POCH E of DESIGN â„– 3 ( W I N TER) 20 1 3-20 1 4
ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN: SUPERIOR, UNUSUAL & EXITING
Secrets of Belfast Castle
Special project: unusual temples of the world
Terem-house or Russian style in the XXI century GERMANY:
yesterday & today
Ladies and Gentlemen!
We start erasing borders of the ordinary...
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FROM THE EDITOR
Dear friends! Dear readers!
e continue our travel on the boundless Universe of designers Imagination, embodied in unique architectural projects, home decoration and the daily things, making our life brighter and intriguing.
We devoted our winter number to Germany. To the country with the richest history, interesting traditions, in its own way fantastic and tempting. As many German cities, thanks to the unique architectural shape, forever remain in our hearts as islands of a cosiness, harmony, true beauty and perfection. We didn't avoid also traditionally German design, which has given to the world an impulse in development of such popular direction as minimalism, because nothing attracted people more than inspiration to make their life more comfortable, rationally using available opportunities. We also continue to tell you about the unusual ideas, interesting people, our contemporaries, who creatively and with enthusiasm approach their goals. Our magazine comes out now in the Russian-English version, that certainly will allow many fans of the fine abroad to join audience of our edition. We want to wish you in New year 2014 â€“ progress, wellbeing, creative life & realization of the most courageous plans & hopes! And we, in return, will try to be interesting to you! Inessa MAYN
EPOCH of DESIGN
№ 3 (WINTER) 2013-2014
Publisher LLC «Viva Art Media»
Edition: Editor-in-chief Inessa Mayn
Director of development Elena Gorbunova
Literary editor Oleg Scherbakov
The head of department of work with architects Sergey Afanasyev
religion and architecture
12 THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY TEMPLES OF THE WORLD: HISTORY AND CONTEMPORANEITY project
TEREM HOUSE, OR RUSSIAN STYLE IN THE 21ST CENTURY
20 LIGHT, COLOR, COMFORT 34 RENE CAOVILLA BOUTIQUE
Art director Elena Konkova
Advertizing and PR department Irina Budanova Isabella Polonskaya Sergey Afanasyev Designer, prepress preparation Dmitry Polikarpov
Edition address: 105066, Moscow, Olkhovskaya St., 12 Ph.: +7 (495) 726 55 34, +7 (495) 728 46 25 E-mail: email@example.com, www.vivaartmedia.ru Founder: LLC Viva Art Media Adress: 111033, Tamozhenny Drive, 8, к.1
42 PIRATE BRIG FOR TWO CAPTAINS 70 COUNTRY HOUSE IN PROVENCE STYLE news
32, 33, 37, 47
Certificate on registration of PI No. TU50-01557 Full or partial reproduction of texts and photos without written permission of the publisher is forbidden It is printed: «Viva Star's» printing house Moscow, Elektrozavodskaya St., 20 Design No. 3 ED (winter) 2013-2014
The Epoch of design magazine is registered by Federal Service for Supervision in the Sphere of Telecom, Information Technologies and Mass Communications (Roskomnadzor)
26 MYSTERIOUS CAMBODIA: TEMPLE OF GODS
Circulation is 25 000 copies. Price free The advertiser bears responsibility for compliance of advertizing materials to requirements of the legislation on advertizing
38 LEGENDS, MYSTERIES AND MAGIC OF THE BELFAST CASTLE
riddles of ancient civilizations
44 RIDDLE OF MOHENJO-DARO. A CITY, DESTROYED BY NUCLEAR EXPLOSION 4,600 YEARS AGO? 50
50 GERMANY: SO FAR AND SO CLOSE. NATIONAL TRADITIONS, ARCHITECTURE, SPECIAL ASPECTS OF DESIGN 48
psychology of the interior
76 SHOW ME YOUR HOUSE AND I WILL TELL YOU WHO YOU ARE
OR st IN THE 21 CENTURY Architect: Natalya Lomeyko
The Russian style – or pseudo-Russian, as it is sometimes called – emerged in the second half of the 19th century as a way to address national identity, so it features prodigious use of elements of Ancient Russian architecture. The decorative details and ornaments are borrowed from such art forms as embroidery, woodcarving and ceramics. From the early 20th century the Russian style got a new development as a part of the then-prevailing Modernist style.
s a designer I find it very important to find out what someone really needs to make him or her get the silent but clear signal «You’re home» from everything surrounding him, once he comes home. This time my talk with the owner of the future house took all of five minutes, but it made clear at once how the future creation would look. The customer conveyed the main thing – his attitude to home, to family – with just a few words: «Not a manor, but Tsar Berendey’s house. Russian style… A stove, a fireplace, a heavy staircase…» And first I saw before my mind’s eye Bilibin and Vasnetsov’s paintings, and then came hundreds of sketches and various ideas so that this house could appear, fairy-tale like, in the early 21st century, allowing us to return brieﬂy to childhood. Taking into account the client’s wishes, I had a diﬃcult task ahead of me: combining luxury with Russian national color. It is a risky thing to build a Russian-style house: you might end in the abyss between kitsch and cheap imitation. And this danger is always present when there no perfect sense of style and at the same time no ironic attitude to style, no sense for how much you can change the form without losing its conceptual and style interpretation. The walls, the beams, the columns, the stairs should become the architectural skeleton of the building and at the same time an element of the interior decoration attracting the eye. I am always intrigued by a project where you can start creating the interior decoration scheme starting from large spatial solutions and then moving from the general to the special, to the elements of the decoration. I wanted to create a true ancestral home, as if there had been a family living there for a long time, so I needed to avoid the sense of a newly built house. Following the owner’s desire, the interior decoration scheme used elements from Russian fairy tales. This led to many unusual solutions. The ceilings of the rooms have been paneled with pinewood boards and hand-painted. No rooms have identical ceiling patterns. The patterns are deliberately blurred, that is, artificially aged. Such a method of decoration actually creates an impression of an old building. The Dutch tile in the resting room has no clear layout pattern and also looks as if the old tiles which had fallen oﬀ long ago
had been replaced by similar-looking ones. To create a fireplace based on the works of the 13th century masters, several thousand patterned handmade ceramic tiles were ordered, with the pattern for each of them being unique and not repeated on any other tile. This fireplace turned out so fine and beautiful that it looks like a porcelain box. The tile production took many tryouts at the factory to check the shape and the shades. The four sides of the fireplace symbolize the four seasons, so the shades change, and each side has its own panel. The carvings on the stairs, the painting of the walls and the bedroom ceiling were also done by hand by the artists, based on the 13th-17th century frescoes. To select accessories we turned to the archives where we found depictions of ancient interiors and furniture. Almost all the furniture has been custom-made. As a result, we managed to create a true terem with unique interiors which give both the hosts and the guests a sense of being in a fairytale and a holiday mood!
TO SELECT ACCESSORIES WE TURNED TO THE ARCHIVES WHERE WE FOUND DEPICTIONS OF ANCIENT INTERIORS AND FURNITURE. ALMOST ALL THE FURNITURE HAS BEEN CUSTOM-MADE.
No longer a problem! We help to understand the world! Today, when borders are more and more illusive, transportation to almost any part of the world takes only a few hours, and a purchase may be made over the Internet, without rising from the table, the need for foreign language knowledge is as vital as never before. You are lucky if your basic English makes it possible for you to feel confident in a dialogue, but, among other things, you surely would not translate on your own documents supporting purchase of real property. Or you may be an owner of a large company entering a new market and wish to attract millions of potential Spanish-speaking consumers. It is common knowledge that Spanish today is the second popular language in the world and is used by altogether about 400 million speakers around the globe. In either case, you will need a reliable partner able to help you with translation of documents. And here, like in any business, it is important not to make a mistake when choosing a partner. The translation industry in Russia is still not fully formed, and it appears that everybody translates, and that everybody does it well. Is that really so? Surely not. It is advisable to trust and share responsibility only with a large and successful translation company that would be able to translate, adapt and, whenever required, legalize your documents promptly, with high quality and at a reasonable price. There are few such companies in the market, but they exist. One of such companies is TLS Translation Agency. The agency provides a full range of services and over the last 13 years of its presence in the market has gained confidence of clients and earned respect of competitors. The mission of TLS is reflected in the following sentence: «We do not just provide a service – we support your business». Over the years of successful work, the team of exerts of the TLS Translation Agency has formed a translator database which is unique in terms of volume and considered criteria; that is why the Agency’s managers today say with pride: «We may translate a document of any level of difficulty from any language within the shortest period of time possible». «We really have no preferences as to the languages or translation fields, – says Commercial Director of TLS, Elena Lapu-
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RELIGION AND ARCHITECTURE
THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY TEMPLES OF THE WORLD:
HISTORY AND CONTEMPORANEITY
Text: Inessa Mayn
There are very many temples of various styles and confessions built in the world. Some of them deserve particular attention, as they for some reason or another are set apart from thousands of alike constructions. It’s about them that we want to tell you…
SAINT AUGUSTIN CHURCH, PHILIPPINES The church walls are 1.67 m thick. Construction started in 1704 and completed in 1894. The church architecture was designed to resist earthquakes that occur in this part of the world. The church was damaged as a result of earthquakes in 1706 and 1927. The design is a mixture of the Gothic, Baroque architecture and the Eastern trends.
LIVERPOOL METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL, GREAT BRITAIN The cathedral was initially designed as the second large in the world as opposed to the already existing Liverpool Anglican Cathedral. But financing problems resulted in four alterations in the construction design and has practically nothing in common with the initial design.
HALLGRÍMSKIRKJA, ICELAND This church so extraordinary in appearance situated in the Reykjavik center is the fourth high Iceland’s erection and the largest one. Its height achieves 74.5 m, and there is an observation platform at the height of the tower offering a circular view of the city. Its appearance, according to designers, must remind of geysers that are so numerous in Iceland. The temple construction lasted for a sufficiently long time, from 1945 to 1986.
CHURCH IN HIGUEY It resembles a basket and is one of the most venerated sights in the Dominican Republic.
CATHERDAL OF SAINT BASIL THE BLESSED The well beloved Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed. The church that, along with the Kremlin, has long ago turned into the symbol of Moscow and Russia was build in 1555-1561 at the order of Ivan the Terrible in honour of Kazan conquering and victory over the Kazan khanate. The cathedral author is not known exactly. According to one of the versions, it was the Pskov master Yakovlev, the other version says that it was a Western European architect (most likely, an Italian one). The legend implies that the Russian tzar ordered to blind the creator of the cathedral so that he couldn’t construct anything more beautiful.
RELIGION AND ARCHITECTURE
DUOMO, ITALY Milan Cathedral. One of the largest cathedrals in the world and the second large by capacity after the Saint Peter’s Dome in Rome. The cathedral construction started in 1386, lasted for 600 years and was completed only as late as the beginning of the XIX century, when at the order of Napoleon façade decoration was terminated.
CRYSTAL CATHEDRAL, USA This protestant church in the Californian town Garden-Grove is practically fully made of glass and by its form it reminds of the four-pointed crystal. About 12 thousand glasses were used for construction, and inside there is the world largest organ with 16 thousand pipes.
KOSTNICE, CZECHIA The finery of this Czech church situated on the skirts of the Kutná Hora town is completely made of bones, which gave to this church the name of the Kostnice or Ossuary. The church was built in the territory of an old cemetery closed in 1870 and its interior is made of bones of about 40 thousand people who had been buried here. The author of the church, a semi-blind monk František Rint was charged with the task to «put in order» the territory of the cemetery. It is for this purpose that he sorted the bones by size and form, washed and bleached them and then used for the church decoration.
MAGNIFICENT UBUDIAH MOSQUE built under the design of an Indian architect is situated in the KualaKangsar city (Malaysia), a residence of the Perak sultanate. The mosque is situated at the Bukit Candan hill and is thought to be one of the most beautiful in the country.
ST.GILDAS CHAPEL, BRITANNY, FRANCE It was built on the cliff headlands on which Saint Gildas who travelled in all corners of the Celtic world, Ireland and Scotland, allegedly stopped to have rest. He arrived to Brittany approximately in 540 and is told to have preached Christ in these parts of the world till his death.
LIGHT CHURCH OF MODERN DESIGN, FOLLINO, ITALY The construction designed by architects is absolute geometry of colour, space and light. The light penetrates in the church horizontally and vertically, maintaining the dialogue with the sky.
SAGRADA FAMILIA, SPAIN The creation of Antonio Gaudi is one of the most famous objects of construction in progress in the world. Started in 1882, the construction is scheduled to be completed in 2026, by the 100th anniversary from the death of the great architect. But the construction time was so many times changed that nobody believes in the newly fixed date. Gaudi himself in response to the question why the cathedral construction takes so much time — and he directed its construction for more than forty years — answered: «My customer is not in a hurry».
EL SANTUARIO DE LAS LAJAS IN COLUMBIA It was built in 1916 inside the canyon of the Guaitara River, where, as the legend goes, lady Mary appeared.
RELIGION AND ARCHITECTURE
CHURCH — GOREME RUINS, TURKEY In the Cappadocian valley, where this church is constructed it is popular to use soft rocks of the cliffs for construction of houses, churches and monasteries.
CHURCH IN STYKKISHÓLMUR, ICELAND It is interesting by its unique architecture reminding of the iceberg fragment.
ZIPAQUIRA CATHEDRAL, CUNDINAMARCA, COLUMBIA An underground church built in the tunnel of a salt mine. In order to descend to the church one has to pass 14 small chapels that represent Passions. The underground sanctuary has three sections symbolizing birth, life and death of the Christ. The first salt cathedral was consecrated in 1954 but due to technical problems and on safety grounds the authorities closed the sanctuary in 1990. This church was built in the period from 1991 to 1996 20 meters below the old sanctuary.
MONUMENTALITY GROWING FROM STONE Well-defined and laconic forms and lines of the chapel stress the heavenly force against the background of eternal and no less perishable stony mountains.
DEVICE TO ROOT OUT EVIL, CALGARY, CANADA This project seemed too challenging for New-York and for Stanford University, in particular. Nevertheless this sculpture but not the building of the famous artist Dennis Oppenheim at last found shelter in Vancouver. The church balanced on the spire, is upturned by invisible forces that, according to the authorâ€™s design, turned this church into a device to root out evil. In 2008, the sculpture moved from Vancouver to Calgary.
NOTRE DAME DU HAUT, RONCHAMP, FRANCE Somebody thinks that the roof of this building looks like Elvis Presleyâ€™s hairdo. During the rain, water flows down the inclined roof in waterfalls.
RELIGION AND ARCHITECTURE
LAERDAL, NORWAY This church, perhaps, is quite an ordinary construction for the North-Eastern Europe in the medieval times. In our time you can find them only in Norway. There is another one in Sweden. It was built at the end of the 12th century and didn’t change its appearance despite the minor reconstruction.
GREEN CHURCH, BUENOS-AIRES, ARGENTINA The parish church is more widely known as Huerto de Olivos or «Olive Garden».
SAN-SEBASTIAN CATHEDRAL The strangest and the most extraordinary cathedral not only in Brazil but in the whole Catholic world is situated in the very heart of Rio de Janeiro. From outside it looks a bit gloomy resembling Egyptian or Aztecan pyramids by form. The inside part of the cathedral strikes with its splendor and the singularity of the interior.
WOT RONG KHUN IN THAILAND Is a temple symbolizing the paradise. Its author and creator is the artist Chalermchai Kositpipat who combines in his works traditional Thai motives and contemporaneity. Each sculpture is unique and has its sacramental sense. The temple symbolizes the paradise. To enter it, one has to pass the bridge representing the transition from the regeneration cycle to the tenement of Buddha. The artist painted the walls in his favorite style. Combination of legends and cosmos, mystics and reality of our days, the future. Rockets and cars, phones and laser rays are masterfully intertwined with national motives.
CHURCH IN HUNTINGTON-BEACH, CALIFORNA, USA It is notable by the sign of the well-known Shell Corporation on its façade, the logotype of which seems to feel it quite comfortable on the wall of this charitable institution. THE CHURCH OF TRANSFIGURATION OF CHRIST ON KIZHI ISLAND The unique creation of Russian wooden architecture masters of the beginning of the XVIII century. Creation of this masterpiece required artistic taste, construction talent and practical wisdom, ensuring longevity to the construction that till our days embodies the brilliant design. All difficult constructions were made by an axe, by the nail-free technique. The legend says that one of the temple creators was Nestor who threw his axe in the Onega Lake and said: «It has never been, is not and won’t be!»
THE ECKERD COLLAGE WIREMAN CHAPEL, FLORIDA, USA Key peculiarities of this church are extraordinary octagonal openings, with a round orifice in the roof center, through which the sun light enters directly the sanctuary center.
SAINT HEDWIG CATHEDRAL is the key catholic temple of Berlin and the residence of archbishop. The neoclassic building was erected in the time of the Frederick the Second ruling in the XVIII century. The cathedral construction took 26 years — from 1747 to 1773 and it became the first Catholic Church in the territory of Germany. The architect Georg von Knobelsdorff designed it in the image and likeness of the Roman Pantheon. The construction attracted many Catholics from the Upper Silesia to the city, therefore the church was named after the Saint Hedwig who is the saint protectrix of Silesia and Brandenburg.
LIGHT, COLOR, COMFORT Architect: Irina Nikulina
This project of a two story house near Moscow was intended for a married couple whose lifes and work are very much connected to travelling. They started by buying a ready-made house project from one of the companies, offering such services. Usually such projects very rarely present a layout both well-executed and well thought out; therefore, when the box had been already built, the customers realized they wanted to change the initial project, apportioning the space in a way convenient for them. At this stage the customers contacted me.
believe I was lucky with this project, since I had enough time for designing, and it is one of the key factors to create an interior which is interesting and well thought out. To often the customers only contact you when it’s already time to start construction works, or even interior decoration works, and ask you to give out the drawings even before the greater part of the interior is planned. This is wrong, and this leads to alterations and adjustments during construction and, therefore, to additional expenses. Each designer, starting on a new project, wants to create something new, interesting, without repeating his method and copying interior decoration schemes from one customer to another, and it is only possible when there is time and possibility to “carry” the interior to development, when the main concept and idea have already acquired a shape in your mind, got more or less specific forms and silhouettes, when you see it in your mind; then it’s time to transfer it from this abstract
state into something more tangible and understandable for the customer. The other factor where I was lucky is the trust and understanding: as they say sometimes, we found each other in the professional sense. The customers practically gave me a carte blanche in my work. One of their main requests, besides a more convenient layout, was the use of color in interior decoration. The customers also did not want to use wallpapers or other materials with complicated and diversified patterns; this is why I mostly used paint for the walls. It was necessary to avoid a pale and characterless design scheme, based on beige and light watered-down shades. The interior should characterize its protagonist inhabitants, introducing them to the audience or the guests, to reflect their interests, individuality and style, it should breathe, live on, include the chance of transformation and change in the future. The first space we enter is the
hall, which serves as a calling card for the whole house. The walls here have intense but not annoying shade of a complicated deep color. The cabinets look exotic; their décor reminds us of a tortoiseshell; there are a lot of figurines and interior decorations brought by the owners from their travels, butterflies, pineapple-shaped lamps, the walls are decorated with interesting panels – it feels like we’re in the jungle. However, it would have been a mistake to develop similar solutions for all the other rooms. For example, further on we move into the kitchen/dining room and the sitting room – this is a common integrated space, very light and sunny: it has many windows, the walls are practically white, but nevertheless the interior does not feel barren. This was
achieved thanks to the complicated pattern on the floor and the dĂŠcor, the color spots. For each room I took one color as a basis and then played with its derivatives. For example, the guest bedroom has a very active wall at the headboard of the bed, which was inspired by one of the Italian furniture plants. The headboard uses an intense emerald green, and all the other walls are a soft olive color. The interior should not be overloaded, it should have a place to rest your eye, but the constant calm is also wrong: this is why you can only choose a bold and intense solution for one wall in the room interior, and the other ones should be restoring the balance. All in all, the guest bedroom is the most bold room in what concerns the design, but this is acceptable for such a room â€“ it has many unusual objects, things to study and things to surprise the guests. The interior, like everything else, needs appropriateness and applicability of methods, materials and designer solutions used. Another feature of this house are the windows: we decided to step aside from the initial project and to make those with low windowsills,
practically down to the floor: because of this the interior includes more light and air. The owners’ bedroom is implemented in a calm light turquoise color range, no complicated structures on the ceiling – and in the whole house; everything is fairly simple and laconic. But at the same time it’s not boring, the symmetrical planning is diluted by the headboard décor: here we decided to have a bit of fun to avoid a determinedly classical mood of the interior. The room was fairly big, and we decided to place the wardrobe room also within the bedroom, therefore avoiding the need to put up bulky wardrobes. Altogether the freestanding wardrobes are probably the least favorite furniture object for the customers, so everywhere where it was possible I planned various maintenance and utility spaces, storage and wardrobe rooms: under-stairs space, laundry room, a whole attic room given up for storage space. The small hall on the second floor also turned out fairly cozy: from the usual barely functional space it turned into a full-fledged restroom, where you can sit in peace, read a book or just think. Since all the second floor is intended for the owners’ personal rooms, you can be sure you won’t be disturbed here. So, here’s a combination of color, light and comfort!
UNIVERSITY IN ENGLAND Wilkinson Eyre Architects constructed a building of the local university Forum in Exeter in the south of Great Britain. The Queen of Great Britain Elizabeth the Second honored the opening of this unique architectural and landscape complex rated at £48 mln. with her presence. The Forum is a new center of academician and social life of the university situated on the Streetham campus the territory of which is noted by a difficult undulating relief. But architects brilliantly managed to benefit from this natural peculiarity. Due to landscape irregularity they formed two compositional centers of the complex connected between each other by terraces, pedestrian ways, arch-like esplanades and other public spaces intended for study, leisure and communication in the open air. The upper part of the forum includes a student guild building, a laboratory and seminar block and a conference hall for 400 seats. The space is organized as a passage, i.e. a covered pedestrian street on the sides of which cafes, shops and bank branches are planned. The conference hall outside surface is made of bricks and the arched facades are equipped with
panoramic windows offering campus view. The roof over the upper part of the complex is truly a unique structure designed by Buro Happold engineers. It covers the territory of 3,500 sqm without internal support elements that could hamper the traffic in the internal street. It is one of the largest wooden roofs in the world.
«BIRDS NEST» IN THE CENTER OF PEKING This unusual stadium, which carries the name «Birds nest» became the fruit of creative efforts of the international team of architects and an incredible structure, which does not have analogs in the world! It was built for 2008 Olympics in Peking. The giant sizes and structural complexity, constituting 42 tons, and that it can accommodate 91,000 spectators impress us! This is the biggest Olympic stadium in the history of China. During the first meeting of architects in 2003 at Basel, the group decided to do something new. «China wanted to have something new for this very important stadium», — declared Li Syangan. The team studied Chinese ceramic to design the stadium, which was porous and being a collective building, public vessel. This train of thought led the team to the «nest scheme» which by itself is a unique structure.
Temple of gods Text: Inessa Mayn
This Cambodian temple, built for the king Suryavarman II in the early 12th century, is in its way a work of art with a rich history. Angkor Vat was the capital of the Khmer state, used as a king’s residence. It survived better than the other buildings of the city, so from its foundation it kept being a very important religious center – first for Hindu believers of the god Vishnu, and later for the Buddhists. The temple is an example of the classic style of the Khmer architecture unique for its beauty. Moreover, Angkor Vat is the symbol of Cambodia, depicted on the country’s national flag; this temple is the main landmark of Cambodia, attracting many tourists into the country.
he most notable feature of the temple is that it combines two main directions of the Khmer temple architecture: temple mountain and the later tiered temple. It was created as a symbol of the mythical Maru mountain which in the Hindu mythology serves as the gods’ home. The temple is surrounded by a moat and an external wall of 3.6 km in length, within which the rectangular galleries are located, rising one above another. In the center of the temple there are four towers, four at the corners and one in the center. Unlike other Angkor temples, Angkor Vat looks west; the academics and researchers have various opinions on this, but there is a hypothesis that such direction of Angkor Vat is because this temple was dedicated to Vishnu, who was associated with the West. The grand and harmonious temple architecture, many amazing bas-reliefs and endless devatas (protector spirits) decorating the walls of the temple are truly amazing. No less interesting is the story of creation of this masterpiece. The works on designing and building the temple began in the first half of the 12th century during the rule of Suryavarman II (who ruled from 1113 to
1150). Angkor Vat, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, was a capital and was used as the royal land temple. Since no stele with writing or any other kind of writing of that period about Angkor Vat has been found, the original name of the temple is unknown, but it could have well been named Vrah Vishnulok in honor of the top deity. The construction of Angkor Vat was finished about the time the king died, but some bas reliefs were left unfinished. In 1177 Angkor was occupied by the Chams, the Khmersâ€™ long-standing enemies. Later the empire was restored by new kind Jayavarman VII, who chose a new capital and territorial temple (Angkor Thom and Bayon correspondingly) which were located several kilometers to the north. In the 14th and 15th century the temple began to be used by the Buddhist monks of the Theravada school, who inhabit it to our days. Compared to the other Angkor temples Angkor Vat is also unusual because, despite partial neglect, since the 16th century it was never fully abandoned. Maintaining the temple was an obligation of the monks because, among other things, the moat along the perimeter created a certain protection from the advancing jungle. One of the first Western visitors to Angkor Vat was the Portuguese monk Antonio da Magdalena, who visited the temple in 1586 and called it â€œan amazing creation of human hands, which is impossible to describe on paper, especially since this temple is unlike any other building in the world. Its towers and fine paintings are a pinnacle of human genius.â€? But despite this, the temple only became popular in the West in the mid-19th century thanks to the publication of the travel journals of the naturalist Henri Mouhot. This is what
the French researcher wrote about Angkor Vat: «One of these temples, able to compete with Solomon’s temple and erected by some ancient Michelangelo, could have taken up its place among our most beautiful buildings. It is more majestic than anything left to us from the Greeks and the Romans, and offers a sad contrast to the barbarian condition in which the present-day state is stuck.»
Mouhot, like other Western researchers, could not believe that the Khmers managed to build this temple, and mistakenly placed it approximately within the period of existence of the Roman Empire. The true story of Angkor Vat was recovered little by little only with the aid of stylistic and epigraphic evidence collected during the later works on reconstruction and cleaning of the whole of Angkor. In the 20th century, large-scale recovery work was needed in Angkor Vat, mainly consisting in clearing off unnecessary soil and plants. Regretfully, the works were interrupted by civil war; in 1970s-1980s the Khmer Rouge seized the power in the country, but the temple was relatively little harmed in that time; the post-Angkor statues suffered a lot more, being either stolen or destroyed. The temple has long become the symbol and national pride of Cambodia and is acknowledged as National Architectural Heritage by UNESCO.
RESIDENTIAL BLOCK MAKES ALL FAMILY HAPPY! A five-member family from Australian Melbourne decided to tackle the residential space deficit in the original and environmentally friendly way. Andrew Maynard Architects bureau assisted in implementation of the design having expanded and renovated the appearance of their customers’ house. The annex was called a «Hill House». And old house and a new annex were connected by a long corridor going through the enclosed green garden. This is what these Australians are.
FABULOUS FOREST BY BRUNO TORFS All we come from childhood and sometimes want to believe in wonders and fables that our caring parents and grandparents used to tell us. To find oneself in a fabulous forest and to meet its secret, nearly alive inhabitants is not so difficult, one has only to cross «seas, oceans, and mountains of Buyan island…» and to land on a miraculous shore where not everyone happens to be. It’s situated in Merisville in Australia. The sculptural world created by Australian artist and sculptor Bruno Torfs was arranged among the trees and became the personification of one of the fables that came alive. His rich imagination allowed embodiment of the most extraordinary ideas, gave life to
phenomenal characters that, in their turn, turned the ordinary forest in the truly magic world. Bruno settled his characters in various and most unexpected places of the forest country. One can meet that in the most conspicuous places as well as in the lurking sites of the forest. Some garden sculptures are so organically adapted to the environment that an impression is created that they were miraculously sent here by nature herself.
THE EXCLUSIVE JOY COLLECTION BY BALDI HOME
MINI MASTERPIECES AT YOUR HOME
Jewels аre made in partnership with the Industrial Design faculty of the University of Florence. A new collection that stands out from traditional Florentine motifs, the Joy Collection's collectibles are a result of young designers points of view that take Baldi into the world of contemporary design. Its modern twist is expressed throughout colourful crystals fused together to create a unique and edgy product. The Joy Collection is the first collection to be made with new digital technology developed by the university and the company's joint studio in 2012, and later used on traditional artisan techniques.
One of the most ancient techniques of applied arts is mosaics. It’s mosaics that helps creating a truly exclusive interior which emphasizes the customer’s status and sophisticated taste. The design sketch for a panel is developed manually, taking into account the factory’s color palette, and the attention to detail allows achieving results closest to the original sketch. And this is very important, since it lets the customer understand what he’s getting in the end. Glass and stone mosaics have a huge potential. In the hands of talented architects and designers they become a powerful tool to create masterpieces of interior design.
UNIGUE & WONDERFUL...
All the Baldi collections tell of precious items, at a crossroad between the richness of the past and lightness of contemporary languages, products which freely draw on styles and fashions, historical materials and decors, arriving at a home full of luxurious atmosphere, to be savoured slowly with taste. One of the last and most involving challenges of the company has been the restoration and decoration of a 1895 gran
piano by Bechstein ( the company was established in 1853) by Carl Bechstein. Beauty through the eyes, and emotion through the sound: an unrepeatable connection, combining the inestimable value of antique, with the looks of Baldi.This combination comes as a challenge in merging the spirit of a Florentine maison with the historical appeal of a century old instrument, which left its own mark in the history of music.
TAIPEI TO BECOME WORLD DESIGN CAPITAL IN 2016
SOCIAL EVENING TANIT-JACUZZI-GESSI During the exhibition I Saloni in Moscow, TANIT together with Jacuzzi and Gessi organized a social evening at MODERN INTERIOR MUSEUM saloon. Friends and partners of TANIT, leading designers and architects of Moscow, and a multitude of beautiful and talented people had gathered. As per tradition, the guests were welcomed with classic music performed by the charismatic trio Arfasound. The girls, like goddesses, captivated by the beauty of their music and mastery of playing on musical instruments. The scenario was bright and saturated with live music replaced by ballet. Charming girls in ballet shoes and several young people presented to the guests the new swimwear collection
from the famous brand Grishko. The culmination of Jacuzzi show was the draw of the main prize viz. Vespa scooter from Jessi. The bright laser show-program of the violinist Alex Violin at the end of the evening sent all those present into raptures.
LATEST OFFERS FROM MASCA «Interior Theatre» became the official dealer of the famous Italian factory MASCA. About thirty real objects of art from this company are already stored at the company’s saloons: chandeliers, lamps, lamp bracket, mirrors, and bracket lighting fixtures. The new luxurious chandelier collection from this noted factory shall be available from January.
The International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID) named Taipei the world design capital for 2016 at the concluding stage of the competition for this title. Taipei presented a campaign under the slogan «Adaptive city. Design in movement», by concentrating attention to the role of design in improving urban life quality. Twenty projects were offered to strengthen the ties between the designers, public & sponsors. In the forthcoming two years large projects be carried out in Taipei, which shall include reconstruction of elementary school, caused by fall in birth rate, new city museum at Taipei Expopark, creation of more picturesque urban landscapes, more comfortable and reasonable public bus stops etc. Earlier Turin, Seoul and Helsinki were declared as world design capitals. In 2014, Capetown shall become the world design capital.
CANELLA FACTORY MAKES FURNITURE FOR AN EXCLUSIVE HOTEL OF 2014 WITNER OLYMPICS Hotel Grand Polyana is one of the prestigious hotels of winter Olympic games. The next XXII winter Olympic games, which will be held in Sochi (Russia), should be held surrounded by Valencian furniture decoration. During the celebration of this international significance event, which will take place from 7th to 23rd February 2014, world leaders, authorities of power
and members of IOC will assess the quality of furniture, made by Canella, which is located at Picassent, by merit. Hotel Grand Polyana, being one of the most luxurious hotels in Sochi, has been furnished with furniture from this Valencian Company, which designed the equipping of furniture and installation of some considerable parts of this exclusive hotel.
Rene Caovilla BOUTIQUE
Architecture and decoration by Elena Kornilova
The concept for this luxury footwear boutique was inspired by the idea of a museum jewelry exhibition. Sparking diamonds are exhibited on a dark background and only backlit by spotlights which focuses the attention on them alone. Rene Caovilla shoes are something you’d wish to compare with jewelry; this is why my idea was to create a kind of a «jewel-case» for their presentation. I tried to treat the history of the brand with due care; this is why I decided on classicalstyle architecture and geometry of the boutique, with plaster cornices along the ceiling, mouldings on the walls and a capital around the column, creating a symmetrical space. The center of the composition is a group of couches with a splendid chandelier with Murano glass pendants and a tapestry in the center. When choosing the color for walls and ceiling I used shades of grey as a basis to create a perfect calming background for the exhibition which includes not only shoes but also art objects, antique furniture, numerous mirrors and drapery. The walls of the boutique are decorated with paintings by Italian artists. A tapestry woven based on the designs of Venetian artists gives the interior a palace look.
SHOW ROOM AT
One of the last Francesco Molon show rooms was set up in an old Venetian palazzo, situated on the crossing of narrow streets and Venetian channels, not far from the Campo San Polo and the famous Rialto Bridge. Palazzo Bernardo was the residence of the noble Venetian family Bernardo. Built in the 15th century, it kept its original painted frescoes, which were done later, in the 17th century, by the students of the Venetian school of Gianbattista Tiepolo. The English writer John Ruskin in his work The Stones of Venice extolled the greatness of Pala-
zzo Bernardo as the second Venetian palazzo by its importance after Palazzo Ducale: ÂŤ...of the finest kind, & superb in its effect of colour when seen from the side.. But taken as a whole, I think that after the Ducal Palace, this is the noblest in effect of all in VeniceÂť. Recently the palazzo has been fully restored and returned to its original beauty and greatness of a noblemanâ€™s residence from the times of the Venetian Republic. The rooms are decorated by architectural details and genuine frescos, returned to their original magnificence thanks to the craft of art conservation which allowed keeping their original color scheme.
LEGENDS, MYSTERIES and magic OF THE BELFAST CASTLE Text by Inessa Mayn
T Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland, situated in the county of Antrim, can boast a long history. The territory in the estuary of the river Lagan has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, which is evident by the Giant’s Ring, a stone henge near Belfast. At the same time these lands were not very friendly. The lowlands were much swamped, and the first inhabitants preferred settling on the hills, which played a huge role in the history of the city. In later centuries peat was extracted on their slopes for kindling the fireplaces, and the Monday after Easter the inhabitants of the city gathered near one of the hills called Cavehill for a noisy celebration. Until the Middle Ages the role of Belfast in Irish history was almost negligible. But in 1177 Anglo-Norman troops arrived here, led by John de Courcy who built a castle on the site of today’s Castle Street.
oday’s Belfast castle has an amazing history! And not just the castle itself, but also the place it stands on. Four centuries after its construction, in 1611, the Norman castle was replaced by a new structure made from wood and stone. This new castle belonged to Sir Arthur Chichester, Baron of Belfast. But a century later, in 1708, the castle perished in the fire. But this was not the end of the castle. In 1862 the third Marquess of Donegall decided to restore the castle and turned to the architect John Lynn for help. In 1870 the architect erected a new castle, which now belonged to Donegall. However, the construction expenses became a serious drain on the Marquess’s finances; he had to renounce the possession of the castle, which went to his son-in-law Lord Ashley, who took upon himself to finish the construction works. After some time, in 1934, Lord Ashley and his wife Сonstance, known for their charity work, gave the castle to the municipality of Belfast. Truly a noble act! The castle is famous not just for its history, but also for its unique garden with a sparkling fountain set in its center. If you look at this typical English garden from above, from the top floors of the mansion, you can see the outline of a Celtic cross with a circle set in its middle; it’s in the center of this circle that the fountain is playing, looking like an emerald from above. All this splendor is completed by an intricate ornament created from flowering plants. As any other ancient castle, the Belfast castle has its own traditions and its sym-
bol of prosperity. The patron of the Donegall family is a white cat. There is a legend stating that as long as this animal lives in the garden, the house and its inhabitants will have luck and prosperity. This is why there are nine cats at once in the garden of the castle. It is suggested to the visitors of the castle that they make a wish and try to find the images of all the nine cats on the territory of the garden. The Irish sincerely believe that the lucky man who manages to find all the nine depictions should expect not just the fulfillment of the wish he had made, but also a new life’s companion – luck in everything! Such a belief in cats for the Irish has its roots in the Celtic origin of these people, because the Celts thought cats to be sacred animals symbolizing freedom and independence, and also prosperity and good luck. Here’s a little cue for everyone who wishes to visit this magical place: the cats unite all the corners of this amazing garden. Even if you do not believe in the power of the Belfast cats, the Belfast castle will not leave you indifferent – there are lots of things to see and to be amazed about!
THE CASTLE IS FAMOUS NOT JUST FOR ITS HISTORY, BUT ALSO FOR ITS UNIQUE GARDEN WITH A SPARKLING FOUNTAIN SET IN ITS CENTER
FOR TWO CAPTAINS
Architect: Veronika Chashchina
his project was created for two teenagers and I felt confused on hearing that we need a «pirate» interior. It was strange that parents impose such a cruel topic upon their children. Personally, I don’t even buy toy pistols to my son. And the pirates are robbers, people beyond the law! So I decided to replace the pirate theme with the marine one. And since I love English vintage style, it seemed to me a great way out, because all the famous pirates are British and vintage accessories send us back to the past and help creating not the direct quotes from the pirate theme, but the indirect ones.
However, the customer, having complimented me for my first «marine» sketches, expressed hope for the opportunity to add «more pirates» to the interior. There was no way out. I began to study extracts from Jack Sparrow movies and photos of the actors wearing costumes. And gradually I was fascinated by the topic. I remembered myself reading Stevenson and Sabbatini pirate novels and books about the great sailors over and over, and searching through all the bookstores for a map of the Atlantic Ocean undercurrents to understand some navigation combat maneuvers of Captain
Blood. Yes, as a child I was also fascinated with the stories about pirates and Indians. So I was able to put myself in the place of these boys and to see their childhood in a different light. That’s when the presence of the skeleton in the room, which was demanded by their father, did not seem excessive to me. By the way, in spite of my childhood fascination with pirates, I grew up to be an honest, law-abiding citizen. And I’m happy for those boys who will dream of the seas looking at the lights of the large frigate on the wall of their «real» cabin.
RIDDLES OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
RIDDLE OF MOHENJO-DARO
A CITY, DESTROYED BY NUCLEAR EXPLOSION 4,600 YEARS AGO? Text by: Oleg Shcherbakov
Nuclear explosion in the times, when man lived, according to our belief, quite primitive? Rubbish, utter rubbish – you would say… Such a thing does not fit in our system of knowledge about human history. Our reasoning power refuse to accept such a version of event development But…facts are stubborn things, they say that many things that we know about our history, can turn out to be not true. An example of this is the mysterious destruction of the city of Mohenjo-Daro more than four and half thousand years ago on the territory of contemporary Pakistan.
ohenjo-Daro is one of the mysterious ancient cities, found by the archaeologists. This city was located on the territory of current Pakistan and was founded about 2600 B.C. The city was the center of a mighty civilization, and we have inﬁnitesimal information about it. MohenjoDaro, a contemporary of the early civilization of Egypt and Pyramid of Cheops, existed for about thousand years, and then was abandoned by the local residents and completely deserted. The riddle was posed to scientists by the ﬁrst study of Mohenjo-Daro conducted in
the 20’s of the past century by the British expedition headed by John Marshall. A cosmopolis with proper layout, majestic temples, complicated system of canals and bunds and even available water pipeline, does not ﬁt in the framework of the centers of human civilization existing then. It excelled everything that was found in Egypt and Sumer. Moreover, it remained unclear, why the ﬂourishing city was suddenly abandoned by its population and fell to complete ruin within several months. The main hypothesis, explaining the destruction of the city, it is under-
RIDDLES OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS
stood, was the barbarian invasion. Nevertheless, these archaeologists discarded it as untenable. A multitude of skeletons was found in Mohenjo-Daro, but none of them had traces of violent death from the use of cold arms. There were no sheared heads, nor cuts on the bone. Moreover, no fragments of weapons were found in the ruins of the city that would have been characteristics of the battle that took place here. The hypothesis of destruction of the city by ﬂoods or epidemics was also discarded, failing to ﬁnd the slightest archaeological substantiation. The riddle of the destruction of Mohenjo-Daro is yet to be resolved. However, recent studies of the ancient city allowed two scientists Jace Davenport and Enrico Vincenti to put forward a completely incredible hypothesis. In their opinion, Mohenjo-Daro was the casualty of nuclear explosion. In substantiation of their hypothesis of the city’s destruction, Davenport and Vincenti give satisfactory evidence. Multiple fragments of melted stone buildings were found. The experiments showed that such melting of stone could have taken place at temperature no less than 2000°C, which is not attainable by ordinary ﬂame. Moreover, pieces of green glass, being the result of sand and clay melting, have been strewn all over the city’s territory. Precisely the same chunks of glass are formed dur-
ing nuclear explosion in the desert that was conﬁrmed by explosions in the American range in Nevada. The level of Mohenjo-Daro destruction demonstrates the characteristic picture of nuclear explosion. There is a well-deﬁned epicenter, where the destruction is utmost. With oﬀset from the epicenter the destructions of buildings subside, and at the periphery is completely absent. Looking at the excavated city from the top, one can actually see how the shock wave of nuclear explosion propagated. The skeletons, found in large quantities, conﬁrm the hypothesis of Davenport and Vincenti. The radiation level in their bones exceeds usual norm by tens of times. Indirectly the analysis of ancient Indian Epics, primarily Mahabharata, conﬁrms this hypothesis, which contains multitude of fragments, tumbling out of ideas common for that period. Many texts from Mahabharata in fact describe the use and consequences of the use of nuclear weapons, set forth in lay terms then. Is it not by chance that the ﬁrst legends, that formed the basis of Mahabharata, be-
gan to be conceived after the destruction of Mohenjo-Daro? Had not the catastrophe that took place about three and half thousand years ago become the catalyst of creating the descriptions from the ancient Indian epic that boggles our mind, like this: «complete darkness extended on the whole horizon. Hurricanes and whirlwinds rose, carrying disaster and destruction. Thousands of domestic and wild animals and tens of thousands of people were incinerated by the terrific explosion, farmers, city dwellers and warriors dived into the river to wash away the intoxicated dust…» The past holds many riddles. About 150 years before no scientist believed in the existence of Homeric Troy. May be, today we stand on the threshold of the discovery of new, unknown ancient civilization, which perished in the nuclear ﬁre. In conclusion, it should be said that the tragedy of this city, is obviously not the only one. The traces of such destructions are found in different parts of our planet. What happened to people then, who are we in fact, from where we are and where we go.. There is trigger for thought…
Muebles Canella AMAZES WITH NEW AUDERE COLLECTION
The manufacturer of elegant Italian furniture Canella presented their new collection Audere by Canella at the international furniture exhibition held in Milan. With this newly designed product, the Valencian Company aspires to conquer the young audience, simultaneously, strengthening its status at the international markets of presence, such as Asia, Russia and Eastern European countries that constitutes 80% of the turnover. The highest quality and modern design inherent to the company as well as enhanced comfort and luxurious lightness, intended to create atmosphere of comfort and give the house noticeable overtones of elegance and sophisticated taste of its owners, are characteristic for the new collection.
SAN PAULO PHONE BOOTHS Brazil is the country not only of bright colours, carnivals, beautiful girls and tasty coffee but of original designer solutions and buoyancy as well in things one would think ordinary and customary.
Such original phone booths decorate the appearance of Brazilian San-Paulo. And it seems that there is no end to the inexhaustible fantasy of this public property! Just see a booth in the human brain form, without mentioning merry manikins and other variations on life subjects.
NORMAN FOSTER INTRIGUES...
MILWAUKEE BIRD A unique arts museum is situated in the Michigan Lake in the American Milwaukee, that at first sight can be taken for some gigantic fabulous white bird. Arts exhibitions have
been held in Milwaukee since 1872. In 1882, they were organized in the local exhibition hall. Soon after it, Alexandra Mitchell donated her collection for construction of the first permanent art gallery in the city history. The author of this wonder is Santiago Calatrava.
Norman Foster Bureau constructs a new residential complex Faena House in Miami-Beach. It is a 24-floor building and 47 apartments, equipped with additional terraces that smoothly rotate around the building. The urge of the humanity to have comfortable dwelling, seems to turn into the desire to derive the maximum entertaining effect.
GERMANY: SO FAR AND SO CLOSE
Text by Inessa Mayn
Архитектор и декоратор Елена Корнилова
NATIONAL TRADITIONS, ARCHITECTURE, SPECIAL ASPECTS OF DESIGN Germany is a country with rich history that still causes a storm of conflicting emotions. But that is its advantage too. Because thanks to its interesting and diverse historic and cultural heritage together with congenial climate and developed economy Germany is far from taking the last place by popularity among European countries with its annual consistently high tourist and immigrants traffic.
There are lots of customs and traditions in Germany, some of them are common in certain Lands only, that are so called local traditions, and others are similar not only within Germany itself, but in many European countries as well, where such traditions originated from and are considered to be all-European ones. For example, the customs to decorate the Christmas tree and to find hidden Easter eggs are derived exactly from Germany. The Oktoberfest is a traditional Bavarian holyday, but it became well-known worldwide, so that millions of tourists visit Munich every year to dive into the atmosphere of this unforgettable festival. This tradition of celebration arose relatively recently, that is on October 12, 1810, when the Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig was married to the Saxon Princess Therese. In contempt of all rules the Royal Couple invited everybody who wanted to celebrate their marriage, that is why about forty thousand Munich's locals took part at the events which were held over five days. The next year the people decided to celebrate the anniversary of their wedding, and ever since the annual celebration of this wonderful tradition became the custom and only some time afterwards the festival started to be considered as a beer and an all-German one. Among the most lovable and hallowed holydays in Germany we know the St. Martin's Day as well.
This feast is celebrated in Germany every year on November 11. It all began from a legend about St. Martin, which reads as follows: Martin being a Roman soldier took pity on a man in the street and gave him in piercing cold a half of his warm coat, thereafter Martin decided to dedicate his life and acts to people. This tradition is common to Germany, Austria and Switzerland, because St. Martin committed his pieties on the territories of these three countries. Traditionally children with flashlights in their hands walk along the streets of the night town generally singing songs. The traditional dish of this day is a goose. The Day of German Unity is the national day of Germany celebrated every year on October 3 since 1990. In 1990 the German Democratic Republic was officially joined to the Federal Republic of Germany that used to be separated by the Berlin wall in the time of the cold war. Ever since this peaceful unity of the nationality is celebrated to remember the past hard days of disruption. The Winter Carnival held in February in catholic regions of Germany is also known as «Fastnacht» or «Fasching». It is celebrated particularly merry and on a big way in the catholic regions of Germany. The carnivals in Munich and Cologne are known worldwide. The beginning of the festivities – Weiberfastnacht – is one of the Thursdays of February, the participants are women only. They dress as witches, fair hucksters, hellcats. The men when walked into a restaurant risk to
walk out without clothes – the women grown very merry can joke that way. However the Rosenmontag – the February carnival parade – is considered to be the main event of the celebration. It is similar to a demonstration: the traffic is stopped in the central streets of the city, and dressed clowns, princesses, kings, barons, various orchestras, girls despite the weather dressed in short carnival dresses, are riding the decorated vehicles for several hours straight. All people sing, shout greetings, throw confetti, candies to the crowd of viewers, give plastic cups of beer and wine. The procession finishes somewhere on the large square of the city with greetings of the participants and a concert. The next day, Tuesday, children dress up already in the morning and simply come so dressed to school. The end of the carnival is on Wednesday, Aschermittwoch. The name «ashy Wednesday» speaks itself: the too active carnival participants have headache the morning after. The next day, Thursday, begins with the strict fasting – «Fastnacht», that will end only in 40 days with the Easter. Despite the taste of Germans to consistently improve and modernize, they set a high
value on their old cultural traditions. Many hunters still wear green clothes, chimney sweeper walk around in coal black suits and cylinders, some Bavarian women don so called dirndl (a dress with a rectangular neckline, a close buttoned body, short sleeves and a wide tucked skirt), while their men often dress traditional Bavarian leather shorts (Lederhosen), short jackets (Loden) and felt hats. In their everyday lives the Germans are generally ordinary, although in the north of the country, where Protestantism is predominately professed, there are less national traditions than in the south known for its beer cult. However the Germans have a dual attitude toward clothes. On the one hand they, like most Europeans, want their clothes to be sensible and functional. The youngsters are particularly permissive for that matter, they prefer T-shirts and jeans. On the other hand clothes is the sartorial statement of a profession. Businessmen wear suits and ties of severe tones. It is customary for formal receptions to specify the advisable dress code, often that are tail-coats or tuxedos which can be borrowed. But in all cases the
determining factor in clothing selection for a real German will be comfort and tidiness. The timber framing is the landmark of Germany. Even those who are not familiar with this term are likely to remember that almost in every town they saw houses with white facades crossed by dark horizontal, vertical and diagonal timbered inserts. Such houses were built in different countries, but none of them has so many fachwerk houses as Germany â€“ about 2.5 millions! People have built them everywhere since 12th century. The golden age of the timber framing style falls within the 16th century. The style development was influenced by such architectural trends as the Gothic, the Baroque, the Renaissance. The timber framing facades built in the Renaissance period are decorated with ornamental elements: rosaces, shells, Acanthaceae leaves, coronals, garlands, vases with flowers. From the Baroque the timber framing has allegoric figures and high frontons with heavy cartouches at edges.
The German architecture experienced all metamorphoses from the grand Romanesque style to the monumentality of buildings in the Third Reich, but in whole it is distinguished by splendor and uniqueness. In the period of the developed Middle Ages the Romanesque style was replaced by the Gothic. Thereby Germany gave to the world many remarkable buildings of exceptional beauty, many of which were added by the UNESCO to the list of world cultural heritage of humanity. Many catholic cathedrals, that may differ in size and the time of construction, add special loftiness and completeness to the architectural image of Germany. Among the most famous ones there are the Cologne Gothic Cathedral, the Imperial Cathedral of St. Bartholomew (Frankfurt), Ulm Minster (Ulm) and many others. The Revival influenced on all branches of art and cultural activity.
This period in Germany is marked by the development of the Renaissance along with the timber framing. Beautiful monuments of this style adorn many cities and towns, and the best of them are declared by the UNESCO to be the cultural heritage of humanity. The Weser Renaissance is particularly interesting as a form of this style with appropriate national spirit. The notion «Weser Renaissance» itself (germ. Weserrenaissance) was first mentioned in 1912 by Richard Klaptschek in the book «Old Westfalia». Typical elements of this architectural style are represented in the richly decorated frontons with columns, with cut diamond-like stones and snailform decorations, in ornamental masks and heads scaring ghosts away, in boards with arms and inscriptions, and foremost in ornate loggias. The Weser Renaissance is the north-German variant of one of the important trends of the Italian architecture.
Freiburg â€“ city of old houses, night pedestrians and eternal love... As if gesture of gods makes the bow in the form of gentle water
We can admire this original style of construction in its unity and integrity generally in Hameln, Muenden, Goettingen, Hanover, Freiburg and other cities and towns. Germany is incredibly beautiful with its small towns where there is a special atmosphere of the Middle Age and some fabulousness and apartness. Freiburg established in 1120 is one of these amazing towns. It is worth to mention that the history of all old towns is closely interlinked with legends, Freiburg is also no exception. Legend has it that the great humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam and the gunpowder inventor Berthold Schwarz used to live in this town. But the name of the town is connected not only with lofty matters and ammunition. It is said that such nice things beloved by anyone as cuckoo clock and the famous. Black Forest cherry cake with whipped cream were also invented exactly here. Besides, as the locals believe, the forest is the place for witches, sorcerers, gremlins and other characters of legends and fairy tails of the Ancient Germany. Maybe that is why Freiburg, which is situated in
the foothills of one of the most beautiful mountains Schwarzwald (Black Forest), is notable for some special fascinating and magic atmosphere. It is difficult to safe say whether the Freiburger are particularly hearty because the sun shines more often here than in other regions of Germany, or vice versa this plenty of sunshine is a reward for their open and lustrous disposition. But it is not deniable that the life in the southernmost German town is beautiful! Freiburg is famous not only with its hospitality, but also it is among the most splendid historic centers of Germany. Water laps sprightly in shallow channels laid in parallel to the sidewalks: these are the well-known Freiburg Baechle (germ. runnels), the integral part of the historical center of the town. Experience the stirring past and cultural events of Freiburg, its lots of cafes and intimate beerhouses, fine cuisine of Baden and picturesque surroundings and feel the atmosphere of lightness and carelessness reminding the Mediterranean one.
See it for yourself walking through the busy historical center. In the Muensterplatz there is the 116 meters high tower of the town's gothic cathedral being an outstanding monument of the German sacred architecture. By the way, the Muensterplatz is the largest square of the town, and every day except Sunday there is the public market there. Freiburg is also famous for its University hospital which has a rich history and unsurpassed traditions of the German quality of services. One thing is for sure: after visited this wonderful town you never stay untouched!
Schwarzwald (German Schwarzwald – «the black wood») – is a massif in the State of Baden-Württemberg in the southwest of Germany. For inhabitants of Schwarzwald characteristic features are: original traditional dresses, special local architecture and kitchen. Besides, as locals consider, the wood is a house of witches, sorcerers, fairies and other heroes of legends and fairy tales of Ancient Germany 61
Traveling Germany you may not overlook the German traditional design based upon clean finished lines, strife for functionality and maximal comfort, that is certainly characteristic for Germans themselves. Historically the «Biedermeier» style appeared in Germany and Austria in the middle of the 19th century as an attempt to adopt the «dying» Empire style to small spaces of private dwellings. Parquet floors, moldings, heavy furniture, porcelain and bronze – that are the required elements of the house decoration of that time. But decent size of the dwellings prescribed to host guests, take food and read books in one and the same room. Such multifunctionality of one space led to the houses became overloaded with various things making them more similar to the scenery than the living spaces. And after just over half of a century the painter and the architect Walter Gropius established the School of Arts «Bauhaus» in Weimar that laid foundation to the epoch of minimalism and functionality.
The Braun corporation was the first who began to use the «Bauhaus» ideas in manufacture of its products. The «Bauhaus» specialized in architecture, interiors, furniture, and the Braun corporation produced electric appliances, but the motto was common: efficiency and functionality. Ever since the minimalism became the predominant feature of the German design – nothing in excess, but in high quality.
The German style suits for pragmatic people. Furniture and other interior items are not characterized with decorative peculiarities, everything looks solid and functional. In the houses there are flowers on the window stools because the Germans like them very much. They are also present in decor. In the rooms treated in the classic German style there are no bow windows or niches, added partition walls and structures. As a
rule, a German house is full of light – the Germans use any chance to let as much sun as possible into the house. It is worth to say that that were exactly them who invented the «skylights», so popular now large windows in the roof of a country house. The roof windows are the German classics now. Quiet and warm shades, subdued and soft colors prevail in the German interior. It is customary to combine high lights with the dark timber floor. It allows you to pay special attention to distinct lines of interior items. A German style interior is also notable for beautiful furniture with curved lines and comfortable rooms with family portraits on shelves and tables, everything is clean and tidy, functional and usable. The furniture in the German interiors has severe proportions and forms – «clean» lines, aesthetic expression combined with the high quality of performance. This style is marked by bureaus, shelf stands, comfortable but not ostentatious armchairs and sofas. The functionality of German furniture is brought to perfection. One of the latest traditions: the seatbacks and cushions have special mechanisms embedded which let them transform into various positions. Bedroom furniture follows the traditional German style as well, the design of a bedroom is notable for laconism and seeming simplicity. Despite different variations of the German design – the German classics and the German modern – there is always a possibility to create a finished interior of a bedroom and bring harmony into the integrated space. The German style of a bedroom aims solely at the creating of positive emotions and good sleep. It is practically impossible to find original elements in the German style furniture, there are traditionally severe concepts and natural materials only. An interior in the German style demonstrates big preference to flowers. Particularly flowers became a perfect decorative element in all German interiors. They can be seen not only in vases, but also as houseplants. Such combination of the nice natural beauty and the German pragmatic features can astonish, but it creates great interiors delighting the eye.
The German interior of the new generation is the maximum of space. In most cases a huge attention is paid to the kitchen which becomes a separate ÂŤislandÂť of taste and comfort within the living space of the house. But generally the main principle of the German style stays the same: functionality and forethought in everything, even in details.
That is just what Germany is... So far and so close at the same time. Though among many peculiarities of national cultures and characters we can always find something for ourselves, something very familiar and tuned in to our souls. However Germany is no doubt worth to visit it for the first time and for those who already did it, to come back again!
fable from SPODE
Always long-awaited and each time unforgettable, Christmas comes to all continents lighting up towns and streets by multi-colored lights, giving smiles and fulfilling our cherished dreams. The holiday that both children and adults love best is full of magical mystery and fabulous wonders. Anticipating holiday amusements and family tablefuls we try not to miss the minutest detail to create the exclusive atmosphere of the coming New Year and Christmas. We try to use traditional holiday attributes and fantasy together to create a happy fable of our own. Each thing in this holiday mess has its specific importance and significance because this is a guarantee of the real festivity and our good mood. And the festive table at which all the family will gather requires not only dainty dishes but exquisite decoration including nice layout and décor. The New Year Collection «Christmas Tree» by the famous British brand Spode is designed especially for the Christmas table. The company is named after its founder Josia Spode and has been famous since 1770. The master became widely known in 1784 when he improved the process of azure enamel application from manually engraved copper plates to the crockery. And at the very end of the XVIII century Spode made the most significant discovery in the history of the porcelain industry – he developed the bone china formula. The talented master was the first to gain the right to supply goods to the British Royal House. The bone china that became one of the greatest achievements was acknowledged the best material for dishware and at all times excites admiration and great desire to touch. Each product of the company stands out for gracefulness of forms, the finest translucent material, snow whiteness and amazing brightness of the image. Today it’s not only classic porcelain that the company produces, Spode also cooperates with such famous designers as Nick Monroe. The unique design of the Christmas Tree collection was developed in 1938 and today it enjoys outstanding popularity in the whole world. Each year the appearance of this Christmas collection cheers up and inspires to make the festive table the most gaily decorated. The chief decoration of all set items is an exuberant Christmas tree with multi-colored toys sparkling on its branches. This New Year collection includes sets for layout of a dinner table, a coffee and a tea set, as well as cutlery, accessories and interior design items. Ceramic handles of spoons and forks, dessert knifes and cake slicers are decorated with the image of the Christmas tree. Separate objects of the Christmas Tree collection, as well as the set itself, might be a nice gift to relatives, friends and colleagues. One can collect a splendid New Year set from items one
likes that will always gladden the family on this nice winter holiday preserving the warmness of home and engendering traditions and recollections. The luxurious porcelain from Spode, Meissen, Herend, the products of Wedgwood, Waterford, Coalport, Arthur Price, highly appreciated by connoisseurs of porcelain, magnificent collections of Rosenthal, Royal Copenhagen, Clive Cristian and the best Russian producers are presented in GenLex salons. Gorgeous sets, tableware, crystal and glass ware, interior design items offered by the company are distinct by high quality and artistic taste. The gift and New Year collections are the ideal choice for the interior design and a nice gift!
in PROVENCE STYLE Architect: Veronika Chashchina
The project was created for my friend, a designer with good taste. She built a house in framework style for her family but as she was pregnant she could not perform the work of the interior design. Therefore, she asked me to do it.
proposed to decorate the interior in German style, as well, because I usually part from the building architecture. And the first sketch was exactly so â€“ in the style of the house facades. But the customer found it rather rough and asked to add some lightness and elegance. So, the sentimental village interior was invented, which I sought to fill with light and colors. I came across pillows with birds depicted thereon, which fascinated me, in an
online store. I used them in decoration of the parents’ bedroom where I hung several empty ancient cages under the high mansard roof. I continued to use the «bird theme» in the other premises with the help of wallpaper with birds depicted thereon. I imagined how the family would live there. How the girl would do her homework casting a glance through
the opened balcony door wherefrom the twitter of birds would be heard and the fresh wind would be swaying printed cotton curtains. How the young boy would be waken up by plashes of sunlight on his face like I was waken up some time in my childhood, and therefore I placed his bed directly under the dormer window. How he, being sleepy, would stretch out
his hand to close the shutters in order to sleep some more. How someone of the adults would call him and his sister from the first floor to drink tea. I put my heart and soul in the project and maybe people feel it. Since that time, everyone who applies to me asks me to create the same interior for them – so jingling and carefree.
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INTERIOR
SHOW ME YOUR HOUSE AND I WILL TELL YOU WHO YOU ARE
Talie Rosenthal, member of the International Association of Personal Development
Text by Talie Rosenthal
Let us continue the journey into the world of stars and mystery which, nevertheless, has a very significant influence on our everyday life if you pay at least some attention to it. This article will be interesting not only to those who are interested in the predictions of the stars and who listens to horoscopes, but also to people who aren’t indifferent to their own living space and to life itself too, since a sensible person takes into account all the factors which shape our life. If you find yourself or someone close to you in this “second triad of the Zodiac quartet”, accept this information, observe and make your own conclusions: something undoubtedly will turn out useful to you. It is no coincidence that the rulers in all times had astrologers in their retinue… The Cancer’s interior
The Cancer feels his house is his fortress, especially since family is very important for this Zodiac sign. And because of this the Cancer will create a home which will not be a miracle of interior decorating, but you will always feel homely coziness and a uniquely fine taste of the owners. The Cancer people love their home (whether it was built by them or inherited) so much that they very rarely change their residence, since they are very much attached to home and possession. This is a form of loyalty – a loyalty to places, things and traditions. Out of the Zodiac
family the Cancer includes the most settled and home-staying people. The reason for this is that the Cancer is under the protection of Moon, and Moon is the guardian of everything to do with mothering, family and creating a home. And if the Cancer has no place to call his own, he/she will be very unhappy. Very probably, it was a Cancer who first created the saying «dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad». This attachment only starts being troublesome when dealing with home repairs: the Cancer people feel it very difficult to stop. The Cancers are altogether notable by the diligence and thoroughness they show in their work, and when it concerns their private space, infused with so much love and
attachment, these qualities turn to excessive punctiliousness. Having neighbors is neither a problem nor a need for the Cancers, but they prefer the presence of neighbors at some distance (if this concerns a country house) – more for the customary sense of safety than for companionship. The Cancers can make any space fit their personality and needs, be it a house, a cottage or an apartment in an apartment block. The important thing for them is not to have their space too open: the Cancer, always a homebody, loves intimate spaces where you feel the comfort of quiet solitude much quicker. For the same reason the Cancer people develop a passion for antique things, objects
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INTERIOR
with history: for Cancers those can replace an empty chat with a neighbor. Family traditions and everything connected with them is very precious for Cancers, so in their home you will see a lot of family and historical photographs and portraits — they are inclined to romanticize the family theme. If the finances allow it, at the home of the Cancer you will see quite an arrangement of antiques, collected according to a principle only the owner understands, but with a lot of feeling. For this level of preferences the style most fitting for the Cancer people is a quiet palace style without especial loudness or pomposity or bourgeois classics – something respectable and well-made. Out of this style they will choose the most restrained versions. But their home will definitely have not just a sitting room, but also a dining room with a large and welcoming dinner table. In a way, they see each of their guests as a potential family member, since random visitors something very rare for a Cancer’s home. The choice of the color solution mostly depends not just on the Zodiacal sign, but also on the general psychological characteristics of a person: if the Cancer is by nature a reserved person, he/she will intuitively choose as a support a palette «like» himself/herself, with quiet and dark shades of grey, mossy green, rusty colors or colors of old brick and old wood. And if the Cancer was lucky in his character, if he/she is communicative enough and views life in an optimistic light, he/she will choose a corresponding palette of light pastel shades. If the Cancer managed to get enchanted by country style, in his house you will see wallpaper and furniture upholstery with flowers, plants or images of rural life. The Cancer’s favorite place is the kitchen, since he/she can cook well and likes cooking. The Cancer people spend most of their time in the kitchen, and it’s here that they prefer to solve most of their problems: this is why they bring especial care to outfitting it. The protagonist here should be a big dinner table, and there should be a sofa in a corner somewhere which would permit the Cancer to sit down and think. Famous Cancer architects and designers: Otto Wagner, Marcel Wanders, Odile Decq, Pierre Paulin, Robert Adam, Antonio Gaudí y Cornet, Harvey Ball.
The Leo’s interior
The Leo is favored by the Sun. The Leo likes to be the center of attention. Each Leo is a little king of his apartment or house, and he/she tries to pick the surroundings which correspond to his real or expected status. If there is even a slightest possibility of that, the Leo will choose a place of residence already populated by various celebrities, high-level managers, artists: there is something of an aristocrat in each Leo. The Leo’s interior decorating scheme has to impress people and to emphasize its master as someone truly appreciating beauty. The Leo needs the atmosphere of luxury; he/she chooses his interior for the guests to be impressed. Therefore every guest has to be impressed by the Leo’s house. This Zodiacal sign always chooses the best and most expensive things, and if not wealthy enough for this, then the most original things which no one else has. This is why the Leo pays a huge amount of attention to his sitting room where he/she meets his guests. It is in the Leo’s nature to value most of all the originality, extravagance and creativity. A Leo’s interior typically includes comfortable furniture with soft and elegant upholstering, but the most important criterion is still the status value of this or that interior decoration object.
And there will be no consumer grade elements in the interior decoration, only the exclusive things. The Leos love to adorn their houses with huge mirrors in traditional carved frames and a great number of carpets (if their chosen style allows it). A typically Leo interior possesses an aura of luxury. It can have a rare vase or a specially made wallsized textile panel. Or a magnificent goldplated crystal chandelier, a great example of the Leo style. As a Fire sign, a Leo should preferably have a fireplace in their home. The furniture made from expensive wood, natural fabrics for decorating, leather, precious metals, rare vases, art by fashionable artists, everything original, best and, if possible, exclusive – those would be the perfect choices. The Leos appreciate most of all quality, good brands and high prices of objects. Massive wardrobes with carved handles, a huge bed one wants to call a lair, huge mirrors framed like works of art, a personal rocking chair, a fireplace and a Jacuzzi – those are the signs of a perfect Leo’s home. And, of course, there should be numerous paintings on the walls. The Leos like large spaces and tall ceilings. Costly mahogany furniture, cut-glass chandeliers, bronze candlesticks and Chinese vases – those are the right interior objects for a Leo. The color range. Suitable colors for Leos are gold, orange, purple, terracotta, intense blue, beige and brown – colors that com-
bine easily. And, of course, the red combined with the gold. The choice of style is palace style combined with empire, or rococo, or the modern luxury classics. The Leos often become very advanced connoisseurs of antiques. Some of them become philanthropists, since it’s a trait of the ‘great’ people, among which the Leos feel themselves to belong. The Leo’s favorite place is either his cabinet where he/she can sit with comfort in his favorite luxurious armchair hear the fireplace, or the sitting room, where he/she would prefer even to dine. The Leos do not like cooking, even though they might have gourmet tastes. The nursery can become another of the Leo’s favorite places, since even in nature the lions know how to take care of their heirs, protecting them and supporting their deserved development. But such rooms should better be decorated in flame orange shades: such palette is more comfortable for the Leo’s passionate nature. Famous Leo architects and designers: Gottlieb Eliel Saarinen, Vladimir Shukhov, Joseph Paxton, Alphonse Mucha, Robert Millet.
PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INTERIOR
The Virgo’s interior
Virgo is a Zodiacal sign that brings a practical nature, able to create an interior harmonious in style and at the same time functional even within a minimal budget. Stalwart supporters of the ecologic style, they will try to live close to nature or decorate their city house (apartment) in a similar style. The Virgo’s element is Earth, so if they have no chance of buying a country house to be «closer to the soil», they organize their interior so as to have live flowers growing on their windowsills. The Virgo tends to act instead of indulging in empty dreams. This is one of the most thorough and precise Zodiacal signs, they like introducing order into everything. They are resolute and practical, they love precision and clarity. The Virgo’s apartment is a stronghold of cleanness and coziness, and the interior will be dominated by logic. The Virgos feel comfortable when the interior decoration scheme uses predominantly straight lines and geometrical patterns. Aiming to make their living space harmonious, the Virgos prefer to decorate their interior by handmade objects, various photos and souvenirs brought from travels. The house interior for this star sign should be maximally functional, comfortable and wellplanned. Everything the Virgos choose for their homes should make everyday life eas-
ier: simple shapes, one-color low-key color schemes and a minimum of interior decorations and details. You could call such style «quiet minimalism». The Virgos can skillfully combine antique or ethnic objects with a modern interior, and it does not look too pretentious. At the contrary, their interior looks as elegant as possible. But for the furniture they will prefer something austere, with simple lines, functional and comfortable. Durable, strong and stable furniture located in the most comfortable way, shelves and draw-
ers where you can put everything neatly, well thought-out spot lighting. The Virgos like order in everything, even if they don’t always manage it, they try to systematize their ‘riches’ – if the Virgo becomes a collector, it’s difficult for him/her to keep her space orderly. Color. Color coordination is like a religion for the Virgos, their perfect colors are light blue, light grey, light green, cream and brown, beige, rose and shades of light green. Their homes display harmony of both color and style. Favorite place. People of this star sign are ruled by the imperious goddess Proserpine; this is why the Virgos love cleanness and neatness so much. This is why they work like busy bees all day long, both at work and at home. Male Virgo will spend day and night in his workshop where he/she is always making things. According to the horoscopes the most ideal place for Virgo women is their kitchen or their handicraft corner. There are Virgos who like to read in peace and quiet, but more often the book you will see in their hand is some encyclopedia of homemaking, or a reference book or manual of housework. Famous Virgo architects and designers: Karim Rashid, Ze’ev Raban, Ettore Sottsass, Giacomo Quarenghi, John Soane, Louis Sullivan, Academy memer Yuri Platonov.