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EPMagazine

History of Science and Technology

Discover your own way to enjoy science at school


History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine www.epmagazine.org www.liceoboggiolera.it/epm

www.epmustafaozkan.com

www.biology4u.gr/pupmag.html

European Editorial Board Co-ordinators

Headmasters

Ali Kalem Nikos Georgolios Hatice Uzug Angelo Rapisarda

alklm@hotmail.com ngeorgol@otenet.gr haticeuzug@gmail.com ganges@alice.it

Yunus Cengiz Eleni Mouzoura Adnan Dinc Giovanni Torrisi

Webmaster: Web assistant:

Rick Hilkens

webmaster@epmagazine.org

Gabriele Viglianisi

vigliag@gmail.com

Experimental Editorial Board Students: Theodora Istoriou, Giorgos Toulikas, Panagiotis Soustas Τeachers: Kosmas Touloumis, Marilena Zarfdjian, Nikos Georgolios, Theodosia Karaoglani Electronic Editing: Theodora Istoriou

Özkan Editorial Board Students: Latife Buyuk, Yazgulu Kizilisik Τeachers: Ali Kalem, Yunus Cengiz

Bunyan Editorial Board Students: Gizem Yildiz, Hande Cengiz, Musab Kiraz, Yusuf Dinç Τeachers: Adnan Dinç, Hatice Utaş, Okan Demir, Süleyman Yenipinar

Boggio Lera Editorial Board Students: Angela Pinzone, Angelo Tambone, Ersilia Rappazzo, Claudio Arena, Lorenzo Bianchetti Τeachers: Viviana Dalmas, Isabella Riviera, Angelo Rapisarda

Layout by Angela Pinzone, Italy


Contents E N

ditorial

ews

By Kosmas Touloumis

Contribution By Nikos Georgolios

By Kirmanidou Eftihia and Taxidou Maria

The Story of a Bulb

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By Angela Pinzone

Optical Illusions

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17-19

Contribution in English, Greek, Italian, Turkish

History of Informatics

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European Pupils Magazine EPM 16, year 6, number 1, 2008 I.S.S.N. 1722-6961

By Istoriou Theodora

un pages

Contributions By Panagiotis Savvidis, Christos Paggidis

The Tool Which Conveys Past to Present: Pen By Ebubekir Akcesme, Ersa Duvan, Mevlude Obus

4 9 11 17 20 28 32

P

Photo Gallery

37

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Rules for Contributors

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine EDITORIAL

ΕΚΔΟΤΙΚΟ ΣΗΜΕΙΩΜΑ

Dear readers, Αγαπητοί αναγνώστες, Everything new, such as the new issue of Καθετί νέο, όταν γεννιέται, όπως το the EPMagazine we have in our hands, at καινούργιο τεύχος του EPM που έχουμε στα the moment of its creation is accompanied χέρια μας, συνοδεύεται από αντιφατικά by conflicting feelings. The satisfaction at the συναισθήματα. Η ικανοποίηση για την achievement of one επίτευξη ενός ακόμα more target and the στόχου και οι ελπίδες hopes and visions και τα οράματα για for its future come το μέλλον του in contrast with the συγκρούονται με την anxiety about the αγωνία για την quality of the ποιότητα του venture and the fear εγχειρήματος και το of the project’s φόβο γι’ αυτό το ίδιο future itself. το μέλλον. Η έκδοση However, the EPM των τευχών του issues’ publication EPM, όμως, δίνει, every time gives the επιπλέον, την chance to pause ευκαιρία κάθε φορά and reflect upon να σταθούμε σ’ αυτό what precedes any που προηγείται και THE OPENING CEREMONY (GREEK FOLK DANCE) birth, the delivery κ α θ ο ρ ί ζ ε ι itself. And this delivery looked difficult. οποιαδήποτε γέννηση, στον τοκετό. Και Teachers and students from different φάνταζε δύσκολος αυτός ο τοκετός. countries, educational systems and different Εκπαιδευτικοί και μαθητές από διαφορετικές cultural backgrounds χώρες, εκπαιδευτικά and, as a συστήματα και με consequence, δ ι α φ ο ρ ε τ ι κ ά d i f f e r e n t πολιτισμικά φορτία personalities and και, συνεπώς, με identities, had to διαφορετικές cooperate. ατομικότητες και ταυτότητες έπρεπε να We had to get συνεργαστούμε. over beliefs and Έπρεπε να opinions, to get to ξ ε πε ρ ά σου με know each other, πεποιθ ήσε ις και understand their αντιλήψεις. Να mentality, become γνωρίσουμε ο ένας aware of their τ ον άλλον, αν EPMeeting IN THESSALONIKI (APRIL 2008) values, attitude, αντιληφθούμε τις

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European Pupils Magazine rhythm and time; to sail seas and cross lands, in order to exchange, cooperate and learn that what unites us is much more than what keeps us apart. And this is the greatest lesson. This is what gives us strength and keeps us going!

νοοτροπίες του, να συναισθανθούμε τις αξίες του, τη στάση του, τους ρυθμούς του, το χρόνο του. Να π ε ρ ά σ ο υ μ ε θάλασσες και στεριές για να ανταλλάξουμε, να συνεργαστούμε και να μάθουμε ότι όσα μας ενώνουν είναι πολύ περισσότερα από αυτά που μας Beyond the χωρίζουν. Κι αυτό sonorous references είναι το μεγαλύτερο and terminology, μάθημα. such as european Είναι αυτό που integration, society μας οπλίζει και μας of knowledge, society υ π οχ ρ ε ών ε ι να EPMeeting IN THESSALONIKI (APRIL 2008) of information, συνεχίσουμε! Πέρα development and critical thought, networking από τις βαρύγδουπες αναφορές και τις etc, it’s us, the people! The people who ορολογίες όπως ευρωπαϊκή ενοποίηση, worked together in the Netherlands, κοινωνία της γνώσης , κοινωνία της Ireland, Bulgary, Italy, Turkey, Greece, πληροφορίας, ανάπτυξη κριτικής σκέψης, in Häerlen, Kayseri, Thessaloniki, δικτύωση κ.λ.π. υπάρχουν οι άνθρωποι! Οι Catania! Where others withstood and others άνθρωποι που συνεργαστήκαμε στην not. Where we became friends with some Ολλανδία, την Ιρλανδία, τη Βουλγαρία, and others we remember tenderly! Just as it την Ιταλία, την Τουρκία, την Ελλάδα στο happens in life! Where we offered some Χέερλεν, την Καισάρεια, τη hospitality in our Θεσσαλονίκη, την homes and some Κατάνια! offered us hospitality Που άλλοι in theirs. Getting άντεξαν και άλλοι over biases and όχι! Που με άλλους feeling the others like γίναμε φίλοι και us. Unlucky are the άλλους τους ones who haven’t θ υ μ ό μ α σ τ ε had the experience τρυφερά! Όπως yet! This contact is συμβαίνει και στη the gain of the ζωή, άλλωστε! Που venture. This contact κάποιους τους leads to the painful φιλοξενήσαμε στο delivery every time! σπίτι μας και κάποιοι μας And it is beyond φιλοξένησαν στο DURING A PRESENTATION AT THE LABORATORY any egoistic δικό τους.

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine entrenchment, beyond any differentiated destination of one another. And above all, it’s in the students’ hands. The greatest lesson of the EPM is not, for sure, that it makes the history of science accessible or/and that the students produce scientific language by writing articles relevant to the magazine’s thematic material.

Ξεπερνώντας προκαταλήψεις και νιώθοντας τους άλλους σαν κι εμάς. Άτυχοι όσοι δεν έζησαν αυτήν την εμπειρία! Αυτή η επαφή είναι το κέρδος! Αυτή η επαφή οδηγεί κάθε φορά στον επώδυνο τοκετό!

Και είναι πέρα από κάθε εγωιστική περιχαράκωση, πέρα από οποιοδήποτε διαφοροποιητικό The greatest προσδιορισμό του lesson is that they ενός από τον άλλον. touch a part of the Και πάνω από όλα present and future είναι στα χέρια και life: speech των μαθητών! Το articulation, μεγαλύτερο μάθημα E u r o p e a n του EPM δεν είναι, cooperat ion, ασφαλώς, το ότι m o v e m e n t , κάνει την ιστορία impassion, the των επιστη μών formation of an προσιτή και το ότι individual identity. All οι μαθητές the more so, within a π α ρ ά γ ο υ ν open learning, επιστημονικό λόγο communicative and γράφοντας άρθρα VISITING NEAPOLI’S MAYOR active environment, σχετικά με τη within the environment which does not serve θεματολογία του περιοδικού. Το μεγαλύτερο the self-complacent seclusion in the flat of μάθημα είναι ότι αγγίζουν ένα κομμάτι της our alleged security, but it urges us into the σύγχρονης και μέλλουσας ζωής: την plain sunshine, the neighbourhoods of our άρθρωση λόγου, την πανευρωπαϊκή world, the acquaintance, the game and the συνεργασία, την κινητικότητα, την cooperation with the others, where the eyes ενσυναίσθηση, τη συγκρότηση της ατομικής will be open and the hearts won’t be passive, ταυτότητας. but full of creative passion! Μέσα, μάλιστα, σε ένα ανοιχτό περιβάλλον μάθησης, επικοινωνίας και Send us your article about δράσης, σε ένα περιβάλλον που δεν υπηρετεί τον αυτάρεσκο εγκλεισμό στο διαμέρισμα της HISTORY of SCIENCE υποτιθέμενης ασφάλειάς μας, αλλά μας and TECHNOLOGY. σπρώχνει στον ήλιο της αλάνας, στις γειτονιές του κόσμου μας, στη γνωριμία, στο You could be the winner of παιχνίδι και στη συνεργασία με τους άλλους, όπου τα μάτια θα είναι ανοιχτά και οι καρδιές EPM AWARD 2008 όχι παθητικές, αλλά με δημιουργικό πάθος! competition!!! Γι΄ αυτό πρέπει να είμαστε όλοι εδώ! Γι’ αυτό πρέπει να γίνουμε ακόμα περισσότεροι!

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European Pupils Magazine EDITORIALE

EDİTÖR YAZISI

Tutto ciò che c’è di nuovo, come l’ultimo Yapımı sırasında birleştirici duyguların numero di EPM che teniamo tra le mani, al eşlik ettiği elimizde bulunan EPM ’in yeni momento della sua creazione è accompagnasayısı gibi her şey yeni. Geleceği için to da sentimenti conflittuali. La soddisfazione vizyonlar ve umutlar ve bir hedef daha di aver raggiunto uno o più obiettivi e le speaşmanın verdiği haz, geleceğinin korkusuyla ranze e previsioni per il futuro vengono in ve bu teşebbüsün verdiği endişeyle çelişir. conflitto con l’ansia circa la qualità dell’opera. Fakat EPM ’ in yayımlanması ve dağıtılması Tuttavia, la pubbliher zaman mola cazione di EPM dà verme ve her la possibilità di ferdoğuşla önde marsi e riflettere su geleni yansıtma ciò che precede oimkânı verir. Ve gni nascita. bu dağıtım bize Realizzare quezor göründü. sto progetto semF a r k ı brava difficile: doülkelerden, centi e studenti di e ğ i t i m differenti Paesi, sisistemlerinden stemi educativi e ve farklı kültür bagagli culturali geçmişlerinden diversi e, di conseve nihayetinde guenza, personalità farklı kişilik ve e identità diverse kimliklerden dovevano collabog e l e n rare. Abbiamo doöğretmenler ve 11th EPMeeting (APRIL 2008) vuto liberarci di öğrenciler preconcetti e opinioni, conoscerci gli uni con birlikte çalışmak zorundaydılar. gli altri, capire la mentalità altrui, accorgerci Birbirimizi tanımak, onların zihinlerini del valore e delle attitudini di ciascuno, calianlamak, değerlerinin, davranışlarının, ritim brare ritmo e tempi; navigare mari e attrave zamanlarının farkında olmak için bizi versare terre, in modo da fare scambi, cooayırandan daha çok bizi birleştiren şeyin ne perare e comprendere che ciò che ci unisce è olduğunu öğrenmek ve birlikte çalışmak için molto di più di ciò che ci tiene separati. düşünce ve inançlarımızın üstesinden gelmek Questa è la più grande lezione, ciò che ci zorundaydık. Ve bu en güzel derstir. Bu, bize dà forza e ci induce ad andare avanti! Al di là güç veren ve bizi devam ettiren şeydir. di espressioni altisonanti come integrazione Avrupa entegrasyonu, bilim ve bilgi europea, società della conoscenza, società topluluğu, gelişim ve eleştirel düşünce, ağ dell’informazione, sviluppo dello spirito critiörgüsü gibi etkili referans ve terminoloji co, lavoro in rete etc., ci siamo noi, la gente! ötesinde bu; biziz! Yani Hollanda’da, La gente che ha lavorato insieme in Austria, Türkiye’de, İrlanda’da, Bulgaristan’da, Polonia, Olanda, Bulgaria, Italia, Turİtalya’da, Yunanistan’da;

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine chia, Grecia, a Kramsach, Sosnowiec, Harlean’da, Kayseri’de, Katanya’da, Landgraaf, Sofia, Catania, Kayseri, Selanik’te çalışan insanlardır. Kimilerinin Thessaloniki! L’impegno è stato gravoso, direndiği, kimlerininse direnmediği yerlerdir! tanto che alcuni partner hanno resistito e alBazılarıyla arkadaş olduğumuz bazılarını tri no. Ma comunque abbiamo stretto amiciarzuyla hatırladığımız yerler. Yaşamda olan zia e intrecciato rapporti più o meno intimi: şeyler… Evlerimizde misafirperverlik come succede nella vita! Abbiamo offerto osunduğumuz ve onların da bize sunduğu spitalità nelle nostre case e ricevuto ospitalità yerlerdir. Önyargılarımızdan kurtulmak ve in quelle altrui, liberandoci dei pregiudizi e başkalarını bizim gibi hissetmektir. Bu sentendo gli altri come noi. Sfortunatamente deneyimi yaşamayanlara ne yazık… Bu irtibat qualcuno non ha m a c e r a n ı n ancora fatto questa kazancıdır. Bu irtibat esperienza, che coh e r z a m a n stituisce il vero guameşakkatli bir dagno che si può dağıtım ile ricavare dal nostro sonuçlanır. Ve o lavoro. Bisogna sotherhangi bir egoistik tolineare che tutto è korunmanın ve nelle mani degli stubirbirlerinin denti. La più grande farklılaştırılmış lezione di EPM non amaçlarının ötesinde. consiste nel fare uVe her şeyden öte na storia della bu öğ r e n c i l e r i n scienza accessibile elinde. e/o nel fatto che gli Elbette ki EPM’ in studenti si esprimoen büyük amacı 11th EPMeeting IN THESSALONIKI no con un linguagtarihi ulaşılabilir bir gio scientifico, scrivendo articoli pertinenti al bilim yapmak ve öğrencilerin dergini tema della rivista. La più grande lezione è temasına uygun makaleler yazarak bilimsel che essi toccano una parte della loro vita bir dil geliştirmelerini sağlamak değildir. presente e futura: la preparazione di un diOnun en büyük amacı günümüz ve gelecek scorso, la cooperazione, la formazione di y aşamın b ir p arçasın a , k on u şma un’identità individuale. Tutto ciò, all’interno artikülâsyonuna, Avrupa ortaklığına, faaliyet di un sistema di apprendimento aperto, di un ve kişinin kimliğinin oluşmasını sağlamaktır. ambiente comunicativo e attivo, che rifugge Hatta kendi güvenliğimiz için içe l’isolamento, in cui nessuno si compiace di sé kapanıklılığının kişisel tatminliğini içermeyen nella sicurezza di ciò che asserisce; un amiletişimsel ve aktif çevreyle beraber açık bir biente che induce invece a far sentire vicini öğrenim gerektirir. Fakat o bizi açık gün mondi distanti, stimola la conoscenza, il gioışığına, dünyamızın komşularına aşinalık, co e la collaborazione con gli altri, dove gli oyun ve başkalarıyla ortaklık, gözlerin açık ve occhi saranno aperti e i cuori non saranno gönüllerin pasif olmadığı; fakat yaratıcı bir passivi, ma pieni di passione creativa! hırsla dolu olduğu yere teşvik eder. Bu Questo è il motivo per cui dobbiamo stare yüzden hepimiz burada olmak, sayıca artmak qui! Questo è il motivo per cui dobbiamo ve çoğalmak zorundayız. partecipare numerosi! KOSMAS TOULOUMIS

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The 11th EPMeeting Thessaloniki 11th - 16th April 2008 There have been three years in the Comenius Program: Discover your own way to enjoy science at school, where the four schools have been cooperated successfully. The 11th EPMeeting took place in Thessaloniki, Greece, home of Experimental High School of Macedonia University. The contributing schools were M. Ozkan Αnatolian High School (2 teachers and 5 pupils), Βunyan Anatolian High School (8 teachers and 6 pupils) and Liceo Boggio Lera (1 teacher and 5 pupils). This was the last meeting of this program, since it officially ends in 31 August 2008. A representative of the Brussels European School, Mr. Erik Van Haegenbergh, also participated in the meeting. This school, from Belgium, has applied with the Italian and the Greek school for a new Comenius program. The opening ceremony started with a welcome speech of the Headmistress of the school Ms. Eleni Mouzoura and included a shadow theatre, performance of pieces of classical music, songs and folk dances. It is worthy to mention that the whole school participated singing the songs and it was a unique and a very emotional moment, when the whole audience sang J. Lennon’s Imagine. Then, the prize EPM Award ceremony took place for the 2006 best article competition. The coordinator of the program Ali Kalem handed a certificate to the two winners, the Greek pupils A. Deligiorgi and S. Discou. The prize included a trip to the place where the next meeting will be held, probably in Bucharest. THE WINNERS OF THE PRIZE EPM AWARD 2006 The first day of the official program was devoted to presentations about the origin and the history of EPMagazine. During the other working days there was a workshop on Publisher program, guided by the Italian group, since this software is used for printing the Magazine. In addition, every partner school presented its work and informed the other partners about the

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine

DURING A PRESENTATION

fulfillment of its tasks. Th ere were in t erest in g presentations about:  the mirror sites,  the self-evaluation of each partner,  new proposed layouts,  the creation of a blog,  the renovation of the Magazine. A lot of discussion was spent about the role of editors, referees and supervising teachers, and the dissemination of the Magazine. The official program ended with sharing of works to be done till

next meeting. In the parallel activities there was an excursion to Halkidiki, where all the participants had a guided tour in Ancient Olynthos. Later they had lunch in Kallithea. In addition they visited the Mayor of Neapoli Mr. N. Ladopouolos, where they had an interesting discussion. They also visited University of Macedonia, where the supervisor of the host school guided them to the library and to a computers lab. Finally they visited the folklore

IN ANCIENT OLYNTHOS

SHADOW THEATRE

museum. The farewell dinner took place in a restaurant in the seaside. All partners enjoyed very much their stay in Nikos Georgolios Thessaloniki. Especially the students found this Experimental High School of meeting as a unique chance to know them better, to make new friends, to discuss and to University of Macedonia exchange ideas, and finally to learn a lot about Thessaloniki, Greece the culture and the habits of other people. Perhaps, this was one of the better lessons

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Kyrmanidou Eftichia & Taxidou Maria

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Experimental High School of University of Macedonia Thessaloniki, Greece soti2001@hotmail.com xristosaigaiou@yahoo.gr

History of Informatics

Η ιστορία της Πληροφορικής

Since their early existence, human beings have been inventing intelligent tools, in order to reduce the potential dangers of hunting (using of traps), in order to count time and the movements of the stars which were useful to long distance voyages. Moreover, man created machines to make calculations in his transactions or help him in any other use. Humans created automatic machines, in order to make their daily lives easier.

Από τη πρώτη στιγμή της ύπαρξής του ο άνθρωπος κατέφευγε στην κατασκευή έξυπνων εργαλείων, προσπαθώντας να μειώσει τους κινδύνους στο κυνήγι (με τη χρήση παγίδων), να μετρήσει το χρόνο και τις μετακινήσεις των αστεριών ως βοήθημα στα θαλάσσια ταξίδια. Ακόμα, έφτιαξε μηχανήματα για να κάνει υπολογισμούς για τις συναλλαγές του η άλλες χρήσεις. Οι άνθρωποι για να διευκολύνουν την καθημερινή ζωή τους προχώρησαν στη δημιουργία αυτόματων μηχανών.

Ancient Greece –automatic machines Greek Arkitas Tarantinos constructed the first automatic machine, a wooden dove which was hanging from the edge of a stick and the whole system rotated with the help of compressed air. The desire to fly was intense in the ancient world, particularly in Greece, where gods were able to fly.

Αρχαια ελλαδα – αυτοματες μηχανες Ο Έλληνας Αρχύτας ο Ταραντίνος κατασκεύασε, την πρώτη αυτόματη μηχανή, ένα ξ ύ λ ιν ο πε ρ ιστέ ρ ι που κρεμόταν από την άκρη μιας ράβδου και όλο το σύστημα πε ρ ιστρ ε φόταν με τη βοήθεια πεπιεσμένου αέρα Ο πόθος της πτήσης ήταν έντονος στην αρχαιότητα, και μάλιστα στην Ελλάδα, Do you happen to know όπου, σύμφωνα με τη that in ancient times in μυθολογία, οι θεοί διέθεταν Greek mythology there was την ικανότητα της πτήσης. a giant made of copper, Ξέρατε μήπως ότι στην called Talos, who was αρχαία ελληνική μυθολογία guarding the Greek island, υπήρχε ένας χάλκινος Crete, from the enemies? γίγαντας, ο Τάλως, που It was a robot guard φύλαγε το ελληνικό νησί, TΗΕ ΟLDEST COMPUTER (ANCIENT GREECE, ANTIKITHIRA) invented by the ancient Κρήτη, από τους εχθρούς; Ο ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΗΣ (ΑΡΧΑΙΑ Greeks. The mythic giant O ΑΡΧΑΙΟΤΕΡΟΣ Τάλως ήταν ένα ρομπότ ΕΛΛΑΔΑ, ΑΝΤΙΚΥΘΗΡΑ) had only one vein running φρουρός που επινόησαν οι from his neck to his heel. αρχαίοι Έλληνες. Ο μυθικός γίγαντας είχε μία Ιn the vein flowed a liquid called ihor και μοναδική φλέβα που έφτανε από το λαιμό (divine blood). Talos protected the island by μέχρι την φτέρνα του στην οποία έρεε

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European Pupils Magazine throwing huge rocks at the foreign ships ιχώρ (θεϊκό αίμα). Ο Τάλως προστάτευε το approaching. νησί πετώντας βράχους στα ξένα καράβια Moreover, in 80 B.C., the Greek που πλησίαζαν. astronomer Iparkos constructed an Επιπλέον, τo 80 π.X., ο Έλληνας astrolabe, called the αστρονόμος Ίππαρχος mechanical device of κατασκεύασε τον Antikithira, a system αστρολάβο τον of moving cogwheels. λεγόμενο, μηχανισμό Its use was to predict των Αντικυθήρων , the positions of the που ήταν ένα σύστημα sun, moon and the κινούμενων γραναζιών. other planets and the Η χρησιμότητα του stars. In addition, the αστρολάβου ήταν να time was possible to be προβλέπει τις θέσεις του found with the help of ήλιου, της σελήνης και the astrolabe, άλλων πλανητών και regardless of the time άστρων. Ακόμα με τη THE MODEL OF THE MECHANISM OF ANTIKITHIRA of the day. β ο ή θ ε ι α τ ο υ Ο ΜΗΧΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΤΙΚΥΘΗΡΑ The astrolabe was, αστρολάβου είναι in fact, a planetarium in miniature. However, δυνατό να βρεθεί η ώρα με ακρίβεια λεπτού, not all the characteristics of this impressive ανεξαρτήτως το χρονικό διάστημα της device have been found. ημέρας. Ο αστρολάβος , δηλαδή είναι σαν ένα πλανητάριο σε μικρογραφία! Ωστόσο, Next, Iron, from Alexandria, was a δεν έχουν βρεθεί όλες οι ιδιότητες αυτού του great mathematician and engineer of the εντυπωσιακού μηχανήματος. Αργότερα, ο second century B.C. who described and Ήρων από την Αλεξάνδρεια, μεγάλος developed many automated mechanisms, μαθηματικός και μηχανικός του 2ου αιώνα such as temple doors which opened and περιέγραψε και υλοποίησε πολλούς closed automatically before and after a αυτόματους μηχανισμούς , όπως πόρτες ενός sacrifice ceremony. ναού που ανοιγόκλειναν από μόνες τους πριν και μετά την τελετή μιας θυσίας. Οι αρχαίοι In order to avoid the hard and constantly Έλληνες, ανακάλυψαν, επίσης, δύο repeated calculations human beings υπολογιστικές μηχανές: τον άβακα και discovered two calculating machines: the την κλεψύδρα. Ένας άβακας που βρέθηκε abacus and the clepsydra. στην Ελλάδα το 1846, χρονολογείται γύρω στο 3000 π.Χ. και υπολογίζεται ότι είναι ο An abacus found in Greece in 1846 is αρχαιότερος που βρέθηκε μέχρι σήμερα. Με dated back to 3000 B.C. and is considered την ανακάλυψη του άβακα, του γνωστού to be the oldest abacus ever found. With μας αριθμητήριου, εγκαταλείπεται η the discovery of the abacus the use of χρησιμοποίηση των δακτύλων του χεριού για fingers for the calculations stopped. The τη μέτρηση. Η ανακάλυψη της κλεψύδρας discovery of the clepsydra gives a solution δίνει μια απάντηση στο πρόβλημα της to the problem of calculating time. After the μέτρησης του χρόνου. Μετά τον άβακα και abacus there was an important την κλεψύδρα υπήρξε μια εξέλιξη στις development in calculating υπολογιστικές μηχανές.

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European Pupils Magazine machines. Ευρωπαϊκη αναγεννηση European renaissance-calculating υπολογιστικες μηχανες machines O Napier ήταν ένας Σκωτσέζος Napier was a Scottish mathematician μαθηματικός που ανακάλυψε τον υπολογισμό who discovered the calculation of log. των λογάριθμων. Γύρω στο 1617 Around 1617, he invented a machine which κατασκεύασε μια μηχανή, η οποία performed multiplications using a series of εκτελούσε πολλαπλασιασμούς bars. In 1623, Shickard invented χρησιμοποιώντας μια σειρά από a machine with cogwheels and ράβδους. called it the clock which calculates. This differed from the Το 1623 ο Schickard abacus (which performed additions κατασκεύασε μια μηχανή με and subtractions) and Napier’s οδοντωτούς τροχούς, την οποία machine, because it could save ονόμασε ρολόι που υπολογίζει. Αυτή the results of the calculations. διέφερε από τον άβακα (που In 1641, the French εκτελούσε προσθέσεις και αφαιρέσεις) mathematician and philosopher και την μηχανή του Napier, επειδή Pascal invented a machine which είχε τη δυνατότητα να αποθηκεύει τα PASCAL performed additions and αποτελέσματα των υπολογισμών. subtractions at the same time. His machine Το 1641 ο Γάλλος μαθηματικός και was also based on cogwheels, aiming to φιλόσοφος Pascal κατασκεύασε μια μηχανή facilitate his father, who was a tax collector, πρόσθεσης και ταυτόχρονα αφαίρεσης. Η to keep records of his accounts. In 1801, μηχανή του στηριζόταν επίσης σε the engineer and weaver Jacquart using the οδοντωτούς τροχούς με σκοπό να binary code (0 and 1), built the first διευκολύνει τους λογαριασμούς του automatic loom, which could work on highly φοροεισπράκτορα πατέρα του. complex designs. The loom’s programming was based on many punch cards. Jumpers Το 1801 o μηχανικός-υφαντουργός produced had Joseph Jacquart patterns which κάνοντας χρήση were named του δυα δικ ού Zakar after the κώδικα (0 και 1), p at t ern s t h at κατασκεύασε τον Jacquart’s loom πρώτο αυτόματο produced. α ρ γ α λ ε ιό που μπορ ούσε να th 20 century χειριστεί τρομερά calculating π ο λ ύ π λ ο κ α machines σχέδια. Ο JACQUART AND HIS LOOM H e r m a n προγραμματισμός Ο ΖΑΚΑΡ ΚΑΙ Ο ΑΡΓΑΛΕΙΟΣ ΤΟΥ H o l l e r i t h του αργαλειού discovered model punched card, which he γινόταν με πολλές διάτρητες κάρτες. Τα use in a machine he he designed to help πουλόβερ που είχαν σχέδια ονομάστηκαν him put in charts the results of an inventory. ζακάρ, από τα σχέδια που παρήγαγε ο Punch cards were so important and useful αργαλειός του Ζακάρ.

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European Pupils Magazine that they were used till the ’80, as our 20ος αιωνας – υπολογιστικες μηχανες teacher of Informatics told us. Ο Herman Hollerith ανακάλυψε τη In 1936, Konrand Zuse constructed the σύγχρονη διάτρητη κάρτα, την οποία f i r s t b i n a r y , χρησιμοποίησε σε μια electromechanical μηχανή που σχεδίασε για computer of general use να για να τον βοηθήσει να controlled by a program. βάλει σε πίνακες τα George Boole, Alan αποτελέσματα μιας Turing and John Von απογραφής. Οι Neuman played an διατρητές κάρτες ήταν important role in the τόσο σημαντικές και development of the χ ρ ή σ ι μ ε ς π ο υ modern computers. χρησιμοποιούνταν μέχρι Eniac was the first και την δεκαετία του ΄80, electronic computer όπως μου ε ίπε η (first generation) and καθηγήτρια της had approximately 18000 Πληροφορικής στο electronic lamps. Its size σχολείο μου. was that of a big room . HΟLLERITH’S MACHINE AND PUNCH CARDS ΟΙ ΜΗΧΑΝΕΣ ΔΙΑΤΡΗΤΩΝ ΔΕΛΤΙΩΝ ��ΟΥ The instructions for the Ο Konrand Zuse ΧΟΛΛΕΡΙΘ performance of a certain κατασκευάζει το 1936 program were given through the suitable τον πρώτο δυαδικό, ηλεκτρομηχανικό placing of cables onto a board. υπολογιστή γενικής χρήσης που ελεγχόταν Later, this data and από πρόγραμμα. instructions were put in with Σημαντικό ρόλο στη the use of punch cards. Can μορφοποίηση των σύγχρονων you possibly imagine how and υπολογιστών έπαιξαν τρεις how many people handled this άνθρωποι ο George Boole, o computer? Alan Turing και o John Von The discovery of the Neuman. transistor, in 1947 (second Ο ΕΝΙΑC ήταν ο πρώτος εξ generation) transformed the ολοκλήρου ηλεκτρονικός computer and made the υπολογιστής (πρώτη γενιά) revolution in microκαι είχε γύρω στις 18.000 processors possible. ηλεκτρονικές λυχνίες. Ο όγκος The computers of the third του ήταν όσο ένα μεγάλο generation were constructed δωμάτιο. Οι οδηγίες για την with integral circuits. They ENIAC. THE FIRST ELECTRONICAL εκτέλεση ενός προγράμματος COMPUTER were of smaller size, they δίνονταν με την κατάλληλη ΕΝΙΑC. Ο ΠΡΩΤΟΣ ΗΛΕΚΤΡΟΝΙΚΟΣ consumed smaller amounts of τοποθέτηση καλωδίων πάνω σε ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΗΣ energy and they were ένα πίνακα . Αργότερα τα compatible with each other. δεδομένα και οι εντολές τοποθετούνταν με The computers of the fourth generation μορφή διάτρητων καρτών. Μπορείτε να were of an even smaller size, lower price φανταστείτε με ποιόν τρόπο και πόσα άτομα an d mu ch g reat er ab ilit i es in χειρίζονταν αυτό τον υπολογιστή;

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European Pupils Magazine comparison with the previous ones. In 1981, Η ανακάλυψη του τρανζίστορ το 1947 the IBM company presented the personal (δεύτερη γενιά) μετασχημάτισε τον computer. υπολογιστή και κατέστησε δυνατή την st 21 century– επανάσταση των μικρό evolution of -επεξεργαστών. nanotechnology Οι υπολογιστές The fifth generation τρίτης γενιάς ήταν com puters have κατασκευασμένοι με higher speed ολοκληρωμένα p e r f o r m a n c e , κυκλ ώμα τα . Είχαν processing power and μικρότερο μέγεθος, artificial intelligence κ α τ α ν ά λ ω ν α ν and are becoming μικρότερη ενέργεια και smaller and smaller in ήταν συμβατοί μεταξύ IBM 3000 s i z e . T h u s , τους. nanotechnology is developed and provides Οι υπολογιστές τέταρτης γενιάς είχαν computers for personal or professional use μικρότερο μέγεθος, μικρότερη τιμή και πολύ with little demand on processing data. They μεγαλύτερες δυνατότητες σε σχέση με τους are the most popular computers nowadays προηγούμενους. Το 1981 η εταιρία ΙΒΜ with constantly increasing abilities. παρουσίασε τον προσωπικό υπολογιστή. These days, computers appear in every aspect of human activity, playing a 21ος αιωνας εξελιξη νανοconsiderable part in education, business and τεχνολογιας information. Computer evolution and Οι υπολογιστές πέμπτης γενιάς διακρίνονται στην ταχύτητα, στην επεξεργαστική ισχύ και στην τεχνητή νοημοσύνη και γίνονται όλο και πιο μικροί. Έτσι, γεννάται η νανο-τεχνολογία που παρέχει υπολογιστές για προσωπική ή επαγγελματική χρήση χωρίς μεγάλες απαιτήσεις ως προς την επεξεργασία δεδομένων. Είναι οι πλέον διαδεδομένοι υπολογιστές σήμερα, με συνεχώς αυξανόμενες δυνατότητες. A SMALL PERSONAL COMPUTER Στις μέρες μας οι υπολογιστές ΕΝΑΣ ΜΙΚΡΟΣ ΠΡΟΣΩΠΙΚΟΣ ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΗΣ εμφανίζονται σε όλες σχεδόν τις ανθρώπινες informatics, in general, have improved and δραστηριότητες συντελώντας στη μόρφωση, continue to improve more and more people’s στην εργασία και την ενημέρωση. Η εξέλιξη living conditions. των υπολογιστών και γενικότερα της πληροφορικής έχει βελτιώσει την ζωή των The computers in our school ανθρώπων και εξακολουθεί να τη βελτιώνει The computers are very popular in our όλο και περισσότερο. school. Conducting a small research in two hundred students between 14-17 years of Οι υπολογιστες στο σχολειο μας age, we found that all students have a P.C. Στο σχολείο μας οι υπολογιστές είναι

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European Pupils Magazine HIGH SCHOOL & SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Communication Games Films Music Internet School projects

Surfing the Internet is the most preferable use, with communication to follow. Listening to music and working on school projects are the next more popular uses of the P.C. Senior High School students prefer communication via the computer whereas Junior High School students prefer playing games on the P.C. It appears that computers play an important role in young people’s lives. They are a new way of communication, entertainment, education, work. Can they be harmless?

ιδιαίτερα δημοφιλείς. Κάνοντας μια μικρή έρευνα σε 200 μαθητές ηλικίας 14-17 χρονών ανακαλύψαμε ότι όλοι (ποσοστό 100%) έχουν υπολογιστή. Η χρήση που κυρίως προτιμάμε είναι η πλοήγηση στο διαδίκτυο (ποσοστό 40%) και έπειτα την επικοινωνίαα (20%). Ακολουθου νία. Ακολουθούν τα παιχνίδια (18%) η μουσική (12%) και οι εργασίες σχολείου (10%) Τα παιδιά του λυκείου προτιμούν την επικοινωνία μέσω υπολογιστή, ενώ τα παιδιά του γυμνασίου τα παιχνίδια. Φαίνεται πως οι υπολογιστές καταλαμβάνουν όλο και μεγαλύτερο χώρο στη ζωή των νέων. Είναι ένας νέος τρόπος επικοινωνίας, διασκέδασης, μόρφωσης, εργασίας. Είναι άραγε ακίνδυνος;

   

 

Bibliography Greek Pedagogic Institute, High School Informatics, Ο.Ε.Δ., Athens, (2006) G.Liakeas, Informatics, Sabalas, Athens, (2001) Diomidis Spinelis, www.spinellis.gr/cfa/ca/ indexw.htm Jeffrey Shallit, hyperion.maths.upatras.gr/ courses/comp99-00geo/mat/history.html (translated website) www.geocities.com/computerbane/ historyofpc.htm Wikipedia, el.wikipedia.org/wiki/

EPMagazine AWARD 2007 We remind you that until 30 September you can decide the winner of the EPM Award 2007 Competition The prize is a journey of a week in an European Country for the winner and his/her teacher. You are allowed to vote the best article of 2007 on the official web-site

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Angela Pinzone Liceo Scientifico Statale “Enrico Boggio Lera” Catania, Italy angelapavesina@hotmail.it When? How? Why?

Quando? Come? Perchè?

Quand? Comment? Pourquoi?

The story of a bulb

La storia di una lampadina

L’histoire d’une ampoule

My story is long and interesting, it’s the story of a dream and of a smart mind: the mind of my father, T. A. Edison. He was a tireless and I’m the most stubborn inventor; he created me with patience exciting discovery and skill. of the 19 t h La mia storia è lunga e molto avvincente, è la century! I’m the storia di un sogno e di un’intelligenza acuta: bulb! Can you quella di mio padre, Thomas Alva Edison. Egli è T. EDISON think of your life stato un inventore instancabile e testardo; io sowithout the light no il frutto della sua pazienza e ingegnosità. of a round bulb to Mon histoire est longue et très prenante, c’est illuminate your days? l’histoire d’un rêve et d’une intelligence aiguë: celle Io sono la scoperta più de mon père, T. A. Edison. C’était un inventeur straordinaria del 19° secolo! infatigable et têtu; il m’a assemblée avec beaucoup Sono la lampadina! Potete pensare alla vostra vita senza la luce di un piccolo bulbo di vetro panciuto e a collo alto? Je suis la découverte la plus extraordinaire du dix-neuvième siècle! Moi je suis l’ampoule! Estce que vous pouvez penser votre vie sans la lumière d’une petite fiole à col long et à ventre renflé?

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European Pupils Magazine It was 1879: Edison was working on a very difficult experiment: he was looking for the strongest threads to ensure the right functioning of his incandescence bulb.

È il 1879: Edison è impegnato nella sfida più difficile della sua vita: il suo obiettivo è di individuare i filamenti più resistenti al fine di assicurare il funzionamento della sua lampadina ad incandescenza.

He tested 6000 different substances and materials before finding the most appropriate thread: platinum, cotton, paper, vegetable fibres, even some beard hairs and finally the bamboo.

C’est 1879: Edison est en train de travailler à l’essai le plus ardu de sa vie: il cherche les filaments les plus résistants pour assurer le fonctionnement de son ampoule à incandescence. Il teste 6000 substances différentes avant de trouver le filament idéal: coton, platine, papier, fibres végétales, même une touffe de poils, enfin le bambou.

EDISON IN HIS LABORATORY EDISON NEL SUO LABORATORIO EDISON DANS SON LABORATOIRE

Avec les fibres du bambou, le résultat est satisfaisant: la première ampoule brille pendant 40 heures!!! Enfin le charbon

A tale scopo egli testa più di 6000 materiali differenti prima di trovare il filamento ideale: dopo aver impiegato cotone, platino, carta, fibre vegetali e persino un ciuffo di peli, la scelta ricade infine sul bambù. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BULB LA STRUTTURA DELLA LAMPADINA LA STRUCTURE DE L’AMPOULE

The first bulb shone for 40 hours!!! Using coal, the result was better. In fact even today the light output is determined by the current flow, the thread becomes incandescent and the miracle is performed: a diaphanous light fills the room...

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Utilizzando il bambù, infatti, il risultato si rivela soddisfacente: la prima lampadina brilla per ben 40 ore!!! Il carbone, infine, permette una durata più grande. L’emissione di luce è determinata dal passaggio di corrente: il filamento diventa incandescente e… voilà, il prodigio della tecnologia si realizza, la luce viva e diafana della lampadina avvolge l’intera stanza...

EDISON AND HIS BULBS EDISON E LA SUA LAMPADINA EDISON ET SON AMPOULE

permet une durée plus élevée. L’émission de lumière est déterminée par le passage du courant: le filament devient incandescent et... voilà, le prodige de la technologie se réalise, la splendide et diaphane lumière de


History of Science and Technology

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European Pupils Magazine Oh my ancestors!!! They gained the attention of everybody in the world, becoming the main characters of the energy system. Nowadays electricity is a fundamental element in our daily life. It’s the most interesting challenge to optimize the available resources. That’s why we use more and more economizing bulbs. What will my future be like, that one of a simple, poor, broken bulb? Will people remember and respect my noble and adventurous past? Oh, le mie progenitrici!!! Esse hanno conquistato rapidamente l’attenzione di tutto il mondo, divenendo le protagoniste del mondo dell’energia. Ai giorni nostri l’elettricità è divenuta una componente essenziale della vita quotidiana. La sfida della modernità è legata alla necessità di ottimizzare le risorse disponibili. Ecco perché sono state create lampadine a basso consumo o ad alta potenza. Che ne sarà di me, una povera, semplice lampadina, persino rotta? Ci sarà qualcuno che ricorderà e rispetterà il mio passato, nobile ed avventuroso? Oh, mes ancêtres!!! Ils ont vite conquis l’attention du monde entier, en devenant les protagonistes domaine de l’énergie. Aujourd’hui l’électricité est devenue une composante essentielle de notre vie. Désormais le défi de la modernité est lié à la nécessité d’optimiser les ressources: voilà pourquoi on a créé des ampoules à basse consommation ou des ampoules avec beaucoup de puissance. Que vais-je devenir? Moi: une simple, pauvre ampoule, cassée!!! Est-ce qu’on se souviendra et on respectera mon noble et aventureux

Bibliography  http://web.tiscalinet.it/acciarriparide/ lampadina.htm  www.sapere.it/tca/MainApp? srvc=dcmnt&url=/tc/scienza/percorsi/ invenzioni/lampadina.jsp  it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lampadina  www.griffini.lo.it/laScuola/prodotti/ Invenzioni/invenzioni/lampadina.htm  www.autocostruire.it/old-site/jolly/ audiophile/cap7.htm  www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/ Circuit/1858/lampad.htm

Iconography  www.cidiu.to.it/erredi/amy_lampadina.jpg  www.midgefrazel.net/edison.html  http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/lightbulb-label.jpg  www.nndb.com/people/333/000022267/ edison-in-lab.jpg  www.minerva.unito.it/images/ Acknoledgements My sincerest gratitude to my French teacher, Francesca Cardaci, and to my English teacher, Rosanna Sesto.

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Theodora Istoriou Experimental High School of University of Macedonia Thessaloniki, Greece theaist_15@yahoo.gr

Optical Illusions

Οφθαλμαπάτες

Introduction and Historical Elements Do we see really correctly, what we see? To which extent do our perceptions alter reality?

Εισαγωγή Και Ιστορικά Στοιχεία Βλέπουμε σωστά αυτό που βλέπουμε; Σε ποιον βαθμό οι αντιλήψεις μας μεταβάλουν την πραγματικότητα; Κοιτάξτε για περίπου ένα λεπτό την παραπάνω εικόνα. Μετά από λίγο θα διαπιστώσετε ότι βλέπετε είτε κύπελλα είτε πρόσωπα. Από τη στιγμή που θα αναγνωρίσετε και τις δύο όψεις, θα δείτε ότι η αντίληψή σας αλλάζει ταχύτητα από την μια εκδοχή στην άλλη και είναι πολύ δύσκολο να πει κανείς αν βλέπει τις δύο εικόνες ταυτόχρονα ή την μία μετά την άλλη. Σ υ μπερ α ίνου με λ οιπόν ότι μια διφορούμενη παράσταση όπως η παραπάνω δείχνει ότι οι προσλήψεις μας δεν είναι μια ανεπηρέαστη αντανάκλαση της πραγματικότητας αλλά μάλλον μια κατασκευή του εγκεφάλου μας η οποία μόνο μερικώς βασίζεται στο αντικειμενικό ερέθισμα.

FIG. 1 - FACES OR CUPS ΕΙΚ. 1 - ΠΡΟΣΩΠΑ Η ΚΥΠΕΛΛΑ

Look at the above picture for about one minute. After a while you will realize that you see either faces or cups. From the moment you perceive both images, you will realize that your perception changes from one version to the other and it is quite difficult to say if you see both images simultaneously or successively. Hence, we conclude that an ambiguous image, as the above, shows that our perception is not an uninfluenced reflection of the reality, but rather a construction of our brain, which is partially based on factual stimulus. The history of optical illusion goes well back in the past. The philosophers Epicharmus and Protagoras tried to interpret optical illusion. The former

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Η ιστορία της οφθαλμαπάτης αρχίζει από πολύ παλιά. Οι φιλόσοφοι Επίχαρμος και Πρωταγόρας προσπάθησαν να ερμηνεύσουν την οφθαλμαπάτη. Ο πρώτος ισχυρίστηκε ότι οι αισθήσεις μας δεν είναι πάντοτε συγκροτημένες και γι αυτό μπερδεύονται, ενώ ο δεύτερος αντίθετα απέδωσε τη σύγχυση στο περιβάλλον και στο ότι οι αισθήσεις μας είναι πάντοτε αξιόπιστες. Αργότερα ο Αριστοτέλης θα πει ότι οι αισθήσεις μας είναι αξιόπιστες, αλλά μπορούν και εύκολα να εξαπατηθούν. Έτσι μια πολύ ζεστή μέρα, σ’ ένα δρόμο, κύματα υδρατμών ανεβαίνουν προς τα πάνω και μπορούμε να τα δούμε. Εδώ οι αισθήσεις μας έχουν δίκιο. Αλλά αν δούμε ένα δέντρο μέσα από τα αυτά κύματα, θα δούμε το δέντρο να πάλλεται. Εδώ οι αισθήσεις μας


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European Pupils Magazine claimed that our senses do not pay much attention and so they can easily be fooled. On the contrary the latter, suggested that the environment brings us to a mess, while our senses are always reliable. Many years later, Aristotle said that our senses are reliable but they can easily be cheated as well. Hence, on a very hot day in a road, heat waves rise upwards and we can see them. In this case, our senses are right. But if we try to look at a tree through the heat waves, we will see the tree wiggling. Here our senses have been cheated, since the tree does not move. Another example comes from the Parthenon, Acropolis. Its horizontal surfaces are curved; its columns are getting narrower going upwards and lean to the interior. The corner columns have longer diameter. These details have been taken into account by the constructors, in order to have a result with perfect proportions, correcting in this way the optical illusion existing before.

έχουν εξαπατηθεί. Φυσικά το δέντρο δεν κινείται. Ας μη ξεχνάμε όμως τον Παρθενώνα. Οι οριζόντιες επιφάνειές του είναι κυρτές, οι κολώνες του είναι μικρότερες στο επάνω κομμάτι τους ενώ γέρνουν προς το εσωτερικό όσο προχωράμε προς τα πάνω. Οι γωνιακές κολώνες έχουν μεγαλύτερη διάμετρο. Και όλα αυτά έγιναν για να έχουμε αποτέλεσμα με τέλειες αναλογίες, διορθώνοντας την ψευδαίσθηση που δημιουργούσε το μάτι. Καταγραφή Ψευδαισθήσεων Τα κύματα της θάλασσας μοιάζουν να μετακινούνται καθώς τα σπρώχνει ο άνεμος, ενώ στην πραγματικότητα το νερό απλώς ανεβοκατεβαίνει. Καθισμένος σε ένα ακίνητο τραίνο έχει κανείς την αίσθηση ότι αναχωρεί, ενώ αυτό που μετακινείται είναι το τραίνο της διπλανής αποβάθρας. Η ψευδαίσθηση ότι ο ήλιος γυρίζει γύρω μας, ενώ η γη στρέφεται γύρω από αυτόν. Μετά από μια μεγάλη βόλτα με το ποδήλατο, η αίσθηση ότι βαδίζουμε σε ασταθές έδαφος. Το να γαργαλιόμαστε πριν να μας αγγίξουν. Το βλέμμα ενός εκφραστικού πορτρέτου που μας ακολουθεί παντού. Για παράδειγμα, το βλέμμα της Μόνα Λίζα ακολουθεί τον παρατηρητή παντού. (εικ. 2) Ένα δωμάτιο που άδειασε από έπιπλα μας φαίνεται μικρότερο.

Illusions Report Sea waves seem to move as the wind pushes them, whereas the water goes up and down You are sitting in a still train and suddenly you feel the train moving, while it is, actually, the nearby train moving. The illusion that the sun goes round the earth, whereas the opposite actually happens. After a long ride on a bicycle, Όραση και Αισθήσεις the feeling that we walk on Η όραση ξεκινά από τα μάτια unstable ground. αλλά δεν τελειώνει εκεί. Για να To be tickled before we are μπορέσει κανείς να δει, το οπτικό FIG. 2 - MONA LISA actually touched. σήμα πρέπει πρώτα να ΕΙΚ. 2 - MONA ΛΙΖΑ The gaze of an expressive μεταβιβαστεί στον εγκέφαλο. Αυτός portrait which follow us everywhere. For το επεξεργάζεται, το αναλύει, μερικές φορές example, the gaze of Mona Lisa follows us το διορθώνει, και τότε μόνο μπορούμε να everywhere. (fig. 2) δούμε.

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European Pupils Magazine A room emptied of all the furniture seems smaller. Sight and Senses Sight starts from the eyes but it doesn't stop there. In order to be somebody able to see, the optical signal must first be transmitted to the brain. There it is processed, analyzed, sometimes corrected and only then we can see. Quite often what we see depends on what we are interested in seeing. Let us imagine that we are on the pavement and we want to cross the street. We see a car driving near. At that moment we are not interested in the colour or make of the car but in how we can cross the street safely, so our brain does not pay any attention to these elements. On the other hand when we are waiting to the picked up then it is probable that we shall watch for the colour and make of the car without paying attention to its speed. Perception chooses the important signals and descarts the rest to its untidy depths. Quite often based on the information provided by the sense organs, we p e r c e i v e something which our logic refuses. Look at these two pictures. Of FIG. 3 the two ΕΙΚ. 3 pictures one is upside down. The real picture is the second one. The first is the same picture reversed, but we regard them as normal. (fig.3) Let us focus on the illusion which our perception creates during the processing of the optical stimuli-optical illusion. Optical illusion: phenomenon during which the optical sense creates, under cert a in circu m st an c es , a f als e

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Πολλές φορές αυτό που βλέπουμε εξαρτάται από αυτό που μας ενδιαφέρει να δούμε. Ας φανταστούμε ότι είμαστε στο πεζοδρόμιο και θέλουμε να περάσουμε απέναντι. Βλέπουμε ένα αυτοκίνητο να πλησιάζει. Εκείνη την στιγμή δεν θα μας ενδιαφέρει το χρώμα ή η μάρκα, παρά το πώς θα περάσουμε ασφαλώς, οπότε ο εγκέφαλός μας δεν προσέχει αυτά τα στοιχεία. Αντίθετα όταν περιμένουμε να μας πάρει, τότε το πιθανότερο είναι ότι θα παρατηρήσουμε το χρώμα και την μάρκα του αυτοκινήτου χωρίς να υπολογίσουμε την ταχύτητα. Η αντίληψη επιλέγει τα σημαντικά σήματα και παραπετά τα υπόλοιπα στα ακατάστατα βάθη της. Πολλές φορές εμπιστευόμενοι τις πληροφορίες που μας παρέχουν τα αισθητήρια όργανα, αντιλαμβανόμαστε κάτι που η λογική μας το αναιρεί. Λέμε τότε ότι έχουμε παραισθήσεις και κατηγορούμε τις αισθήσεις μας ότι μας εξαπάτησαν. Ας παρατηρήσουμε αυτές τις δυο φωτογραφίες. Η πρώτη είναι η ίδια φωτογραφία αντιστραμμένη , αλλά εμείς την αντιμε τωπίζ ου με σαν καν ον ικ ή . (εικ.3). Ας επικεντρώσουμε την προσοχή μας στην πλάνη που δημιουργεί η αντίληψή μας κατά την επεξεργασία των οπτικών ερεθισμάτων-οφθαλμαπάτη. Οφθαλμαπάτη: όταν η οπτική αίσθηση δημιουργεί, υπό ορισμένες συνθήκες, μια εσφαλμένη αντίληψη για τις διαστάσεις, το σχήμα ή τα χρώματα εικόνων ή αντικειμένων.


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European Pupils Magazine perception about the dimensions, the shape or the colours of the pictures or items. The Optical Perception A few optical illusions are due to some failings of our sensors. They have excellent resolution, so as to compare sizes which differ slightly, and remarkable sensitivity, so as to detect even the faintest signals.

Η Οπτική Αντίληψη Λίγες οφθαλμαπάτες οφείλονται σε κάποια ατέλεια των αισθητηρίων. Αυτά διαθέτουν εξαιρετική λεπτότητα, ώστε να συγκρίνουν μεγέθη που διαφέρουν ελάχιστα, και αξιοσημείωτη ευαισθησία, ώστε να ανιχνεύουν και τα πιο ασθενή σήματα

Το μεγαλύτερο ελάττωμα που μπορούμε να The most προσάψουμε στα serious defect we μάτια μας είναι η can attribute to our βραδύτητά τους, eyes is their αιτία πολλών FIG. 4 - LEFT:THE BURTON FIGURE RIGHT: MACKAY’S PICTURE sluggishness, which φ α ι ν ο μ έ ν ω ν ΕΙΚ. 4 - ΑΡΙΣΤΕΡΑ:ΤΟ ΣΧΗΜΑ ΤΟΥ BURTON is the reason for γνωστών από παλιά. ΔΕΞΙΑ:Η ΟΦΘΑΛΜΑΠΑΤΗ MACKAY many phenomena Ο Αριστοτέλης έδινε known since the antiquity. Aristotle would το παράδειγμα του φλεγόμενου δαυλού που mention the case of the burning torch which όταν τον περιστρέφουμε με τεντωμένα χέρια when twisted with stretched hands gives the δημιουργείται μια πλήρης φωτεινή στεφάνη. impression of a fully illuminated circle. Ο Πτολεμαίος είχε περιγράψει την Ptolemeus had described the merging of συ γ χ ών ευ ση των χρ ωμά των μια ς the colours of a spinning top. περιστρεφόμενης σβούρας. Μηχανική αστάθεια του ματιού:το Another problem of our eyes is their πρόβλημα αυτό αποκαλύπτεται στο σχήμα mechanic instability. This problem is revealed Burton, όπου είναι αδύνατο να μετρήσουμε in the Burton figure, in which it is τις τελείες. Η αστάθεια του βλέμματος αρκεί impossible for us to count the dots. The για να δημιουργήσει φαινόμενη κίνηση. instability of the stare is enough to create Η πλέον γνωστή εικόνα είναι αυτή του deceptive motion. MacKay, όπου μια επιφάνεια χωρίζεται σε 240 εναλλασσόμενα μαύρα και άσπρα The most known picture is that of τμήματα που συγκλίνουν στο κέντρο. Όταν Mackay's, in which a su rface is την κοιτάζουμε σταθερά για 10 δευτερόλεπτα divided into alternating b lack & whit e περίπου, έχουμε μια αίσθηση κυματοειδών pieces which converge to the centre. κινήσεων. Και αν προσέξουμε βλέπουμε να When we stare at it f irmly for about οργανώνεται μια περιστροφική κίνηση. seconds, we h ave a sen se of wav y movements. And if we look closely we Αντιθέσεις can see a circu lar motion organ ized . Η αντίληψη μας επιβάλλει εν αγνοία μας, ένα συγκεκριμένο τρόπο εκτίμησης των Antithesis πραγμάτων. Τα αντικείμενα φαίνονται Our perception imposes on us a certain μεγαλύτερα όταν φωτίζονται καλά.

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European Pupils Magazine way of evaluating things. The items look Ένα απλό φαινόμενο αντίθεσης. Οι δυο bigger when they are well illuminated. A δίσκοι έχουν το ίδιο ακριβώς χρώμα αλλά ο simple phenomenon of antithesis. δεξιός σε ανοιχτόχρωμο φόντο φαίνεται πιο The two disks have exactly the same σκούρος. (εικ.5 αριστ.). colour but the right one in a lighter Το γκρι που καλύπτει τις μαύρες μπάρες background seems darker. (fig.5 left) αριστερά, μοιάζει πιο ανοιχτό από το άλλο The Grey colour, which covers the black παρ’όλο που είναι ίδια. (εικ.5 δεξιά). bars on the Οι ζωγράφοι left, looks γνωρίζουν από lighter than παλιά ότι η the other αίσθηση των despite the χρωμάτων σε fact that ένα πίνακα they are the εξαρτάται από FIG. 5 same. (fig.5 τις με ταξ ύ ΕΙΚ. 5 right). τ ο υ ς αλληλεπιδράσεις και ότι οι φωτεινότητες The painters have long known that the επηρεάζονται αμοιβαία. sensation of colours in a painting depends on their interactions and that their brightness is Φαίνεται ότι ο αμφιβληστροειδής mutually affected. μεταδίδει στον εγκέφαλο συγκεντρωτικές πληροφορίες, όπου εικονίζονται τα σύνορα It appears that the retina transmits to the ανάμεσα σε σκοτεινές και φωτεινές περιοχές. brain concentrated information, Ο Λεονάρντο Ντα Βίντσι είχε in which the boundaries σημειώσει ότι το χιόνι που πέφτει φαίνεται σκούρο όταν between dark and bright areas το κοιτάζουμε στον ουρανό, are reflected. αλλά κατάλευκο όταν το Leonardo Da Vinci had κοιτάζουμε με φόντο το noted that the failing snow σκοτεινό παράθυρο του appears darker when we απέναντι σπιτιού. look at it up in the sky, but all white when we look at it FIG. 6 Στην εικ. 6, το σχέδιο with the dark window of the EIK. 6 αποτελείται από μονόχρωμα house opposite as the ορθογώνια. Αν καλύψουμε με background. το δάχτυλο τη δια χωριστική γραμμή δύο γειτονικών ορθογωνίων, βλέπουμε τις In the picture six, the drawing consists of εκατέρωθεν αποχρώσεις να εξομοιώνονται. one-coloured rectangular shapes, placed one next to the other. If we cover with the finger the dividing Γεωμετρικές Πλάνες και Προοπτική line of two adjoining rectangular shapes, we Ορισμένοι συγγραφείς υποστήριξαν, ότι οι see both shades to become the equated. γεωμετρικές πλάνες εκδηλώνονται σε περιβάλλον σχηματισμών με ισχυρούς δείκτες Geometrical Deceits and Perspective προοπτικής. Οι δείκτες προοπτικής Some writers have claimed that δημιουργούν ψευδαισθήσεις.

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European Pupils Magazine geometrical deceits manifest themselves in Οι σκιέρ στο λύκειο Μπυφφον (εικ.7), environments of formations with strong έχουν όλοι το ίδιο μέγεθος αλλά ο πιο indicators of perspective. The indicators of απομακρυσμένος δείχνει πολύ μεγαλύτερος perspective cause illusions. εξαιτίας τον ισχυρών δεικτών προοπτικής της The skiers in Buffond Lyceum (fig.7), εικόνας. Η σταθερότητα του μεγέθους have all the same size but the δύσκολα εφαρμόζεται στην remotest one seems much κατακόρυφη διεύθυνση. larger due to the strong Σύμφωνα με τον Μπυφφόν indicators of the picture's έχουμε μάθει να λογαριάζουμε τα perspective. μεγέθη και τις αποστάσεις σε The size stability is hard to οριζόντια διεύθυνση και όχι σε be applied in vertical direction. κατακόρυφη. Έτσι όταν According to Buffond we have βρισκόμαστε ψηλά σε όροφο μιας learnt to calculate sizes and the πολυκατοικίας, οι άνθρωποι στο distances on a horizontal δρόμο φαίνονται πολύ πιο μικροί direction and not in a vertical από ότι θα έδειχναν αν απείχαν one. την ίδια απόσταση σε οριζόντιο FIG. 7 Therefore, when we are up επίπεδο. Το ίδιο συμβαίνει αν ΕΙΚ. 7 high on a storey of a block of κοιτάζουμε από κάτω κάτι που flats, the people in the street seem much βρίσκεται ψηλά π.χ. ένα σταυρό στην smaller than they would if they were at the κορυφή του καμπαναριού. Ο γλύπτης για να same distance on a horizontal level. αντισταθμίσει αυτό το πρόβλημα φτιάχνει το πάνω μέρος του αγάλματος μεγαλύτερο, για The same happens if we look upwards at να φαίνεται με σωστές αναλογίες όταν το something that is high up e.g. at a cross on κοιτάζουμε από κάτω. Η ψευδαίσθηση Muller the top of a bell tower. The sculptor intakes -Lyer αποτελεί την πιο γνωστή γεωμετρική the upper part of the statue bigger in order πλάνη. Στο a απεικονίζεται η κλασική εκδοχή to counter balance this της. Τα δύο οριζόντια problem, so that it looks in τμήματα είναι ισομήκη αλλά the right proportions when το πάνω δείχνει μικρότερο we look at it from a lower από το κάτω. Η position. ψευδαίσθηση αποδίδεται στη φορά που έχουν τα βέλη. The illusion Muller-Lyer Στο b σχηματισμό εκείνο consists the most widely που μετράει είναι η παρουσία known geometrical deceipt. μακρύτερων ή κοντότερων In a, its classic version is ευθύγραμμων τμημάτων pictured. The two horizontal δίπλα στα αρχικά segments are of the same FIG. 8 - THE ILLUSION MULLER-LYER ευθύγραμμα τμήματα. Στο c EIK. 8 - Η ΨΕΥΔΑΙΣΘΗΣΗ MULLER–LYER length but the upper looks στην παραλλαγή σταυρού η smaller than the lower. πλάνη είναι λιγότερο έντονη, στο d The illusion is due to the direction of the βλέπουμε την παραλλαγή Judd. Οι τελείες shafts. In the b design what matters is the που βρίσκονται στη μέση των τμημάτων presence of longer or shorter straight δείχνουν πιο κοντά στις μύτες παρά στις sections next to the original ones. In c in the ουρές. (εικ.8)

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European Pupils Magazine variation of the cross the Ο εσωτερικός κύκλος deceit is less strong, in d που περιβάλλεται από we see the Judd μεγαλύτερους κύκλους, variation. The dots φαίνεται μικρότερος από which are in the middle το δεξιό. (εικ.9) of the section seem closer to the center than Μετείκασμα the ends. (fig.8) Η α ν τ ί λ η ψ η In the picture nine, αντιμετωπίζει ότι είναι the inner circle μόνιμο σαν θόρυβο FIG. 9 surrounded by bigger υποβάθρου και το αγνοεί. EIK. 9 ones, looks smaller than Γι’αυτό δεν έχουμε την the relative to the right, another geometrical αίσθηση των ρούχων ή των γυαλιών που deceit. φοράμε. Μερικές προσαρμογές της αντίληψης είναι ταχύτατες και προκαλούν Meteikasma συνακόλουθα φαινόμενα, όπου μια ζωηρή Perception deals with what is permanent αίσθηση ακολουθείται αμέσως από την as background noise and ignores it. αντίθετή της. Όταν κοιτάζουμε επίμονα ένα Therefore, we don't have the sensation of αντικείμενο ορισμένου χρώματος και μετά the clothes or glasses we wear. Some στρέφουμε τα μάτια προς ένα λευκό τοίχο, adjustments of the perception are very quick βλέπουμε ένα είδωλο του αντικειμένου σε and cause consequent phenomena (sideσυμπληρωματικό χρώμα που ονομάζεται effects), where a vivid sensation is followed συνακόλουθη εικόνα ή μετείκασμα . Τα πιο immediately after its opposite. αποτελεσματικό μέσο για να σχηματίσουμε ένα μετείκασμα είναι το φλας. Σε ένα When we stare at an object of a certain σκοτεινό δωμάτιο φωτίζουμε ένα αντικείμενο colour and then we turn our eyes to a white με το φλας μιας συνηθισμένης φωτογραφικής wall, we see an idol of the object in a μηχανής και η συνακόλουθη εικόνα complementary colour which is called side εμφανίζεται χωρίς δυσκολία. effect picture. The most effective means to form a meteikasma is the flash light. In a Κινηματογράφος dark room we shed light on an object with a Στο φαινόμενο της παραμονής των flash light of an ordinary ε ι κ ό ν ω ν σ τ ο ν camera and the side effect αμφιβληστροειδή χιτώνα picture appears without οφείλεται η ψευδαίσθηση της difficulty. κίνησης. Το μετείκασμα διαρκεί περίπου ένα όγδοο Cinema του δευτερολέπτου κατά The illusion of motion is μέσο όρο, και το μελέτησε due to the phenomenon of για πρ ώ τ η φ ορ ά σε the pictures' lingering on the επιστημονική βάση ο Ισαάκ FIG. 10 - CINEMA retina. The meteikasma has Νεύτων, στα τέλη του 17ου EIK. 10 - ΚΙΝΗΜΑΤΟΓΡΑΦΟΣ an average duration of about αιώνα . Σ’ αυτή την me eighth of a second, and it was first ψευδαίσθηση στηρίζεται ο κινηματογράφος. studied on a scientific level by Isaac Η συνέχεια ή συγχώνευση της κίνησης των

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European Pupils Magazine Newton in the lace 17th προβαλλόμενων εικόνων century. εξηγείται με τον Cinema is based on this φυσιολογικό νόμο του illusion. The continuation or Λινκε, σύμφωνα με τον merging of the projected οποίο, μια σειρά από pictures' motion is explained σταθερές εικόνες ενός with Linke's natural law, κινούμενου αντικειμένου according to which, a series δημιουργούν την of static pictures of a ψ ε υ δ α ίσθ η σ η ότι το moving object create the αντικείμενο βρίσκεται σε illusion that the object is in κίνηση, όταν δύο εικόνες motion, when two διαδοχικές είναι φαινομενικά successive pictures are όμοιες. Ο διακεκομμένος seemingly the same. The φωτισμός, που υπήρχε στις interrupted highlighting παλιότερες ταινίες, στις found in the older movies, μέρες μας έχει εκλείψει γιατί FIG. 11 - ENIGMA M.C.ESCHER no longer exists nowadays τα σύγχρονα μηχανήματα EΙΚ. 11 - ΑΙΝΙΓΜΑ M.C.ESCHER because modern projection προβολής εκπέμπουν φως equipments also send out light to the parts και στα τμήματα που παρεμβάλλονται μεταξύ intervening between the pictures. των εικόνων. Οφθαλμαπάτες και Τέχνη Αν κοιτάξετε για 10 δευτερόλεπτα τον πίνακα από τη σειρά Αίνιγμα του ζωγράφου Isia Leviant, θα δείτε να εμφανίζονται στεφάνια μέσα στα οποία μοιάζει να FIG. 12 - MORE ILLUSIONS AND ART! BIRDS, WATERFALL, RELATIVITY (ESCHER) ρέει κυκλικά κάποιο EΙΚ. 12 - ΟΦΘΑΛΜΑΠΑΤΕΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΕΧΝΗ υγρό. Άλλες Illusions and Art περιπτώσεις οφθαλμαπάτης από την τέχνη A painting from the painter Isia (M.C. Escher). Leviant's series Enigma. If you look at it for 10 seconds you will see wreaths? Iconography Appearing in which it looks as if some fluid is  http://library.thinkquest.org/illusions, last flowing circularly. Other pictures with updated 10-1-2008 illusions from the art (M.C. Escher).  Newspaper NEA weekend 24-3-2006.  Researchers-I discover the world, Bibliography magazine issue 30, 2002.  Jacques Ninio, The science of illusions,  www.ath en sin fogu id e.com, last Katopro edition. updated 10-1-2008

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European Pupils Magazine Crossword: Questions & Answers Questions: 1. He was born in Pisa in February 15th 1564 and died in January 8th 1642. He was an Italian astronomer, and a famous thinker. He was the first man to make telescopes so he could look at stars and other planets. He discovered that the Milky Way is made of many tiny stars, that the moon has hills, and found four of Jupiter's moons. He also discovered the rules of how things fall. These rules are part of physic. 2. He was born in Ăœlm in March 14th 1879 and died in April 18th 1955. He was a physicist and a scientist. He received the Nobel Prize in 1921 for Physics. He is famous for his theories about light, matter gravity, space, and time, which helps scientists to understand these things much better than they had before. His theories are called the theory of special relativity and the theory of general relativity. His most famous equation is E = mc2. 3. Born in 424-423 B.C., died in 348-347 B.C.; he was a Classical Greek philosopher, who together with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, helped to lay the philosophical foundations of Western culture. He was also a mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the western world. He was originally a student of Socrates, and was as much influenced by his thinking as by what he saw as his teacher's unjust death. 4. He was born in August 26th 1743 and died in May 8th 1794. He was the father of modern chemistry, was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass, recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), disproved the phlogiston theory, introduced the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. 5. He was born in January 4th 1643 and died in 31st March 1727 and he was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. His PhilosophiĂŚ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is said to be the greatest single work in the history of science. In this work, he described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. 6. He was born in April 15th 1452 and died in May 2nd 1519 and he was an Italian polymat a scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. Born as the illegitimate son of a notary and a peasant girl, Caterina, at his in the region of Florence, he was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, spending his final years in France at the home given to him by King François.

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European Pupils Magazine 7. He was born in June 19th 1623 and died in August 19th 1662 and he was a French mathematician, physicist, and religious philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father. His earliest work was in the natural and applied sciences where he made important contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators, the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum by generalizing the work of Evangelista Torricelli. He also wrote in defense of the scientific method. 8. He was born in October 15th 1608 and died in October 25th 1647 and he was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer. He also discovered *** Law, regarding the speed of a fluid flowing out of an opening, which was later shown to be a particular case of Bernoulli's principle. 9. He was born in 287 B.C. and died in 212 B.C. and he was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics and the explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that he designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water, and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors.

Iconography

 www.philosophyprofessor.com/images/

athematiques/isaac_newton_hd.jpg  http://numbers.computation.free.fr/Constants/Pi/ archimedes.jpg

9.Archieidies

5.Isaac Newton

4.Lavoisier

2.Albert Einstein

1.Galileo Galilei

6.Leonardo DaVinci 3.Platon

Answers:

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galileo_sustermans.jpg

 www.maths-rometus.org/images/histoireDesM

8.Torricelli

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id=4703&rendTypeId=4

 http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0110/

7.Pascal

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 http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?

philosophers/antoine-laurent-lavoisier.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/00324/ imagenes/Platon-2.jpg http://dougfloyd.files.wordpress.com/2007/02/ 441px-blaise_pascal.jpeg www.hschamberlain.net/kant/leonardo.jpg www.maniacworld.com/albert-einstein-1.jpg

Created for you by:

Panagiotis Savvidis Experimental High School of University of Macedonia Thessaloniki, Greece

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Ebubekir Akçeşme, Esra Duvan, Mevlüde Obuş Mustafa Ozkan Anatolian High School Kayseri, Turkey ebu_bekir133@hotmail.com

The Tool Which Conveys Past to Present: Pen

Dünü Bugüne Aktaran Araç: Kalem

Word fades, but writing remains says our Söz uçar yazı kalır der atalarımız. Tarihte ancestors. Writing is the most important ki olayların günümüze ulaşmasını sağlayan en event which helps to transfer the events in büyük oluşum yazıdır. Tabii bu oluşumu history to the gerçek leştiren present. Surely, a r a ç d a what makes this kalemdir. formation is a Kimi zaman pen. yürek ile kağıt Pen is arasında bir sometimes a aracı, kimi mediator heart zaman ise savaş and paper and başlatan ya da sometimes a bitiren bir araç medium ends or olmuştur kalem. starts a war. Kılıçtan keskin It is pen olan nadide bir that is an b u l u ş t u r unique invent kalem. sharpener than Öğrencin in a sword. vefakar ve It is a faitful c e f a k a r and suffering dostudur kalem. friend for a 1. TREE PEN, 2. PİKE PEN, 3. BAMBOO PEN, 4. REED PEN, 5. JAVA K a l e m PEN, 6. CROSS-SECTİON, 7. AFFİX, 8. PENCİL SHARPENER student. olmasaydı EPM 1. AĞAÇ KALEM, 2. KARGI KALEMİ, 3. BAMBU KALEMİ, 4. KAMIŞ We’ve also o l m a z d ı KALEM, 5. CAVA KALEMİ, 6. MAKTA, 7. MÜHRE, 8.KALEMTRAŞ brought out an görüşünü de opinion that EPM wouldn’t be but for pencil. ortaya attık. Şöyle ki, kalem olmasaydı bir That is, but for pencil, it wouldn’t have been önce ki dönemin bilgileri sonraki döneme possible to transfer the former period’s data eksiksiz aktarılamaz, EPM makalelerinin to the following period accuratly, it would be yazılışlarının ana teması olan bilim ve gain the concrete data and the resources we teknolojinin tarihi hakkında ihtiyacımız need to refer to about the History of olan kaynaklara ulaşmak, somut bilgiler elde Science and Technology which is the main etmek imkansız olurdu. concern of EPM articles. Pekiyi, dünün bugüne aktarılmasını Well, how was the pencil, the most sağlayan en önemli araç olan kalem, nasıl important tool, which enables to transfer ortaya çıkmış? Ne gibi evrelerden geçerek yesterday to today, found? How many stages günümüze gelmiştir? did it get? Tarih derslerimizden öğrendiğimiz ve As far as we learnt from the history kaynaklardan gördüğümüz kadarıyla yazıyı

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European Pupils Magazine lessons and written sources; the first civilization who found writing, is Sumerians. B.C. 6000 century, the ıconographic writings accepted the first examles of writings were found in the remains in Mesopotomia where the civilization of Sumer and Akads were located. Thoso pictures writings were made with reed. In other words, according to the remains the first writing tool were reed.

kullandığı düşünülen ilk uygarlık, Sümerlerdir. MÖ. 6000’li yıllarda Sümer ve Akad Uygarlıklarının paylaştığı Mezopotamya topraklarında bulunan kalıntılardaki resim yazıları, ilk yazı örnekleri olarak kabul ed il mi şl erd ir . Bu res im yazılarının yazılmasını gerçekleştiren araç da kamış olmuştur. Yani kalıntılara göre ilk yazma aracı kamıştır. Ucunu sivrilttikleri kamışlar ile yumuşak kil tabletler üzerine düz çizgiler çizerek BİRD FEATHER PEN AND INK They do their writings on KUŞ yazma faaliyetini yapmışlardır. TÜYÜ KALEM VE MÜREKKEP the soft tablet by drawing Bizim ilk yazı çivi yazısı dır straight lines with the reed they sharpened. diye bilmemizin sebebi de buradadır. Belki bir This is the reason of our knowing the first çok arkadaşımız bu yazıları çiviyle yazılmış writing is cuneiform. Maybe most of our zanneder ama bu yazıya, çizgilerin düz, çivi friends suppose theese writings as gibi olmasından dolayı çivi yazısı denmiştir. cuneiform, but it was camed us cuneiform Yoksa yazılar kamışlarla çizilmiştir. because of the straight of lines and its Roma, Mısır gibi dünyanın bir çok farklı similarity with nail. But merkezlerinde ufak the writings were drowed değişiklikler, geliştirmeler by reeds. yapılarak kullanılmıştır kamış. Reed have used with Mesela ilk mürekkep doing small variation, bulunduğunda da yaygın development in world’s a olarak kullanılan yazma lot of different centers aracı kamış kalemler such Rome and Egypt. olmuştu r. Roma’ lılar For example reed kullandık ları kamışın pencils were using içlerine mürekkep widespread when first koymuşlardır. ink found. Romans Kamış bulunduktan PENCİL added ink in their used yüzyıllar sonra Kuş Tüyleri KURŞUN KALEM reed. kullanılmaya başlanmış Bird feathers storied to use writing tool yazma aracı olarak. Kartal tüyü, baykuş tüyü, after century reed had found. Tagle feather, hindi tüyü, şahin tüyü gibi kuşların tüyleri owl feather, turkey feather, pereprine falcon sıklıkla kullanılanlar olmuş ama kuğu tüyü az feather such a birds feathers were using bulunduğundan değerli kuş tüylerindenmiş. widespread but swan feather was valuable Sağ el için uygun olan kuş tüyleri, yapıları bird feather for it was finding difficulty. sağ ele uygun şekilde eğik olduğundan sol Bird feathers which are appropriate for kanat tüyleridir. Sol kanat tüylerinin de right handa re left wing feathers for their dıştaki ilk tüyleri ideal olanlarıdır.

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European Pupils Magazine edificie is appropriate bend down to right hand. Left wing feathers ideals are left wing’s outer space first feathers. While in films, actor or actress use down for writing without dropping ink, if is, in dead, a hand they without droppy ink for writers. And this shows one of the properties which shows how land using a down for writing. Altough there are some difficulties like this, not being found a they which doesn’t tear paper and is also drop , provided downs usage for long years. We said because gold wasn’t cheap enough to be written on so gold’s usage in writing wasn’t popular.

Tarihi filmlerde oyuncuların kuş tüylerini mürekkebe batırıp, kağıda güzelce yazmaları hoş bir görüntü meydana getirse de normalde mürekkebi damlatmamak için yazarların uğraşması kuş tüyünün kullanımının zor olduğunu gösteren özelliklerinden biridir. Böyle bazı kullanımını zorlaştıran özellikler olmasına rağmen kağıdı yırtmadan yazı yazabilecek, ucuz bir aracın bulunamaması kuş tüyünün uzun yıllarca kullanılmasını sağladı. Ucuz bir araç dedik çünkü altının kağıdı yırtmadan yazabileceği bulunmasına rağmen maliyeti pahalı olduğu için yazmada kullanılması yayılmamıştır. 17. Yüzyıla gelindiğinde bugün kullandığımız kurşun kalemlerinin When we came to bulunmasına yol the 17th century, the açacak olan grafit graphite mine which madenleri bulundu. caused to be invented İngiltere’de bu pencils we use today m a d e n l e r i n was found. In bulunmasıyla, küçük England having found grafit parçaları tahta this mine the first tool parçalarıyla birleştirilip which we can say it is ilk kurşun kalem a pencil was made by denilebilecek araçlar combining small-grafit yapıldı. Ne var ki bu pieces and wood güzel şeye ulaşmak o pieces. However it kadar da kolay değildi. wasn’t so easy to get Altın kadar pahalı this beautiful thing. olmasa da herkesin FOUNTAIN PEN Altough it wasn’t as ulaşabileceği kadar DOLMA KALEM expensive as gold it ucuz da değildi. wasn’t so cheap to get for everybody. Porselen işine başlayan Avusturya’lı Josef Hardtmuth’un elindeki araçlar yeterince güzel The man started porcelein work who was ve kaliteli çizmesini mümkün kılmıyordu. Avusturian Josef Hardtmuth. He wanted to Daha yumuşak çizimler yapabilmesi için yeni making beautiful drowing, an art. But the bir araç arayışına girdi. Sonucunda grafit tools in the hands of his porcelain work didn’t tozunu kil ile karıştırıp yaktı. Elde ettiği make into drow wood and quality enough. In karışımı da balmumuna batırdı. Böylece order to make softer drawings he tried to yaprakların üzerine rahatça şekiller çizebilen find out a new tool. At last he mixed bir araç keşfetmiş oldu. graphite dust with clay. And he dunked this İnsanın ihtiyacı olunca yeni şeyler mixture into wax. By this way, he keşfetmesinin güzelliğini bir kez daha görmüş discovered something which can easily olduk.

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European Pupils Magazine drow shape, on the lefs. Avusturyalı bir porselenci sayesinde We see that , when people need, they insanlar hem ucuz hem de rahat bir yazma can discover such beautiful things. aracına kavuşmuş oldu. Thanks to Avustrian porcelainer, people Kurşun kalemin bir faydası da, met not only a cheap but also a easy writing tükenmez kalemin donduğu zamanlarda tool. rahatça kullanılabilen bir kalem olmasıdır. Another benefit of the pencil is that it Endüstri devrimiyle birlikte ortaya çıkan can be used easily when the pen frozen. yeni yöntemler kalem üretimini de olumlu The new ways which appeared with the etkiledi. Bu tarihten sonra metalin kullanımı revolution of industry, affected the kolaylaştığından, rahat bir kalem üretimi de productivity of pencil. As from data the kolaylaştı. usage at iron was easy, the production of 1884 yılında Levis Edson Waterman, pencil was also made easy. mürekkep doldurulduğunda kağıda In 1884, Levis damlamayan ve Edson Waterman kalemin ucuna developed a pencil rahatlıkla gelebilen that when the ink is bir kalem geliştirdi. being to filled, it Bu kalem bugün de doesn’t drip to paper kullandığımız and it easly reach the şekildeki gibi bir pen-nip. dolma kalemdir. This pencil is a 20. yy’da dolma pen as we use form kalem içerisindeki today. m ü r e k k e p th In 20 century, haznesine mürekkep it has been pot easy koymak, basıncın by pressure that to k u l l an ıl ma s ı BALL POİNT PEN put ink is ink sayesinde kolaylaştı. TÜKENMEZ KALEM chanber in pen. Gene 20. yy’ın Again in 20. century’s half, changeable yarısında değiştirilebilir kartuşlar icat edildi. cartridge had been invented. But, pen isn’t Ne var ki bu döneme gelindiğinde use today ballpoint pen is being use by a lot dolmakalemin pabucu dama atılmış, bir çok of people. kişi tarafından kalem olarak tükenmez It is nearly in the same priod when the kalem daha ön plana çıkmıştır. ball-paint pen and fountain pen were Tükenmez kalemin bulunuş dönemi ile discovered.(both of them im 19th century). dolma kalemin ki hemen hemen aynıdır Moreover, ball paint pen had been (İkisi de 19. yy). Hatta tükenmez kalem discovered earlier but fountain pen surpassed daha erken bulunmuş fakat başlarda dolma it in the beginning. kalemin gölgesinde kalmıştır. Alonso Townsend Cross developed a Alonzo Townsend Cross, 1878 yılında pencil, which might be accepted as an bugünkü tükenmez kalemin atası anchestor of todays pen, and took its patent sayılabilecek bir kalem geliştirdi ve patentini in 1878. even though, before this date, aldı. Bu tarihten öncelerde de mürekkepli various fountain pens were discovered, the çeşitli kalemler bulunsa da patenti alan patent's name was Alonso Townsend Cross. Alonzo Townsend Cross’dur. Yalnız

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European Pupils Magazine But, in spite of patenting, this pen didn’t catch on!... The kind of pen, the mass production of which had not been needed, has evolved into today’s candition in such way. Macarian Journalist called Lazslo Josef Biro is the first one to develop the pen used in our daily life. He put of fort in developing the ink, which is used on newspapers and drying immediatly, into pen system. However this ink which is danger than normal ink didn’t turn out to be successful in pen. Thus, he come up with the setting a marble in pen’s mouth. By the time he set the marble he put to the desired result. The plane sectory of that time contributed a big beal to be splead out Biro’s invention. Of course this didn’t happen way distrubuting the pens to people from the air. The pens which pilots’ use were fiiled with the air pressure on the ground. When the plane took off 2 km high the degrees air pressure caused to leak the ink and made dirty pilots’ clothes and they couldn’t write properly, so pilots’ prefered ballpoint pens to pens. After pilots the people all around the world started the use ballpoint pens commenly and today the ballpoint pens have become most use writing tools or reelenviremont. In the time pencil’s – pen’s have left its place to computer slowly, we finish our writing, wishing your pencils to write good and beautiful things.

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Iconography http://nilaytorum.googlepages.com/ kalem2.jpg/kalem2-full.jpg http://img246.imageshack.us/ img246/2859/fancyh01bhc1.jpg www.hediyepaketleme.com/images/ products/big/CR001.jpg http://bp3.blogger.com/_iT7hhBSYhUc/ Rt_vZ0PztbI/AAAAAAAAAHA/ DzHx1FTJDUw/s400/image-9.jpg

patenti almasına rağmen bu kalem tutmadı. 20. yy’a kadar seri üretimine gerek görülmeyen tükenmez kalemin bugünkü türü şöyle gelişti ve yayıldı. Lazslo Josef Biro adlı Macar gazeteci günümüzde kullandığımız türden tükenmez kalemi geliştiren kişidir. Gazetelerde kullanılan ve hemen kuruyan mürekkebi dolmakalem sistemine getirmek istedi. Normal mürekkepten daha yoğun olan bu mürekkep dolmakalemde başarılı sonuç vermedi. Bunun üzerine dolmakalemin ucuna küçük bir bilye yerleştirme fikri geliştirdi. Bilyeyi yerleştirdiği vakit istediği sonuca ulaşmış oldu. O dönemde ki uçak sektörü de Biro’nun buluşunun yayılmasına büyük katkı sağladı. Tabi ki bu havadan kalemi insanlara dağıtarak olmadı. Pilotların kullandığı dolma kalemler yerdeki hava basıncı dolduruluyordu. Uçak yerin 2 km üstüne çıktığı zaman hava basıncındaki düşüş dolma kalemlerindeki mürekkebin akmasını; pilotların üstlerinin batmasını ve düzgün yazı yazamamalarını sağladı. Böylece pilotlar kalem tercihlerini dolmakalem yerine tükenmez kaleme çevirdiler. Pilotlardan sonra, tüm dünya da tükenmez kalemi yaygın olarak kullanmaya başladı ve tükenmez kalem günümüzün en çok kullanılan reel ortama yazı yazma araçlarından biri oldu. Kalemin de artık yavaş yavaş kendini yazmada bilgisayara bıraktığı bir dönemde yazdığımız bu yazıyı kalemlerinizin güzel şeyler yazmasını dileyerek kapatıyoruz. Bibliography  Çiğdem Gök, http://web.netbul.com/ cocuk/haberdetay.asp?id=295  http://sozluk.sourtimes.org/show.asp? t=kalem  Oktay Uludağ, www.kesfetmekicinbak.com/yazarlar/ oktayuludag/02924/


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THE OPENING CEREMONY (GREEK FOLK DANCE)

EPMeeting IN THESSALONIKI (APRIL 2008)

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine

THE OPENING CEREMONY (GREEK FOLK DANCE)

EPMeeting IN THESSALONIKI (APRIL 2008)

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