Page 1

When

East

meet

West

– how ICT helps reconcile Traditional Chinese Medicine with science? Feipei Lai, Wei Chen, Chinjung Yang, Wei-Zen Sun, Li-Yan Sheen, Da-Cheng Su, Yin-Yi Han, Jia-Lin Hsu, Dun-Ren Tsai, Ping-Hong Kuo, Wei-Zhi Zhou S-Pulse Project Team, National Taiwan University

7/18/

2013 MIT ILP-Epoch Taiwan Symposium 1


Problem of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) • • • •

Observation Hypothesis Experiment (Analysis, Simulation - Computing) Theory/Model?

2


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Approach Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

3


When East meet West West

East

4


Basic Concept of Traditional Chinese Medicine Holism: the unity and integration of the whole body 整體論

5


The Harmonization between the Natural World and the Human Being 天人合一

6


The Most Basic Element of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Qi • • • •

Air Life force Resonance? The flow of energy, goes around and through the body, pushes the blood. • Electric Current? • EMW? 7


Qi pushes the blood. Feeling Qi through the pulse.

8


Radial Artery Pulse: the Window to Measure Qi

Pulse Diagnosis Device (sphygmograph) 9


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Approach Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

10


Integrating Traditional Chinese Medicine into Mainstream Medicine by Bioinformatics Traditional Chinese Medicine

Mainstream Medicine Bioinformatics

11


Goal With modern bio-informatics and large volume of pulse data, the linkage between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Mainstream Medicine should be probed. A cloud-based platform for diseases classification based on pulse data should be developed. 12


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Approach Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

13


Pulse Analysis

14


Analysis of Arterial Pulse Wave M. G. Taylor: An Approach to an Analysis of the Arterial Pulse Wave (1957) “Harmonic may have something to do with organs"

15


Related Work WK Wang: Harmonic Theory of pulse wave

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 大腸=Large Intestine 三焦=Sanjiao 小腸=Small Intestine 16


Harmonic Theory of Pulse wave Base on the length from heart to the specific organ and the blood vessel structure, harmonic is formed to deliver blood to each organ efficiently. (The length of vertical blood vessel from aorta to the specific organ) 心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾= Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 17


18


19


Cloud-Based S-Pulse Platform

20


FFT Analysis Platform

21


Pulse Data Management

22


Uploaded Pulse Data Management

23


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Approach Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

24


Latest Programs and Results •

Dr. T-C Su – Different age groups – Cardiovascular

Dr. J-L Hsu – CMV Mode vs. CPAP Mode

Dr. Y-Y Han – Hospice Patients – Liver transplantation Patient

Dr. P-H Kuo – Asthma, COPD

Prof. L-Y Sheen – Ginger Tea, Coconut and Water 25


Dr. T-C Su Age Cardiovascular - OGTT_DM (Oral Glucose Tolerance Test) - Hypertension - Metabolic Syndrome

26


Different Age Groups Age Number Mean (Age) Female (%)

20-30 6

31-40 6

41-50 6

51-60 6

24.7±2.3 3 (50%)

33.8±2.5 3 (50%)

45.2±2.1 3 (50%)

55.8±2.9 3 (50%)

27


Different Age Groups

28


Different Age Groups

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 29


Different Age Groups Harmonics

P-value

Age25 Mean

Age25 SD

Age55 Mean

Age55 SD

0

0.485

3.16E+08

3.99E+07

3.30E+08

2.87E+07

1

0.647

3.76E+06

2.18E+06

4.39E+06

2.40E+06

2

0.526

1.74E+06

7.33E+05

2.14E+06

1.29E+06

3

0.293

1.33E+06

7.56E+05

9.50E+05

3.70E+05

4

0.270

7.69E+05

4.36E+05

5.35E+05

2.28E+05

5

0.276

5.43E+05

2.96E+05

3.79E+05

1.82E+05

6 Gallbladder

0.035

5.41E+05

3.19E+05

2.15E+05

7.97E+04

7 Bladder

0.025

4.30E+05

2.45E+05

1.56E+05

7.29E+04

30


Different Age Groups - Discussion • High frequency harmonic waves become smaller in elderly people. • Coherent to Prof. Wang’s research. • High frequency harmonic waves occur based on the reflection of blood vessels. While the vessels get stiffer, the harmonic waves become smaller.

31


Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) • Fasting for 8 hours • Drink glucose water (75g glucose in 250300mL water) • Check blood glucose 2 hours later • Normal < 140 mg/dL Impaired glucose tolerance 140-199 mg/dL Diabetes Mellitus ≥ 200 mg/dL dL = 100cc

32


OGTT_DM vs. Control

OGTT_DM Number 28 Age 48.7±7.6 Female (%) 9 (32.1%)

Control 135 48.0±6.6 50 (37.0%)

33


OGTT_DM vs. Control

34


OGTT_DM vs. Control Harmonics

P-value

DM Mean

DM SD

Con Mean

Con SD

0

0.438

3.36E+08

2.53E+07

3.40E+08

2.33E+07

1

0.029

5.85E+06

4.17E+06

8.07E+06

5.00E+06

2

0.091

2.89E+06

1.70E+06

3.63E+06

2.15E+06

3

0.093

1.46E+06

8.33E+05

1.82E+06

1.07E+06

4

0.315

8.53E+05

5.79E+05

9.79E+05

6.08E+05

5

0.560

7.08E+05

5.26E+05

7.62E+05

4.24E+05

6

0.511

6.42E+05

1.01E+06

5.65E+05

4.08E+05

7

0.486

4.64E+05

8.79E+05

3.97E+05

3.14E+05

35


OGTT_DM vs. Control - Discussion â&#x20AC;˘ We found that patients with OGTT_DM tend to have a lower first harmonic.

36


Hypertension vs. Control

Hypertension Number 61 Age 46.2±8.5 Female (%) 11 (18.0%)

Control 124 46.1±8.0 54 (43.5%)

37


Hypertension vs. Control

38


Hypertension vs. Control Harmonic

0 Heart

P-value

HTN Mean

HTN SD

Contr Mean

Control SD

0.151

3.36E+08

2.76E+07

3.41E+08

2.15E+07

< 0.001

5.81E+06

4.02E+06

8.54E+06

5.11E+06

2 Kidney

0.001

2.77E+06

1.89E+06

3.85E+06

2.17E+06

3 Spleen

0.082

1.57E+06

1.05E+06

1.85E+06

1.02E+06

4 Lung

0.006

7.87E+05

5.01E+05

1.04E+06

6.22E+05

5 Stomach

0.280

6.93E+05

4.71E+05

7.67E+05

4.17E+05

6 Gallbladder

0.423

6.13E+05

7.89E+05

5.46E+05

3.49E+05

7 Bladder

0.481

3.65E+05

6.14E+05

4.14E+05

3.20E+05

1 Liver

39


Hypertension vs. Control - Discussion â&#x20AC;˘ Patients with hypertension tend to have smaller first, second and fourth harmonic.

40


Correlation in Traditional Chinese Medicine • In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), hypertension is related to “the deficiency of kidney and liver” • “All vessels converge toward lung”. The lung is related to the function of vessels.

41


Metabolic Syndrome 3 out of 5 criteria • Central obesity: waist circumference male ≧ 90 cm, female ≧ 80 cm • Hypertension: SBP ≧ 130 mm-Hg, DBP ≧ 85 mm-Hg • Raised fasting glucose ≧ 100 mg/dL • Dyslipidemia HDL-C male < 40mg/dL, female < 50mg/dL • Raised Triglyceride (TG) ≧ 150mg/dL 42


Metabolic Syndrome vs. Control Metabolic Syndrome Number 59 Age 45.3Âą7.0 Female 13 (22.0%)

Control 134 45.3Âą6.8 56 (41.8%)

43


Metabolic Syndrome vs. Control

44


Metabolic Syndrome vs. Control Harmonic

P-value

MS Mean

MS SD

Con Mean

Con SD

0

0.738

3.39E+08

2.31E+07

3.40E+08

2.43E+07

1 Liver

0.020

6.36E+06

4.04E+06

8.13E+06

5.15E+06

2

0.126

3.13E+06

1.91E+06

3.64E+06

2.20E+06

3

0.518

1.69E+06

1.01E+06

1.79E+06

1.04E+06

4

0.215

8.75E+05

5.14E+05

9.90E+05

6.22E+05

5

0.796

7.55E+05

4.64E+05

7.37E+05

4.20E+05

6

0.608

5.91E+05

7.21E+05

5.49E+05

4.13E+05

7

0.939

3.97E+05

6.14E+05

3.92E+05

3.21E+05

45


Metabolic Syndrome vs. Control Discussion â&#x20AC;˘ We found that patients with Metabolic Syndrome tend to have a lower first harmonic.

46


Dr. J-L Hsu • CMV mode (Continuous Mandatory Ventilation) : Restricted AIR mode, Constrain Breath Time

• CPAP mode (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) : Not so restrict AIR mode, Help patient with their breathing

47


CMV vs. CPAP Survivor Number 10 Age 67.6±15 Female 4 (40%)

Non-survivor 5 76.4±12 2 (40%)

48


CMV vs. CPAP

49


CMV vs. CPAP Harmonic

P-value

CMV Mean

CMV SD

CPAP Mean

CPAP SD

0

0.574

3.28E+08

3.60E+07

3.21E+08

3.75E+07

1

0.314

1.10E+07

9.04E+06

1.42E+07

8.30E+06

2

0.365

4.95E+06

3.97E+06

6.17E+06

3.52E+06

3

0.515

2.21E+06

1.60E+06

2.52E+06

1.03E+06

4

0.784

1.45E+06

1.09E+06

1.55E+06

7.79E+05

5

0.461

9.58E+05

9.26E+05

1.18E+06

7.77E+05

6

0.538

6.38E+05

7.31E+05

7.84E+05

5.90E+05

7

0.768

5.32E+05

6.50E+05

5.96E+05

5.75E+05

50


Survivor CMV vs. CPAP

51


Survivor CMV vs. CPAP Harmonic

P-value

CMV Mean

CMV SD

CPAP Mean

CPAP SD

0 Heart

0.048

3.40E+08

1.65E+07

3.12E+08

3.83E+07

1

0.938

1.45E+07

9.90E+06

1.42E+07

9.59E+06

2

0.921

6.13E+06

4.65E+06

5.93E+06

4.22E+06

3

0.862

2.54E+06

1.49E+06

2.44E+06

1.06E+06

4

0.435

1.50E+06

8.24E+05

1.24E+06

6.29E+05

5

0.887

8.94E+05

7.12E+05

9.38E+05

6.55E+05

6

0.877

6.12E+05

5.16E+05

5.79E+05

4.26E+05

7

0.945

4.61E+05

3.33E+05

4.73E+05

4.22E+05

52


Non-survivor CMV vs. CPAP

53


Non-survivor CMV vs. CPAP Harmonic

P-value

CMV Mean

CMV SD

CPAP Mean

CPAP SD

0

0.312

3.08E+08

5.12E+07

3.35E+08

3.47E+07

1 Liver

0.008

5.20E+06

2.00E+06

1.41E+07

6.41E+06

2 Kidney

0.004

2.99E+06

9.96E+05

6.57E+06

2.19E+06

3

0.259

1.67E+06

1.77E+06

2.67E+06

1.04E+06

4

0.350

1.37E+06

1.52E+06

2.06E+06

7.80E+05

5

0.419

1.06E+06

1.28E+06

1.59E+06

8.48E+05

6

0.410

6.81E+05

1.06E+06

1.13E+06

7.01E+05

7

0.777

6.49E+05

1.02E+06

8.01E+05

7.70E+05

54


CMV vs. CPAP discussion â&#x20AC;˘ While separated into survivors and nonsurvivors, we can see the difference of CMV and CPAP mode change.

â&#x20AC;˘ Doctors can make decision based on the data whether the patient should use either CMV or CPAP.

55


Dr. Y-Y Han Hospice Patients - Survivor vs. Non-survivor - Course of survival patients Hepatic Excretory Patient (Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System - Hepatic Excretory-assist Device) 56


Ratio of each harmonic frequency - Survivor vs. Non-survivor

Number Age Female

Survivor

Non-survivor

8 62.9Âą12.5 2 (25%)

4 64.0 Âą13.3 1 (25%)

57


Survivor vs. Non-survivor

58


Survivor vs. Non-survivor Harmonic 0 Heart

P-value

Survivor Mean

Survivor SD

Dead Mean

Dead SD

< 0.001

3.26E+08

2.73E+07

2.69E+08

9.84E+06

1

0.683

1.35E+07

8.22E+06

1.22E+07

3.82E+06

2

0.849

6.03E+06

3.39E+06

5.76E+06

2.50E+06

3

0.838

2.34E+06

1.34E+06

2.44E+06

5.25E+05

4

0.973

1.46E+06

8.66E+05

1.45E+06

5.24E+05

5

0.725

9.54E+05

7.12E+05

8.55E+05

3.54E+05

6

0.463

5.83E+05

5.59E+05

4.22E+05

1.80E+05

7

0.423

3.70E+05

4.70E+05

2.23E+05

1.23E+05

59


Course of survival patients

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 60


Course of survival patients

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 61


Course of survival patients

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 62


Survivor vs. Non-survivor of Hospice Patients - Discussion â&#x20AC;˘ The main difference between survivors and non-survivors is the average pulse amplitude, which links to heart in theory. â&#x20AC;˘ High frequency harmonic decreased for survival.

63


Hepatic Excretory Patient • Waiting for liver transplantation • Gender: Male • Age: 50 • Had Hepatic Excretory at day 9 and 21 after being hospitalized

64


Liver Transplantation case 1

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 65 MARS: Molecular adsorbent recirculating system


Doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Annotation LF/HF

LF

HF

No of irreg. hb.

VLF

17

4.88

62

12

0

182

256

256

8

0

60

77

23

3.34

10

2

0

37

49

49

4

0

63

6

64

36

1.77

4

2

0

30

36

36

2

0

60

136 81 107 49

5

95

0.05

40

760

22

1601

2401

2401

76

58

90

Comment

SYS DIA HR HRV LF% HF%

Day 1

124 74

91

16

83

Day 3

121 70 100

7

Day 7

126 73 103

2 days after first MARS ( day 11)

Total RMS PNN Test Variance Power SD 50 Pressure

6 days after first MARS. Pump 120 74 103 2000C.C ascites (day15)

7

85

15

5.66

6

1

0

42

49

49

3

0

60

9 days after first MARS (day 18)

132 76

9

64

36

1.77

6

3

0

72

81

81

4

0

60

1 day after second MARS (day 22)

121 73 100 22

74

26

2.84

101

35

0

348

484

484

9

0

60

4 days after second MARS (day 25)

138 75 100 16

61

39

1.56

22

14

24

220

256

256

15

2

87

97

From day 1 to day 22, the progress of HRV, LF, HF, VLF, Total Power, Variance, and RMSSD are the reverse of the progress of harmonic.

66


Doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Annotation LF/HF

LF

HF

No of irreg. hb.

VLF

71

0.40

33

80

5

143

256

256

16

2

60

84

16

5.25

87

16

0

122

225

225

10

0

71

12

71

29

2.44

36

14

0

94

144

144

10

0

60

97

32

79

21

3.76

751

199

1

74

1024

1024

25

4

60

120 75

88

23

75

25

3,00

410

136

0

-17

529

529

16

0

60

21 days after transplantation (day 49)

130 79

94

17

56

44

1.27

104

81

0

104

289

289

14

0

60

26 days after transplantation (day 54)

120 75

97

17

64

36

1.77

101

56

1

132

289

289

11

0

60

29 days after transplantation (day 57)

141 83

94

30

54

46

1.17

227

193

8

480

900

900

25

4

90

Comment

SYS DIA HR HRV LF% HF%

First day after liver transplantation (day 28)

116 70 103 16

29

9 days after transplantation (day 36)

125 75

67

15

13 days after transplantation (day 40)

126 79

97

15 days after transplantation (day 42)

114 75

19 days after transplantation (day 47)

Total RMS PNN Test Variance Power SD 50 Pressure

After transplantation, still see strong reverse correlation between HRV, Total Power, Variance, RMSSD, and the first harmonic. 67


PNN50 • PNN50: Time domain Heart Rate Variability Analysis • pNN50 = (NN50 count) / (total NN count)

• (NN = Normal Sinus RR interval) • (NN50 = Normal Sinus RR interval exceed 50 milliseconds)


Dr. P-H Kuo • Asthma vs. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) • Asthma vs. Normal • COPD vs. Normal

69


Ratio of each harmonic frequency - Asthma vs. COPD Asthma Number 87 Age 62.9±12.5 Female 60 (69%)

COPD 28

Normal 12

64.0±13.3 2 (7%)

32.2±8.8 7 (58%)

70


Asthma vs. COPD

71


Asthma vs. COPD Harmonics

P-value

Asthma Mean

Asthma SD

COPD Mean

COPD SD

0

0.054

3.19E+08

3.38E+07

3.06E+08

2.86E+07

1

0.295

1.82E+07

8.78E+06

2.03E+07

9.38E+06

2 Kidney

0.008

7.74E+06

3.27E+06

1.01E+07

5.86E+06

3 Spleen

0.020

3.61E+06

1.81E+06

4.66E+06

2.74E+06

4

0.950

1.77E+06

9.00E+05

1.75E+06

9.09E+05

5

0.957

1.41E+06

7.09E+05

1.42E+06

5.87E+05

6

0.950

9.19E+05

6.70E+05

9.28E+05

6.78E+05

7

0.432

5.26E+05

3.76E+05

4.64E+05

3.30E+05

72


Asthma vs. Normal

73


Asthma vs. Normal Harmonics

P-value

Asthma Mean

Asthma SD

Normal Mean

Normal SD

0

0.473

3.19E+08

3.38E+07

3.12E+08

2.09E+07

1

0.216

1.82E+07

8.78E+06

1.49E+07

8.24E+06

2 Kidney

0.039

7.74E+06

3.27E+06

5.64E+06

3.13E+06

3

0.144

3.61E+06

1.81E+06

2.80E+06

1.43E+06

4

0.249

1.77E+06

9.00E+05

1.45E+06

7.86E+05

5

0.314

1.41E+06

7.09E+05

1.20E+06

5.65E+05

6

0.636

9.19E+05

6.70E+05

8.25E+05

3.30E+05

7

0.452

5.26E+05

3.76E+05

6.11E+05

2.75E+05

74


COPD vs. Normal

75


COPD vs. Normal Harmonics

P-value

Asthma Mean

Asthma SD

Normal Mean

Normal SD

0

0.479

3.06E+08

2.86E+07

3.12E+08

2.09E+07

1

0.094

2.03E+07

9.38E+06

1.49E+07

8.24E+06

2 Kidney

0.018

1.01E+07

5.86E+06

5.64E+06

3.13E+06

3 Spleen

0.033

4.66E+06

2.74E+06

2.80E+06

1.43E+06

4

0.319

1.75E+06

9.09E+05

1.45E+06

7.86E+05

5

0.270

1.42E+06

5.87E+05

1.20E+06

5.65E+05

6

0.622

9.28E+05

6.78E+05

8.25E+05

3.30E+05

7

0.182

4.64E+05

3.30E+05

6.11E+05

2.75E+05

76


Asthma vs. COPD discussion • Interestingly, there is no difference in the fourth harmonic in these two lung diseases. • The second and third harmonic are significantly different between Asthma and COPD patients. • In Traditional Chinese Medicine, the function of “spleen” helps the function of “lung”; the function of “lung” also helps the function of “kidney”. 77


Kidney • 腎主納氣,肺雖司呼吸,但腎有納氣的作 用;如腎虛而致呼吸困難,動則氣喘,稱 為「腎不納氣」。

78


79


Prof. L-Y Sheen â&#x20AC;˘ Ginger Tea, Coconut and Water

80


Prof. Sheen’s food study background • In Traditional Chinese Medicine, foods are separated into typically three groups, hot, cool, and neutral. • Coconut juice: Cool • Ginger tea: Hot • Water: Neutral • All in room temperature 81


Demographic Data Drinking Type

Coconut juice (250cc) Ginger Tea (250cc)

Water (250cc)

Number

8

8

2

Age

27.3Âą5.4

27.3Âą5.4

23.5

Female

6 (75%)

6 (75%)

2 (100%)

Measuring Time: from 08:00 to 14:00 Measured at 0-, 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 270 minutes. Control Type: Water (Room temperature) Measuring Scenario: Neither drink nor eat during the experiment

82


Coconut juice

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 83


Ginger tea

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 84


Water

心=Heart 肝=Liver 腎=Kidney 脾=Spleen 肺=Lung 胃=Stomach 膽=Gallbladder 膀胱=Bladder 85


Time 0-, Same group, different date Harmonic

P-value

Coconut Mean Coconut SD

Ginger Mean

Ginger SD

0 Heart

0.005

5.57E+06

2.25E+05

4.68E+06

7.34E+05

1

0.246

7.87E+05

3.02E+05

5.74E+05

3.96E+05

2

0.490

3.64E+05

1.77E+05

3.04E+05

1.63E+05

3

0.791

1.76E+05

7.03E+04

1.64E+05

1.10E+05

4

0.524

1.03E+05

4.95E+04

8.71E+04

4.56E+04

5

0.178

7.84E+04

2.83E+04

5.57E+04

3.54E+04

6

0.515

5.35E+04

1.65E+04

4.44E+04

3.46E+04

7

0.438

3.50E+04

1.14E+04

2.86E+04

1.97E+04

86


Time 10 minutes Harmonic

P-value

Coconut Mean Coconut SD

Ginger Mean

Ginger SD

0

0.082

5.51E+06

2.70E+05

5.01E+06

7.11E+05

1

0.066

8.11E+05

3.62E+05

4.98E+05

2.59E+05

2 Kidney

0.045

4.00E+05

1.98E+05

2.20E+05

1.23E+05

3

0.211

2.03E+05

9.33E+04

1.41E+05

9.68E+04

4

0.076

1.26E+05

5.45E+04

7.85E+04

4.51E+04

5 Stomach

0.048

9.97E+04

3.33E+04

6.15E+04

3.75E+04

6

0.086

6.78E+04

2.93E+04

4.15E+04

2.78E+04

7 Bladder

0.023

5.84E+04

3.45E+04

2.48E+04

1.40E+04

87


Time 30 minutes Harmonics

P-value

Coconut Mean Coconut SD

Ginger Mean

Ginger SD

0

0.143

5.50E+06

9.60E+04

5.16E+06

6.22E+05

1 Liver

0.005

7.89E+05

2.84E+05

3.89E+05

1.97E+05

2

0.057

3.47E+05

1.29E+05

2.18E+05

1.20E+05

3

0.832

1.57E+05

6.74E+04

1.48E+05

1.12E+05

4

0.646

7.78E+04

4.35E+04

6.80E+04

4.07E+04

5

0.217

6.87E+04

2.77E+04

4.73E+04

3.76E+04

6

0.111

5.62E+04

2.41E+04

3.59E+04

2.34E+04

7 Bladder

0.006

3.81E+04

1.14E+04

2.00E+04

1.11E+04

88


Time 60 minutes Harmonics

P-value

Coconut Mean Coconut SD

Ginger Mean

Ginger SD

0

0.010

5.40E+06

4.24E+05

4.75E+06

4.48E+05

1

0.009

6.84E+05

3.53E+05

2.89E+05

1.15E+05

2

0.017

3.29E+05

1.39E+05

1.78E+05

7.98E+04

3 Spleen

0.085

1.63E+05

9.41E+04

9.48E+04

4.37E+04

4

0.027

1.09E+05

5.67E+04

5.23E+04

3.15E+04

5

0.014

8.91E+04

4.99E+04

3.56E+04

2.08E+04

6

0.028

6.52E+04

3.72E+04

2.83E+04

2.08E+04

7

0.012

5.35E+04

3.48E+04

1.66E+04

1.03E+04

89


Discussion • Data tendency for Coconut juice and Ginger tea are significantly different in 10mins and 30mins. • Since all tests started from 8am, long term tendency change may cause by time and Biological clock. • Ambient air temperatures should be considered. 90


子午流注 Midnight-Noon Ebb-Flow Flowing Meridian 流注經絡

Time (hr)

Flowing Meridian 流注經絡

Time (hr)

足厥陰肝經 Shaoyin Liver Meridian of Foot

01-03

手太陽小腸經 Taiyang Small Intestine Meridian of Hand

13-15

手太陰肺經 Taiyin Lung Meridian of Hand

03-05

足太陽膀胱經 Taiyang Bladder Meridian of Foot

15-17

手陽明大腸經 Yangming Large Intestine Meridian of Hand

05-07

足少陰腎經 Shaoyin Kidney Meridian of Foot

17-19

足陽明胃經 Yangming Stomach Meridian of Foot

07-09

手厥陰心包經 Jueyin Pericardium Meridian of Hand

19-21

足太陰脾經 Taiyin Spleen Meridian of Foot

09-11

手少陽三焦經 Shaoyang Sanjiao Meridian of Hand

21-23

手少陰心經 Shaoyin Heart Meridian of Hand

11-13午時

足少陽膽經 Shaoyang Gallbladder Meridian of Foot

23-01子時

91


Discussion â&#x20AC;˘ How high is normal? â&#x20AC;˘ High amplitude means Strong or Inefficient?

92


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Approach Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

93


Conclusion

Big Data are needed to investigate the relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Mainstream Medicine.

94


Outline • • • • • •

Background Goal Method Latest Programs and Results Conclusion Future work

95


Future Work â&#x20AC;˘ To verify the linkage between functions of organs and harmonic with Big pulse data.

96


Thank You for Your Listening

97


中醫理論 • • • • • • • • •

氣 陰陽 五行 臟腑 經絡 望聞問切 辨證論治 四氣五味 君臣佐使 98


陰陽 • • • • • •

Positive feedback Negative feedback 背為陽,腹為陰; 外為陽,內為陰; 上為陽,下為陰; 動為陽,靜為陰;

99


交感神經 sympathetic 副交感神經 parasympathetic • 交感神經與副交感神經的神經纖維在不同 的地方離開中樞神經系統:交感神經從脊 椎胸椎到腰椎的部位;副交感神經則從腦 及薦椎的部位。 • 交感神經分之又稱為胸腰分支,副交感則 稱為腦薦分支。 • 在交感和副交感神經分支中,其節前及節 後神經元間主要分泌的神經傳導物質都是 乙醯膽鹼。 100


交感神經 sympathetic 副交感神經 parasympathetic • 交感神經系統對各器官的功能根據所支配的器官不同而異,但有兩個 主要的特點: 1.交感神經興奮時伴有機體能量消耗的增加。 2.在危急時交感神經興奮:例如交感神經興奮使心血管活動亢進 (心率增快、心臟收縮力量增強、血壓升高)、血液循環加速、腎上 腺素分泌與肝糖原分解增加,血糖升高,支氣管平滑肌抑制使呼吸道 氧吸入增加,這些反應均有利於將更多的營養物質與氧攜帶到骨骼肌, 提高其工作效率,並可加速將組織的代謝產物運送到排泄器官。 • 副交感神經 • 副交感神經分支到達所支配的器官,發揮其不同的功能,但總的 特點是減少消耗、保存能量,且作用的部位較局限。例如使心跳減慢、 血壓下降、消化活動加強等;使交感神經活動加強後的器官功能引向 正常功能水平。 • 總之,交感神經系統和副交感神經系統兩者之間相輔相成,共同 使內臟功能處於一個適中的程度,即一個正常機能狀態。

101


102


五行

103


臟腑 • 五臟: 肝、心、脾、肺、腎 • 六腑: 膽、小腸、胃、大腸、膀胱、三焦? – 三焦: 廣義的血液循環系統?

104


經絡 • 是人體中聯絡臟腑與肢體,運行氣血的通 路,大者為經脈,經脈的分支為絡脈。血 行脈中,氣行脈外。

105


望聞問切 • 望是觀察病人的身體狀況,包括面色、舌 苔等; • 聞是聽病人的說話、咳嗽、喘息,並嗅其 口中或身上是否有異味; • 問是詢問病人癥狀,以及患病史等; • 切是用手把脈或按腹部診察是否有異常。

106


辨證論治 • 即將望、聞、問、切四診收集到的資料、 癥狀和體征,通過分析、綜合,辨清疾病 的原因、性質、部位、以及邪正之間的關 係,概括、判定為某種性質的「證」,以 探求疾病的本質,從而得出結論,並在此 基礎上確定治療原則與具體治法。

107


四氣五味 • 寒、熱、溫、涼四種藥性 • 辛:一般味道辛辣(如薑)或辛涼(如薄荷、 冰片),用來發汗、解氣。 • 甘:一般味道甘甜(如甘草、小麥),有緩和、 滋補作用,也被用來調和藥性。 • 酸:有收斂作用,被用來止汗、止瀉。如烏梅、 五倍子。 • 苦:有瀉火、清熱、燥濕、通泄作用。如大黃、 蒼朮。 • 鹹:有瀉下通便、散軟化堅作用。如芒硝。 108


君臣佐使 • 君藥是針對主病或主證起主要治療作用的藥物。其藥力 居方中之首,用量亦較多。在一個方劑中,君藥是首要 的,不可缺少的藥物。 • 臣藥有兩種意義: – 是輔助君藥加強治療主病或主證的藥物。 – 是針對兼病或兼證起治療作用的藥物。

• 佐藥有三種意義: – 佐助藥:協助君臣藥加強治療作用,或直接治療次要兼證。 – 佐制藥:消除或減緩君臣藥的毒性和烈性。 – 反佐藥:與君藥性味相反而又能在治療中起相成作用。

• 使藥有兩種意義: – 為引經藥,引方中諸藥以達病處。 – 為調和藥,調和諸藥的作用。 109


0 Human Heart • Normally with each beat, the right ventricle (右心室) pumps the same amount of blood into the lungs that the left ventricle pumps out into the body.

110


111


Output of Right Atrium = Input of Right Ventricle = Input of Pulmonary Artery = Output of Pulmonary Vein = Input of Left Atrium = Output of Left Ventricle = Input of Aorta

112


1 肝臟 (Nutrition and Storage) • 肝臟血液有1/4來自肝動脈,來自心臟的動脈 血輸入肝臟,主要供給氧氣,進入肝臟後分為 各級分支到小葉間動脈。 • 肝門靜脈是肝的功能血管,肝臟血液有3/4來 自於肝門靜脈, 把來自消化道含有營養的血液 送至肝臟「加工」,其血流為減氧血,肝門靜 脈進入肝臟後分為各級分支到小葉間靜脈。 • 通過肝臟的每單位血流量與左心室出血量相同

113


肝臟 (Nutrition and Storage) •

合成 – –

胺基酸的合成 糖代謝: • • •

– –

蛋白質代謝 脂質代謝: • •

– – –

膽固醇(Cholesterol)合成 脂肪生成,三酸甘油酯(脂肪)生產。

早期在孕的胎兒,肝臟是主要紅血細胞的生產者。 生產胰島素樣生長因子1(insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)) 主要的血小板生成素(thrombopoietin)的生產者。血小板生成素是一種糖蛋白激素,可調節生產血 小板的骨髓。

分解 – – –

葡萄糖新生 糖原分解 糖原

胰島素和其他激素。 肝臟分解血紅蛋白,造成代謝物,添加到膽汁的色素(膽紅素和膽綠素)。 肝臟將氨轉換成尿素。

其他功能 –

存儲大量的物質,包括葡萄糖,維生素A(1-2年的供應量),維生素D(1-4個月供應量),維生素 B12,鐵和銅。

114


糖原(glycogen) • 又稱肝糖、動物澱粉。 • 是人類等動物儲存糖類的主要形式。 • 主要分為肝糖原和肌糖原,是一類多糖, 由葡萄糖失水縮合作用而成。 • 主要生物學功能是作為動物和細菌的能量 儲存物質。人體主要儲存在肝臟和肌肉中。

115


葡萄糖新生 • (Gluconeogenesis)指的是非碳水化合物 (乳酸、丙酮酸、甘油、生糖胺基酸等) 轉變為葡萄糖或糖原的過程。 • 葡萄糖新生保證了機體的血糖水平處於正 常水平。 • 葡萄糖新生的主要器官是肝。 • 腎在正常情況下葡萄糖新生能力只有肝的 十分之一,但長期飢餓時腎葡萄糖新生能 力可大為增強。 116


2 腎臟 (Clean, Balance and React) • • • • • •

分泌尿液,排出代謝廢物、毒物和藥物 調節體內水和滲透壓 調節電解質濃度 調節酸鹼平衡 內分泌功能 通過腎臟的每單位血流量與左心室出血量 相同 117


3 脾臟 (buffer) • 內部可分為紅髓(red pulp)及白髓。紅髓的 主要功能是過濾和儲存血液,由脾索及血竇組 成,但因為其不含輸入淋巴管,所以脾臟不能 過濾淋巴的功能。而白髓的主要功能則為對抗 外來微生物及感染。 • 平時一部分血液滯留在血竇中,當人體失血時, 血竇收縮,將這部分血液釋放到外周以補充血 容量。血竇的壁上附著大量巨噬細胞,可以吞 噬衰老的紅血球、病原體和異物。 118


4肺 • 當空氣通過嘴或者鼻子被吸入後,會通過 口咽、鼻咽、喉頭、氣管和逐漸分化的支 氣管和細支氣管,並最終到達肺泡,在那 裡將發生二氧化碳和氧氣的氣體交換過程。

119


5胃 • 一般水只需10分鐘就從人胃排空,糖類食 物需2小時以上,蛋白質排空較慢,脂肪更 慢,混合性食物需4~5小時。

120


6膽

121


7 膀胱 1. 人類泌尿系統: 2. 腎, 3. Renal pelvis, 4. 輸尿管, 5. Urinnopeary bladder, 6. 尿道 7. Adrenal gland 8. Renal artery and vein, 9. Inferior vena cava, 10. Abdominal aorta, 11. Common iliac artery and vein 12. Liver, 13. Large intestine

122


人體胃腸道: 1=食道,2=胃, 3=十二指腸, 4=小腸, 5=盲腸, 6=闌尾, 7=結腸, 8=直腸, 9=肛門

123


8 大腸 • (拉丁語:Intestinum crassum)是脊椎動物消 化系統的最後一部分。大腸的作用是從腸道內 剩餘的可消化物質中吸取水分與電解質,將剩 餘的無用部分形成糞便並作暫時儲存以及最終 排出糞便。 • 大腸包括盲腸、結腸、直腸以及肛管,始於骨 盆右髂骨處,即腰的右側或略低於腰的右側, 在那裡大腸銜接在小腸之後,在橫貫腹腔後向 下彎折延伸至直腸與肛門處。 • 大腸的長度約為1.5米,直徑約6.5厘米,是整 個腸道長度的五分之一 124


8 大腸 • 在盲腸的內後壁上連接著闌尾的一端,闌 尾內主要是淋巴組織。由於闌尾內部存在 黏膜層淋巴組織,因此闌尾對於人體的免 疫來說十分重要。 • 盲腸向上延續為升結腸,下部有一孔通闌 尾,同升結腸交接區的內壁有回盲瓣,有 防止大腸內含物倒流的作用。

125


9 三焦 • 根據《素問·靈蘭秘典》:「三焦者、決瀆 之官、水道出焉。」遍佈在人體胸腔及腹 腔,是血氣、津液運行至五臟六腑的途徑, 故此,三焦與其他腑器不同,並無實體, 它們的明確位置亦有不同的說法及見解。

126


10 小腸 • 分為以下三部分: – 十二指腸(拉丁語:Duodenum) – 空腸(拉丁語:Jejunum) – 迴腸(拉丁語:Ileum)

• 被消化的三類物質主要是蛋白質、脂質和 碳水化合物

127


腦 • 形態學上分成下列結構: – 大腦 • • • • •

額葉 頂葉 枕葉 顳葉 島葉

– 小腦 • 蚓部 • 小腦半球

– 腦幹 • • • •

中腦 橋腦 延腦 間腦 – 視丘 – 下視丘

128


腦 • 含有約140億個神經細胞約佔腦細胞十分之 一,剩餘的九成稱為膠質細胞。 • 膠質細胞有為神經細胞提供營養,形成髓 鞘增進傳導速度,等多種功能。

129


淋巴系統 • 是循環系統的一部份。淋巴系統是由淋巴,淋巴管與淋巴結所 組成。 • 身體的組織和微血管之間,靠著靜水壓以及滲透壓的關係,微 血管中的血液和組織中的組織液會取得平衡,也就是血液中一 部分的液體會在組織中成為組織液。 • 組織液進入淋巴管之後就是淋巴液,是清澈水狀類似血漿的物 質。 • 小的淋巴管密佈在大部分組織的細胞之間,逐漸匯集,並且經 過一些淋巴結。 • 身體的所有淋巴液,最後分別匯集到胸管以及右淋巴管。 • 右上半身的淋巴流向右淋巴管,其餘流向胸管。 • 右淋巴管注入右鎖骨下靜脈,胸管最後匯入左內頸靜脈和左鎖 骨下靜脈的交會處,而淋巴液就進入血液,由心臟血管循環全 身。 130


131


Acupuncture theory â&#x20AC;˘ Preferential flow of charge at the meridian was documented by a study of the Large Intestine meridian. [Lee J, et al., 2003, Characteristics of human skin impedance including at biological active points, IEICE Trans. Fundamental Electron Communication Computer Sci. E86-A(6): 1476-1479.]

132


Polarization (waves) • Polarization is a property of waves that can oscillate with more than one orientation. • Electromagnetic waves, such as light, and gravitational waves exhibit polarization; • sound waves in a gas or liquid do not have polarization because the medium vibrates only along the direction in which the waves are travelling. • By convention, the polarization of light is described by specifying the orientation of the wave's electric field at a point in space over one period of the oscillation. When light travels in free space, in most cases it propagates as a transverse wave—the polarization is perpendicular to the wave's direction of travel. In this case, the electric field may be oriented in a single direction (linear polarization), or it may rotate as the wave travels (circular or elliptical polarization). In the latter case, the field may rotate in either direction. The direction in which the field rotates is the wave's chirality or handedness.

133


Polarization on rubber thread. (Circularly â&#x2020;&#x2019; linearly polarized standing wave.)

134


拔罐 • 能局部輕度破壞微血循環,借經絡重建, 該局部組織新陳代謝,恢復健康。

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穴位敷貼 • 有關穴位敷貼藥物以保健治病的載述,最早可以追溯到 湖南長沙馬王堆三號漢墓出土的帛書《五十二病方》。 • 針對秋冬季易有氣喘、過敏性鼻炎、或上呼吸道反覆感 染之民眾,利用溫熱性藥物外敷特定穴位,以減少秋冬 季時發作的機會。 • 三伏天指的是每年夏至之後的第三庚日稱為「初伏」, 第四庚日為「中伏」,立秋後第一個庚日是「末伏」, 合稱為「三伏天」。一年之中三伏天人體陽氣最旺,清 朝開始就有利用三伏天天氣炎熱、毛孔全開,以刺激性 藥物塗敷在穴道,藉而提高免疫力和治病。

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穴位敷貼 • 三伏天穴位敷貼藥丸是將白芥子、細辛、延胡索、 乾薑等辛溫、逐痰、溫陽、通絡的藥物,研成細末, 用生薑汁調成膏狀,敷貼於背部俞穴上(肺俞、心 俞、膈俞、脾俞、腎俞等),用膠布固定,每次貼 二至四小時。 • 使其局部皮膚自然充血、潮紅或起泡。利用三伏天 炎熱氣候,在人體特定的穴位上敷貼以辛溫、逐痰、 走竄、通絡的藥物,利用藥物陽氣的疏通,達到溫 陽利氣,驅散內伏寒邪,使肺氣升降正常,溫補脾 腎,溫肺散寒,增加人體抗病能力。

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