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EPSA Newsletter

Bringing pharmacy knowledge and students together.

Volume 27 | Edition 1 | November 2019 www.epsa-online.org | @EPSA_Online

Table of contents

Dear readers,

4 Physico-chemical properties evaluation of emulsions with nonionic emulsifiers

In front of you is the newest EPSA Students’ Scientific Publication of this academic year - Volume 7 Edition 1. For those of you who do not know this project, ESSP allows students to publish their research abstract, improve their writing skills and get feedback by professionals from the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS), who review each abstract.

6 Curcumin-loaded low-energy nanoemulsions: assessment of terpene compounds influence on Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics 8 The capillary rheometer used as predictive tool for twin-screw extrusion and 3D-printing 10 Development of novel solvate based antifungal lacquers for the treatment of fungal nail infections 12 Research of possible usage of vegetable oils in extraction of pharmaceutical active substances 14 Formulation and characterisation of printlets produced by 3D DLP printing technology

Meet the Team 2019/2020

What is new in EPSA?

Young Healthcare Professionals Knowledge and attitudes towards vaccination

Do not miss the new issue of EPSA Newsletter Find out more:

16 Internet users’ attitudes towards purchasing over the counter medications (OTC) from online pharmacies in Germany. 18 Screening of pulp extracts of Canarium odontophyllum for its antioxidant activity

I am very happy to present to you eight abstracts from various fields of pharmaceutical sciences. Reading the abstracts, you can see how amazing research projects are doing students around Europe. It was a great pleasure to collaborate with such talented students who have enough courage to submit their abstracts. Thank you very much, I have learned a lot by reading your abstracts. I want to thank EUFEPS for their collaboration and the hard work they have put into this edition, supporting this project and setting it on a high professional level. Also, I would like to thank the EPSA Team especially to the Public Relations Department and the Educational Department for the hard work, effort and everything they have done to make this ESSP edition possible and great as it is. Yours in science,

Josef Kunrt Science Coordinator 2019/2020


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European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF EMULSIONS WITH NONIONIC EMULSIFIERS Author: Manca Černila Scientific Coordinator: prof. dr. Odon Planinšek, mag. farm. Institution: The University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy

INTRODUCTION: Emulsions are widely used in pharmacy and in everyday life as they facilitate, among other things, the application of active substances to the skin. Since emulsions are thermodynamically unstable, we are interested in which parameters influence their stability the most. We studied two parallel series of emulsions, first with water and olive oil (HLB value=7), and second with water and castor oil (HLB value=14) combined with different nonionic emulsifiers, and examined their efficacy. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of several parameters, such as the performance of emulsifiers and the influence of their HLB values, on the stability of produced emulsions. We also monitored the size of the droplets in various fractions of oil and water phase and various concentrations of emulsifiers, as well as the influence of viscosity of prepared emulsions on their stability.

RESULTS: During the experiment, we observed that HLB value did not have as important effect on stability as we expected. Emulsifiers that lowered interfacial tension between water and oil the most were at the same time not the most successful in stabilizing the emulsion. Droplet size was primarily influenced by the process of making the emulsion and did not have a major impact on long-term stability. The highest effect on stability had the viscosity of prepared MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based emulsion. It turned out that, in the long term, on our previous experience we exUsing the only emulsions with higher viscosity, h above Wilhelmy plate tensiometric method, the 1 Pa•s, were stable. interfacial tension between oil and water was measured with the addition of different CONCLUSION: High viscosity has been concentrations of selected emulsifiers. a key parameter for maintaining long-term Emulsifiers were prepared based on the stability, which does not mean that stable required HLB value, namely Tween 40 low-viscosity emulsions cannot be prepared. HLB=15.6; mixtures of Tween 40 and The experiment demonstrates, among other Span 85 with HLB=7 and 12, and Solutol things, that the use of non-ionic emulsifiers HS15 HLB=14-16. With the selected alone is not sufficient for preparing low concentrations of emulsifiers, emulsions viscous emulsion. with different proportions of oil and water were prepared (1:3 oil:water, 1:3 water:oil, and 1:1). Emulsions were prepared using a rotor-stator homogenizer under the same conditions of 15000 rpm for 10min. Droplet size was monitored by an optical microscope, and viscosity by a cylindrical viscometer. The stability itself was determined organoleptically.

Questions & answers

some did not have as strong an effect on stability as expected while we did not expect the strong effect of viscosity on the stability of prepared emulsions. The monitoring of the viscosity of emulsions, as well as the influence of surfactants on the type of emulsion formed, was not initially planned, but in the end, they proved to have significant effects.

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? The advantage of joining ESSP is that it is an international platform where you can show your work. In the words of my mentor, “All students should aim, at least once during their study period, to try writing an article containing their work.” My advice to other students embarking on a journey of research is not to give up when Tell us a bit more about your research things don’t go as planned, but follow them as you can come to new unexpected, possibly and its significance. My research work is important to me, as even better conclusions. we have in the preparation for our original experiment encountered the obstacle of actually preparing the exact emulsion we wanted. Initially, none of the prepared emulsions was stable for more than a few hours, but nowhere in the literature have I found the exact recipes for the preparation of the emulsion that we wanted to prepare ourselves. Therefore, I began to monitor the potential effects on stability so that we could easily determine the parameters that have the most impact and how best to prepare the desired emulsion. Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Manca and I am currently a first-year student of laboratory biomedicine masters degree program at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Pharmacy. Last year before finishing my thesis I decided to change my course of study and pursue biomedicine. In my spare time, I also tutor and teach ballet to children.

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge of the research process was that certain theoretical knowledge I had, did not fully match the conclusions of our experiment. That is why we decided to monitor a larger number of parameters since


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European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

CURCUMIN-LOADED LOW-ENERGY NANOEMULSIONS: ASSESSMENT OF TERPENE COMPOUNDS INFLUENCE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHARMACEUTICAL CHARACTERISTICS Author: Ognjen Ivetić Scientific Coordinator: Full Prof Snežana Savić, TA Ines Nikolić Institution: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade

INTRODUCTION: Low-energy nanoemulsions are innovative drug carriers. Curcumin, the model substance in this work, is a molecule with numerous beneficial effects. However, due to its problematic physicochemical properties, its potentials are not fully exploited. 0.1mg/ml). With the addition of terpenes, a change in the curcumin release kinetics from the formulations was captured. By comparing penetration profiles through the skin, it was noted that the best performance had the formulation with eucalyptol, then MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the one without terpenes, and, ultimately, formulations were prepared by spontaneous unexpectedly, the one with pinene. emulsification method, with medium-chain triglycerides, solely or in combination with CONCLUSION: The addition of terpene eucalyptol or pinene in the ratio 1:1 (oil compounds significantly reduced the average phase), polysorbate 80 and soybean lecithin diameter of low-energy nanoemulsion (stabilizers), and highly purified water. Average droplets, which could be associated with their droplet diameter, zeta potential and pH value potential co-stabilizing activity, with noticeable were determined. Curcumin release study effects on the release kinetics. For penetration from the formulations was carried out using enhancement, the most effective formulation Franz diffusion cells. Antioxidant activity of was the one with eucalyptol. encapsulated curcumin was assessed (DPPH test) and in vivo penetration through the skin (tape stripping). Additionally, curcumin’s solubility in the oil phases of nanoemulsions was investigated. AIM: Assessment of the influence of terpene addition on physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of curcuminloaded low-energy nanoemulsions (focus on dermal application).

RESULTS: The average droplet diameter was in the range 100-140 nm, with a significant size reduction for the formulations containing terpenes. In all three cases, PDI was below 0.2, zeta potential over │20mV│, and pH 4.8-6.8. Encapsulated curcumin showed a high antioxidant capacity under proposed experimental setting (IC50 =

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Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Ognjen Ivetić and I am a fourthyear student at Faculty of Pharmacy in Belgrade, Serbia. I am an EPSA trainer from the 13th ”Cmooon generation”. I adore science and my goal is to become an expert in pharmacoinformatics. I also love to swim, travel, meet new people and I’m really passionate about learning new languages, cooking and trying out new things.

Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. My research was about nanoemulsions: How to improve dermal application of curcumine by using terpene compounds as penetration enhancers, and how to improve stability and physicochemical characteristics of these formulations.

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge was gathering iMy biggest concern was that my scientific paper wasn’t good enough for the event such as EPSA Science Day. But then, my methors told me that not a big number of students have the opportunity to do a nano-science, especially in nano-science in dermatology and that really encouraged me to give it a try and to sign up for the EPSA Science Day.

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? The benefit of joining ESSP is the opportunity to publish your research and to have them professionally reviewed by the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. You become more proffesional and your work gets on a whole new level and your desire for science research grows. This is also in a way a competition so it is good for people who like to compete. It stimulates people to work more and better themselves as much as posible. My advice is work as much as you can, you will be a better person and of course a bigger professional, give your maximum, go all in with what you are doing and perceive it from all sides and angles to make it more clear.


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THE CAPILLARY RHEOMETER USED AS PREDICTIVE TOOL FOR TWIN-SCREW EXTRUSION AND 3D-PRINTING Authors: Thomai Karagianni, MSc; J. Quodbach, PhD; C.Korte, PhD; Prof. J. Breitkreutz, PhD; Prof. M. Dimitrov, PhD Institution: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Heinrich-Heinne University, Duesseldorf, Germany

INTRODUCTION: Hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology has proven to be useful in the field of pharmaceutical technology. HME has various applications such as controlling or modifying the release of the drug, masking the taste of active substances and forming filaments loaded with active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). AIM: The aim of the present study was first to explore the possibility of the capillary rheometer to be used as a small-scale extruder. Furthermore, to produce and compare the properties of commercially available filaments and filaments produced from the capillary rheometer and twin-screw extruder. Lastly, to produce non-commercially available filaments in twin-screw extruder that could be used for 3D Printing.

since the filaments were observed with rigged surface distortion. The next mixture prepared for twin-screw extrusion was already used in the capillary rheometer. The mixture contained Eudragit® E PO (96%) and stearic acid (4%) as a plasticizer and Eudragit® RL PO (93%), stearic acid as plasticizer (7%) and Silica dioxide (0,5%). The filaments from that extrusion process appeared without rigged surface distortion.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Different powder polymer mixtures were prepared to be extruded in the capillary rheometer and later on in the twin-screw extruder. The produced filaments were subjected to testing process using the light microscope and the texture analyzer.

CONCLUSION: The data showed the capillary rheometer could be utilized as a small-scale extruder. When compared to the twin-screw extrusion, the results showed the process of twin-screw extrusion is more efficiently performed. Non-commercially available filaments, that could be used for printing a solid dosage in a 3D Printer were produced. They were extruded first using the capillary rheometer. The same mixtures were used in the twin-screw extruder. The properties of the commercially available filaments and the produced filaments from the capillary rheometer were compared. The results showed a twin-screw extruder can be used to produce filaments that could be used in 3D Printing.

RESULTS: Mixtures containing Eudragit® E PO and stearic acid and mixtures of Eudragit® RL PO and stearic acid in different amounts were prepared and extruded in the capillary rheometer. Their properties were tested. The first mixtures extruded in the twin-screw extruder contained Polyethylene Oxide (PEO) 1M and Polyethylene oxide 200K with PEG 400 as liquid plasticizer and PEO 1M and 10% Theophylline and PEG 400 as liquid plasticizer. The outcomes from both extrusion processes were not satisfying

Questions & answers

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? One of the challenges I faced during my research work was that 3D Printing of medicines is a rather new topic. For that reason, there were not many published papers available. Furthermore, 3weeks before the end of my experimental work most of my samples were defective. I had to find a suitable solution for this problem and perform most of my experiments and evaluation test once more. There was pressure because of the short time left but with good time management eventually, everything was correct and ready on time.

Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Thomi Karagianni, I am 26 years old and I am a graduate pharmacist. I come from Greece but I studied Pharmacy in Sofia, Bulgaria. As a professional, I worked for two years at a community pharmacy but presently I am interested in modifying the direction of my career and I am willing to turn to the pharmaceutical industry. I believe that in the In your opinion, what is the benefit industry I can evolve as a scientist and be of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking challenged to achieve more. research in the future? In one of the EPSA congresses I attended, Tell us a bit more about your research one of the speakers said: “ The knowledge that we keep locked to a drawer, is no use and its significance. Over the past few years, personalized to anyone”. I was influenced by these words medicine has gained the attention of the and for that reason, I participated in ESSP. My pharmaceutical community.3D Printing can topic of research is rather new and innovative be related to personalized medicine because and I believe it could be beneficial in the future we can print a solid dosage form that could of the pharmaceutical industry. be tailored according to each patient needs. As pharmacists, we should not forget that we This approach could be helpful to people who are scientists and scientific curiosity is in our take much medication for different diseases. nature. I hope young pharmacists would be In that way, we can reduce the number of pills inspired from the work of their colleagues and taken per day and thus we can control and I urge them to think out of the box and step out of their comfort zone because greatness eliminate drug-drug interactions. My research was my master thesis and is hidden there. I performed my Erasmus exchange in Duesseldorf, Germany. It took me almost 4 months to complete the experimental work and evaluation tests. This study aimed to produce non-commercially available filaments made from polymer powder mixtures suitable for printing of solid dosage forms and to investigate whether the capillary rheometer could be used as a small-scale extruder.


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European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

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DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL SOLVATE BASED ANTIFUNGAL LACQUERS FOR THE TREATMENT OF FUNGAL NAIL INFECTIONS Author: Elisavet Melissa Linardou Scientific Coordinator: Dr Hisham Al-Obaidi Institution: School of Pharmacy, University of Reading, Reading, UK

INTRODUCTION: Approximately 50% of nail conditions are the result of fungi, making onychomycosis (fungal nail infections) the most common nail disorder. It is estimated that 16% of Europeans present onychomycosis. The current treatment is based on amorolfine which has a high rate of treatment failure. The challenges in nail drug delivery are threefold. 1) The drug cannot penetrate the nail due to its dense keratin structure; 2) The formulation is washed away while being on the nail; 3) Highly resistant fungi form biofilms. Based on previous research, the antifungal effect of the drug griseofulvin is enhanced by preparing it in the solvated form. Also, surfactants improve drug permeability. RESULTS: The spectrofluorometric data revealed that the DTAB mixture was the most effective. The microbiological measurements showed that SDS mixture achieved the lowest protease activity of T.Rubrum of 24 U/ml, the DTAB mixture slightly higher at 25 U/ml and the Pluronic mixture the highest value at 26 U/ml. The tan δ values of the mixtures at 37°C showed a decreasing order as Pluronic mixture, DTAB, SDS. The SDS mixture had MATERIAL AND METHODS: A diffusion the most elastic properties. study was performed to target the breakage of the nail’s disulfide bond. This was achieved by assessing the penetration of different surfactants (Pluronic, Dodecyl CONCLUSION: The study showed that all triethylammonium Bromide (DTAB), Sodium the formulations were effective at eliminating dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) alongside GF, Tartaric the T.Rubrum. Out of the three formulations, acid, Chloroform and Polyvinylpyrrolidone the Pluronic and the DTAB mixtures k30 using Franz Cell diffusion. Samples were seemed to favour nail penetration taking taken at different intervals and analysed into consideration the spectrofluorometric using spectrofluorometer. The antifungal and rheological data. The aforementioned effectiveness of these formulations was mixtures could potentially produce a potent studied by assessing the protease activity lacquer with enhanced permeability using of Trichophyton rubrum ncpf 935. Lastly, the chloroform solvate. viscoelastic properties of each formulation were evaluated using an AR4000EX rheometer by measuring the tan δ at different temperatures. AIM: The aim of this project is to design a novel lacquer based on a system, which 1)will deliver the antifungal drug griseofulvin in the solvated form 2)will facilitate the deposition and penetration across the nail bed based on micelles system and 3) it will contain a waterresistant film to allow continuous release of the drug and prevent loss.

Questions & answers

frustrated with myself. On these days my supervisor Dr Hisham Al-Obaidi and a very promising PhD student Ibrahim Shah helped me deal with my disappointment by teaching me how to overcome it and which actions I need to take when things go wrong in research.

In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? The ESSP is crucial in developing the professionalisation of pharmacy students. Students will gain skills such as learning how to write a scientific abstract, accept and eventually incorporate the review by the EUFPS. My piece of advice to students is that if you want different results you need to act differently. “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result”. Adopt healthier habits, exercise more, Tell us a bit more about your research get out of your comfort and you will thrive! and its significance. Onychomycosis is the most common nail disorder. The UK drug market lacks efficient nail lacquers treating onychomycosis and so we took the opportunity to research a novel formulation. Griseofulvin is a well-known antifungal agent and we decided to investigate its efficiency in a nail-lacquer composition while overcoming the challenges of nail drug delivery. We examined 3 different formulations. Each one had a different surfactant. In this project, we are trying to identify which is the most appropriate surfactant and consequently the best composition for our formulation.. Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. I am a third-year pharmacy student at the University of Reading. I was born and raised in Athens, Greece and I moved to the UK to pursue my degree. After my graduation, I aspire to become a researcher in drug design or work in a pioneering pharmaceutical company. When I am not attending lectures you can find me at the university’s sports centre playing volleyball for the university’s team..

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? Research can be unpredictable, some days you feel that you are getting closer to the desired outcome and some others you are wondering if it is worth continuing. When the results where unsatisfying I was feeling


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European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

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RESEARCH OF POSSIBLE USAGE OF VEGETABLE OILS IN EXTRACTION OF PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES Author: Faruk Šehić Scientific Coordinator: Ervina Bečić, prof. dr. Institution: the University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Pharmacy

INTRODUCTION: Extraction of active pharmaceutical substances from medications with solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, methylene chloride, chloroform etc. all except water are biohazard, so nowadays we are trying to find a way of usage of alternative solvents that would have the same efficiency, but less toxicity (also known as green solvents). Vegetable oils have two characteristics of the solvents: they are organic compounds and they do not mix with water. . AIM: The primary objective of the research was to examine the possibility of vegetable oil usage as “green solvents” for extraction. If this is proven to be true, vegetable oils could, with proper optimization, replace already in-use expensive and toxic extraction solvents. This idea is based on logP value, since the vegetable oils are structurally like phospholipids. The secondary objective, which is currently only a theory, is a proper optimization of the extract for analysis, since vegetable oils could damage analysis machines. In order to prevent that, one of the possible ways would be transformation of the vegetable oil in the extract into brominated vegetable oil, which is an emulgator (soluble both in water and in organic compounds) so it would probably not damage the machine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extraction was conducted on room temperature, in two ways: in separation funnel and mixing in magnetic stirrer. Paracetamol and diazepam, dissolved in water and 0,3M; 1M and 3M KCl-water solution, were used as analytes. Sunflower oil was used as an extraction solvent. Extraction efficiency was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of aqueous solutions in the UV spectrum at 244 nm. Extraction efficiency was determined based on the difference of

absorbances before and after extraction. RESULTS: After the extraction of examined analytes in a separation funnel, it was not possible to separate the layers due to occurred emulsion. The extraction conducted in magnetic stirrer is possible only if we use 0.3M KCl as the solvent for analyte and when the analyte/oil ratio is 2:1 (V/V) in duration of 5 minutes. Under these conditions 16% of paracetamol was extracted. Extracted diazepam percentage, under the same conditions, was 91%, which could be explained by the fact that diazepam (logP=3.09) has higher logP value than paracetamol (logP=0.91). CONCLUSION: Based on the preliminary results obtained, it can be concluded that vegetable oils have the potential to extract pharmaceutically active compounds, especially those with high logP value. The further steps of the research would be to cover larger variety of logP values to get more accurate result.

proper optimization, replace already in-use expensive and toxic extraction solvents.

Questions & answers Please, tell us a little bit more about yourself. My name is Faruk Šehić. I am 21 years old, I live in Sarajevo and I am a 4th-year student at Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sarajevo. Now, since I have provided you with the basic information, I will tell you more about myself. I like sweets a lot, especially American pancakes. In my free time, I play video-games, mostly RTS and FPS games. My favourite sport is volleyball and during weekends I often play it with my high school friends. I recommend everyone to watch “The blacklist”. I have never watched such a good TV show since “Game of Thrones” although the last season was bad in my opinion. I like learning languages and I am very interested in meeting new cultures, especially the ones from the East. I speak ex-Yugoslavian languages, English, German and Japanese. Although I am very interested in drug modelling, my dream is to work on clinical and preclinical trials in Japan. Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. This research revolves on connecting the efficiency of extraction via vegetable oils and drug logP values. LogP is a value used to determine if a molecule is hydro- or lipophilic. It is also used to determine if a molecule will be absorbed well by our GIT, how well it will get to CNS etc. So, one could interpret it as drug extraction efficiency value by the human organism. Since this process occurs via cell membrane, which is party built by phospholipids, I assume it is reasonable to test vegetable oils as extraction solvents because they are structurally similar to phospholipids. As it is said in my abstract, the primary objective of the research was to examine the possibility of vegetable oil usage as “green solvents” for extraction. If this is proven to be true, vegetable oils could, with

What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? Although this research was about the extraction efficiency, I came on an obstacle as soon as I started with my research. That obstacle became the biggest part of the research. Oil and water do not mix, but they do form an emulsion if they are mixed energetically. Because of this problem, I could not conduct my experiment in extraction funnel, so I had to devise a new plan – how to make sure oil and water are separated after mixing. The basis of the new plan was to make water “more polar”. How do we do that? We add something that is very polar by itself in the water, which is salt. I first tried with solid NaCl, but it did not work. In the end, the extraction had to be done in a magnetic stirrer, using 0.3M water solution of KCl in which the drug was already dissolved in a little portion of its best solvent (I used methanol for paracetamol and diazepam) and the volume ratio between the analyte and the vegetable oil had to be 2:1. Note, the separation of oil and water layers was also possible with highly concentrated KCl solutions (1M and 3M), but I could not use them for the analysis because it turned out they interfered with drugs’ solubility, thus making the analysis in the spectrophotometer impossible. In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? Do not to panic when you encounter a problem. Be creative when trying to find a way to solve the problem. Take your time, try using other researches to help you in your research or in solving the problem you had encountered. If the research you wanted to conduct had already been done, try finding something similar. ESSP can be a good start for your scientific career. If I was an employer, I would rather have a student who had already conducted research or two, during his/her studies, in my company. If you want different results you need to act differently. “Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting a different result”. Adopt healthier habits, exercise more, get out of your comfort and you will thrive!


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FORMULATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF PRINTLETS PRODUCED BY 3D DLP PRINTING TECHNOLOGY Authors: Anđela Postolović, Stefanija Opalić, Ksenija Krstić Scientific Coordinator: TA Marijana Madžarević, Full Prof. Svetlana Ibrić Institution: Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy University of Belgrade

INTRODUCTION: There are different technologies of 3D printing, all based on the same mechanism: layer by layer production of 3D objects from digital designs. In this study, digital light processing (DLP) technology was used. . AIM: To evaluate the influence of formulation factors and geometry on characteristics of printlets fabricated with DLP printing technology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Polyethyleneglycol 400 (PEG 400), polyethyleneglycol-diacrylate (PEGDA), riboflavin, water and ibuprofen were components of the formulation, with following range of concentrations: PEG 400 7.9047.90%, PEGDA 32.10-65.00%, water 12.0030.00%, riboflavin 0.10% and ibuprofen 5.00%. 3D templates of cylindric and torusshaped printlets were created in Autodesk fusion 360, 10.00 mm diameter and 3.02 mm height. Printlets were fabricated with Wanhao D7 printer. Evaluation of printlets was made by determining mechanical characteristics, ibuprofen concentration, swelling ratio and dissolution rate. The mechanism of ibuprofen release from printlets was determined using the mathematical models for drug release.

counted on printlet mass. According to results it was concluded that with increasing concentration of PEG 400 and decreasing of PEGDA, dissolution rate was increased. The highest dissolution rate after 8 hours was from cylindrical (89.76±5.07%) and torus printlets (105.35±5.26%) which contained 35.00% PEGDA and 47.90% PEG 400. Torus printlets showed higher dissolution rate than cylindrical, as expected due to higher surface area to volume ratio (cylinder 1.06, torus 1.39). Higuchi model best described the kinetics of drug release. Diffusion is the supposed mechanism of ibuprofen release from both cylindric and torus-shaped printlets.

CONCLUSION: DLP 3D printing is a suitable technology for the fabrication of printlets with different shapes and prolonged release of active substance. Dissolution rate can be modified using different concentrations of PEGDA and PEG 400 as well as adjusting the surface area to volume ratio which is easier with 3D technology than with conventional RESULTS: Printlets with uniformed technologies. dimensions were fabricated with a printer, in accordance with assigned digital model (R² > 0.99). No significant influence of formulation factors and geometrical shape was noticed on hardness, but higher swelling ratio was observed in torus printlets. Content of ibuprofen in cylindrical printlets was 4.615.35% while in torus was 3.59-6.59%,

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What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? 3D printing in pharmacy is a field that has yet to be fully explored. We didn’t have much literature to rely on while setting up all parameters for printing. The solution was to keep experimenting with them in order to find out which set up works the best. Also, we Please, tell us a little bit more about had troubles while determining hardness of printlets due to their specific consistency and yourself. My name is Anđela Postolović and I come therefore we couldn’t obtain results for every from Belgrade, Serbia. I’ve just finished my formulation of printlets. studies at Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade and got my Master’s degree. I did this research project with my two colleagues, In your opinion, what is the benefit Stefanija Opalić and Ksenija Krstić, with great of joining ESSP and what advice do support from our mentors. Our work was you have for students undertaking recognized with an award at the 12th Students’ research in the future? Mini-Congress of Faculty of Pharmacy. I also In my opinion, the benefit of joining ESSP is presented our research paper at the 60th the chance to publish your research project Students’ Congress of Biomedical Sciences and share it with students outside of your of Serbia with international participation on country. To the students who plan to do research Kopaonik. projects in the future I say to choose a topic that they find really interesting and feel Tell us a bit more about your research passionate about. Every research has its ups and downs so don’t let that discourage you and its significance. Our research is about 3D printing in pharmacy and enjoy the entire process.

Questions & answers

and the benefits of this technology when it comes to personalized therapy. We wanted to find out if 3D printing is suitable for fabrication of printlets (tablets made with 3D printer) of different shapes and if prolonged release of the active substance can be achieved using different concentrations of polymers and different surface area to volume ratio. Its significance is precisely in the possibility to create printlets of wanted dosage which will meet the needs of each patient individually based on their gender, age, body weight. This is especially important when we dose drugs for children and the elderly. On the other hand, printlets of different shapes and sizes have the potential to maximize therapy adherence and ease oral drug administration.


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INTERNET USERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS PURCHASING OVER THE COUNTER MEDICATIONS (OTC) FROM ONLINE PHARMACIES IN GERMANY. Author: Lutfi Helana Scientific Institution: Prof.Dr. Georgi Chaltikyan Institution: Department of Healthcare Sciences, Deggendorf Institute of Technology-European Campus, Pfarrkirchen, Bavaria, Germany.

INTRODUCTION: Internet technology is shifting the patterns of consumer behaviour towards obtaining medications from brick and mortar pharmacies to medications per click. Limited number of studies have examined consumers behaviour towards obtaining OTC medicines through online pharmacies in Germany. AIM: TThis current study was carried out to evaluate the influence of gender, age and education basis on consumer behaviour towards purchasing OTC medicines online in Pfarrkirchen which is a municipality in southern Lower Bavaria in Germany. Moreover, the study provides a further perception of the positive factors of obtaining medications through legitimate and licensed online pharmacies versus the negative trends of illegitimate online medicine retailers.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed by using qualitative and quantitative methods. The survey has included 110 respondents and data was collected using the link and paper-based questionnaire method that was distributed in Deggendorf Institute of Technology-European Campus, addressing students and staff members at the institute. Chi-square was used in this study to test the significant association between variables. RESULTS: Survey results have indicated that 55.6% of females were presented versus 44.4% of males. Using Chi-square test, results have shown that more than half of the female group were more likely to order OTC medicines with 2-5 times per year versus nearly a quarter of the male group who obtain

OTC medicines less than 2 times per year. Results supported by 33% of males who were found to see more threats and risks in purchasing medications online versus 22.6% of females. CONCLUSION: The study has revealed that gender differences show a major impact or ordering medications online. Due to time constraint, customers attitudes and perception towards receiving medications with the use of electronic prescription is excluded from the study. Thus, further research is required in view of pharmacist’s perceptions towards the use of an electronic prescription and how the procedures of receiving the medication, teleconsulting and medication delivery are being undertaken.

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In your opinion, what is the benefit of joining ESSP and what advice do you have for students undertaking research in the future? I find ESSP as an excellent opportunity to publish your research and to have them professionally reviewed by the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences as well as the opportunity to publish and share Please, tell us a little bit more about your work with other motivated students. yourself. My name is Helana Lutfi. I am from Iraq. I have completed my bachelor in pharmacy with honours in Malaysia and my masters in medical informatics in Germany. Currently, I am working as a lecturer at Deggendorfinstitute of technology-European campus in Pfarrkirchen, Germany. Due to my interest in doing researches, I will be pursuing my PhD soon.

Questions & answers

Tell us a bit more about your research and its significance. Since we are living in an era of technology, my research aims to investigate the attitudes of internet users towards obtaining nonprescribed medications from registred online pharmacies and their opinion towards identifying legalised online pharmacies versus non-professionalised online medications retailors. Additionally, how age, gender and education affect their behaviour in regards to purchasing medications online. What was the biggest challenge while carrying out the research and how did you overcome that? The biggest challenge of this research was tTime was a big challenge in this research as more time was required to include a higher number of participants in the survey. Proper time management for each phase of the research was done at an earlier stage of the study to overcome time constraints.


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European Pharmaceutical Students’ Association

SCREENING OF PULP EXTRACTS OF CANARIUM ODONTOPHYLLUM FOR ITS ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY Author: Lutfi Helana Scientific Coordinator: Prof. Dr. You Li Ling Institution: Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Malaysian Allied Healthcare and Science University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

INTRODUCTION: Free radicals are highly reactive species produced within human cells as a consequence of reaction between human cells and oxygen causing oxidative stress. Oxidative damage occurs when human protein-controlled antioxidant-response causes oxidative stress, resulting in many diseases. The antioxidant components of natural products constitute the major source of human health promotion and maintenance. AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of methanol and water extracts of Canarium odontophyllum pulp using 2,2-diphenyl-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay kit.. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methanol and water crude extract were collected, and phytochemical screening test was conducted using chemical reagent tests including tannin, saponin, alkaloids, flavonoids and total phenolic content. To analyse the antioxidant activity of C. odontophyllum extracts using DPPH, 50μL of methanol and water extract to be mixed with 195 μL of 0.2 mM DPPH agent in 96-well plate. The mixture was shaken vigorously and allowed to stand in the dark at 37 ̊C for 60 min and then absorbance readings were measured at 540 nm using spectrophotometer. For TAC, 50μL of methanol and water extract to be mixed with 100 μL Cu++ solution. The mixture was incubated in the dark at 37 ̊C for 1.5 hour and then absorbance readings were measured at 570 nm using spectrophotometer and compared with TROLOX compound. The concentration of sample that required scavenging DPPH radical by 50% (IC50 value) was obtained by linear regression analysis of dose-response using formula y=mx+c.

RESULTS: The phytoconstituents in the extracts of C. odontophyllum were shown to be of flavonoid, tannin, saponin, alkaloid and phenolic compounds. TAC results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity of methanol extract was observed at concentration of 16.63 nmol with average antioxidant capacity of 0.21 nmol. Whereas, highest antioxidant capacity of water extract was observed at concentration of 16.63 nmol with an average antioxidant capacity of 1.32 nmol.

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CONCLUSION: The present study shows that methanol and water extracts of C. odontophyllum pulp demonstrate secondary metabolites and that both extracts exhibit antioxidant property and could act as free radical scavengers. Due to limited time, further research is required in view of the antioxidant property to confirm the cytotoxic activity of the pulp from C. odontophyllum fruit.

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