解释了。菲尔普斯很愿意酝酿出几个这样的理论,不 过他在其多数论著中还是坚持认为,失业必然会引起劳动者的恐惧,使得他们不得不对公司忠心耿耿,对 工作兢兢业业,薪水要求也不会超过公司的承受能力。 “Natural” does not mean optimal. Nor, Mr Phelps has written, does it mean “a pristine element of nature not susceptible to intervention by man.” Natural simply means impervious to central bankers' efforts to change it, however much money they print. “自然”并不意味着最佳。菲尔普斯撰文称, “自然”同样也不意味着“本真的自然元素不易受人的干预”。 “自然”只不过意味着中央银行家企图改变它的一切努力都是徒劳,哪怕印再多的钞票也都无济于事。 (5)Economists, including some of his own students, commonly take this natural rate to be slow-moving, if not constant, and devote a great deal of effort to estimating it. Mr Phelps, by contrast, has been more anxious to explain its fluctuations, and to recommend measures to lower it. His book “Structural Slumps”, published in 1994, is an ambitious attempt to provide a general theory of how the natural rate of unemployment evolves. Some of the factors that he considered important—unemployment benefits or payroll taxes, for example—are widely accepted parts of the story. Others are more idiosyncratic[8]. He and his French collaborator, Jean-Paul Fitoussi, have, for example, blamed Europe's mounting unemployment in the 1980s in part on Ronald Reagan's budget deficits, which were expansionary at home, but squeezed employment in the rest of the world. 包括菲尔普斯的一些学生在内的经济学家们普遍认为这种自然失业率变动缓慢或者保持不变,并投入了相 当大的精力对其进行估测。相比之下,菲尔普斯则更热衷于分析它的波动情况,从而提出使之降低的方法。 他在自己 1994 年出版的《结构性萧条》一书中就尝试提出过关于自然失业发展方式的一般性理论。书中 包含的一些在他看来非常重要的因素,比如失业补助或工资所得税,如今都得到了广泛认可。其它因素则 要特殊一些。例如,他和合著者法国人让-保罗·菲图西均认为,20 世纪 80 年代欧洲居高不下的失业率 部分应归咎于罗纳德·里根的预算赤字,后者虽仅是在美国国内不断扩大,却限制了世界其它地区的就业。 A few years ago David Warsh, an economic journalist, lamented that the glare of the Nobel prize left other equally deserving economists, such as Mr Phelps, languishing “in the half-lit penumbra[9] of the shortlist”. (6) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong This week, after an unaccountably long lag, professional acclaim for this bold, purposeful theorist finally converged on its natural rate. 几年前,经济新闻记者大卫·沃什悲叹诺贝尔奖的光环让其他一些同样应该获奖的经济学家如菲尔普斯“在 候选人名单若明若暗的光影中渐渐黯淡了”。莫名奇妙地一拖再拖之后,经济学界对这位无畏且坚定的理 论家所有的溢美之词终于汇集到他所提出的自然失业率之上。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. trough n. 凹槽,波谷 2. exacerbate v. 恶化,加剧 3. laurel n. 桂冠,殊荣;月桂树 4. cotton on 开始理解 5. dupe v. 欺骗,愚弄 6. moulder v.(molder)崩溃,腐朽,分裂 7. theodicy n. 神学论 8. idiosyncratic adj.特殊物质的,异质的 9. penumbra n. (日、月食)半影

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 67

Danger zone 危险地带(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 5th 2006 From The Economist print edition It began moderately, but has risen too far, too fast and now threatens jobs (1)SO FIRMLY entrenched in the political economy has the minimum wage become that its latest increase, on October 1st, to £5.35 ($10.08) an hour, caused little stir. Yet the i________① of a national pay floor in 1999 was one of New Labour's most radical economic policies. Although minimum wage rates had previously covered a few industries, this was the first time that a general rate had been set. 由于最低工资已经逐步确立了在政治经济学领域中的地位,因此今年 10 月 1 日最低工资再次上涨,变成 每小时 5.35 英镑(10.08 美元)时,并没有引起多大的轰动。不过 1999 年国家最低工资标准的引入却是 新工党政府在经济上最激进的政策之一。尽管起初最低工资标准仅涉及为数不多的行业,但设立一种统一 的标准毕竟是第一次。 During the 1997 election campaign the Conservatives said that the policy would destroy jobs. Some economists calculated that hundreds of thousands of people might be put out of work. (2)These dire warnings proved way off the mark after the national minimum wage came into force seven years ago. The feared job losses did not materialise. 1997 年大选期间,保守党称这一政策会损害就业。一些经济学家估计,数十万人可能因此失业。可自从 7 年前最低工资标准开始实行以来,事实证明这些警告纯属杞人忧天。 (way off the mark=inaccurate 不正确) 人们担心的失业现象并没有发生。 However, that benign o________② had much to do with the cautious approach the government, advised by the Low Pay Commission, at first adopted. In April 1999 the main rate—for workers aged 22 or over—was set quite low, at £3.60 an hour. Eighteen months later, the rate edged up to £3.70. At this level it was worth only 36% of average hourly earnings for all employees. Furthermore, workers aged 18 to 21 had a separate, lower rate, which began at £3 in 1999 and was raised to £3.20 in October 2000. 不过,最终没有发生不良后果,很大程度上要与政府在低工资委员会的提议下起初所采取的预防措施有关。 1999 年 4 月,针对 22 岁以上工人所制定的主要工资标准设定得相当低,仅为每小时 3.60 英镑。18 个月 后,这一标准逐渐升至 3.70 英镑。这一水平仅相当于所有雇员平均每小时工资的 36%。此外,18 至 21 岁的工人拥有独立的标准,但比较低,1999 年为 3 英镑,2000 年 10 月起升至 3.20 英镑。 The modest starting point for the minimum wage meant that it affected relatively few workers. The commission initially thought that it would raise the pay of around 2m workers but in practice only about a million gained. This limited any possible loss of jobs. 最低工资的起点设定适度,就意味着它影响的工人相对较少。低工资委员会开始以为这一政策会提高大约 200 万工人的工资,但实际上仅为 100 万左右。这样一来,失业的可能性就降低了。 (3)After the initial period of caution, however, the government got bolder. This month's increase pushed the main rate up by 6%, comfortably ahead of average earnings which went up by 4.4% in the past year. Since 1999 the minimum wage has risen by 49%, outstripping[1] average earnings which increased by 32% in the past Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong seven years. As a result, it is now worth 41% of average hourly earnings. 然而,在经过初期的“摸着石头过河”以后,政府的胆子开始大起来。本月最低标准的上涨使得主要标准 增加了 6%,大大超过了平均工资水平的提高幅度,后者在去年上升了 4.4%。1999 年以来,最低工资标 准已经提高了 49%,超过了平均工资水平的增长幅度,后者在过去 7 年里增长了 32%。因此,现在的最 低工资水平相当于平均每小时工资水平的 41%。 (4)This trajectory[2] contrasts sharply with what has happened in America. The federal minimum wage has stayed at $5.15 since September 1997. At this level, it is worth 27% of average hourly wages for all employees other than those working in agriculture or for the federal government—far stingier[3] than Britain's rate. 这一增长轨迹与美国的情况形成了鲜明的对比。自 1997 年 9 月以来,美国联邦最低工资始终保持着 5.15 美元的水平,相当于所有雇员(除从事农业工作或在联邦政府谋职的人外)平均每小时工资水平的 27%, 远低于英国的标准。 The commission accepts that the period when the minimum wage rose faster than average earnings is over. The worry, however, is that it has already risen to a level that will hurt employment. The Confederation of British Industry said on September 24th that businesses in several parts of the economy, such as retailing, were struggling to cope with the minimum wage. A few days later the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC) added that the latest increase would have “serious i________③” for firms. David Kern, who advises the BCC, says: “There is now a distinct risk that the minimum wage will have an adverse effect on jobs.” 低工资委员会承认,最低工资比平均工资增长快的时期已经结束了。但是,问题是它已经上涨到了一个即 将危及就业的水平。9 月 24 日英国工会说,最低工资标准已经让经济领域中好几个行业如零售业有些招 架不住了。数日后,英国商会又称,最近一次最低工资标准的上涨可能会“严重殃及”各公司。英国商会 顾问大卫·科恩说:“目前显而易见的危险就是最低工资将对就业产生负面影响。” Whether employment will necessarily take a big knock is uncertain. M________④ economic theory suggests that a minimum wage set too high will cost jobs. (5)However, the evidence from other countries has been quite mixed. Some studies find no impact on employment whereas others find the jobs do indeed disappear, especially among young people. 就业是否必将受到严重打击现在尚无定论。主流经济学理论认为,设定过高的最低工资标准是以损失就业 机会为代价的。然而,来自其它国家的证据都莫衷一是。有的研究发现这对就业不会产生影响,而有的则 发现人们尤其是年轻人会真的因此失业。 In a recent a________⑤ of employment policies in the world's developed economies, the OECD said that “a moderate minimum wage generally is not a problem”. Britain's experience in the first few years of the policy bears out[4] that judgment. (6)But more recent increases have pushed the rate up to a level where it may inflict damage. 经济合作和发展组织(OECD)最近在一项对全球发达国家就业政策的评估报告中指出,“适度的最低工 资标准通常不会引发任何问题。”就这一政策而言,英国最初几年的实践证实了这一论断。不过,最近这 几次提高标准已经使其达到了一个可能引起危害的水平。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①i_______(n. the act of bringing something into use for the first time) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ②o_______(n. the final result) ③i________(n. a possible future effect or result of an action, event, decision) ④m________(adj. accepted by or involving most people in a society) ⑤a________(n. a statement or opinion judging the worth, value, or condition of something)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. outstrip v. to be greater in quantity than something else 超过,超越 2. trajectory n. 轨道,轨迹;某段时间内发生的事件(常引起某种特定的结果或达到特定目的) 3. stingy adj. 吝啬的;不足的,太少的 4. bear out 证实

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①introduction 引入 ②acquisition 获得;买进 ③implications 牵连,暗示 ④Mainstream 主流的 ⑤appraisal 评价,鉴定

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 68

High risk, high reward 不经历风雨,怎么见彩虹?(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 12th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition Reuters

A frying pan, a pair of sneakers and some amoxycillin please 请给我一只煎锅、一双运动鞋和一些阿莫西林。 (路透社) THESE are tough times for Wal-Mart, America's biggest retailer. (1)Long accused of wrecking small-town America and condemned for the stinginess of its pay, the company has lately come under fire for its meanness over employees' health-care benefits. The charge is arguably unfair: the firm's health coverage, while a_______① less extensive than the average for big companies, is on a par with[1] other retailers'. But bad publicity, coupled with rising costs, has stirred the Bentonville giant to action. Wal-Mart is making changes that should shift the ground in America's health-care debate. 对于美国最大的零售商沃尔玛而言,现在是困难时期。由于实行低价策略(Always Low Prices)而把美国 搞得土里土气,并且支付薪水也很“抠”,该公司长期以来备受责难。最近它又因为在员工医疗保险待遇 上的吝啬而遭到指责。有证据表明,这一指责是不公平的——尽管该公司医疗保险所涵盖的项目不及大公 司平均水平,但与其它零售商相比都是一样的。不过,由于舆论宣传不利,加之成本不断增长,这个位于 Bentonville 的巨无霸一气之下再也坐不住了。沃尔玛的改革将会把人们讨论的话题转移到对美国医疗保险 制度的争论之上。 One strategy is to slash the prices of many generic, or out-of-patent, prescription drugs. Wal-Mart recently announced that its Florida stores would sell a list of some 300 generic drugs at $4 for a month's supply; other states will follow. That is above cost but far less than the prices charged by many pharmacy chains, which get profits from fat m________② on generics. 策略之一就是对许多普通类(或非专利类)处方药品进行大减价。沃尔玛最近宣布,其在佛罗里达州的门 店将把大约 300 种药品按每月用量 4 美元的价格出售,其它州的门店也将效仿这一做法。这一价格高于成 本,但远远低于许多连锁药店的价格,而这些连锁药店就是从普通类药品高额的差价中获利的。 Wal-Mart's critics dismiss the move as a publicity s________③. The list of drugs includes only 143 different medicines and excludes many popular generics. True, but short-sighted. Wal-Mart has transformed retailing by Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong using its size to squeeze suppliers and passing the gains on to consumers. It could do the same with drugs. Target, another big retailer, has already announced that it will match the new pricing. (2)A “Wal-Mart effect” in drugs will not solve America's health-costs problem: generics account for only a small share of drug costs, which in turn make up only 10% of overall health spending. But it would help. 批评沃尔玛的人士驳斥这一举措纯属哗众取宠的花招。降价药品目录中仅包含 143 种不同的药品,许多常 用的普通类药品都不在降价之列。这么说是没错,可就是目光太短浅了。沃尔玛已经通过利用其规模(影 响力)逼迫供应商紧缩利润空间并还利于消费者,从而实现了零售转型。它在药品销售上同样也能做到这 一点。另一家大型零售商塔基特已宣布将响应这一新的定价。药品方面的“沃尔玛效应”并不会解决美国 的医疗费用问题——普通类药品仅占药费的一小部分,而药费也仅占全部医疗费用的 10%。但这种效应 还是能够起到帮助作用的。 The firm's other initiative is more controversial. Wal-Mart is joining the small but fast-growing group of employers who are controlling costs by shifting to health insurance with high deductibles[2]. 该公司另一个行动引发了更多的争议。沃尔玛正在加入到一些迅速兴起的小雇主行列之中,这些雇主都是 通过转为高减免额医疗保险模式来对成本加以控制。 From January 1st new Wal-Mart employees will only be offered insurance with very low premiums (as little as $11 a month for an individual) but rather high deductibles (excesses): an individual must pay at least the first $1,000 of annual health-care expenses, and on a family plan, the first $3,000. Unusually, Wal-Mart's plan includes three doctor visits and three prescription drugs before the big deductible kicks in[3]. (3)Since most employees go to the doctor less often than that, the company argues, they will be better off because of the lower premiums. That may be true for the healthy, say critics; sicker workers will see their health costs s_______④. 自 1 月 1 日起,沃尔玛将对新聘员工仅提供保险费极低(每人每月仅为 11 美元)的医疗保险,不过这种 保险减免额(超支部分)相当高,即就个人保险而言,每人必须至少支付年度医疗开支中最先产生的 1000 美元,而对家庭而言,则至少支付 3000 美元。与众不同的是,沃尔玛的方案中还包括减免部分的高额费 用产生之前,员工可就诊 3 次和开 3 次处方药。该公司认为,由于大多数员工一般就诊都不到 3 次,因此 在仅需支付较低保险费的情况下他们的生活仍会很宽裕。批评人士说,对健康的人来说的确如此,可有病 之人就要眼见着他们的医疗费用飞涨了。 This debate, writ large[4], is the biggest controversy in American health care today. The Bush administration has been pushing high-deductible plans as the best route to controlling health costs and has encouraged them, with tax-breaks for health-saving accounts. The logic is a________⑤. (4 )Higher deductibles encourage consumers to become price-conscious for routine care, while insurance kicks in for catastrophic expenses. 显而易见,这是针对当今美国医疗保障制度最激烈的一场论战。布什当局一直以来力推高减免额保险方案 作为控制医疗费用的最佳路径,并通过对保健储蓄帐户(HSV)实行免税来鼓励这一方案。按常理,这十 分具有吸引力。较高的减免额可增强消费者在一般性医疗中的价格意识,而保险则会在发生巨额开支时生 效。 Early evidence suggests these plans do help firms control the cost of health insurance. But critics say that the savings are misleading. (5)They argue that the plans shift costs to sicker workers, discourage preventative care and will anyway do little to control overall health spending, since most of the $2 trillion (a sixth of its entire GDP) that America spends on health care each year goes to people with multiple chronic diseases. 早些时候的证据表明,这类方案确实能够帮助公司控制医疗保险成本。不过批评人士说,保健储蓄容易造 成误导。他们认为,该方案将成本支出转嫁到了患病的人,也阻碍了预防保健工作的发展,而且基本上无 益于控制整体医疗费用,因为美国人每年 20 亿美元(相当于 GDP 的 1/6)的医疗开支中大多数都集中在 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 患有慢性疾病的人身上。 For the moment, relatively few Americans are covered by these “consumer-directed” plans. But they are becoming increasingly popular, especially among firms employing low-skilled workers. And now America's biggest employer has joined the high-deductible trend. That is bound to have an impact. 目前这类“消费者定向”方案涉及的美国人还相对较少,但正在不断普及,尤其是在雇用低技术水平员工 的企业中。何况现在美国最大的企业也已加入了这个高减免额保险潮流之中,这类方案必定会产生一定的 效果。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①a_______(adv. used when you are admitting that something is true) ②m_______(n. the difference between what it costs a business to buy or produce something and what they sell it for) ③s________(n. something that is done to attract people's attention, especially in advertising or politics) ④s________(v. to increase quickly to a high level) ⑤a________(adj. attractive or interesting)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. on a par with 与……同等 2. deductible adj. 可扣除的 3. kick in 仿制品,冒牌货 4. writ large 显而易见的

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①admittedly 无可否认地 ②margins 差价 ③stunt 花招,噱头 ④soar 飞速上升(spiral 不断急剧上升) ⑤appealing 有吸引力的

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 69

A predictable crisis 可预见性危机(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 12th 2006 From The Economist print edition JOHN REID became home secretary because of a prison s_________①. His predecessor, Charles Clarke, was forced to resign in May after admitting that some 1,000 foreign prisoners who ought to have been considered for deportation had been freed. (1)This week Mr Reid faced a prison crisis of his own, made worse by new figures showing that offenders released early from jail on electronic tags have committed more than 1,000 serious crimes. 约翰·里德是因为一桩监狱丑闻而成为英国内政大臣的。今年 5 月,他的前任查尔斯·克拉克在承认释放 了大约 1000 名本应考虑驱逐出境的外籍犯人之后被迫辞职。本周,里德自己也面临着监狱危局,而且当 有最新数据表明提前获释、并装有电子追踪标记的罪犯又犯下了一千多宗严重罪行后,情况变得更为糟糕。 In theory, the jails of England and Wales can a_________② just over 80,000 people. By October 6th they were just 210 short of that limit. The obvious remedies—cramming two people into cells built for one, letting more prisoners out on probation and moving convicts far from their families—have already been taken. So, last-ditch[1] measures were put in place this week. Some 500 police cells will be used for prisoners.(2)Foreign convicts' appeals against deportation will no longer be contested, in order to liberate their beds. Others will be paid to go home. 理论上讲,英格兰和威尔士的监狱能够容纳 8 万余人。截至 10 月 6 日两所监狱仅差 210 人就会达到饱和。 有关方面已经采取了补救措施,如在单身牢房中关押 2 人、对更多的犯人实行监外察看以及将罪犯转移到 远离其家人的监狱。本周又出台了一系列最后的补救措施。大约 500 间警察局的狱室将用于监禁犯人。为 了腾出外籍罪犯占用的床位,其反对被驱逐出境的请求也将有求必应。有的罪犯则会在拿到一笔钱后被遣 送回家。 This is one of history's less surprising crises. (3)By the late 1990s Home Office statisticians were not only predicting a rapid rise in prisoner numbers, but also erring[2] on the side of pessimism. Eight years ago, when the prison population was just above 65,000, the department predicted that it would rise to 83,000 by 2005. In 2002 the statisticians' forecasts were also too pessimistic. Yet the politicians still appear to have been caught by surprise. 历史表明,这场危机并不值得大惊小怪。20 世纪 90 年代末,英国内政部统计人员就曾预测犯人数量将快 速增长,而且不惜做出了最坏的打算。8 年前监狱人口总数刚刚超过 6.5 万,统计部门预测到 2005 年这一 数字将升至 8.3 万。2002 年,统计人员的预测结果同样十分悲观,但政治家们却好像又吓了一跳。 One reason the prisons are full is that there are more police officers—141,000, compared with 122,000 in 2000. ( 4 ) They can now go after crimes that are hard to crack but attract long sentences, such as drug-trafficking. The number of people in prison for drug offences has trebled since 1994. And, while the overall crime rate in England and Wales is improving, it may be that some criminals are worse. Cindy Barnett, a London magistrate, reckons the d_______③ she sees are more violent and have graver drug problems these days. That helps to explain why magistrates sent 27% of robbers straight to prison in 2004—up from just 10% in 1993. 监狱人满为患的原因之一是警察增多了——2000 年是 12.2 万,而现在是 14.1 万。他们可以(有充足的人 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 手)忙于一些难以侦破、但有望判处重刑的案子,如毒品交易。1994 年以来,在押毒犯数量已经增长了 3 倍。而且,当英格兰和威尔士的总体犯罪情况好转之时,某些罪犯的犯罪情节却越来越恶劣。伦敦地方法 官辛迪·巴内特认为,如今她所见过的那些被告更为暴戾,涉毒问题也更为严重。因此,2004 年地方法 官为何将 27%的抢劫犯都直接送进大牢(1993 年仅为 10%)就不难解释了。 In the past few years, the Home Office has prodded[3] judges and magistrates to punish serious, violent offenders more heavily, while encouraging them to go easier on petty thieves. The former has certainly happened: the number of life sentences has more than doubled since the early 1990s. The latter has not. Populist politicians forgot that judges tend to have f_______④ ideas about the relative seriousness of offences. (5)Force them to increase sentences for murder, and they will also hand out longer terms to armed robbers. 过去几年来,内政部敦促审判人员要严惩有暴力行为的重犯,同时鼓励他们对那些小偷小摸的人从宽发落。 前面一条当然能做到:20 世纪 90 年代初以来,获判终生监禁的人数翻了一番还要多。可后面一条则不然。 鼓吹平民主义的政治家们忽略了一点,那就是法官对情节相对较严重的犯罪行为往往都有不容改变的看 法。你可以强迫他们加重对杀人犯的判罚,而他们同样也会对携带凶器的抢劫犯判处较长的刑期。 Finally, there is media pressure. T_______⑤ newspapers such as the Sun and the Daily Mail hound[4] judges who pass, or even seek to justify, lenient sentences. This week the Sun accused one wig of “living in an ivory tower”. Because most people's experience of the criminal-justice system is rare and intermittent, such coverage strongly influences the public mood. (6)Ivory towers notwithstanding, it also stings judges. Penny Darbyshire, an academic who has been following wigs for several years, says they pore over[5] press coverage. “And many of them have wives who read the Daily Mail,” she says. 最后还有媒体的压力。要是哪个法官作出了仁慈的判决(即便他企图证明这样的判决合情合理),诸如《太 阳报》和《每日邮报》之类的小报就会对他纠缠不休。本周《太阳报》指责说,一个戴假发的人(暗指法 官) “住进了象牙塔” 。由于大多数人对罪犯-司法体系很少有切身体会,因此这样的报道严重左右着公众 的情绪。虽然“象牙塔” (有点含糊其辞) ,但仍旧让法官们感觉如芒在背。跟踪研究法官多年的学者彭妮·达 比夏尔说,他们极为关注媒体的报道, “而且他们很多人的妻子都爱看《每日邮报》。 ” (注:本段强调的是由 于面临媒体的压力,一些本打算对罪犯宽大处理的法官不得不将更多的人判决收监,从而造成监狱人满为患。媒体指责法 官生活在象牙塔里,暗讽他们在判决时脱离实情,不严格执法。而最后提到的“妻子爱读《每日邮报》 ”是指“她们能将读

) 到的小道消息转达给她们的法官丈夫”,提醒他们判决时要考虑舆论的呼声。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①s_______(n. an event in which someone, especially someone important, behaves in a bad way that shocks people) ②a_______(v. to have enough space for a particular number of people or things) ③d________(n. the person in a court of law who has been accused of doing something illegal) ④f________(adj. very definite) ⑤t________(n. a newspaper that has small pages, a lot of photographs, and stories mainly about sex, famous people etc rather than serious news)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. last-ditch adj. 无退路的,已至最后防线的 2. err v. 犯错误,做错事,失误于……(on the side of) 3. prod v. 催促,推动 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 4. hound v. 纠缠,追逐 5. pore over 注视,凝视

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①scandal 丑闻 ②accommodate 容纳 ③defendants 被告 ④fixed 固定的,确定的,不容改变的 ⑤Tabloid 小报

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 70

Comeback man 重生(陈继龙 编译) Oct 12th 2006 From The Economist print edition THE true critic, Vladimir Nabokov once o_______①, reads not with his brain but with his backbone. He waits for the “tell-tale tingle down the spine” which alerts him to good writing. After more than a decade messing about writing some fine essays and autobiography mixed in with poor fiction and some questionable history, (1) Martin Amis has suddenly—and unexpectedly, even to his publishers—turned in a work of real worth, a novel that not so much makes the spine tingle as the heart race at its passion and richness. 弗拉基米尔·纳波可夫曾说,真正的评论家读书时用的不是大脑,而是脊梁骨。他守候着让人惊喜交集的 故事的到来,让他惊觉原来这是一本妙作。过去十余年间,马丁·埃米斯一直在为撰写几篇优秀论文和一 本夹杂着拙劣的小说和某些不可靠的历史记载的自传而折腾不停,如今他却突然——甚至连他的出版商都 意想不到地是——献出了一部真正有价值的著作,一部富于激情、有血有肉的小说,让人感到与其说是惊 喜交集还不如说是心如潮涌。 The enemies of the people whom the Soviet authorities sent to camps in the gulag[1] were, on rare occasions, permitted conjugal[2] visits. (2)Valiant women would travel huge distances, the jacket sleeve says, sometimes for weeks or even months, in the hope of spending a night à deux[3] in the House of Meetings. Written as a deathbed letter to a well-fed daughter now living in the West, “House of Meetings” tells the tale—and tragic consequences—of one such e________②. 被苏联当局关押在古拉格集中营的敌人获准各自的丈夫或妻子前来探望,可这种机会很难得。该书的封套 上写道,勇敢的女人们不远万里而来,有时候行程数周甚至数月,希望夫妇二人能够在“见面屋”共度一 个晚上。《见面屋》一书读起来好像是写给如今生活在西方、丰衣足食的女儿的临终遗书,可它讲述的却 是一个夫妻如此邂逅的故事,结局悲惨。 Two brothers fall in love with the same girl, Zoya, a 19-year-old Jewess, in a Moscow that is readying for a pogrom[4] some time between the second world war and the death of Stalin. She marries Lev, the younger. “My little brother came to the camp in 1948,” the story begins. “I was already there.” 在二战之后、斯大林死前的某个时候,在血雨腥风即将来临的莫斯科,有两个兄弟同时爱上了一个名叫卓 娅的 19 岁犹太女孩。她嫁给了弟弟列弗。故事开篇写道:“1948 年,我的弟弟来到了集中营。我已经在 那儿了。” The camp is situated just north of the 69th parallel[5], inside the A______③ circle. As Zoya makes the journey from Moscow, it is the narrator's job to prepare the House of Meetings for Lev and his bride. They had been married for eight years, but this would be their first night together as man and wife. The narrator offers them a thermos of vodka, two candles and six cigarettes (“rolled out of the state newspaper”). (3)The triangular romance, however, is but a come-hither[6] to the novel's weightier themes, which are all about rust, ruin and decay—all metaphors for ageing. 集中营位于北纬 69 度正北方、北极圈以内。卓娅从莫斯科启程后,“我”(故事是第一人称写的,下同) 开始为列弗与其新娘张罗“见面屋”。他们结婚八年,但这将是他们以丈夫和妻子的身份住在一起的第一 夜。 “我”为他们准备了一暖瓶的伏特加、两支蜡烛和六根雪茄(“用报纸卷成的”) 。然而,这段三角恋情 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 的描写无非是为了将读者引向这部小说那些更为沉重的主题,如锈蚀、废墟以及腐朽,一切都隐喻着年华 的逝去。 The compulsive vividness of Mr Amis's style may have annoyed his father, but he puts it to good use here. Lev's f_______④ seem to have been “thrown together inattentively, as if in the dark. Even his ears seemed to belong to two completely different people.” A smoker, he eats with a cigarette in the hand that holds the knife: “When he went to stub it out, the movement was but a step on the road to lighting another.” There is little romance in the book. The sex, when it appears, comes as a shock. (4)Mr Amis uses it to explore how people are not strengthened by adversity but warped[7], crushed and then killed, even as they still walk the streets. 埃米斯一向行文生动,气势逼人,而也许正是这种风格让他的父亲不胜其烦,不过在这部著作中他的行文 技巧得到了出色的施展。列弗的五官看上去“仿佛是于黑暗之中不经意地拼凑而成”, “就连他的双耳都似 乎属于两个完全不同的人”。他爱抽烟,吃饭的时候握刀的手中也夹着一根雪茄: “他踩灭烟头,无非是为 了接着再点上一根。”书中鲜有云雨之事的描写。性爱甫一呈现,便让人感到震惊不已。埃米斯希望借此 来探讨这样一个问题,那就是人们在身处逆境时,不但没有愈挫愈勇,反而被扭曲、摧垮直至毁灭,即便 活着也如同行尸走肉。 (5)“House of Meetings” is a singular, unimpeachable triumph, as powerful as J.M. Coetzee's “Disgrace” and the small list of novels that have unanimously carried off[8] the Man Booker prize for fiction. In the week that a divided jury awarded the 2006 prize to Kiran Desai's “The Inheritance of Loss”, what is astonishing is that Mr Amis's publishers did not even s________⑤ his book for consideration. 《见面屋》一书的成功卓尔不群且无懈可击,其强大的感染力一如 J.M. Coetzee 的《耻辱》以及少数赢得 评委一致赞许并捧走布克小说奖的作品。本次评奖周期间,意见相左的评委们最终把 2006 年布克奖授予 了基兰·德赛的《遗失之继承》 。奇怪的是,埃米斯的出版商甚至都未将他的著作送审。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①o_______(v. to say or write what you have noticed about a situation) ②e_______(n. an occasion when you meet someone, or do something with someone you do not know) ③A________(adj. relating to the most northern part of the world) ④f________(n. a part of someone's face, such as their eyes, nose etc) ⑤s________(v. to give a plan, piece of writing etc to someone in authority for them to consider or approve)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. gulag n. 【俄】古拉格(集中营) 2. conjugal adj. 夫妻间的 3. à deux adv. 【法】两人一起 4. pogrom n. (尤指沙俄时对犹太人的) 大屠杀 5. parallel n. 纬度,纬线 6. come-hither n.挑逗,诱惑(come-hither look 秋波) 7.warp v. 歪曲,使有偏见 8. carry off 获得,赢得;成功对付

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①observed 说,评述 ②encounter 遭遇,相遇 ③Arctic 北极的 ④features 面貌特征 ⑤submit 提交,递交

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 71

Pinched bellies 勒紧裤腰带(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 19th 2006 | SEOUL From The Economist print edition (1)A NUCLEAR capability may be the toast of North Korea's leaders, but it is a blight[1] on their poor countrymen's bellies. Even before fresh sanctions were imposed against the rogue nation this week, ______① response to its nuclear test on October 9th, North Korea could not feed itself. The latest international strictures[2] are not supposed to inflict further damage on its food supply. But with few trustworthy observers in the country—and the level of aid it gets from China hard to ascertain—damage may be done nonetheless. 核能力也许备受朝鲜领导人的推崇,可它却扼杀了贫困的朝鲜人填饱肚 皮的希望。本周,朝鲜刚刚由于其 10 月 9 日进行的核试验而受到制裁, 而此前这个无赖国家甚至连养活自己都成问题。朝鲜有关人士认为,最 新的国际制裁并不会使其粮食供应问题雪上加霜。不过,由于该国观察 员所说的话大多不可信——很难弄清它到底从中国获得了多少援助— —无论如何,损失都将不可避免。 To feed itself, North Korea needs 5.5m tonnes of grain a year. It cannot produce anything like this, even with a bumper harvest last year. (2)That crop was sufficient, however, to embolden the regime of Kim Jong Il last December to force the UN's World Food Programme (WFP) to leave the country, because it felt humiliated by its dependence on emergency relief. To fill the hole dug by this moronic[3] policy, the regime had some success improving its food distribution. It was also counting ______② getting food aid from South Korea, its biggest donor. That changed after the regime tested missiles in July, and South Korea froze its humanitarian aid. After the nuclear test, the South reaffirmed its decision. 朝鲜每年大约需要 550 万吨的粮食供应。虽说去年丰收,但它仍不具备粮食生产能力。可是去年 9 月,金 正日政权竟然因为一时的好收成而冒失地强迫联合国粮食计划署(WFP)离开朝鲜,原因是为自己依靠救 援感到羞耻。为了弥补这一弱智政策所造成的损失,金正日政权对粮食配给进行了改进,也取得了一定的 成绩。过去它一直依靠其最大的援助国——韩国提供粮食援助,可自从今年 7 月该政权进行了导弹发射试 验之后,情况发生了变化,韩国冻结了其为朝鲜提供的人道主义援助。而在核试验后,韩国重申了这一决 定。 For ordinary North Koreans, the loss of aid from the South may be a disaster. (3)In May, as hunger bit in the countryside, workers were ordered from idle factories to go and help on the land. Even the armed forces, which Mr Kim favours above all, have felt the pinch. A general is reported to have ordered soldiers to eat locally-found potatoes, rather than expect grain. This presumably increased pressure on local food supplies. North Koreans have told aid workers that they dread sending their sons to army units that are known to have especially high rates of malnutrition. 对于朝鲜的平民百姓而言,失去韩国的援助也许是一场灾难。5 月,由于农村饥荒严重,停产工厂的工人 们奉命纷纷下乡帮工。就连金正日最喜爱的军队也是叫苦不迭。据报道,某将军已下令士兵开始吃在当地 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 找到的土豆,对粮食已经不作指望了。这可能又会增加地方粮食供应的压力。朝鲜人告诉援助工作人员, 他们都怕送孩子参军,因为众所周知军队现在很多人都缺乏营养。 (4)As if this were not bad enough, ten days after its offending missile tests, North Korea suffered its worst flooding in recent memory. Relentless rains destroyed crops and, in central North Korea, sent mudslides into villages and towns, as terraces on denuded[4] hills collapsed. The army was ______③ no state to help: it was on a near-war footing in response to the passage of a UN resolution condemning the tests. Good Friends, a Buddhist NGO in South Korea that collects reports from the North, says that 55,000 people, including many soldiers, drowned or went missing in the floods. Others dispute this figure. 屋漏偏逢连夜雨,朝鲜在违规试射导弹十天后,又遇到了近年来最严重的洪灾。无情的大雨毁坏了农作物, 而且随着光秃秃的山上梯田的坍塌,泥石流侵袭了朝鲜中部地区的村镇。当时的事态让军队对此爱莫能助 ——由于联合国通过了一项谴责该试验的决议,军队正处于临战状态。专门从朝鲜收集报道、位于韩国的 非政府佛教组织“好朋友”称,5.5 万人在洪水中淹死或失踪,其中包括许多士兵。有人对这一数字予以 了否认。 (5)To alleviate the crisis, South Korea said it would make flood relief an exception to its suspension of aid. But only half of a promised 100,000 tonnes of grain had arrived before the nuclear test, whereupon South Korea suspended the rest. In the next year, aid workers say, North Korea may fall short of at least 800,000 tonnes of grain. The WFP, which has returned and resumed operations with a staff one-fifth its former size, has the regime's permission to feed 1.9m North Koreans. But it has funds to help only 1m, in 30 of North Korea's 200-odd counties. The WFP says it has brought in just 75,000 tonnes of food this year, and that it will run out of milk powder in November and flour and cooking oil next January. Western powers seem unfussed by this shortage. This week, Condoleezza Rice, America's secretary of state, said America would not contribute ______④ the WFP's operation in North Korea because of a lack of transparency in the country—as if the UN could fix this. 为了缓解危机,韩方称其愿意破例对朝鲜洪灾施援。不过,承诺提供的 10 万吨粮食后来仅有一半于此次 核试验之前运抵朝鲜,核试验后韩方随即中止了剩余的援助。救援工作人员说,朝鲜明年可能至少短缺 80 万吨粮食。WFP 已经返回朝鲜重新开始援助工作,但工作人员较以前减少了 4/5。金正日政权同意 WFP 为 190 万朝鲜人供应食物,但其现有资金只够帮助朝鲜 200 余个县中 30 个县的 100 万人。WFP 称,其今 年运来的食物只有 7.5 万吨,到今年 11 月份和明年 1 月份,奶粉及面粉、食用油将相继告罄。西方列强 似乎对这一情况无动于衷。本周,美国国务卿赖斯说,美国不会为 WFP 在朝鲜的行动捐资,理由是该国 缺乏透明度。这话听上去给人的感觉似乎是,联合国能够解决这一问题。 (6)There is meanwhile a hoary[5] assumption that China will not let North Korea collapse by suspending the aid it is often supposed to have supplied: it is said to have sent 500,000 tonnes of grain in 2005. Yet household surveys by the WFP last year found no Chinese grain. Even before the proliferation crisis, the International Crisis Group, a think-tank, concluded from research in China that its food aid was minuscule. It is probably now smaller still. 与此同时,有人素来都想当然地认为,中国是不会中止人们通常所想的那样为朝鲜提供的援助而让朝鲜垮 掉的——据说 2005 年中国总共向朝鲜运送了 50 万吨粮食。然而,去年 WFP 挨家挨户进行调查时并没有 发现任何来自中国的粮食。即使在此次核扩散危机之前,智库“国际危机组织”通过在中国开展研究后认 为,中国所提供的粮食援助极少。现在可能将更少了。 By contrast, North Korea's trade with China (including in food) has grown fast. Last year the country imported over $1 billion-worth of Chinese goods. New UN sanctions against it may change that. This week branches of the Bank of China close to the border stopped doing North Korea-related business, either ______ ⑤ their Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong government's decree or because of concerns that their loans could soon go bad. 相比之下,中朝贸易(包括粮食贸易)却快速增长。去年,朝鲜从中国进口的商品总价值超过 10 亿美元。 最近联合国对它的制裁可能将改变这一状况。本周,中朝边境附近的中国银行各分行都已停止办理与朝鲜 有关的业务,这或许是政府的敕令,抑或出于对贷款可能很快成为坏账的担忧。 North Koreans are somewhat more protected today than they were before the great famine of the mid-1990s, in which perhaps 1m died. Many can smuggle, trade, bribe, and grow food on individual plots. Still, according to the UN, a third of North Korean women with children under 24 months are malnourished or anaemic, and more than a third of children under six are stunted. (7)One outlet for the hungry in the 1990s was China, to which 50,000-100,000 North Koreans crossed. That route is now closing, at least for those without money. In the past month, authorities in China's north-east have cracked down with dawn raids _______⑥ neighbourhoods in search of North Koreans. This week, a barbed-wire[6] fence was going up along the border. China is taking no risks. 与 20 世纪 90 年代的大饥荒(可能有 100 万人死于此次饥荒)前相比,现如今的朝鲜人得到了较多的保护。 许多人都可以进行走私、贸易、贿赂以及在自留地里种植粮食。然而,据联合国统计,朝鲜有三分之一的 妇女其 24 个月以下的孩子营养不良或贫血,还有三分之一 6 岁以下的儿童发育迟缓。20 世纪 90 年代饥 荒时人们的出路是中国,当时有 5~10 万名朝鲜人穿越边境涌向中国。现在这条路已经被堵死了,至少对 于那些身无分文的人而言是这样。上个月,中国东北地区当局采取了“拂晓行动”对周围地带加以严格管 控,目的就是搜寻朝鲜人。本周,边境沿线又搭起了一条带刺铁丝网防护栏。中国是很慎重的。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文填入恰当的介词: 2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. blight n. 损害,打击,不良影响,恶劣条件 2. stricture n. (严格的)限制,约束;谴责,责难 3. moronic adj. 低能的,愚笨的 4. denude v.使裸露(砍掉土地上树木等);剥夺 5. hoary adj. 久远的,古老的(人们不再感兴趣的) 6.barbed-wire 带刺铁丝网

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①in (response to) 响应,回应 ②(count)on 依赖 ③in (no fit state to do sth.) 情况不允许某人做某事 ④(contribute) to 捐助 ⑤at (one’s decree)遵照某人的命令 ⑥(crack down) on 严厉处理和惩罚,镇压

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 72

Chimney sweeps under fire 烟囱清洁工四面楚歌(陈继龙

编译)

Oct 19th 2006 | FRANKFURT From The Economist print edition (1)GERMANY'S chimney sweeps—hallowed as bringers of good luck, with their black top hats and coiled-wire brushes—are under attack. Last week the European Commission's directorate[1] for the internal market revived proceedings against an antiquated German law that protects sweeps against competition. 头戴大礼帽、身背金属盘条刷的德国烟囱清洁工被视为能带 来好运的圣人,如今却遭到了抨击。上周,欧盟委员会内部 市场理事会再次对德国一部保护烟囱清洁工免受竞争的过时 法律提起了控诉。 The country's chimney sweeps enjoy a near-perfect monopoly. Germany is divided into around 8,000 districts, each ruled by its own master sweep who usually employs two more sweeps. Although this is a private enterprise, the maintenance and inspection service provided is c_______① and prices are set by the local authority: sweeps cannot stray outside their district, nor can householders change their sweep even if they loathe him.(2)This rule cuts both ways. “There are some customers I can't stand either,” says one Frankfurt sweep. 德国的烟囱清洁工几乎完全享有垄断权利。德国总共划分为大约 8000 个行政区,每个区都有各自的清洁 工工长,这名工长通常再雇佣 2 名以上的清洁工。虽然这是一个私人公司,但是其提供的维护和检查服务 都是强制性的,而且由地方当局定价。清洁工不能跨区服务,而各家各户即便对清洁工不满意也不可更换。 这一规定两头都不讨好。法兰克福一名清洁工说:“有一些客户我也受不了。” The r_______② is simple: chimney-sweeping and related gas and heating maintenance in Germany are treated as a matter of public safety. Annual or semi-annual visits are prescribed, keeping the sweeps busy all year round. 原因很简单——德国人认为清扫烟囱及相关的燃气、供热保养事关公共安全,而清洁工按规定每年或每半 年要拜访客户一次,长年都忙忙碌碌。 (3)For centuries, chimney-sweeps in Europe were a wandering breed. But in 1937 the chimney-sweep law was revised by Heinrich Himmler, then the acting[2] interior minister. His rules tied chimney sweeps to their districts and decreed that they should be German, to enable him to use sweeps as local s______③. 欧洲的烟囱清洁工曾经都是漂泊一族,这种状况维持了数百年之久。不过到了 1937 年,时任德国内政部 代理部长的海因里希·希姆莱(德国纳粹头子)对烟囱清洁法进行了修订。他要求烟囱清洁工只能在其所 在的行政区内工作,并下令规定清洁工必须是德国人,这样他就可利用清洁工作为地方间谍。 (4)The law was updated in 1969, leaving the local monopolies in place but opening up the profession, in theory at least, to non-Germans. But in practice few apply. Four years ago a brave Pole qualified as a master in Kaiserslautern, according to a fellow student, and this year an Italian did so in the Rhineland Palatinate. But he, like most newly qualified German masters, will spend years on a waiting list before he gets his own district. Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 1969 年该法经重新修订后,尽管地方垄断仍然保持不变,但至少从理论上看,这一行业已经可以向非德 国人开放了。不过这一点几乎没有得到付诸实施。据一位同学说,四年前一个敢为天下先的波兰人取得了 凯泽斯劳滕的清洁工工长资格。今年,一名意大利人在莱茵兰-帕拉廷又同样获得了这一资格。不过跟大 多数刚刚取得德国清洁工工长资格的人一样,他要等上数年才能申请到自己负责的区域。 The European Commission would like to see a competitive market in which people can choose their own sweeps, just as they choose builders or plumbers[3]. It first opened infringement proceedings in 2003, and the German government of the time promised to change the law but failed to do so. (5)And despite the huffing and puffing[4] from Brussels, the government is still reluctant to dismantle its antiquated system on safety grounds. The number of deaths from carbon-monoxide poisoning in Germany is around one-tenth that in France or Belgium, claims the Frankfurt sweep. So Germans are likely to be stuck with their neighbourhood Schornsteinfegers—whether they can stand each other or not—for some time to come. 欧盟委员会希望建立一个充满竞争的市场,人们在此可以像挑选建筑工和水管工那样挑选自己的烟囱清扫 工。它于 2003 年首次提出了侵权指控,当时的德国政府答应修改法律,可后来却食言了。尽管欧盟委员 会(总部位于比利时布鲁塞尔)怨声载道,德国政府依旧不愿废除其基于安全考虑所建立的老掉牙的体制。 法兰克福的烟囱清洁工声称,德国死于一氧化碳中毒的人数大约是法国或比利时的十分之一。因此一段时 间以后,德国人很可能要不得不勉为其难地接受来自邻国的烟囱清洁工——无论他们彼此之间能否相互容 忍。

[QUIZ] 1. 根据上下文和英文释义,补全单词: ①c_______(adj. mandatory) ②r_______(n. the reasons for a decision, belief etc) ③s________(n. someone whose job it is to find out secret information about another country, organization, or group)

2. 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文) :

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. directorate n. 董事会 2. acting adj. 代理的 3. plumber n. 水管工 4. huff and puff a) to breathe out in a noisy way, especially when you do something that involves a lot of physical effort 大声 呼吸、喘气 例:He was huffing and puffing by the time he got to the top. b) to show clearly that you strongly disagree with or are annoyed about something:对……表示不满、反感 例:After a lot of huffing and puffing, he eventually gave in to our request. 5. Schornsteinfegers n. [德语]扫烟囱的人

[KEY TO QUIZ] 1. ①compulsory 强制性的 ②rationale 原因,理由 ③spies 间谍

2.(见译文,仅供参考,欢迎指正) Page 2 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 73

Marketmaker 造市者(陈继龙 编译) Nov 2nd 2006 From The Economist print edition EARLIER this year Ukraine became a market economy. (1)That might surprise many Ukrainians, who were under the impression they had been living with free enterprise since prices were deregulated in 1991, the currency became convertible in 1996, and the government began to off-load its assets, leaving about two-thirds of the economy now in private hands. But on February 17th, David Sampson, America's Deputy Secretary of Commerce, was delighted to announce in Kiev that in his government's eyes Ukraine was now a “market-based economy”. 今年早些时候,乌克兰成为市场经济国家。这可能令许多乌克兰人感到惊讶,在他们印象中,自从 1991 年价格放开,1996 年货币实现自由兑换,以及政府与国有资产分离(目前大约有 2/3 属于私有经济)以来, 乌克兰人已经顺应了私营经济体制。不过,今年 2 月 17 日美国商务部副部长大卫·桑普森却在基辅兴高 采烈地宣布,在美政府看来,乌克兰已成为一个“市场经济国家”。 Vietnam may have to wait until 2019 for a similar benediction. On October 26th it finally agreed a deal to become the 150th member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) once formalities are completed around the turn of the year. Almost 12 years of talks, resulting in 880 pages of policy commitments, have picked over many bones of contention[1], including Vietnam's textile export subsidies, which it has promised to eliminate, and its banking system, which it has pledged to open up by next April. (2)There was also time over the past 12 years to broach less weighty, but equally delicate matters, such as Vietnam's import ban on Harley Davidsons, and fears that it might block imports of the Bible because it contains “culturally reactionary and superstitious material”. 越南也许要到 2019 年才能等来这样的好消息。10 月 26 日,它最终同意了一项协议,即年底前后完成正 式手续后就可成为世界贸易组织(WTO)第 150 个成员国。近 12 年的对话、形成了长达 880 页的政策承 诺文件,在许多争论焦点上都锱铢必较,其中包括越南的纺织品出口补贴及其银行业。前者越南现已许诺 予以取消,而后者越南则已保证在明年 4 月前实行对外开放。在过去的 12 年里,一些虽不重要但同样微 妙的问题也摆上了台面,比如越南禁止进口哈雷摩托车,又比如有人担心越南可能阻止《圣经》的传入, 因为它含有“反动文化和迷信内容” 。 The WTO is built on the principle that members will treat each other alike. But as one price of entry Vietnam agreed to remain on a list of so-called “non-market economies”, alongside China and several other WTO members, most of them former Soviet republics. This stigma has one practical consequence. It makes it harder for Vietnam to defend itself against the charge of dumping. WTO 是本着各成员国相互平等对待的原则而成立的。不过越南加入 WTO 所要付出的代价之一却是同意 自己仍然是所谓的“非市场经济国家” ,一如中国及其它几个 WTO 成员国(其中大多数都是前苏联共和 国)。实际上这个不太好听的名字是会造成一定后果的——越南因此将更难在反倾销指控中胜诉。 Dumping occurs when an exporter sells a product abroad for less than it charges at home, or for less than it costs to make. (3)Rather than welcoming these bargains, importing countries tend to cry foul[2] and raise anti-dumping duties. But how do they know that an import is too cheap? In a non-market economy, America's Department of Commerce argues, prices are not set by supply and demand so they cannot be trusted. Instead, it Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong comes up with its own calculation of “normal value” based on costs in other “surrogate” countries. 一个出口商以低于国内售价或生产成本向国外销售某种商品,就构成了倾销行为。进口国并不欢迎这些廉 价商品,反而往往鸣冤叫屈并提高反倾销关税。可是它们是如何知道一种进口商品过于便宜的呢?美国商 务部认为,在一个非市场经济国家中,价格不是由供需所决定的,因此并不可靠。相反,它提出要采用以 其它一些“参照国”的生产成本为基础来计算“标准价值”的方法。 America is Vietnam's biggest market and one of the more prolific users of anti-dumping duties. But it is not the only place to brand its trading partners as unmarket-like. Last month the European Union (EU) confirmed that Vietnam was dumping leather shoes, based on what it costs Brazil—the chosen surrogate—to make them. Last year it imposed duties on Vietnamese bicycles, after comparing them with bikes made in San Luis Potosí, Mexico. 美国是越南最大的出口市���,也是反倾销关税额度较高的国家之一,但它并不是唯一将自己的贸易伙伴诬 蔑为“非市场型”的地方。10 月,欧盟(EU)根据其选择的“参照国”——巴西的生产成本,认定越南 正在对皮鞋实施倾销。去年,它在将越南出口的自行车与墨西哥圣路易斯-波多西生产的自行车进行比较 之后对前者强征了关税。 The most notorious case remains, however, Vietnamese catfish, or “basa” fish as they are now labelled so as not to upset fish-farmers in the Deep South[3]. In 2003 America's Department of Commerce hit imports of the fish with duties of 37-64%. (4)It reached this decision after calculating what Vietnam's fillets would cost if they were reared on a fish farm in the Kishoregonj region of Bangladesh, using water bought in India, transported by Bangladeshi truckers, with labour purchased at a price the department thinks should prevail in Vietnam, based on its income per head. 然而最为臭名昭著的还要算越南鲶鱼(或者像现在产品标签上写的那样叫“白沙鱼”,这样美国南部腹地 的渔民就不会烦恼了)倾销案。2003 年,美国商务部对进口鱼类征收了 37%~64%的关税,重创了鱼类 产品的进口。它之所以作出这一决定,是因为按照某种假设对越南鱼片的生产成本进行了计算,即假设越 南的鱼是在孟加拉国基绍勒贡加邦喂养的,用的是从印度买来的水,运输的是孟加拉国卡车司机,再加上 用美国商务部所认为的越南市场均一价(以越南人均收入为依据)购买劳动力。 What must Vietnam do to shake off the “non-market” label? The EU, the Americans and others each have their own requirements. America wants to see the removal of price-fixing and currency controls, even more foreign investment, free wage bargaining, and limited government ownership. 越南如何才能撕掉“非市场”标签呢?欧盟、美国和其它国家都有各自的要求。美国希望它取消物价限制 和货币管控、吸引更多外资、允许自行商定工资以及缩小国有范围。 But “the economic logic is invariably something of a façade[4],” argue Adam McCarty and Carl Kalapesi of Mekong Economics, a consultancy in Hanoi. The only criterion that really matters is that America's retailers, who like Vietnam's cheap merchandise, lobby harder than its garment-makers and catfish farmers who hate it. (5)It is mostly those with something to fear from open markets who accuse other countries of falling short of them. 然而,河内湄公河经济咨询公司的亚当·麦卡第和卡尔·卡拉佩西认为, “这种经济学逻辑往往都是一种 表象而已。” 唯一真正重要的评判尺度是,相比那些讨厌越南货的美国制衣商和鲶鱼养殖户,喜欢越南便 宜货的美国零售商们会加大游说议会的力度。指责别国市场开放不足的通常都是那些对开放市场放心不下 的国家。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文)

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. bones of contention n. 争论焦点,争端 2. cry foul to protest because you think something is wrong or not fair 叫屈 3. the Deep South 南方腹地:美国东南部一地区,通常包括亚拉巴马州、佐治亚州、路易斯安娜州、密西 西比州和南卡罗来纳州 4. façade n. facade 正面;外在

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 74

Mood music 乐为心声(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 9th 2006 | SYDNEY From The Economist print edition THE embattled chief executive of Telstra, Sol Trujillo, helped pay his way through college in America by playing the trumpet in his family's Mariachi band. But his past 16 months as the head of Australia's biggest telecoms firm have seen him reaching for the violin. His sorrowful refrain[1] has become as familiar to fund managers in Sydney as it is to policy wonks in Canberra. Mr Trujillo bemoans an overbearing government which is both his firm's main shareholder and its regulator. 如今腹背受敌的 Telstra 首席执行官索尔·特鲁西略过去曾依靠在由自己家人组建的街头乐队中吹小号才 勉强在美国读完了大学。但作为澳大利亚最大电信公司的负责人,他在过去的 16 个月中已经逐渐成为一 个“小提琴手” 。悉尼的基金投资者和堪培拉迂腐的决策人士都已对他那悲伤的曲子耳熟能详。让 Trujillo 悲叹的是,这个既是他公司核心股东又对其实施监管的政府竟如此傲慢专横。 (1)In recent months, Mr Trujillo has grappled with the government over board nominations; his A$8.7m ($6.7m) pay packet; and, most seriously, a thicket of regulations designed to ensure that the former monopoly continues to provide rural telephone services across a vast country with the world's sixth-largest landmass but only the 52nd-largest population. Even the flashy launch of Telstra's advanced third-generation mobile-phone network, completed months ahead of schedule, struck an awkwardly discordant note. As Mr Trujillo strutted his stuff[2] on stage, a sprinkler malfunctioned, dousing[3] his audience in foul-smelling water. 近几个月来,特鲁西略一直在同政府抗争,矛盾主要集中在董事会任命、他本人 870 万澳元(约合 670 万美元)的年薪以及政府所制定的一系列监管方案上面。最重要的就是那些监管方案,其目的是确保这个 曾经垄断一时的公司能够继续在这个大陆面积位居世界第六但人口仅位居世界第 52 位的国家为农村提供 电话服务。Telstra 的第三代先进移动电话网络比原计划提前了数月就投入使用,场面甚为隆重,可即便如 此,这还是引起了一些人的不悦。这就好比当特鲁西略在舞台上大显身手之时,(头顶的)喷水装置出了 故障,洒出来的脏水把他的观众给浇成了落汤鸡。 It is hardly the ideal background for a share offering called T3, the third and final phase of Telstra's partial privatisation, a drawn-out affair which began in 1997. At the T2 offering in 1999, in the midst of the telecoms boom, Telstra shares sold for A$7.40. Now they are trading at A$3.97. Over the same period, the Australian stockmarket has grown by some 93%. 现在根本不是发售 T3 股票的最佳时期。所谓 T3,也就是指始于 1997 年、持续了很久的 Telstra 部分股权 私有化已进入第三个阶段,同时也是最后阶段。1999 年 Telstra 以每股 7.4 澳元的发售了 T2 股票,当时还 正值电信业鼎盛时期,现在的交易价为 3.97 澳元。澳大利亚股市同期则增长了大约 93%。 (2)Burned by the T2 offering, many of the 1.6m retail investors who bought shares last time around have shied away, despite a variety of sweeteners to lure them back—not least a 28% dividend on the A$2 first instalment. But as the deadline to apply for shares passed on November 9th, it appeared that wealthier retail investors had offset this weakness in demand, seemingly confident they are being offered decent value for money. Better still, there has also been a positive response from institutional investors in advance of their own offer, which opens on November 15th. Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 共有 160 万零售投资者购买了 Telstra 上次发售的股票,其中许多人都吃了 T2 股票的苦头,现在都已然是 惊弓之鸟,即便有着许多诱人的利好条件——尤其每股首期 2 澳元的认购价并享有 28%的股利,他们也 唯恐躲避不及。不过随着 11 月 9 日认购截止期限的到来,资金充裕的零售投资商似乎已经找到解决需求 萎缩的办法,并且对获得合理的现款交易价信心十足。更妙的是,计划于 11 月 15 日开始认购的各机构投 资者也已提前作出积极回应。 It is a timely vote of confidence in Mr Trujillo's five-year transformation plan. (3)A veteran of the telecoms industry who earned his spurs[4] at US West in America and then at Orange, a European mobile operator, Mr Trujillo has set about drastically streamlining a famously unwieldy[5] corporation. With the help of hired guns from his previous firms—three senior executives were drafted in from US West—he is trying to eliminate 80% of Telstra's 1,252 separate computer systems. He has also laid off 12,000 of the firm's 52,000 employees. 这是对特鲁西略为期五年的转型规划及时投出的一张信任票。特鲁西略在电信业界资格很老,曾先后在美 国 US West 和欧洲移动电话运营商 Orange 功成名就,现在已着手对一家以难管理著称的刺头公司进行大 刀阔斧的精简。在从其以前就职的公司中雇请的“职业杀手”——三名从 US West 招募来的高级管理人员 的帮助下,他正试图将 Telstra 现有的 1252 套分立式计算机系统缩减 80%,并且已经解雇了 52000 名员工 中的 12000 人。 Customer service has improved, too. (4)Much to the surprise of Telstra's long-suffering customers, technicians now make calls in the evenings and at weekends, a revolutionary change. Most arrive dressed in cheery fluorescent yellow bibs[6], trumpeting BigPond, the company's market-leading broadband service. Telstra claims it is well positioned to offer customers all kinds of whizzy new services across a range of platforms. “Transformation is well on track,” says Greg Canavan, an analyst at Fat Prophets in Sydney. “The big wild card[7] is regulation.” 客户服务也已得到改进。让一直以来苦不堪言的 Telstra 客户感到非常惊讶的是,公司的技术人员现在晚 间或周末也对客户进行电话访问,这可是一个革命性的变化。大多数技术人员到访时都身着荧光闪烁的黄 色围裙,令人赏心悦目,上面还赫然印有“Bigpond"字样(这是该公司提供的处于市场领先位置的宽带服 务)。Telstra 宣称,公司旨在通过一系列平台向客户提供各种新式快捷服务。悉尼 Fat Prophet 的分析家格 雷格•卡纳万说:“转型已经完全步入正轨,现在最大的变数就在于监管。 ” Regulation is Mr Trujillo's main gripe with the government. In August Telstra abandoned a flagship project to build a high-speed fibre-optic network in the country's five largest cities after a poisonous regulatory dispute with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Agreement could not be reached on how much the company could charge competitors for access to its new network. Telstra grumbles that it is forced to offer rivals, such as Optus, cheaper access to its networks in cities than in rural areas. This places Telstra at a disadvantage when competing for profitable urban customers. 监管也是特鲁西略与政府之间主要的隔阂之所在。8 月,Telstra 就监管一事与澳大利亚竞争与消费者委员 会进行了争辩,但双方不欢而散,Telstra 遂放弃了一项拟在全国最大的 5 座城市构建高速光纤网络的旗舰 计划。双方的分歧在于 Telstra 公司可向其竞争对手收取多少入网费用。Telstra 抱怨说,该委员会要求它 向诸如 Optus 之类的对手收取的城市入网费必须低于农村地区入网费。这使得 Telstra 在争取有利可图的城 市客户方面处于劣势。 Despite the wrangling with regulators, Telstra's shares are trading at their highest in six months. They are still below A$5.02, where they stood when Mr Trujillo took over in July 2005. (5)But Telstra's transformation is clearly starting to impress investors—cause, perhaps, for a modest toot on the trumpet. Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Telstra 尽管与监管部门争执不休,但它的股票交易额 6 个月以来始终保持最高水平。股价仍比去年 1 月特 鲁西略接管公司时的 5.02 澳元要低。不过显而易见,Telstra 的转型已开始让投资者为之一振——大概就 是因为小号声调听来不卑不亢的缘故吧。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. refrain n. part of a song or poem that is repeated, especially at the end of each verse 副歌,副句(诗) 2.strut one’s stuff to show one’s skill at doing something, especially dancing or performing 大显身手 3. douse v. 浸湿 4. earn/win one’s spurs to show that you deserve to succeed because you have the right skills 通过自己 的能力获得,实至名归 5. unwieldy adj. 难以控制的,难处理的 6. bib n.围脖,围裙 7. wild card 1)a playing card that can represent any other card 百搭牌 2)someone whose behaviour or effect on a situation is difficult to guess 未知因素

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 75

Playing a long game 持久战(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 16th 2006 | LONDON, NEW YORK AND TOKYO From The Economist print edition Can the PlayStation 3 revive the ailing electronics giant? PS3 能让这个近况堪忧的电子业巨人重振雄风吗? THINGS have not been going well for Sony lately. Last month senior executives at the Japanese electronics giant issued an unprecedented apology after discovering that 9.6m laptop batteries, supplied to other computer-makers, were faulty and would have to be recalled at a cost of $436m. Sony's Blu-ray high-definition technology, launched this summer, has suffered from delays and component shortages, and is embroiled in a standards war with the rival HD-DVD format.(1) American regulators began investigating the company last month as part of an inquiry into allegations of price-fixing in the memory-chip market. And having long been the world's most valuable electronics firm by stockmarket value, Sony's market capitalisation has fallen to less than half that of Samsung, its South Korean rival. “They really need some good news,” says Paul Jackson of Forrester, a consultancy. 近来索尼的情况一直都不太妙。10 月,在发现 960 万块供给其它电脑制造商的笔记本电池存在瑕疵、必 须予以召回之后,这个日本电子业巨人的高层主管史无前例地公开表示了歉意。此次召回事件使得索尼遭 受的损失达到 4.36 亿美元。今年夏天索尼发布的蓝光(Blue-ray)高清晰技术曾数度被延迟上市,并遭遇 元件短缺危机。现如今这一技术又卷入了与其竞争对手 HD-DVD 格式之间的 DVD 标准大战之中。上个月, 为了核实索尼在内存条市场存在的价格垄断问题,美国监管部门对该公司进行了调查。索尼长期以来都是 全球证券市场最有价值的电子公司,而现在其市场资本总额已经锐减,不到其韩国对手三星公司的一半。 Forrester 咨询公司的保罗·杰克逊说:“他们真得需要点喜讯了。” (2)So a lot is riding on the PlayStation 3 (PS3), the latest incarnation of Sony's industry-leading games console, which was launched with much fanfare[1] in Japan on November 11th. In Akihabara, Tokyo's neon-lit electronics district, stores drafted in extra workers to cope with easily the biggest product launch of the year. At the Yurakucho flagship store of Bic Camera, one of Japan's largest electronics retailers, hundreds of gamers queued through a cold, damp night. Ken Kutaragi, who runs Sony's gaming division, was there to welcome them in the morning. 这多半还是要依靠 PS3。11 月 11 日,索尼在日本大张旗鼓地发布了 PS3,而 PS3 也是索尼在游戏主机方 面产业领先优势的最新体现。在东京霓虹闪耀的秋叶原电子一条街,商店为了应付这场无疑是年度最大的 产品发布,都额外招募了一些人手。在比酷电器(日本最大的电子产品零售商之一)有乐町旗舰店,成百 上千的游戏玩家排队等候了又冷又湿的一夜。清晨,负责索尼游戏业务的久多良木健在店里接待了他们。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong At Yodobashi Camera in the southern city of Fukuoka, (3)half of the 400 people queuing were Chinese immigrants with orders to snap up[2] the store's assignment for resale online in China. Across Japan, the PS3 had sold out by lunchtime. Similar scenes were expected at its American launch on November 17th. On Tuesday there were already over 100 people camping outside Sony's New York store. 在位于日本南部城市福冈的淀桥电器,排队等候的 400 人之中有一半是中国移民。有人雇佣他们到商店抢 购,然后再拿到中国在网上转让。截至午餐时间,全日本的 PS3 均已售罄。11 月 17 日 PS3 将在美国上市, 此情此景有望再现。11 月 14 日,已有 100 多人在索尼纽约专卖店外“安营扎寨”。

Not so fast 不必操之过急 Sony needs the PS3 to succeed for three reasons: to maintain its lucrative dominance of the games industry; to seed the market for Blu-ray and establish Sony in the emerging market for internet video downloads; and to demonstrate that the turnaround being led by Howard Stringer, who took over as chief executive in 2005, is working and that Sony's gaming, electronics and content divisions really can work together. Despite the enthusiasm of the PS3's early buyers, success in each of these areas is far from assured. 索尼之所以希望 PS3 务必获得成功,原因有三:一是要维持其在游戏产业中利润上的垄断优势;二是要奠 定蓝光技术的市场基础,确立索尼在新兴的网上视频下载服务市场中的地位;三是要表明在 2005 年接手 成为索尼 CEO 的霍华德·斯金格的带领下,他们正在扭转颓势,而且索尼的游戏、电子硬件产品和内容 产品(娱乐)确实是可以融为一体的。不过,虽然先期购买 PS3 的玩家热情满怀,但现在谁也无法保证索 尼在上述每一个领域中都能获得成功。 In gaming, Sony faces far stronger competition than it did when it launched the PlayStation 2 in 2000. The PS2 went on to sell over 100m units, giving Sony 70% of the market. (4)But gaming is a cyclical business, and success in one round does not guarantee success in the next. Microsoft has already sold over 6m of its Xbox 360 consoles, launched a year ago, and expects to have sold 10m by the end of 2006. Nintendo, Sony's other rival, will launch its new console, the Wii, on November 19th, and expects to sell 4m units by the end of the year. Manufacturing problems delayed the PS3's launch from May and meant that only 93,000 consoles were available for the Japanese launch. Sony hopes to sell 2m by the end of the year, but even if it does so, it will start the race in third place. 就游戏来看,索尼面临的竞争压力要比它在 2000 年发布 PS2 时大得多。PS2 卖了 1 亿多台,帮助索尼占 据了 70%的市场。但是游戏行业“风水轮流转” ,这次的成功并不能确保下一次也能成功。微软一年前推 出的 Xbox 360 主机现已卖出了 600 多万台,到 2006 年底有望达到 1 千万台。索尼另一个对手任天堂将于 将于 11 月 19 日发布新主机 Wii,并有望在年底前售出 400 万台。制造工艺方面的难题导致 PS3 原定于 5 月份的发布被延迟至今,并且造成仅有 9.3 万台主机在日本上市。索尼希望年底前能卖出 200 万台 PS3, 可即便如此,它在这场竞争中一开始也只能排在第三位了。 Availability is one weakness; pricing is another. The PS3 is available in two configurations, costing $500 and $600 in America, and ¥50,000 ($425) and ¥60,000 ($510) in Japan. That is far more than rival consoles (the Xbox 360 starts at $300 and the Wii costs $250) and is due to the inclusion of a Blu-ray optical drive in every PS3. 货源短缺是一方面,此外价格上也存在问题。上市的 PS3 有两种配置,在美国的价格分别为 500 美元和 600 美元,在日本为 5 万日元(425 美元)和 6 万日元(510 美元)。这一价格远远高于其对手生产的主机 (Xbox 360 起价 300 美元,而 Wii 仅需 250 美元) ,价高的原因在于每一款 PS3 中都整合了蓝光光驱技术。 Sony will lose money on each PS3 sold for the first couple of years until higher volumes and design Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong improvements reduce costs. But it will make money by taking a cut of every game sold. Worryingly, however, less than one game was sold per PS3 in Japan this week, which suggests that some buyers regard the PS3 as a subsidised Blu-ray player—which it is. Dedicated Blu-ray players start at around $750. (5)The PS3, in short, will not be the moneyspinner[3] that the PS2 was for quite some time, and it seems unlikely to achieve the market share of its predecessors. 索尼在头几年里每卖一台 PS3 都会亏本,除非增大销量并进行设计改进以降低成本。但是,它如果能从售 出的每一款游戏中分成,就可以捞取利润了。然而令人担忧的是,本周日本售出的 PS3 平均每台连一款游 戏都不到。这表明有些买主把 PS3 当成了“享受补贴的”蓝光播放器——事实上的确如此。专用的蓝光播 放器起价大约 750 美元。简言之,PS3 不会像 PS2 那样在相当一段时间内为索尼带来滚滚财源,并且似乎 也不可能达到 PS2 的市场占有率。 The PS3 is also meant to ensure that Blu-ray triumphs over HD-DVD as the high-definition successor to the DVD video format. The idea is that millions of PS3s bought by gamers will seed the market for Blu-ray, providing it with critical mass and ensuring that Hollywood studios, which are reluctant to back two rival standards, plump[4] for Blu-ray over HD-DVD. (6)But instead of riding the PS3 as a Trojan horse, Blu-ray has instead hobbled it by increasing its price and delaying its introduction. The battle between Blu-ray and HD-DVD may even prove irrelevant, as internet downloads become the medium of choice for high-definition video. Both Sony and Microsoft plan to sell high-definition video downloads via their consoles. PS3 的意义还在于,索尼希望借以确保蓝光技术能够战胜 HD-DVD,成为高清晰 DVD 视频格式的“接班 人”。索尼的如意算盘是,玩家购买的数百万台 PS3 将为蓝光技术奠定市场基础,使之达到临界规模(容 量),并确保不愿同时支持两款对立标准格式的好莱坞电影公司在仔细斟酌后选择蓝光技术而不是 HD-DVD。不过,蓝光技术非但没有很好地“借腹生子”,反而抬高了 PS3 的价格并在上市方面拖了后腿, 进而让 PS3 陷入困境。由于人们已经可以通过网上下载途径来选择高清晰视频,因此也许事实会证明蓝光 技术与 HD-DVD 之间的竞争根本是多此一举。索尼和微软都计划通过它们的主机兜售高清晰视频下载服 务。 Finally, the PS3 is a litmus test for Sir Howard's turnaround effort, one of the aims of which is to get Sony's various divisions to co-operate more fully. (A spat between its electronics and content units left the field open for Apple's iPod.) The company insists that despite recent problems such as the battery recall, the turnaround is going well behind the scenes. Sony has improved margins in its electronics business and reduced headcount by 10,000 ahead of schedule. It is also on track with factory closures, asset disposals and winnowing[5] its product line-up to focus on “champions” such as Cyber-shot digital cameras, Bravia televisions and, of course, the PS3. Sir Howard even suggested this week that the battery fiasco had helped by making it easier for him to convince doubters within Sony of the need to change. 最后一点,对于霍华德爵士为了扭转局面而作的努力而言,PS3 就是一块试金石,而种种努力的目的之一 就是让索尼旗下的不同业务部门能够更加众志成城。 (索尼电子产品与内容产品之间的不和让苹果的 iPOD 趁虚而入。)该公司坚持认为,尽管诸如召回电池之类的问题最近层出不穷,但颓势正在悄然扭转。索尼 已经对其电子产品业务的利润结构进行了改进,并提前裁员万人。关闭工厂、清理资产和筛选“拳头产品” 等工作也都有条不紊地进行着。这些“拳头产品”包括 Cyber-shot 数码相机、Bravia 液晶电视,当然还有 PS3。本周霍华德爵士甚至表示,“电池门”事件使他更容易说服索尼内部的持怀疑论者,改革确有必要。 (7)Yet it will be some time before it is possible to tell whether the PS3 can rescue Sony. Beneath the short-term troubles, the company is playing a long game. “This is not a battle that's just about this Christmas,” says Rob Wiesenthal, the finance chief of Sony's American division. Sony is betting that the PS3's advanced technology will sustain the company for a decade by extending the PlayStation franchise beyond gaming. So a Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong few teething problems in the early days are nothing to worry about; besides, the PS2 was also criticised for being expensive, over-engineered and unreliable when it first appeared. But having achieved 70% market share last time around, Sony is certain to lose ground this time. The only question is how much. 然而,断定 PS3 能否拯救索尼尚需时日。在短期问题的掩盖之下,该公司打的是一场持久战。索尼美国市 场首席财务主管罗伯·维森塔尔说: “这不是一场圣诞节一过就会结束的战争。”索尼笃定 PS3 所包含的尖 端技术将使得 PS 的功能范围不再局限于游戏,今后十年都将是公司的“顶梁柱”。因此,暂时的困难根本 不足挂齿;此外,PS2 最初亮相的时候,人们也指责它价格过高、设计过于复杂、可靠性不强等。不过, 那一次索尼获得了 70%的市场份额,这次肯定会有所损失,只是到底损失多少还无法确定。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. fanfare n. a lot of activity, advertising, or discussion relating to an event 宣传活动,大张旗鼓 2. snap up to buy something immediately, especially because it is very cheap 抢购 3. moneyspinnern. a project that generates a continuous flow of money 赚钱机器(=moneymaker, cash cow) 4. plump for (经过深思熟虑后)选择…… 5. winnow v. to make a list, group, or quantity smaller by getting rid of the things that you do not need or want [= whittle down]筛检,筛选

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 76

Start of the long march 而今迈步从头越(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 16th 2006 | BEIJING AND HONG KONG From The Economist print edition Charles Prince gambles on a rickety Chinese bank 查尔斯·普林斯把赌注押在了一家沉疴在身的中国银行之上。 IF, AS seems likely, consumer banking in China takes a great leap forward, Guangdong Development Bank has obvious appeal. It has 13m customers, 500 branches, a strong franchise in the manufacturing hub near Hong Kong and a national licence that could permit years of formidable growth. (1)So Citigroup's chief executive, Charles Prince, must have been thrilled to fly into Hong Kong this week on unrelated business to find that a bidding consortium led by his bank was about to win control of Guangdong after a bruising[1] auction that lasted more than a year. It beat Société Générale, a French bank. 假如个人金融业务在中国能够实现跨越式增长的话,那么广东发展银行还是有其显而易见的魅力的。这看 来不无可能。它拥有 1300 万客户和 500 家分支机构,在香港周边的制造业中心地区有广布的营业网点, 还持有全国性业务牌照,数年之内业务的增长将无可限量。因此,本周花旗银行的首席执行官查尔斯•普 林斯飞赴香港,获悉以他的银行为首的一个竞标财团即将赢得广发银行的控股权,顿时欣喜若狂,而这却 并非他此行的主要目的。这场激烈的竞购战持续了一年多,该财团的手下败将是法国兴业银行。 The deal marks the first time foreigners have been allowed into the driving seat of a big, potentially national, Chinese bank. But the main reason the authorities gave Mr Prince and his partners such access is because Guangdong is a wreck. Its most recent audited statement in 2003 showed that non-performing loans represented an alarming 22% of its portfolio. A report in the government-backed China Daily agency put non-performing loans[2] at 25% in 2005. That suggests its performance may be getting worse even as China booms. 这一交易标志着外国人首次获准入主有可能成为全国性的中国大型银行。但是,当局之所以对普林斯及其 合作者开这个口子,主要是因为广发银行已然是一个烂摊子。2003 年一项距今最近的审计决算报告显示, 不良贷款在该银行投资组合中所占比例已达 22%,令人震惊。2005 年,政府刊物中国日报社报道认为该 银行的不良贷款率达 25%,这表明虽然中国日益繁荣兴旺,但广发银行的表现却是每况愈下。 To win Guangdong, Citigroup initially bid for outright control at the request of the local authorities. (2)The offer was withdrawn under national government pressure because of limits on the stake of any foreign investor in a Chinese bank to 20%, and of total foreign investment to 25%. An awkward consortium was assembled which includes IBM, China Life (the country's biggest insurance company), State Grid (an electrical utility), and Citic Trust (a government-backed holding company). Citigroup's lead role is implicit but not explicit, which may do it no favours when it attempts to bash Guangdong into shape. 在当地政府的授意下,花旗银行最初打算竞购的是广发银行的绝对控股权。但迫于国家政府强制性规定, 即任何单个外国投资商在中国银行的持股比例不得超过 20%,且各外国投资商在中国一个银行的持股比 例合计不得超过 25%,花旗最终撤回了这一竞标。IBM、中国人寿(该国最大的保险公司)、国家电网(一 家公用电力公司)和中信信托(一家政府控股公司)遂联合组建了一个竞标团,内中的关系十分复杂棘手。 花旗银行的领头作用固然毋庸置疑,却又“犹抱琵琶半遮面”。它如欲试图让广发银行“成器”的话,这 么做对它毫无裨益。 Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong The group is expected to pay $3.1 billion for 85% of Guangdong. Typically banks are valued as a multiple of book value[3]. Realistically, Guangdong may have no book value or even a negative one. But the bidders are betting on opportunity, not an institution. “This is not a banking deal,” says a lawyer whose client lost out in an earlier round of bidding. “It is a China deal.” 该竞标团预计将支付 31 亿美元以购买广发银行 85%的股份。一般来说,对银行的估价都是其净资产值的 若干倍,而实际上广发银行的净资产值可能为零甚至为负值。不过,投标人看重的并不是哪一家机构,而 是这次机遇。在早一轮竞标中落败的某公司一位代理律师说:“这种交易的重点不在银行业,而是整个中 国。” Many banks are eager for such deals but their ways of going about it differ. Some have invested passively, praying that the Chinese banks manage themselves well. Bank of America bought 9% of China Construction Bank in 2005 for $3 billion; that stake has tripled in value. Goldman Sachs has made a similar fortune with Industrial and Commercial Bank of China. (3)Other big banks believe that pouring money into any institution with credit and operating problems—which is the case for every Chinese bank—is madness if it doesn't also bring control. That has been the view of JPMorgan Chase. 许多银行都对这种交易垂涎三���,但他们采取的方式都各不相同。有的投资比较被动,只寄希望于中国的 银行能“好自为之”。2005 年,美国银行(BOA)以 30 亿美元买入了中国建设银行 9%的股份,其市值现 已翻了三倍。投资中国工商银行的高盛公司也获取了类似的收益。其它一些大银行则认为,把大笔钱投入 到那些存在信用和经营问题的银行(事实上中国所有银行都是如此)并且作壁上观,实属疯狂之举。这也 是摩根大通银行一直以来所持的观点。 Until now, Citigroup has taken a more ad hoc[4] approach. It has half-a-dozen branches of its own and a franchise serving multinationals. It has a joint venture with Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, a small regional bank that allows it to issue credit cards. Citigroup plans quietly to lift its stake in that bank from 5% to the maximum 20%. 迄今为止花旗银行所采取的是一种比较特别的方式。它(在中国)拥有 6 家分支机构和一个专营跨国公司 业务的网点。它与地区性小型银行上海浦东发展银行之间的合资关系使它可以(在中国)发行信用卡。花 旗银行还在不动声色地计划将所持的浦发银行股份从 5%提高到最高上限 20%。 Its first challenge with Guangdong will be to improve operations. (4)IBM, which has a huge business serving banks but has had its own sales challenges in China, will presumably be of help transforming Guangdong's lousy[5] IT systems. It is seen as a temporary partner and Citigroup is thought to have the first right of repurchase for IBM's shares. 改善经营将是花旗接手广发银行后面临的首要问题。据预测,IBM 将帮助改造广发银行运行不畅的 IT 系 统。许多中国的银行都是 IBM 的大客户,但 IBM 在销售上也有自己难念的经。有人认为,它只不过是花 旗的临时性合作伙伴,花旗有权优先重购 IBM 股份。 Ideally, Guangdong would be folded into Citigroup, with branches fanning out[6] across China to offer services to the growing middle class, investment products and corporate banking, such as payroll and cash management. (5)For Mr Prince, getting Guangdong (and thus China) right could, by itself, kickstart what has so far been an undistinguished tenure for him. If not, it could be a great leap backwards. 理论上看,广发银行将并入花旗银行,其旗下的分支机构遍布全中国,开展的业务包括面向日益壮大的中 产阶级队伍的金融服务、投资产品以及公司金融业务(如工资和现金管理)。对于普林斯而言,将广发银 行(进而推及中国)扶上正轨,将有力地推动他在迄今为止表现平庸的任期内阔步前行。否则,大踏步的 倒退就有可能接踵而至。 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. bruising adj. difficult and unpleasant, and leaving you feeling tired or emotionally harmed 十分激烈的, 殊死的 2. non-performing loan 不良贷款 3. book value the value of something that a company owns, which it lists in its accounts 账面价值,净资产 值 4. ad hoc adj. not planned, but arranged or done only when necessary 特别的 5. lousy adj. of very bad quality 非常糟糕的 6. fan out spreads out in many directions 散开,遍布

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 77

The Georgian knot 格鲁吉亚之结(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 23rd 2006 | TALLINN From The Economist print edition Russia's membership of the WTO is not quite a done deal 俄罗斯能否加入 WTO 尚未最后敲定。 (1)NOBODY can fault the Georgians' courage. Judgment is another matter. America has dropped its objections to Russia's membership of the World Trade Organisation—seemingly in return for support on Iran and North Korea. But Georgia, an ardently pro-Western ex-Soviet republic, has withdrawn its own agreement with Russia and is blocking the multilateral talks needed to conclude Russia's entry into the WTO. The trade body relies on unanimity, giving vetoes even to pipsqueaks[1]—at least in theory. 格鲁吉亚人的勇气无懈可击,而他们的判断力则要另当别论。美国已不再反对俄罗斯加入世界贸易组织 (WTO)(可能是报答俄罗斯在伊朗和朝鲜问题上给予美国的支持),而格鲁吉亚这个积极奉行亲西方政 策的前苏联共和国却撤销了与俄罗斯之间的协议,并对决定俄罗斯能否加入 WTO 的多边会谈施以阻挠。 WTO 的任何决议都必须得到全体成员国的一致同意,再小的国家也可行使否决权——至少理论上如此。 (2)Georgia has plenty to complain about: Russia subjected it to trade sanctions and raised its gas prices in protest at the public humiliation of some Russian spies. But the real issue, according to the prime minister, Zurab Nogaideli, is another one: control of commerce into two separatist enclaves that border on Russia, South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Trade (legal and illegal) flows freely. 格鲁吉亚有一肚子的怨气——因抗议一些俄罗斯间谍公然遭到羞辱一事,俄罗斯对格鲁吉亚实施了贸易制 裁,并提高了天然气价格。不过,格鲁吉亚总理祖拉布·诺盖杰利认为,真正的问题出在分离主义者盘踞 的南奥塞梯和阿布哈兹(均与俄罗斯接壤)的贸易控制权上。这两个地区与俄罗斯之间的双边贸易(包括 合法与非法)一直处于无拘无束的状态。 Georgia wants these borders either sealed or run by its own customs officials. That may be reasonable in theory but it sounds fanciful in practice. The two “frozen conflicts” have remained stubbornly unthawed[2] for a decade, and Georgia's lack of Western support has already been bleakly[3] exposed in recent months.(3) Foreigners are wowed by Georgia's warp-speed economic reform—which has produced double-digit GDP growth—but dismayed by its erratic and hot-headed politics and diplomacy. 格鲁吉亚希望封锁这些边境或者由其本国的海关官员进行管理。从理论上看这是说得过去的,可实际上却 有点异想天开。两国之间“冷冲突”十年来一直都未能化解,而且近几个月格鲁吉亚也已凸现缺乏西方支 持的一面,形势不容乐观。格鲁吉亚异乎寻常速度的经济改革带来了 GDP 的两位数增长,博得了外国人 的喝彩,可该国朝三暮四、急躁冒进的政治主张与外交政策却让外国人大失所望。 America laments Georgia's tactics. It wants Russia in the WTO, which will help speed Ukraine, a country that it is trying to coax[4] back into a pro-Western stance, along the same path. (4)“America and the EU will stamp Georgia into the ground on this,” says a government adviser. “They seem to think that they can provoke us into supporting them,” says a top EU official despairingly. 美国对格鲁吉亚的策略感到遗憾。它希望俄罗斯加入 WTO,从而带动乌克兰加快入世进程。对乌克兰, Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 美国正试图劝其重新站到亲西方的立场上。一位政府顾问说: “美国和欧盟将强迫格鲁吉亚就范。”欧盟一 位高官则绝望地说:“他们好像觉得这么做可以促使我们为其提供支持。 ” Mr Nogaideli claims that the Kremlin is backsliding[5]. “If Russia doesn't want to honour this agreement, they shouldn't have signed it,” he says. (5)Georgia hopes that the many loose ends in Russia's WTO application mean that other countries too will welcome a chance to apply a bit more pressure—on pricey rail freight costs, for example. 诺盖杰利声称是克里姆林宫背信弃义的。他说: “假如俄罗斯不想履行这一协议,当初他们就不应该签署。” 格鲁吉亚希望,俄罗斯申请加入 WTO 的过程中尚未解决的一些零星问题意味着其它国家也想趁机再施加 一点压力——比如关于昂贵的铁路运输费用。 Perhaps. But the usual outcome in trade talks is that big countries' arm-twisting[6] is effective—and painful. 也许吧。不过,贸易会谈的最终结果通常都取决于大国施加的压力——这种压力叫人苦不堪言。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](陆谷孙编《英汉大词典》) 1. pipsqueak n.小人物,无足轻重的东西 2. unthawed adj. 未化解的 3. bleak adj. 严峻的;寒冷的 4. coax v. 劝诱,诱骗 5. backslide v. 倒退,堕落,故态复萌 6. arm-twisting n. 压力 Gordian knot(戈尔迪之结),(希腊神话中弗里基亚国王)戈尔迪打的难解的结(按神谕,能入主亚洲者才 能打开此结,后马其顿国王亚历山大挥利剑将死结斩开)。 后比喻难办的事,复杂问题。Cut the Gordian knot 则表示“以大刀阔斧的办法解决复杂问题,快刀斩乱麻”。文章标题喻指“结”是“格鲁吉亚人”系的,也就 是说问题出于格鲁吉亚人。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 78

Trouble clicks 都是点击惹的祸(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition “Click fraud” could undermine the boom in online advertising “点击欺诈”会损害网络广告业的发展。 INTERNET advertising is booming. The industry has gone from $9.6 billion in revenue in 2001 to $27 billion this year, according to Piper Jaffray, an investment bank. And it is still early days. The internet accounts for only 5% of total spending on advertising, but that figure is expected to reach at least 20% in the next few years. (1) The single largest category within this flourishing industry, accounting for nearly half of all spending, is “pay-per-click” advertising, which is used by firms both large and small to promote their wares. 互联网广告业正在蓬勃发展。据 Piper Jaffray 投资银行报告,该产业的收入已从 2001 年的 96 亿美元增加 到今年的 270 亿美元。这才刚刚开始。互联网广告投入仅占广告业总投入的 5%,但今后几年该比例有望 至少达到 20%。在这个欣欣向荣的产业中, “点击付费”广告是最主要的一种形式,投入约占网络广告业 总投入的一半。应用此类广告的既有大公司,也有小公司,其目的都是为了推广产品。 It works like this. Advertisers bid on keywords that they believe potential customers will be interested in. This enables internet firms such as Google, the market leader, and Yahoo!, its smaller rival, to display advertisements alongside the results of internet searches. Somebody searching for a particular type of wine, for example, might see advertisements from wine merchants. Google, Yahoo! and other firms also place ads on affiliates' websites—so wine merchants' advertisements might also appear on a wine-appreciation site. The advertiser pays only when a consumer clicks on an ad; the owner of the website where the ad was displayed then receives a small commission[1]. “点击付费”广告的运作流程是:广告商竞价购买他们认为有可能成为客户人会感兴趣的关键词,使其广 告出现在 Google(网络广告市场先锋)和 Yahoo(比 Google 小的竞争对手)之类网络公司的搜索结果旁。 例如,有人搜索某种葡萄酒,就会看到酒商的广告。Google、Yahoo 及其它公司也在与其会员网站上刊登 广告——因此酒商广告也会出现在某个品酒网站上。只有当客户点击某个广告时,广告商才需要付费,然 后刊登广告的网站就会获得一小笔佣金。 (2)The benefits of the pay-per-click approach over traditional advertising (television, radio, print and billboards) are obvious. Since advertisers pay only to reach the small subset who actually respond to an advertisement, the quality of the leads generated is very high, and advertisers are prepared to pay accordingly. The price per click varies from $0.10 to as much as $30, depending on the keyword, though the average is around $0.50. “Mesothelioma[2]”, for instance, the name of an asbestos-related illness, is an especially valuable keyword, because lawyers are prepared to pay a lot to make contact with sufferers in the hope of representing them in a lucrative compensation lawsuit. Google made most of its $6.1 billion in revenue last year from pay-per-click advertising. 相比传统广告(电视、广播、印刷品和广告牌) , “点击付费”广告的好处不言自明。既然仅当广告传播到 少数真正点击广告的人时广告商才需付费,由此得到的就是具有较强购买意向的信息,广告商当然乐意花 点钱了。每次点击的价格平均约为 0.5 美元,最低为 0.1 美元,最高可达 30 美元,主要取决于关键词。比 Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 如, “Mesothelioma” (间皮瘤,一种与石棉有关的疾病名称)就是一个特别昂贵的关键词。这是因为律师 为了接洽这种疾病的患者、争取代理他们打一场可以赢得丰厚赔款的官司,很乐意出大价钱购买这个关键 词做广告。Google 去年 61 亿元的总收入中大部分都来自“点击付费”广告。 (3)But as pay-per-click advertising has grown into a huge industry, concern has mounted over so-called “click fraud”—bogus[3] clicks that do not come from genuinely interested customers. It takes two main forms. If you click repeatedly on the advertisements on your own website, or get other people or machines to do so on your behalf, you can generate a stream of bogus commissions. Click fraud can also be used by one company against another: clicking on a rival firm's advertisements can saddle it with a huge bill. Bogus clicks are thought to account for around 10% of all click traffic, though nobody knows for sure. 不过,随着“点击付费”广告发展成为一个庞大的产业,人们越来越担心所谓的“点击欺诈”——也就是 并非出自真正消费者之手的虚假点击。它主要包括两种形式。一个人反复点击其网站的广告,或者让别的 人或机器代替他这么做,就能产生一连串的虚假点击信息从而骗取佣金。 “点击欺诈”也可用于公司之间 的竞争:点击竞争对手的广告可以让对手承担高额的广告费。虽然有人认为虚假点击大概占全部点击量的 10%,但这一数字并不确切。 Bill Gross, the entrepreneur who pioneered the pay-per-click model back in 1998, was aware of the problem even then. (Yahoo! subsequently acquired his firm, known at the time as Overture.) He installed a three-layered defence system: a filter to weed out clicks from known fraudsters at the outset, statisticians and software to spot suspicious click patterns, and co-operation with advertisers to enable them to analyse the leads generated and sound the alarm if necessary. 企业家 Bill Gross 早在 1998 年首创“点击付费”广告模式时就意识到了这一问题。 (后来 Yahoo 收购了他 的公司,当时名为 Overture。)他安装了一个三层防护系统:先利用滤过系统将已知的点击欺诈者拒之门 外,然后通过统计人员和软件审查可疑的点击样本,最后再会同广告商对得到的购买可能性数据进行分析 并在必要时发出警告。 But generally the industry adopted a rather cavalier[4] attitude to click fraud.(4)Eric Schmidt, the boss of Google, caused uproar a few months ago when he seemed to suggest that the “perfect economic solution” to click fraud was to “let it happen”. He was responding to a theoretical question during a debate at Stanford University, but his response reinforced the perception that Google had higher priorities than addressing the problem. 但在通常情况下,网络广告业对点击欺诈所持的是一种漠不关心的态度。 几个月前 Google 总裁 Eric Schmidt 闪烁���词地说,对付点击欺诈问题的“最省钱的方法”就是“顺其自然” ,从而引起了轩然大波。他是在 斯坦福大学举行的一场论辩会上讨论某个理论问题时作出这番回应的,但此言一出即让人坚信,谷歌公司 优先考虑的并不是解决点击欺诈问题。 (5)Such a flippant[5] attitude has not gone down well with advertisers, who are up in arms about the problem. Some have even resorted to legal action. Google reached a settlement in March with Lane's Gifts and Collectibles, a gift shop based in Arkansas, and agreed to offer refunds to advertisers who claim they have been charged for bogus clicks. Such refunds are capped at $90m, however, so many observers think Google got off lightly[6]. And in June Yahoo! promised to intensify its efforts to fight click fraud as part of a settlement with CheckMate, a fraud-detection firm. As well as offering refunds for clicks determined to be fraudulent, Yahoo! agreed to appoint a “traffic-quality advocate” to voice advertisers' concerns within the company. 广告商们根本无法接受这种轻率的态度,他们强烈要求解决点击欺诈问题。有的广告商甚至已经诉诸法律。 今年 3 月,Google 与 Lane’s Gifts 和 Collectibles(阿肯色州一家礼品店)达成一项协议,Google 同意向 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 声称自己因为虚假点击而被收费的广告商退还广告费。然而,这种退款最多也就 9 千万美元,因此许多观 察人士认为 Google 被从轻发落了。还有今年 6 月,作为与点击欺诈检测公司 Checkmate 的协议内容之一, Yahoo 承诺加大打击点击欺诈的力度。除了同样要退还欺骗性点击所产生的费用之外,Yahoo 还同意指定 一名“点击数据质量宣传员”担任广告商在该公司的代言人。 In the wake of these legal challenges, Google and Yahoo! recently joined a working group at the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), a trade association, which will establish standards for pay-per-click advertising, including the introduction of industry-funded auditing and certification, by the middle of 2007. “I believe Google and Yahoo! are now taking the issue very seriously,” says David Jones, chief executive of Euro RSCG, an advertising company. But Rishad Tobaccowala, head of innovation at Publicis, one of the world's biggest advertising groups, says it is too early to say whether the measures being taken against click fraud will be enough to satisfy advertisers. 经历法律上的质疑后,Google 和 Yahoo 近期加入了交互式广告管理局(IAB)下属的一个组织。IAB 是一 家商业协会,它拟于 2007 年上半年前确立点击付费广告标准,其中包括引入审计和认证制度,所需资金 由相关企业提供。Euro RSCG 广告公司首席执行官 David Jones 说:“相信 Google 和 Yahoo 这回该把这一 问题当回事了。”但是全球最大的广告集团之一 Publicis 公司负责研发的 Rishad Tobaccowala 则称,打击点 击欺诈的现行措施是否足以让广告商满意,现在就盖棺定论还为时过早。 A few months ago Mr Gross pioneered an alternative to the pay-per-click model. (6)In February Snap, a search engine backed by Mr Gross, launched “pay-per-action”, a new model in which advertisers pay only if a click on an ad is followed by an action such as a purchase or a download. Google is testing a similar model and Turn.com, another ad network, adopted the pay-per-action model a few weeks ago. 几个月前 Gross 开发了一种代替点击付费广告的模式。今年 2 月,受 Gross 支持的 Snap 搜索引擎发布了 新型的“按有效行为付费”(PPA)广告模式,要求只有在某广告被点击后出现购买或下载行为时广告商 才需付费。Google 也正在试用一种类似的模式,另一家网络广告公司 Turn.com 则在几周前采用了 PPA 模 式。 Might this put an end to click fraud? Don't bet on it, says Mike Zeman at Starcom, an advertising agency. Pay-per-action will be a niche, he predicts, since converting a click into an action depends on a variety of factors such as the ease of use of the advertiser's website. Google and its peers will be reluctant to be so dependent on factors outside their control. But Mr Tobaccowala thinks pay-per-action could become a real alternative to pay-per-click. As bigger companies spend more on internet advertising, they will demand more accountability and a wider range of options, he says. (7)At the very least, that means clamping down on click fraud; but it also presents an opportunity for entrepreneurs to invent new models that are less vulnerable to abuse. “点击欺诈”问题因此就会迎刃而解吗?Starcom 广告代理公司的 Mike Zeman 认为这不可能。他预测, 由于点击能否转化成消费者的购买行为取决于诸多因素,比如广告商网站的使用方便程度,因此 PPA 模 式将会成为一种利基。Google 等网络广告公司并不希望过多依赖超出自己控制范围的因素。但 Tobaccowala 认为,PPA 有可能成为“点击付费”的真正替代模式。他说,随着大公司在网络广告上投入增多,就要求 广告公司具有更强的责任意识,同时也需要更多可供选择的广告形式。退一万步说,这意味着必须对点击 欺诈进行打压;而对企业家们而言,这也不失为一次研发不易遭受滥用的新模式的契机。 (Leads:是指通过交流,得到的关于某人购买某种产品或服务的可能性的数据) 。有了一条一条的 Leads, 开展行销就有了量化的依据。比如,王先生听过对儿童保险的电话介绍后,表达出对这种保险的购买可 能性,可能性的大小为 80% ,就是一条对保险商有用的 Leads。 )

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. commission n. 佣金 2. mesothelioma n. 间皮瘤 3. bogus adj. 假造的,赝造的 4. cavalier adj. 漫不经心的,无忧无虑的;傲慢的,目空一切的 5. flippant adj. 轻率的,不认真的 6. get off 免于受罚 get off lightly 被从轻发落

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 79

The universal diarist 风靡全球的日记作者(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition Mena Trott of Six Apart is at the forefront of the shift from mass media to “intimate media” Six Apart 公司的 Mena Trott 正在引领大众传媒走向“私人传媒”。 IT ALL began five years ago with a blog entry about a banjo. (1)Mena Trott had recently graduated as an English major from college and, at 23, was living as an under-employed designer with her husband Ben in San Francisco, passing her time by keeping a personal online diary. Called Dollarshort, it was a blog about her childhood, her pets and that sort of thing. One day, on a girly whim[1], she wrote that she wanted to buy a banjo but that her husband, ever the “tyrant”, wouldn't let her. Mena's friends and family, knowing that “Ben is the sweetest guy in the world”, recognised the humour, says Ms Trott. But all sorts of strangers suddenly blogged back with angry feminist advice, advising her to get a separate bank account, to tell off her bullying husband, and even to leave him. Ms Trott was livid. “Why can't people take a joke, and who are these people anyway?” she wondered. 故事要从五年前一篇关于班卓琴的博客文章说起。当时 Mena Trott 刚从大学英语专业毕业,与她的丈夫 Ben 一起住在旧金山。她的职业是一名设计师,但没多少活可干,就靠在网上写日记打发时光。那个名叫 Dollarshort 的博客记载了她的童年,她的宠物,等等不一而足。有一天,她突然萌生了一个孩子气的念头, 就在日记中说她想买一把班卓琴,可她那位素来“专制”的丈夫不让她买。Trott 女士说,她的亲朋好友 都知道“Ben 是世界上最可爱的小伙子”,所以一眼就看出来她这是在开玩笑。但是形形色色的陌生人却 纷纷在她的博客中留言,愤怒地表示男女应该平等,有的建议她单独设立一个银行账户,有的让她教训一 下她那横行霸道的丈夫,还有的甚至劝她离婚。Trott 女士气不打一处来。她心想: “为什么人们看不出来 这是玩笑呢?这都是些什么人呢?” It was the seed of a profound insight: that the era of mass media was ending and a new era of “intimate media” had begun. Mr Trott had written some software to make it easier for his wife to update her blog, and they realised that other people might find it useful too. It was an instant success upon its release onto the internet in 2001, and the Trotts have since built their company, called Six Apart (because their birthdays are six days apart), into the largest independent provider of blogging tools and hosting services.(2)Ms Trott is Six Apart's president and public face, while Mr Trott, who is shy and retiring[2], runs the technical side of things and seasoned executives handle the management. Six Apart's flagship products, Movable Type and TypePad, are popular Page 1 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong among “power bloggers” with large audiences, and its third product, LiveJournal, is big among teenage girls who blog for their friends. Collectively, Six Apart's products are used by over 30m bloggers around the world. 从此她便开始考虑一个更深层次的问题——大众传媒时代正渐渐远去,新的“私人传媒”时代来临了。为 便于妻子更新博客,Trott 先生编写了一款软件。他们意识到其他人也会觉得这款软件有用。2001 年,这 款软件在网上发布并风靡一时。如今,Trott 夫妇已经将他们的 Six Apart(因为他俩的生日正好相差 6 天) 建设成为博客工具和网络空间租用服务最大的独立供应商。Trott 女士 Six Apart 公司的总裁,负责公司的 对外事务,而 Trott 先生比较腼腆,不善交际,因此负责公司技术层面的工作。公司的运营则由经验丰富 的管理人员负责。Six Apart 的主打产品 Movable Type 和 TypePad 在拥有大量读者的“有影响力的博客作 家”中颇受欢迎,而其第三种产品 LiveJournal 则十分受那些专为朋友写博客的少女们的青睐。全球总共 有 3000 多万博客使用 Six Apart 的产品。 These days, however, the Trotts are most excited about their newest product, Vox, which was launched last month. For if a blogging service can have a personality, then Vox has Ms Trott's. Like Ms Trott, Vox is unpretentious and accessible. By contrast with rival services, users need not worry about having to understand technical matters, such as the HTML formatting language in which web pages are encoded, in order to incorporate whizzy features into their blogs. They can upload pictures, video clips and songs with just a few clicks on a simple, colour-coded page. (3)Also like Ms Trott, Vox celebrates the frivolous[3] and mundane[4]. Much of Ms Trott's personal blog, VoxTrott, is devoted to images of her beloved dog Maddy, while Mr Trott, a dilettante[5] cook, likes to post “disgusting pictures of good food” on his blog. Many ordinary people are scared of blogging because they feel that they have nothing to say, says Ms Trott. So her message is that “mundane is interesting; it's OK to talk about your sandwich”. To a handful of people in the world it may mean a lot. 然而,这几天让 Trott 夫妇感到兴奋之至的是他们上个月发布的最新产品——Vox。假如说博客服务可以个 性化的话,那么 Vox 恰好就体现了 Trott 女士的个性。跟她一样,Vox 朴实无华,简单易懂。相比行业对 手的服务系统,Vox 的用户根本不用掌握复杂的技术(如网页编码用的 HTML 格式语言)就可以把博客 装点得精美且富有特色。他们只需要在一个简洁的用色彩编码的网页上点击几下,就能够上传图片、视频 片段和歌曲。还有跟 Trott 女士一样的是,Vox 不放过平凡生活中的一点一滴。Trott 女士个人博客 VoxTrott 中有许多其爱犬 Maddy 的照片,而对厨艺半懂不懂的 Trott 先生则喜欢在他的博客中贴一些“令人作呕的 美食图片”。Trott 女士说,一般人很多都由于觉得无话可说而害怕写博客。因此,她主张“平凡的就是有 趣的,就算是谈谈三明治也无妨”。对世界上少数人而言,这也许意味深长。 The other thing that keeps many people from blogging is fear for their privacy, she thinks. Hence the third and most important characteristic of Vox. It is intimate. For every item on Vox—a text paragraph, a photo, a link—bloggers can determine if it is to be public or private and, if it is private, exactly who can see it. Ms Trott, for instance, keeps one part of VoxTrott for communicating only with her mother, who has an insatiable[6] appetite for information about certain minutiae of Ms Trott's life. (4)She also has a daily “Yay Me Update” just for herself, in which she uploads self-portraits from her mobile phone in order to preserve a chronicle of her life for her descendants—uninterrupted except for that time when she gained a bit more weight than she cared to commit to memory and conveniently forgot to post for a few days. 在她看来,许多人远离博客的另一个原因是他们对隐私问题的担心。由是就要说到 Vox 的第三个特点,同 时也是最重要的一个特点,那就是它绝对私密。针对 Vox 上的每一个条目——一个段落,一张照片,一个 链接,博客作家都可以决定是公开还是保密;如若公开,还可以确切到允许哪些人浏览。例如,Trott 女 士的博客中有一部分内容是仅供她与母亲进行交流的,母亲对她生活的关怀无微不至。她还建立了一个完 全属于她私人空间的“Yay Me Update”栏目,把手机中的自拍照上传到那里,目的就是为了给后人留存 一段自己生活的记忆。更新几乎没有间断过,只有在她长胖了一点时,她不愿意把那个样子存入记忆,因 此就借口忘记而连续几天都不更新了。 Page 2 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (5)But despite its homely origins Six Apart is ultimately a business, so somewhere in this vision there must be money. The daunting challenge it faces is to “monetise” the product without ruining the feeling of intimacy for its users. Like most online media, Vox is funded by advertising, but “the advertising is so subtle that a lot of users don't even know where it is,” says Andrew Anker, the product manager for Vox. A blogger might, for instance, write about her favourite novels and include a link to the books on Amazon, a big online retailer. Within a small social circle, such personal recommendations are a powerful form of marketing. If somebody clicks on these links, lands on Amazon's website and completes a purchase, Amazon will share 7% of the proceeds with Six Apart. Similar arrangements exist with an online video service, and Mr Anker hopes to add deals with online music stores and other partners in future. 虽然 Six Apart 公司源于家常生活,但它毕竟是一个企业,因而就必定涉及到钱的问题。它现在面对的严 峻挑战就是,如何在不破坏其与用户之间亲密关系的前提下,实现产品的“货币化”。Vox 与大多数网络 传媒一样通过广告获取资金。但是 Vox 产品经理 Andrew Anker 说: “广告太不起眼了,好多用户连广告在 哪儿都不知道。”比如说,某个博客作者在博客中介绍她喜欢的小说,并加入这些小说指向 Amazon 网站 (一个大型的在线零售商)的链接。这种个人推荐在一个小型的社交圈内可以是一种有力的促销方式。如 果有人点击这���链接,进入 Amazon 网站再买一样东西,Six Apart 公司就可以按 7%的比例从 Amazon 利 润中提成。类似协议也见于在线视频服务。Anker 希望今后与一些在线音乐商店及其它合伙人也开展类似 合作。 Putting the “me” into media 传媒要以“我”为本 As a firm, Six Apart expects to break even only next year, and it is tiny when compared with giants such as Google, which has a rival blogging service called Blogger, or News Corp, a media conglomerate that offers blogging as one of many features on MySpace, its social-networking site. So the surprise is how well Six Apart holds its own against these industry titans.(6)For some of the large internet companies, blogging seems “like a checkbox”, says Ms Trott—ie, something to have because it is fashionable, without caring much about it. She and her husband, however, sincerely regard blogging as a way of life. 作为一家公司,Six Apart 明年即有望实现收支平衡,但与 Google(拥有与 Six Apart 竞争的博客服务系统 Blogger)、News Corp(一个传媒集团,在其社交网站 Myspace 上提供包括博客在内的众多特色服务)之 类的巨头相比,它还很小。因此,Six Apart 竟然能与这些产业巨擘相抗衡实在叫人惊讶。Trott 女士说, 在一些互联网大公司看来,博客“就像是一个‘复选框’”——也就是说选了它不过因为它时髦而已,其 实并不多么在乎它。但是,她和她的丈夫却真诚地认为博客就是生活的一种方式。 (7)Her commitment to the social, not just the commercial, potential of blogging has made Ms Trott an unofficial spokeswoman for the wider phenomenon of new media. Ms Trott is 29 but appears even younger; she is currently practising how to speak clearly with new braces in her mouth. And yet she increasingly has the attention of elder statesmen who are baffled by the rise of blogging and need help in “getting it”. At a big conference this year, Ms Trott regaled[7] a large audience of digerati[8] with her family photos and other tales. Spotting Al Gore, “the first person I ever voted for”, in the first row, she turned shy for just a moment. America's former vice-president then sat spellbound[9] through the remainder of her speech. 博客的前途不仅仅在于商业,还可以延伸至整个社会。致力于挖掘博客发展的社会潜力让 Trott 女士成了 日益普及的新型传媒的非官方代言人。Trott 女士今年 29 岁,但看上去更年轻。目前她正在练习戴着新牙 箍清楚地讲话,而且她还引起了一些老资格议员的注意。这些议员对博客的崛起感到困惑不已,需要有人 帮他们“了解博客”。在今年的一次大会上,Trott 女士展示了自己家庭的照片,讲述了一些家庭生活故事, Page 3 of 4


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 让台下满座的计算机专家们倍感愉悦。当认出坐在第一排的是 Al Gore(“我平生第一次投票选举的人” ) 时,她几乎没有半点羞怯。那位美国前任副总统当时着了迷似的坐在台下听完了她后面的演讲。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. whim n. 奇想,怪念头,一时的兴致 2. retiring adj. 离群索居的,腼腆的 3. frivolous adj. 无聊的,琐碎的 4. mundane adj. 世俗的 5. dilettante adj. 浅薄的;对艺术一知半解的;业余的 6. insatiable adj. 永不满足的,贪得无厌的 7. regale v. 宴请,款待;使愉悦 8. digerati n. 计算机专家 9. spellbound adj. 入迷的,着魔的

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 80

Salty tales 咸话地中海(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition JOHN JULIUS NORWICH is the author of more than a dozen books on Norman Sicily①, the Sahara, Mount Athos② and the Venetian and Byzantine empires. (1)Yet even his immense knowledge is not enough to keep his latest chronicle—of 5,000 years of Mediterranean history—from appearing somewhat lopsided[1]. 约翰•朱利叶斯•诺威奇撰写过不少关于诺尔曼-西西里岛、撒哈拉沙漠、阿陀斯山以及威尼斯和拜占庭帝 国的作品。然而,尽管知识渊博,他最近一部记述地中海沿岸五千年历史的编年体著作仍免不了有失偏颇。 Lord Norwich's first test, he notes in his introduction to “The Middle Sea”, was to compensate for an ignorance of Spain. He records that he was fortuitously invited to dinner by “my dear friend” the Spanish ambassador to London and “a few weeks later there came an invitation for my wife and me to spend ten days in Spain.” (2)It is hard to believe that was all the effort he made, for he acquits himself well, even in the convoluted[2] diplomacy that ended in the war of the Spanish succession. 诺威奇勋爵在《中央之海》一书序言中指出,他的首要任务就是让人们了解西班牙的一些不为人知之处。 书中写道,他幸运地被他“亲爱的朋友”——西班牙驻伦敦大使邀请参加晚宴,并“在几个星期之后收到 了邀请他及其夫人到西班牙度假十天的请柬” 。人们难以相信这就是他所作的全部努力,因为他表现出色, 尤其是在美西错综复杂的外交斡旋中表现优异,不过双方的外交在西班牙王位继承战后中止。 Lord Norwich's second task was to strike a balance over time. “The Middle Sea” reaches from ancient Egypt to the first world war. Like many long, chronological narratives, it becomes progressively more detailed, though it is debatable whether this is a good thing. (3)Few people have changed the region as much as the Romans, yet their republic's five centuries get only a page more than the great siege of Gibraltar which began in 1779. 诺威奇勋爵要做的第二件事则是对各时期的史实都等量齐观。《中央之海》的触角从古埃及一直延伸到第 一次世界大战。如同许多长篇编年体叙事性作品一样,它注重挖掘细节,不过这是否可取尚有争议。罗马 人民对该地区产生的影响没有哪个民族能与之相比,然而本书关于罗马共和国五个世纪的历史的记述也就 比始于 1977 年的直布罗陀包围战多了一页而已。 (4)Lord Norwich's final, and arguably most important, challenge is the area that is most likely to engage modern readers: the intermittent, but frequently savage, conflict between Muslims and Christians. Impatient with the notion, echoed most recently and disastrously by Pope Benedict, that the Koran sanctions the spreading of Islam by the sword, Lord Norwich is no Islamophobe. He is hostile to the Crusades and fulsome[3] in his praise of that traditional Western schoolbook villain, Saladin③. 诺威奇勋爵最后需要面对的最为重要的问题是,如何评述穆斯林与基督教徒之间间或发生但常常十分残酷 的冲突,而这方面的内容可能对现代读者最具吸引力。有人认为,古兰经是允许伊斯兰教进行武力扩张的, 可悲的是,最近本笃教皇也附和了这一观点。诺威奇对这种观点很反感,他并没有“伊斯兰恐惧症”。他 愤恨十字军东征,不过对西方传统教科书中的反面角色萨拉丁的赞美却又言过其实了。 Yet his account remains disappointingly focused from Christendom[4] outwards.(5) It is true that Muslims do appear in his book—usually in battle—but they rarely speak. Only two items in the 170-volume bibliography Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong are by Arab scholars and only one is by a Turk. This is unabashedly history of the old school: Eurocentric (Octavian④, the author declares without irony, was the “undisputed master of the known world”) and largely uninterested in what other economic, social and technological changes may have shaped events. 然而令人失望的是,他依旧站在基督教的角度来记述历史。穆斯林在他的书中的确登场亮相了——往往都 是在战争之中——但他却很少介绍穆斯林对历史的看法。在多达 170 条的参考书目中,仅有 2 条引自阿拉 伯学者,1 条引自土耳其人。这是守旧派记述历史的突出风格——以欧洲为中心(作者断言,渥大维乃“已 知世界无可争辩的主人” ,这话并无半点挖苦意味),而对其他地域由经济、社会和技术变革所引发的历史 事件一般都不感兴趣。 What fires Lord Norwich is recounting the doings of princes and preachers, warriors, courtiers and courtesans[5]. And he does it with consummate[6] skill. He spices his narrative liberally with entertaining anecdotes, deft portraits and brisk judgments. Aristotle, for example, is given short shrift[7] as “one of the most reactionary intellectuals that ever lived”. Lord Norwich's control of his vast and complex subject matter is masterly. And the subject matter itself is as colourful as history can get. No sooner have readers bidden farewell to a short, fat, dissolute sultan, Selim the Sot, than they encounter the “piratical Uskoks, a heterogeneous, but exceedingly troublesome community”. (6)Although few will resist the temptation to keep turning the pages, readers will close this monumental work exhilarated and informed, but with plenty of questions still unanswered. 说起王子与传教士,武士,朝臣与官妓们的所作所为,诺威奇勋爵顿时激情迸发,如数家珍,行文堪称完 美。他在记述中大量揉入了有趣的奇闻轶事、精巧的人物描写和尖酸刻薄的评说,读起来饶有意趣。例如, 亚里士多德就被斥以“有史以来最反动的知识分子之一”。本书的主题宽泛而复杂,但诺威奇勋爵却驾轻 就熟,而且其内容将历史的多姿多彩表现得淋漓尽致。读者的目光刚从身材矮胖、放荡不羁的苏丹“醉鬼 塞利姆”身上移开,便又碰见“鱼龙混杂但极度可恶的海盗般的乌斯科克人”。绝大多数读者都将恨不得 一口气读完全书,但当他们合上这本不朽的著作时,一定会感到精神振奋,受益匪浅,只是心中依然充满 悬而未决的疑问。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. lopsided adj. 倾向一方的 2. convolute v. 旋转,盘旋 3. fulsome adj. 过分的,令人生厌的 4. Christendom n. 基督教(总称) 5. courtesan n. 官妓,情妇 6. consummate adj. 完美的,圆满的,绝顶的;老练的 7. give short shrift to 对……漠不关心

背景知识: ①Sicily 西西里:意大利南部一岛屿,位于意大利半岛南端以西的地中海。从公元前 8 世纪起成为希腊殖民地, 希腊人赶走了早期定居在此的腓尼基人。迦太基人成为下一个征服者,他们在 公元前 3 世纪又被罗马人所征 服。在经过其他人相继统治之后, 公元 11 世纪该岛被置于诺曼人管辖之下,并形成了两西西里王国的核心部 分,由西西里和意大利南部组成。该岛继续多次易手,直到 1860 年朱森珀·加里波第征服了最后一个王国为 止,它成为统一后的意大利的一部分 ②Mount Athos 阿陀斯山:位于希腊东北部的一座山峰,海拔约 2,034 米(6,670 英尺),它是实际上独立的 阿陀斯山 修道院社区所在地,该修道院最初建于 10 世纪 Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ③Saladin 萨拉丁:埃及和叙利亚的苏丹,1187 年占领耶路撒冷,抗击第三次十字军东征期间(1189-1192 年) 保卫此城 ④Octavian 渥大维,即奥古斯都:罗马帝国第一任皇帝(公元前 27 年─ 公元 14 年),尤利斯·凯撒的侄 孙。他于公元前 31 年打败马克·安东尼及克娄巴特拉,然后得到了整个帝国的统治权,于公元前 29 年称皇帝, 并于公元前 27 年被授予奥古斯都荣誉称号 ⑤Uskok 流亡于达尔马提亚地区的一支克罗地亚人,常参与对土作战。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 81

Back in fashion 再度风行(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 30th 2006 | WASHINGTON, DC From The Economist print edition Big love dares to speak its name “大爱”不惧名声在外。 (1)IN 2001, Warren Jeffs officiated[1] while a 14-year-old girl married her 19-year-old cousin. It was the first marriage for the bride and meant to be the first of many for the groom. Mr Jeffs is the leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (FLDS). With perhaps 10,000 members, it is the largest of the polygamous[2] sects that spun off[3] from Mormonism[4] more than 100 years ago. On November 21st prosecutors in Utah argued that Mr Jeffs should be charged with two counts of rape as an accomplice. 2001 年,沃伦•杰夫主持了一名 14 岁女孩和她 19 岁表哥的婚礼。这是新娘的初婚,而对新郎而言,这也 是她娶的第一个但又注定不是唯一的新娘。杰夫是耶稣基督末世圣徒原教旨教会的教主。该教会是一百多 年前从摩门教独立出来的最大的一个分支,奉行一夫多妻制,大约有 1 万名教徒。11 月 21 日,犹他州检 控官指认杰夫充当了两起强奸案的帮凶。 The case has brought renewed attention to polygamists in America. The practice is illegal, and widely reviled. A Gallup poll[5] in May 2006 found that 93% of Americans consider it immoral. The threats of prosecution and persecution have usually been enough to keep polygamists subdued. But lately they are becoming emboldened. (2)For one thing, the scorn is often mutual. “It would be easier to lie, cheat, and steal like you guys do,” one polygamous husband told a television reporter. “I have a certain amount of disgust for monogamy.” Besides, the debate over gay marriage has led to a wide national dialogue over traditional morality. Earlier this year, the television network HBO aired a series about a polygamous family. “Big Love”, which got respectable ratings, portrays plural marriage as more demanding than deviant. 该案再次引起了人们对美国实行一夫多妻者的关注。(在美国)实行一夫多妻属于非法行为,并且为世人 所不齿。今年 5 月的一项盖洛普民意测验显示,93%的美国人认为此乃不道德的行为。一般情况下,奉行 一夫多妻者慑于法律控诉和宗教迫害双重威胁而不敢造次,但最近胆量开始大起来。一方面,人们要是瞧 不起他们,他们往往能够反唇相讥。一位奉行一夫多妻制的男子对一家电视台记者说:“我可以像你们一 样说谎,行骗甚至偷窃,这都很容易。我就是对一夫一妻比较反感。 ” (注:潜台词应该是,只许州官放火, 难道就不许百姓点灯么?)另一方面,关于同性婚姻的争议引发了一场针对传统道德的举国论辩。今年早 些时候,HBO 电视广播公司播出了一部讲述一个一夫多妻家庭故事的电视剧,名为《大爱》 (或译《博爱》、 《妻妾成群》 ),收视率相当高。它关注的并不是一夫多妻婚姻的不合伦常,而是那些人生活的艰辛。 Mormon fundamentalists argue that anti-polygamy laws infringe[6] religious liberty. (3)The American Civil Liberties Union of Utah agrees, saying there is no reason to criminalise “private, consensual[7], adult relationships that are motivated by sincerely-held religious beliefs”. 摩门教原教旨主义者认为,反对一夫多妻制的法律是对宗教信仰自由的践踏。犹他州美国公民自由联盟对 此表示赞成,并称将“源自虔诚宗教信仰的成人之间两厢情愿的私人关系”视为犯罪毫无道理。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong The idea that the government has no business meddling in relationships between consenting adults is, of course, a pillar of the gay-marriage movement. (4)Opponents of gay marriage have always argued that opening the institution to homosexuals would put America on a slippery slope[8] to polygamy, incest and worse. But Mormon fundamentalists do not want to get into bed with[9] sinners like homosexuals. And gay-rights advocates have distanced themselves from polygamists. They argue that sexuality is intrinsic, while polygamy is a choice with grievous social consequences. 有人觉得政府干涉两厢情愿的成人关系纯属多管闲事。这种观念当然也给同性婚姻运动提供了有力声援。 反对同性婚姻的人士一直都认为,从制度上接受同性恋将使美国迅速堕落成一个充斥一夫多妻、乱伦甚至 更为恶劣问题的国家。不过摩门原教旨主义者是不想与同性恋者之类得罪神灵的人“同流合污”的,而鼓 吹同性恋权利的人对一夫多妻者也是避而远之。他们认为,性取向是与生俱来的,而选择一夫多妻则会带 来严重的社会后果。 (5)So far, the public response to polygamy has been practical, not philosophical. In Utah and Arizona, which are home to sizeable Mormon fundamentalist enclaves, the official policy is to ignore plural marriages unless they are associated with incest[10], fraud or abuse. The Canadian Department of Justice took a similar line earlier this year, when it recommended decriminalising the practice. 迄今为止,公众对一夫多妻制的反应一直都是就事论事而缺乏理性认识。在有相当数量的摩门教原教旨主 义者聚居的犹他州和亚利桑那州,官方所采取的政策是只要一夫多妻婚姻不涉及乱伦、欺诈或者滥交就听 之任之。加拿大司法部今年早些时候也采取了类似的政策,同时建议一夫多妻制应当合法化。 As the Jeffs case shows, polygamy-rights activists have an uphill public-relations battle. Abuse and coercion are only the most obvious dangers of polygamy. Last year the Phoenix New Times reported that inbreeding[11] among the FLDS “is producing a caste of severely retarded and deformed children.” (6)The FLDS has also cast out [12] more than 400 young men. These “lost boys” were supposedly excommunicated[13] because of moral lapses like wanting to go to public schools. They also presented unwelcome competition for wives. 杰夫一案表明,积极鼓吹一夫多妻权利的人士正面临一场艰苦卓绝的公共关系斗争。滥交和强迫性行为只 是一夫多妻制最显见的危害所在。据《凤凰新时代》去年报道,后期圣徒耶稣基督原教旨教会中的近亲交 配“生出了一大批严重发育不良和畸形的儿童” 。该教会还强迫 400 多名少男离开教会所属社区。据推测, 这些“遭遗弃的孩子”之所以被逐,是因为堕入了“精神迷途”,比如妄想到公立学校上学(注:因公立 学校教进化论,而私立教会学校则不),而且他们可能要与(与社区内的长者)争夺妻室,也让教会觉得 “逐之而后快”。(以便剩下的男子个个都能娶多个妻子) Another stumbling-block for polygamists is that numbers are not on their side. Millions of Americans are gay, and many millions more have gay friends or relatives.(7)Polygamists are hard to come by, despite the order to be fruitful and multiply. Principle Voices, a pro-polygamy group, reckons that there are only about 37,000 Mormon fundamentalists in America. 奉行一夫多妻制者的另一个“绊脚石”是他们的队伍还不够壮大。美国有数以百万的同性恋者,亲朋好友 是同性恋的美国人则更多。尽管一夫多妻可以大量繁衍后代,但目前在美国一夫多妻者还是比较少见(注: 因为后继乏人?)。据支持一夫多妻制的组织“真理之声”估算,美国目前仅有大约 3.7 万名摩门教原教 旨主义者。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 1. officiate vi. 主持(宗教仪式) 2. polygamous adj. 一夫多妻的;一妻多夫的 3. spin off 分割出来,分支出来 4. Mormonism n. 摩门教(即耶稣基督后期圣徒教会) 5. Gallup poll

盖洛普民意测验 美国民意调查机构——美国舆论研究所进行的调查项目之一。因 1935 年由

G.盖洛普创办该所而得名。总部设在普林斯顿。民意测验每年举行 20~25 次,总统大选年略多。调查内容包 括政治、经济、社会等。采用抽样调查方法,在全国各州按比例选择测验对象,派调查员面访,然后统计调查 结果,分析并作出说明,提供给用户。 6. infringe v. 侵犯,侵害 7. consensual adj. [律]在双方同意下成立的 8. slippery slope 急剧下滑 9. get into bed with 与……发生性关系 10. incest n. 近亲相奸,乱伦 11. inbreed v. 使同系繁殖;使在内部生成 12. cast out 逐出 13. excommunicate v. 把...逐出教会;开除

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 82

Proton 马来西亚宝腾汽车

A fork in the road 何去何从?(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 30th 2006 | HONG KONG From The Economist print edition Malaysia's crisis-ridden national carmaker faces a stark choice 危机重重的马来西亚国有汽车制造商面临严峻抉择。 WHAT will become of Proton, Malaysia's struggling carmaker? (1)A political project set up in the 1980s, it never picked up speed, has been overtaken by foreign competitors and has become embroiled[1] in a struggle over its future direction. With its cash reserves running low, it is now in danger of breaking down altogether. The government, which hopes to place the company with a “strategic partner” by next February, simply wants to extricate[2] itself from the mess with the minimum of humiliation. Which route it will take is the subject of feverish speculation. 苦苦挣扎的马来西亚汽车制造商宝腾将会怎样呢?建于上世纪八十年代 的宝腾是政府扶植的一个汽车项目,发展一直比较迟缓,已经被外国竞争 对手赶超,如今开始艰难地寻找未来的出路。由于现金储备不断走低,它 已濒临彻底崩溃。马来西亚政府希望在明年 2 月前为该公司找到一个“战略伙伴” ,它现在只想在尽可能 保全颜面的同时脱离窘境。关于它将何去何从已经成为当下热议的话题。 Proton was set up by the government in 1983 and started building cars two years later in association with Mitsubishi of Japan. It was a central part of the strategy laid out by Mahathir Mohamad, the prime minister at the time, to transform Malaysia into an industrialised nation by 2020. (2)The idea was that a big carmaker would create jobs, provide access to technologies, bring in export earnings and spawn a host of supporting industries. But Proton never got big. Although it once had 65% of the local market, output never rose above 227,000 cars a year and exports never exceeded 20,000 units annually. In an industry dominated by a handful of global giants, each producing 3m-6m cars a year, Proton remains a minnow[3]. 宝腾由马来西亚政府于 1983 年组建成立,两年后开始与日本三菱公司合作生产汽车。它是时任马来西亚 总理的马哈蒂尔·默哈曼德战略部署(即到 2020 年将马来西亚建设成为一个工业化国家)的一个重要组 成部分。在马来西亚政府看来,一个“大”型的汽车制造公司可以创造就业、引进技术、出口创汇以及造 就诸多配套产业。可是宝腾一直都没有变“大” 。虽然它曾一度占有当地市场 65%的份额,但其年产量始 终未曾超过 22.7 万辆,年出口量也都在 2 万辆以下。在一个由少数年产 300~600 万辆汽车的全球巨头占 主导地位的产业领域内,宝腾依然是个“小不点”。 (3)Yet it has refused to scale down[4] its ambitions. Proton has built factories capable of churning out[5] 1m cars a year and has launched a range of models. But quality is poor and low volumes mean it is not able to compete on cost. Even local consumers have become fed up with Proton's cars, with their sharply declining second-hand values. They have switched loyalties to what was once the second national carmaker, Perodua, Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong which is now controlled and very competently run by Japan's Daihatsu, part of Toyota. Proton's market share in Malaysia has fallen steadily in the past few years and is now just 31%. 然而,它并不愿善罢甘休。宝腾已经建成了每年总产 100 万辆汽车的多个工厂,并推出了多种汽车款式。 但质量差且销量少意味着它在价格上并不具备竞争力,就连当地消费者也逐渐对宝腾汽车产生了不满情 绪,原因就是二手宝腾车贬值过快。他们已经“移情别恋”到 Perodua 身上。Perodua 曾是全国第二大汽 车制造商,现归属于日本丰田旗下的大发,运营十分顺畅。过去几年来,宝腾在马来西亚的市场占有率已 逐步降低,目前仅为 31%。 The crisis has intensified in recent weeks because Proton's cash is running out. In 2003 it had 3.8 billion ringgit[6] ($1.1 billion) in the bank, but today it has only 500m ringgit, half what it had in March. Hence the government's recent announcement that it was in new talks with two big European car groups, Volkswagen and PSA Peugeot Citroën, with a view to selling part or all of its stake to one of them or forming some kind of strategic alliance. 近几周由于宝腾现金消耗殆尽,危机已进一步加剧。2003 年其现金储备为 38 亿林吉特(约合 11 亿美元), 而现在只有 5 亿林吉特,是 3 月份时的一半。因此,马来西亚政府近期宣称宝腾正在同大众和 PSA 标志 雪铁龙两家欧洲大型汽车集团举行新一轮会谈,旨在将其部分或全部股份出售给其中一家,或者建立某种 意义上的战略同盟。 The trouble is that Proton is not just an ailing carmaker. It is also a political hot potato, since it is caught up in the feud between Dr Mahathir and Abdullah Badawi, who succeeded him as prime minister in 2003. Mr Badawi sees the firm as a liability[7], but to Dr Mahathir any sale would be tantamount to[8] dismantling his legacy. Khazanah, the national investment authority and Proton's main shareholder, is also reluctant to sell because of the write-down it would take. (4)To complicate matters further Proton's management, in an effort to assert control, has signed vague letters of intent with carmakers including Peugeot and China's Chery. And three local car importers, DRB-Hicom, Naza Group and Mofaz, separately offered to buy Proton in order to keep it in Malaysian hands. 问题在于宝腾不仅仅是一个沉疴在身的汽车制造商,而且由于卷入了马哈蒂尔与阿卜杜拉·巴扎维之间长 期以来的明争暗斗,在政治上它也成了一个“烫手山芋”。巴扎维于 2003 年接替马哈蒂尔任马来西亚总理, 他把宝腾看成是一个累赘,而马哈蒂尔却认为任何形式的出售都无异于瓦解他任内建下的基业。宝腾大股 东、国家投资管理局 Khazanah 因可能蒙受资产账面价值损失因而也不愿出售。宝腾的管理层为了尽力维 护自己对宝腾的掌控权,已经同标志、中国奇瑞等汽车制造商签订了意向书,但内容含糊其辞,目的就是 要把问题搞得更加扑朔迷离。此外,马来西亚本地三家汽车进口公司 DRB-Hicom、纳莎集团和莫法兹也 分别出价欲收购宝腾以使其仍归马来西亚人所有。 But even if a buyer can be found, a sale would cause other problems.(5)Foreign buyers would be interested mainly in access to the market, not in Proton's factories, models or headstrong managers, who insist that a little more investment is all that is needed to turn the firm around. And although another carmaker could use Proton's manufacturing plants, it would make little financial sense, since most parts would have to be imported. Foreign component-makers, put off by Malaysia's rules that give advantages to ethnic Malays, have set up shop in Thailand instead. 不过即使能找到买主,出售也会引发其它问题。外国买家感兴趣的主要是能进入马来西亚市场,而不是宝 腾的工厂、车型抑或刚愎自用的管理者。这些管理者坚持认为要扭转公司颓势只需再增加些许投资即可。 此外,虽然新来乍到的汽车制造商可以使用宝腾的生产线,但由于大多数零部件都必须依赖进口,因此基 本上无利可图。由于马来西亚人在制定规则上带有民族主义色彩,外国零部件生产商只好暂时搁置进入马 来西亚的计划,转而到泰国开张大吉了。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Malaysia's government, the prime minister and his meddling predecessor do not have long to decide which way to turn. Should Proton give up and become a tiny part of a global carmaker, or should it struggle on in the hope that things will somehow improve?(6)Selling out to a foreign firm would be humiliating. But Proton's struggles are already a national embarrassment as it is. 决定到底何去何从,对马来西亚政府、现任总理以及他那位爱“和稀泥”的前任来说都是一件迫在眉睫的 事情。宝腾应该选择放弃(出售)从而成为全球汽车制造领域微不足道的一分子,还是选择继续奋斗并期 待情况会有所好转?卖给老外会是一件丢脸的事儿,但宝腾的“垂死挣扎”事实上已经让马来西亚人感到 难为情了。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. embroil vt. 使混乱;使卷入纠纷(be embroiled in=be involved in) 2. extricate v. 使摆脱,解救(from) 3. minnown. 小鱼 4. scale down 按比例缩小 5. churn out 艰苦做出(尤指不注重质量的),粗制滥造 6. ringgit n. 马来西亚货币林吉特 7. liability n. (作单数用)麻烦(人或事) 8. be tantamount to 相当于,等于(如:To leave a dog home alone is tantamount to cruelty.)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 83

Roaming holiday 假日漫游(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 30th 2006 From The Economist print edition Communications: New gizmos that combine audio guides with satellite tracking let tourists explore cities at their own pace 通讯——集音频引导与卫星跟踪技术于一身的新型装置让游客可以随心所欲地游览城市。 WHEN Melissa Mahan and her husband visited the Netherlands, they felt imprisoned by their tour bus. It forced them to see the city according to a particular route and specific schedule—but going off on their own meant missing out on the information provided by the guide. On their return home to San Diego, California, they started a new company called Tour Coupes. (1)Now, when tourists in San Diego rent one of their small, brightly coloured three-wheeled vehicles, they are treated to[1] a narration over the stereo system about the places they pass, triggered by Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite technology. 梅利莎·马汉和她的丈夫到荷兰游玩时,感觉当地的旅游巴士就像 囚车一样。它按照特定路线和日程安排“押”着他们在城里观光— —而他们如果不坐车自己游玩的话,又听不到导游的讲解。回到加 利福尼亚圣地亚哥的家后,他们开了一个公司,名为“旅游马车” (Tour Coupes)。现在到圣地亚哥的游客开着从他们公司租来的五 彩斑斓的三轮小汽车,每到一个景点,都可以享受由(车载)立体声系统提供的讲解服务。启动讲解系统 的正是全球定位系统(GPS)卫星技术。 This is just one example of how GPS is being used to provide new services to tourists. “What we really have here is a technology that allows people to forget about the technology,” says Jim Carrier of IntelliTours, a GPS tourism firm which began offering a similar service over a year ago in Montgomery, Alabama. (2)The city is packed with sites associated with two important chapters[2] in American history, the civil war of the 1860s and the civil-rights movement a century later. Montgomery has a 120-year-old trolley system, called the Lightning Route, which circulates around the downtown area and is mainly used by tourists. On the Lightning Route trolleys, GPS-triggered audio clips point out historical hotspots. 这只是 GPS 提供新式旅游服务的一个范例。GPS 旅游公司 IntelliTours 一年多前开始在阿拉巴马州首府蒙 哥马利市提供类似的服务,该公司的吉米·卡里尔说:“让游客们忘记技术的存在,这才是我们真正拥有 的技术。” 蒙哥马利到处都是美国两个最重要历史时期(即 19 世纪 60 年代的南北战争及一百年后的民权 运动)有关的遗址。蒙哥马利的有轨电车系统——“闪电线”已有 120 年的历史,它环绕市区运行,乘坐 的大部分都是游客。在“闪电线”有轨电车上,GPS 启动播放的声频剪辑会及时告诉你到了哪一个历史胜 地。 Another GPS-tourism firm is GoCar Rentals, based in San Francisco. It provides open-air vehicles, using a Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong scooter engine with a fibreglass frame, similar to those used by Tour Coupes. Customers must follow a prescribed route to hear the GPS-triggered information. This limits the scope for exploration, but Nathan Withrington, the firm's founder, says that people tend to visit the same few sites. 还有一家 GPS 旅游公司是位于旧金山的 Gocar 汽车租赁公司。它提供采用小轮摩托发动机和玻璃纤维结 构的敞篷车,与 Tour Coupes 公司的车类似。租车人必须按照指定的路线游览,才能听到 GPS 启动播放的 信息。这就限制了游览范围,但该公司创始人内森·惠特灵顿却认为人们往往都喜欢游览相同的景点。 Other firms, such as CityShow in New York and GPS Tours Canada in Banff, Canada, offer hand-held GPS receivers that play audio clips for listening to while walking or driving. In South Africa, Europcar, a car-rental firm, offers a device called the Xplorer. (3)As well as providing commentary on 2,000 points of interest, it can also warn drivers if they exceed the local speed limit. 此外,诸如纽约的 CityShow 和加拿大班夫的 GPS Tours 之类的公司则提供便携式 GPS 接收器,游客在步 行或开车时可收听到它播放的声频剪辑。南非有一家 Europcar 汽车租赁公司,它提供一种名为 Xplorer 的 设备。这种设备不但可以针对 2000 处名胜古迹进行现场讲解,还可以提醒司机不要超速。 If such services prove popular, the use of dedicated audio-guide devices could give way to a different approach. A growing number of mobile phones have built-in GPS or can determine their locations using other technologies. Information for tourists delivered via phones could be updated in real time and could contain advertisements. “Location-based services”, such as the ability to call up a list of nearby banks or pizzerias, have been talked about for years but have never taken off[3]. (4)But aiming such services at tourists makes sense—since people are more likely to want information when in an unfamiliar place. It could give mobile roaming a whole new meaning. 如果这类服务确受欢迎的话,那么音频引导专用装置有可能被另一种不同的方法所取代。越来越多的手机 中都有内置 GPS 或者采用其它技术进行定位的功能。经手机发送给游客的信息可实时更新,其中可能还 包含广告。多年来人们一直在谈论“定位服务” (如告诉你附近的银行或皮萨店分布情况) ,但它始终未曾 得到广泛应用。不过,由于身处陌生之地的人更有可能需要“定位服务”信息,因此以游客为“定位服务” 对象可谓明智之举,它可能会为手机漫游赋予一个全新的内涵。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. treat sth. to sb. to buy or do something special for someone that you know they will enjoy 招待,款待; 送礼 2. chapter n. a particular period or event in someone's life or in history 历史时期;人生的一个时期 3. take off to suddenly start being successful 发迹;大受欢迎

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 84

Weather control in China 中国气候控制

It never rains 从不下雨(陈继龙

编译)

Dec 13th 2006 | BEIJING From The Economist print edition But it pours awards on the weather-fixers 却给控制天气的人带来了“倾盆大雨”似的奖励。 CHINESE emperors were once thought by their subjects able to make it rain with their prayers. Chinese officials today put more trust in science. They are boosting spending on what they call the world's largest programme of artificial rainmaking. Its effects, however, are not much easier to quantify. 中国古代的臣民曾以为他们的皇帝能够通过祈祷让老天下雨,而当今的中国官员则更相信科学,对其号称 是全球最大人工降雨项目的投入也迅速加大。然而,到底能产生怎样的效果却较难量化。 (1)Just as grateful subjects praised the heavens for any rain that fell, the state-controlled media in China often report on the heroic contributions made by “weather-modification offices” whenever needed rain comes. These offices, set up over the past 15 years, deploy artillery, rocket-launchers and aeroplanes to seed clouds with chemicals (usually silver iodide) that encourage droplets to form and fall where needed, or prevent the formation of destructive hailstones. 正如心存感激的古代臣民为每一滴雨露歌颂上苍一样,中国国有传媒每当雨“有求必降”之时都会报道“人 工影响天气办公室”所作的伟大贡献。在过去的十五年中,这类办公室相继成立,它们调动大炮、火箭发 射器和飞机,利用化学品(通常是碘化银)来“播云”,作用要么是促进雨滴形成后降到需要雨水的地方, 要么是防止破坏性冰雹形成。 China's efforts have been encouraged by an increasingly desperate shortage of water in the north. China also frets about the Olympic games in Beijing in August 2008, in a season when rainstorms are common. Making it rain away from big events is a key area of research. (2)Last week officials awarded merit certificates to organisations involved in “weather guarantee” work for a summit with African leaders held in Beijing in November. Those honoured included the air force, Beijing's military command and the Second Artillery, which controls missiles. All were urged to do a good job at an Olympic rehearsal next year. 中国之所以这么做,是因为北方缺水问题日益严重。中国还为 2008 年 8 月北京奥运会感到担忧,届时北 京将正处于暴风雨季。让降雨避开大型活动是研究的一个关键领域。上周,官员向为 11 月北京非洲领导 人峰会提供“天气保障”服务的有关单位颁发了奖状,受奖单位包括空军、北京军区和二炮(控制导弹的 部队) 。官员还敦促所有单位在明年奥运会预演时能有出色表现。 Artificial rainmaking is practised in many countries but its success is hard to prove. In recent years, China has been helped by big improvements in its weather-monitoring capacity. Its latest satellite, Fengyun-2D, was launched on December 8th with Olympic forecasting as a priority mission. It plans to launch another 22 weather Page 1 of 2


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong satellites by 2020. 许多国家都开展了人工降雨,但难以证实其成功作用。近年来,中国在天气监控能力上有了很大提高,从 中也受益颇多。12 月 8 日发射的风云-2D 是中国最新发射的一颗卫星,其首要任务是为奥运会提供天气 预报服务。中国计划在 2020 年以前再发射 22 颗气象卫星。 Mao Jietai of Peking University says circumstantial evidence suggests cloud seeding can increase precipitation by around 10%, but admits doubts about its real efficacy. (3)Undaunted, the government has set an annual target for artificially induced rain nationwide for the next five years: around 50 billion cubic metres, or five times parched Beijing's average. As in imperial times, few will be able to refute claims of success. 北京大学的毛节泰(音)称,有间接证据表明, “播云”可能提高大约 10%的降雨量,但他也不否认对其 实际功效表示怀疑。政府并没有因此泄气,它已经为今后五年全国范围内的人工降雨制定了一个年度目标, 即每年人工降雨大约 500 亿立方米或者达到北京低降雨量的 5 倍。就像帝王时代一样,上面说会成功就一 定会成功,谁敢说不?

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 85

Chinese capital markets 中国资本市场

Out of the shadows 正大光明(陈继龙

编译)

Dec 13th 2006 | HONG KONG From The Economist print edition New ways to recycle fat profits 重复利用丰厚利润有新招 (1)COMMERCIAL bankers, nostalgic[1] for the days when corporate customers still belonged to them rather than the capital markets, have for some time gazed longingly at China. Under sanction from regulators, Chinese banks pay 2% for deposits, lend at a bit more than 6%, and that is that. Loan losses are high, but the spreads are so large that with any semblance of credit discipline there should be room for profits. It is rather like what was once fondly referred to in New York as 3-3-3 banking: pay 3%, charge 3% more, and get out of the office (and on the golf course) by 3pm. 曾几何时,各公司都是商业银行家的客户,并没有进入资本市场。一段时间以来,念念不忘那段时光的商 业银行家们纷纷把热切的目光投向中国。经监管部门批准,中国的银行存款利率为 2%,贷款利率为 6% 多一点,这是不容改变的事实。虽然存在大量的呆账,但存贷利率差价如此之大,给任何表面上守信用的 银行都提供了盈利空间。这很像曾经被亲切地称为 3-3-3 制的纽约银行业,即存款给 3%的利率,放贷时 再加 3%,然后下午 3 点下班(去打高尔夫球)。 Change, however, is on its way. (2)Capital-markets activity is growing and, according to recent research from two prominent academics, there may even be flickers[2] of interesting activity in unregulated and hitherto unwatched corners of China's economy, where companies are recycling vast profits made abroad. 然而,一切正在发生变化。资本市场生机勃勃,而且两家著名学术机构最近研究表明,中国经济一些不规 范、至今未纳入监管范围的市场甚至也隐约出现了一些颇为有意思的活动,各公司将从国外赚得的巨额利 润拿到这里再利用。 First the regulated markets. By the end of 2006, reckons Stephen Green, an economist at Standard Chartered, a bank, a record 21% of funding for Chinese companies will have come through the country's share and debt markets (the banks themselves have been the biggest share issuers). As the chart shows, funding from outside the banking system will have grown sixfold since 2002, to 806 billion yuan ($103 billion). 首先说说规范市场。据渣打银行经济学家斯蒂芬•格林估计,截至 2006 年末,中国公司的融资中将有创纪 录的 20%来自中国股票(各银行本身一直都是最大的股票发行者)与债券市场。如表所示(原文表略),银 行系统外融资将比 2002 年增加 6 倍,达到 8060 亿元(1030 亿美元)。 Even some of China's regulators have come round to believing that putting their faith in the capital markets might not be a bad idea. Since the local bond-market crumpled[3] in the early 1990s, there have been severe restrictions on companies issuing long-term conventional bonds. So they have developed the short-term market instead. In May 2005 the People's Bank of China, the central bank, approved the issuance of bills, somewhat similar to commercial paper, which are issued by companies for periods of three months to a year. All that is Page 1 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong needed is a credit rating and a registration (not an approval). (3)Annualised rates are about 4%, perhaps not coincidentally halfway between banks' borrowing and lending rates, so both lenders and borrowers feel they are getting a bit extra. The market has exploded. During the first three-quarters of this year, $27 billion was raised, about 10% of the total amount of lending channelled through banks. Mr Green believes the demand for short-term debt has also shaken the long-term bond market out of its torpor[4], pushing issues from $8 billion to $13 billion. 中国有些监管者的脑子甚至也转过弯儿来,开始相信对资本市场抱有信心也许不是坏事。自从上世纪 90 年代早期地方债券市场全线崩溃以来,有关部门对公司发行常规的长期债券进行了严格限制。因此,他们 转而发展短期债券市场。2005 年 5 月,中国人民银行批准发行票据(有点类似于商业票据),由各公司发 行,发行期为 3 个月至 1 年,凡达到一定信誉级别并登记(并非正式批准)的公司均可发行,年利率约为 4%,介于银行存贷款利率之间(也许并非巧合) ,因此存款人和贷款人都认为他们多赚了一点。市场发展 很迅猛。今年头三季度,共筹集到 270 亿美元,差不多相当于通过银行放出的贷款总额的 10%。格林认为, 长期债券市场也因短期负债需求的存在而重现活力,发行量从 80 亿美元增加到 130 亿美元。 More obscure, but still hugely popular, are other alternatives, such as “drafts” issued either directly by companies or by banks on behalf of companies. These are used instead of cash for purchase, and are settled within 90 days. They trade at a discount, but carry an interest rate just a bit over 3%. (4)There are also “entrustment loans”—lending from one company to another with a pause at a bank, which receives a fee for giving a legal blessing to the transaction. According to Chinese law, firms cannot lend directly to one another. 其它一些方式虽不太引人瞩目,但一样很受欢迎,比如由公司直接发行或由银行代理发行的“汇票”。这 些“汇票”在购买时可用于抵现,承兑期限为 90 天。“汇票”采用贴现交易,但利率仅为 3%多一点。此 外还有“信托贷款”,从一家公司借款,通过银行中介贷给另一家公司,而银行收取一定费用用于从法律 上保证交易安全。根据中国法律,公司之间不得直接放贷。 But do they anyway? That is the contention in some striking research due to be issued on December 15th by two economists, Ronald Schramm, of the Columbia University Graduate School of Business, and Lin Guijun, of the University of International Business and Economics in Beijing. (5)It looks at the huge amount of Chinese national savings and concludes that much of it does not seem to be captured by the banks. Where does it go? Some argue that it is used for internal investment by firms, or does not exist. Messrs Schramm and Guijun believe that companies secretly become lenders themselves. 但公司能做到吗?12 月 15 日,哥伦比亚大学商业研究所的罗纳德•施拉姆和北京对外经济贸易大学的林 贵军(音)两位经济学家将发布一项引人注目的研究报告,上述问题也是其中争论的热点。该报告对中国 庞大的国民储蓄总量进行了分析,认为其中多数似乎都没有被银行争取到。那这些钱去哪里了呢?有人认 为是被用于公司的内部投资,或者压根儿就没有,而施拉姆和林贵军则认为这些钱都被各公司悄悄地直接 贷给了别的公司。 (6)In this informal market, they say, operating companies may be in a better position to evaluate credit than Chinese banks, which have short histories and as children of the state have frequently relied on politics rather than credit analysis to determine loan suitability. This would be all the more true if the recipients were suppliers to their creditors. 他们说,在这个非正规市场中,营业公司也许比中国的银行在评估信用上处于更有利的位置。中国的银行 成立时间都不长,而且作为国家的产物,它们经常依靠政治因素而不是分析信用情况来决定是否适于放贷。 假如贷款人同时也是其债权人供应商的话,就更是如此。 That, Mr Schramm believes, is the optimistic case. Alternatively, lending could be based on relationships, rather Page 2 of 3


《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong than returns, with the companies that extend credit using the same wretched loan criteria as China's banks traditionally have—but with even less pressure to reveal their problems. 施拉姆认为,这是个让人感到高兴的事情。除此之外,放贷也可能是基于与公司的“关系”而不是回报情 况。有了这层“关系”,贷款信用自然也就提高了。中国的银行向来都是这么做的。——但面对的压力就 不足以暴露其存在的问题。 (7)If so, the amount of poor-quality lending will one day become so large that the problems can no longer be hidden. In the meantime, it is heartening to see some of this capital-markets activity coming out of the shadows. Investment bankers will see it as an opportunity, even if their commercial colleagues view it as a threat. 如果这样的话,不良贷款的不断增加,总有一天会让问题无处藏身。与此同时,我们会深受鼓舞地看到资 本市场的某些活动能够正大光明的进行。虽然商业银行家会把这看成是一种威胁,但在投资银行家看来是 一个机遇。

[QUIZ] 英译汉(将划线部分英文翻译成中文):

[NOTES](OXFORD) 1. nostalgic adj. of, feeling or causing nostalgia 对往事怀恋的; 怀旧的; 感到或引起对往事怀恋的: I get very nostalgic when I watch these old musicals on TV. 我从电视中看到这些旧音乐影片, 怀旧之情油然而生. * a nostalgic song, poem, etc 令人怀念往事的歌曲、诗等. 2. flicker n. (a) flickering movement or light 闪动; 闪烁; 摇曳: the flicker of pictures on the cinema screen 银幕上闪动的画面. (b) (fig 比喻) faint and brief experience, esp of an emotion 微弱短暂的体验(尤指情感): a flicker of hope, despair, interest, etc 一线希望、一丝绝望情绪、微弱的兴趣. 3. crumple v.

(up) (fig 比喻) come suddenly to an end; collapse 垮掉; 崩溃: Her resistance to the

proposal has crumpled. 她对这个建议的抵触情绪化为乌有了. 4. torpor n. [U] (fml 文) torpid condition 迟钝; 呆滞; 迟缓: a state of torpor induced by the tropical heat 热 带的炎热气候引起的懒散.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 86

Banks and avian flu 银行与禽流感

The drawbacks of homework 在家办公问题多(陈继龙

编译)

Nov 30th 2006 | LONDON AND NEW YORK From The Economist print edition Working from home may not be the answer to a flu pandemic 在家办公也许并不是应对禽流感大流行的上策。 NOT much is known about how the financial world would cope with an outbreak of avian flu. (1)But two things are clear: it is a terrifying prospect and the response would be different from that to other potential disasters, such as a terrorist attack. In recent years, terrorism in New York and London has caused sharp, but short-lived, shocks to the financial system. But a flu pandemic, in the words of one financial regulator, would be more like a neutron bomb: “The buildings would be left standing with no one left in them.” It would last longer, come in waves, and people would instinctively shun each other to avoid the spread of the virus. 金融界会如何应对禽流感暴发,人们并不十分清楚。但有两点是明确的:一是前景很可怕,二是人们的反 应会不同于对恐怖分子袭击之类有可能发生的其它灾难。近几年纽约和伦敦发生的恐怖事件已经对金融系 统造成了强烈而又短暂的冲击。不过,一位金融监管人士认为禽流感大流行更像是一颗中子弹:“那些建 筑物将人去楼空。”它会持续更久,一波接一波地发生,而且为防止病毒蔓延人们将本能地相互躲避。 For that reason, many banks have assumed that in the event of a person-to-person pandemic, high absentee rates would mean important jobs would have to be done from home. (2)Since fears of a death toll in the millions surfaced last year, they have made contingency[1] plans along those lines to ensure the payments system keeps going and stockmarkets stay open. 故而许多银行认为,万一发生人间禽流感大流行,随之而来的高缺勤率就将意味着重要工作只能在家里完 成了。早在去年各家银行就由于禽流感大流行可能造成数以百万计的人死亡而感到忧心忡忡。因此,为了 确保届时付款系统还照常运转,股市不会关门大吉,他们早就纷纷依葫芦画瓢制定好了紧急应对方案。 Lehman Brothers, for example, has tested new techniques in the homes of some of its American traders and installed hotlines so that dealers can talk to each other. There are plans to produce a Wall Street-wide directory to keep traders in touch from home. Regulators have sought to ensure that traders operating from home do not break the law. 譬如,莱曼兄弟(证券)公司就已在其部分美国交易员家中测试了新技术,并安装了热线电话以便交易员 相互通话。有的公司还计划编写一本华尔街通讯录,让各交易员在家中相互保持联络。为了保证交易员在 家中办公不属于违法行为,金融监管部门也已做了努力。 (3)In s