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I.S.S.N. 1722 6961 - EPMagazine 10, vol. 4, issue 1, April 2006

e n i z a g a ogy

Discover your own way to enjoy science at school


EPMagazine

THIS PROJECT HAS BEEN FUNDED BY THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. THE VIEWS EXPRESSED IN THE ARTICLES DO NOT NECESSARILY COMPLY WITH THE ONES OF THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION AND EPM EDITORIAL BOARD

EPMagazine is an International Scientific Periodical published by a

pool of European Schools and the CALMAST, the Centre for the Advancement of Learning of Maths, Science and Technology, Ireland Iconography Cover 1: Alexander Stoilov, Anamaria Kozarova, School 127 Ivan Denkoglu, Sofia, Bulgaria Page 3: Einstein, http://universo.com.sapo.pt/albert.html Cover 4: Aleksander Stoilov, School 127 Sofia


Discover your own way to enjoy science at school

European Pupils Magazine www.epmagazine.org

www.liceoboggiolera.it/epm

Editorial Board Headmasters

Co-ordinators

Valia Nencheva Yunus Cengiz Adnan Dinc Apostolos Apostolidis Byrne Kieran Giovanni Torrisi

Tzvetan Kostov Ali Kalem Hatice Uzug Stelios Friligos Sheila Donegan Angelo Rapisarda

tkostov@yahoo.com alklm@hotmail.com haticeuzug@hotmail.com sfriligkos@sch.gr s.donegan@wit.ie gange@tin.it

Student’s Editorial Board Kalin Radulov, Antonio Ristanov, Anamaria Kozarova Vitor Deliiski, Boriana Jordanova

Official Web Site Rick Hilkens Italian Mirror site Antonino Porto

webmaster@epmagazine.org antoninoporto@virgilio.it

Layout by Manuele Gangi, Orazio Grillo, Anamaria Kozarova, Alexander Stoilov Printed by Litografia Marino, Catania, Italy


Contents

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Editorial: Contribution in Italian, English Dutch, Bulgarian, Greek, Turkish By Eoin Gill, Sheila Donegan

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7th EPMagazine Project Meeting in Kayseri, Turkey By Nikos Georgolios, Kosmas Touloumis, Marilena Zarftzian

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Presentations about EPM at the Ecomedia workshop By Tzvetan Kostov Anamaria Kozarova

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The orientation of Ancient Greeks Ο Προσανατολισµος Των Αρχαιων

By Theodora Istoriou

The invention of the copy machine Изобретяването на копирната машина By Danina Stefanova Gergana Baikusheva


History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine Fun

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17-19

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C E L By Manuele Gangi, Ersilia Rapazzo, K H I Seçil Koçyiğit, Christian Dimitrov G F L

Fun Pages

Medicine in Ancient Greece

H Iatρικη Στην Αρχαια Ελλαδα

By Tsigelidou Katerina

Romanticism Romanticismo By Maria Cannavo, Camilla Cannavo

Guidelines for Contributors

L U L E J A M I T

A M O


E EDITORIALE La rivista EPMagazine è un progetto europeo che accomuna gli studenti europei da nord a sud, da est ad ovest per un obiettivo comune: esplorare la Storia della Scienza e della Tecnologia. CALMAST è entusiasta di far parte di tale progetto. L’idea dell’EPMagazine è nata in Sicilia, nel profondo sud europeo e si è diffusa a tutti gli studenti del continente. Il nostro Istituto, con sede a Waterford nel sud dell’Irlanda, rappresenta il partner occidentale più periferico di questo progetto. Recentemente, tutti i partner sono convenuti in Turchia a Kayseri godendo della gentile ospitalità dei partner più orientali. Più di 4.000 chilometri ci separano, ma nella Rivista siamo tutti uniti, noncuranti delle distanze o differenze linguistiche. Incontrarsi in Turchia ha dato a tutti i partner la possibilità di godere del famoso calore e della tradizionale ospitalità della gente turca insieme all’opportunità di conoscere la loro cultura, senza contare l’occasione straordinaria di osservare al meglio la recente eclissi solare totale. CALMAST si trova presso l’Istituto di Tecnologia di Waterford, un college di terzo livello, e cerca con la sua opera di creare una coscienza ed una comprensione diffusa della Scienza e del-

EPMagazine

Eoin Gill, Sheila Donegan CALMAST Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland www.calmast.ie

EDITORIAL

KAPPADOKYA - URGUP

The EPM - European Pupils Magazine is truly a pan-European Project, bringing European pupils from north to south and from east to west together in a common purpose: to explore the history of science and technology. CALMAST is pleased to be part of the EPM project. The idea of the EPM was born in Sicily in the very south of Europe and has spread east and north and west open and welcoming to all pupils. Based in Waterford in the South of Ireland, we are the furthest west partner in the project. Recently all the partners met in Turkey kindly hosted by the partners furthest to the east in Kayseri. We are separated by over 4,000 km but in the magazine we all come together regardless of distances or differences. Meeting up in Turkey gave all the partners the chance to enjoy the famous warmth and hospitality of the Turkish people, the chance to experience their culture and we had the added bo-

REDACTIE Het EPM - European Pupils Magazine oftewel Europees tijdschrift voor leerlingen is een Europees project. Het brengt mensen van over heel Europa, van het noorden tot het zuiden en van het oosten tot het westen samen, met een gezamenlijk doel: de geschiedenis van de wetenschappen en de technologie ontdekken. CALMAST is vereerd om mee te werken aan het EPM project. Het idee van het EPM is geboren in het zuiden van Europa, Sicilië, en heeft zich verspreid in alle windrichtingen, openhartig en verwelkomend voor iedereen. Gelegen in Waterford in het zuiden van Ierland zijn wij de meest westelijk gelegen partners in dit project. Een tijdje geleden hebben alle leden een vergadering gehad in Turkije, waar we vriendelijk werden onthaald door onze meest oostelijk gelegen partners in Kayseri. We wonen 4000 Km uit elkaar, maar in het tijdschrift komen we allemaal samen, ondanks de afstand tussen ons en het verschil in cultuur. Ons samenkomen in Turkije gaf iedereen de kans om te genieten van de beroemde warmte en gastvrijheid van de Turkse bevolking, om hun cultuur te ontdekken en we hadden zelfs

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la Tecnologia. Abbiamo appreso l’importanza di mettere la storia dentro la scienza. C’è un’opinione diffusa in Europa che i cittadini devono comprendere i problemi collegati a scienza e tecnologia dal momento che devono prendere decisioni in quanto membri di una società democratica. È dunque sicuramente importante guardare al modo in cui, in passato, la scienza, la tecnologia e la società abbiano interagito. La Storia della Scienza della Tecnologia costituisce un ambito importante. Gli sviluppi scientifici e tecnologici hanno influenzato il corso della storia umana. Allo stesso modo, la storia insegna ad apprezzare lo sviluppo della scienza. Troppo spesso si è insegnata la Scienza attraverso un mero elenco di teorie. Più interessante è apprendere la Scienza attraverso il racconto delle scoperte scientifiche. Qual è la più grande sfida che il mondo deve affrontare oggi? Forse l’Energia. Le nazioni sviluppate dipendono oltremodo da petrolio e gas, mentre quelle in via di sviluppo aumentano velocemente la loro richiesta. Petrolio e gas hanno alimentato il progresso degli ultimi 100 anni circa. Il primo pozzo petrolifero commerciale fu scavato meno di 150 fa. In origine, il petrolio era utilizzato solo per illuminazione, ma lo sviluppo del motore a combustione interna creò un nuovo sistema di utilizzo. La richiesta

EPMagazine

nus of witnessing the solar eclipse. CALMAST is based at Waterford Institute of Technology, a third level college and seeks to build public awareness and understanding of science and technology. We have learnt the importance of putting the story back into science. There is a belief across Europe that citizens must understand issues related to science and technology if they are to make decisions as members of democratic society. It is surely important therefore to look at how science, technology and society have interacted in previous times.

TOTAL ECLIPSE AT ERCEYES UNIV.

The History of Science and Technology is an important area. Scientific and technological developments have influenced the course of human history. Therefore science helps us understand history. Likewise, history helps us appreciate the story of science. All too often science has been taught as a list of dry facts. It is usually more interesting to learn science through the stories of scientific discovery. What is the greatest challenge facing the world at present? It is

het geluk om een zonsverduistering mee te maken. CALMAST is gevestigd in Waterford Institute of Technology, een derde niveaus college dat probeert mensen zich bewust te maken van wetenschappen en technologie en het begrijpen ervan. We hebben geleerd dat het belangrijk is om het verhaal terug te plaatsen naar wetenschap. Men gelooft in Europa dat burgers, als ze beslissingen willen maken als leden van een democratische samenleving, moeten begrijpen wat bepaalde kwesties te maken hebben met de wetenschap en technologie. Het is daarom belangrijk om te kijken welke rol wetenschap en technologie hadden in het verleden. De geschiedenis van wetenschap en technologie is een belangrijk onderwerp. Wetenschap en technologie hebben de loop van geschiedenis sterk beïnvloed. Evenzo helpt de geschiedenis ons om de wetenschappen te waarderen. Vaak wordt we tenschap ondervonden als een lijst met feiten, maar het is zoveel interessanter om te leren over wetenschap doormiddel van de verhalen van wetenschappelijke ontdekkingen. Wat is het grootste probleem in de wereld tegenwoordig? Waarschijnlijk is dat energie. Ontwikkelde landen zijn te afhankelijk van olie en gas en ontwikkelingslanden

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salì alle stelle nel XX secolo, man mano che l’industria automobilistica andò sviluppandosi. Tutte le forme di trasporto, autocarri, aerei, navi e treni cominciarono a dipendere dal petrolio. Petrolio e gas divennero combustibili essenziali per la generazione di elettricità e riscaldamento domestico. Anche durante la prima parte del XX secolo ci furono preoccupazioni per l’esaurimento delle scorte, ma ciò non ha mai avuto seguito. L’industria petrolifera trovò altre riserve e si specializzò nella sua estrazione; tuttavia la richiesta continuò ad aumentare. Ora che la richiesta di petrolio supererà le scorte, i prezzi continueranno a crescere. L’Europa importa la maggior parte del suo petrolio. Quanto sono sicure queste scorte? Quale effetto avranno i continui aumenti del prezzo? Possiamo usarne di meno? Cosa succederà, quando si esaurirà? Disponiamo di altre fonti di energia? Possono scienza e tecnologia venire in nostro aiuto? Cosa può dirci la storia? La Storia può dirci molto. Per prima cosa, abbiamo avuto una crisi petrolifera nel recente passato. Nel 1973 un’alleanza delle nazioni arabe produttrici di petrolio bloccò l’esportazione del greggio negli Stati Uniti e in Europa occidentale. Ci furono difficoltà molto grandi. Anche quando l’embargo fu tolto, i prezzi si mantennero elevati. Le economie

EPMagazine

verhogen hun probably Energy. eisen snel. Olie Developed counen gas hebben tries are overde vooruitgang dependant on oil van de laatste and gas and de150 jaar of zo veloping couns t e r k tries are fast inbeïnvloed. De creasing their e e r s t e demand. Oil and commerci ële gas have fuelled olie boorput the progress of AT THE MEETING IN KAYSERI werd meer dan the last hundred 150 jaar geleden geboord. In het years or so. The first commercial begin werd olie alleen maar oil well was drilled less than 150 gebruikt om te verlichten, maar years ago. At first oil was only met de uitvinding van de used for lighting, but the developverbrandingsmotor ontstond een ment of the internal combustion nieuw gebruik voor olie. De engine created a new use for oil. aanvraag voor olie vloog Demand soared in the Twentieth omhoog toen in de twintigste Century as automobiles became eeuw auto’s populairder werden. more popular. All forms of transAlle vormen van vervoer: port: trucks, aeroplanes, ships and vrachtwagens, vliegtuigen, trains became dependent on oil. Oil schepen en treinen werden and gas became important fuels for afhankelijk van olie. Olie en gas electricity generation and home werden belangrijke brandstoffen heating. Even in the early part of voor de elektriciteitsgeneratie en the Twentieth Century people worde verwarming van het huis. ried about the supply running out, Zelfs in het begin van de but it never did. The oil industry twintigste eeuw waren mensen found more reserves and became al bang dat de voorraad op zou very good at getting the oil out, but raken, maar dat is nooit gebeurd. our demand kept increasing. Now De olie industrie vond nog meer that the demand for oil will outstrip oliebronnen en werd heel goed supply, prices will continue to go in het uit de grond halen van de up. Europe imports most of its oil. olie, maar onze vraag bleef How secure is this supply? What stijgen. Nu onze vraag zoveel effect will ever-rising oil prices groter is dan het aanbod zal de have? Can we use less? What will prijs van olie blijven stijgen. happen when it runs out? Have we Europa importeert het meeste any other energy sources? Can scivan haar olie. Hoe veilig is deze ence and technology come to the levering? Wat voor effect zullen rescue? What can history tell us? de steeds rijzende olieprijzen History can tell us a lot. hebben? Kunnen we minder olie Firstly, we had an oil crisis before.

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furono seriamente intaccate. Si sviluppò la tendenza a conservare energia e al tempo stesso un forte interesse a sviluppare energie rinnovabili. Tuttavia ciò non durò a lungo. Il petrolio divenne e rimase relativamente economico e noi abbiamo ricominciato a sprecarlo. Esistono alternative – ci sono i bio-combustibili – petrolio dalle piante. Questa non è però una novità; già Rudolf Diesel, l’inventore dell’omonimo motore, aveva compiuto esperimenti con i bio-combustibili. Egli sosteneva che un giorno tali prodotti avrebbero assunto un’enorme importanza. Aveva ragione, ma certo non avrebbe pensato che ci saremmo fatti cogliere impreparati quando ciò fosse avvenuto. Abbiamo a disposizione altre tecnologie, ma queste possono sostituire il petrolio? Possiamo incanalare l’energia solare, e il movimento del vento e del mare. Le auto possono funzionare con celle di combustibile di idrogeno, ma ciò significa che dobbiamo riuscire a procurarci l’idrogeno. Non esiste una soluzione semplice a tale problema ed i nostri comportamenti devono mutare. Scienza e Tecnologia dovranno venire in nostro aiuto, ma noi dobbiamo anche imparare dalla Storia. È pertanto indispensabile guardare a Scienza e Tecnologia nei loro contesti sociali e storici. Ecco perché l’EPMagazine appare così importante. EPMagazine è diversa da altre riviste. Essa

EPMagazine

In 1973 an alliance of Arab oil producing nations stopped exporting oil to the US and Western Europe. There were very serious shortages. Even when the embargo was lifted higher prices were demanded. Economies were THE OPEN AIR MUSEUM – GEREME badly affected. There was a drive gebruiken? Wat gebeurt er als to conserve energy and there was a de oliebronnen op zijn? Hebben big interest in developing renewwe nog andere energiebronnen? able energies. However, for the Kunnen technologie en most part this didn't last. Oil bewettenschap ons redden? Wat came and remained relatively kan de geschiedenis ons cheap and we have become wastevertellen? ful again. There are alternatives Geschiedenis kan ons een there are bio-fuels - oil from plants. hoop vertellen. Ten eerste, This is not new though, Rudolf hadden we al eens een olie Diesel the inventor of the diesel crisis. In 1973 heeft een verdrag engine experimented with biotussen Arabische landen de fuels. He predicted that someday export van olie naar de bio-fuels would become very imVerenigde Staten en West portant. He was right, but he hardly Europa stop gezet. Er waren would have thought that we would zeer ernstige olietekorten. Toen be so unprepared. We have techhet uitvoerverbod werd nologies, but can these replace oil? opgeheven werden er veel We can harness the Sun's energy, hogere prijzen op de olie gezet. and the movement of the wind and De economie was erg aangetast the sea. Cars can run on hydrogen door dit verschijnsel. Er was fuel cells, but that means we must opeens een interesse om energie be able to supply the hydrogen. te gaan besparen en om uit te There is no simple solution and our zoeken welke andere behaviour must change. Science energiebronnen gebruikt konden and Technology will have to come worden. Hoeweel voor het to the rescue but we must also learn grootste deel bleef deze from History. interesse niet. Olie werd en bleef It is therefore important to relatief goedkoop en men is look at science and technology in weer begonnen met verspillen. social and historical contexts. That

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è scritta da studenti per altri studenti di tutta Europa. Leggendola si possono apprezzare le affascinanti storie della conquista umana ed imparare come il mondo si è trasformato. Si dovrebbero capire meglio scienza e storia se tali discipline sono oggetto di studio a scuola. Come ulteriore grande vantaggio, nell’ EPMagazine si possono leggere articoli nella propria lingua o in molte altre. Se si studia la lingua inglese, essa è di grande supporto, si possono sempre leggere articoli in questa lingua diventata ormai un veicolo di comunicazione universale. Se vi interessa e vi incuriosisce leggere gli articoli, perché non provare a scriverne uno voi stessi? Dopo tutto, gli articoli vengono redatti da gente come voi! Se il vostro articolo viene accettato per la Rivista, vi sentirete meravigliosamente realizzati nel vedere il vostro lavoro pubblicato in un periodico internazionale, sapendo che studenti di tutta Europa avranno l’opportunità di leggerlo. Scrivendo un articolo per la Rivista, si ha la possibilità di esplorare e scoprire un’area a cui si è interessati e facendo sì che gli studenti di tutta Europa facciano lo stesso. Se si è abbastanza fortunati da vedere il proprio articolo premiato come il migliore della Rivista, si avrà anche la possibilità di visitare uno dei paesi coinvolti nel pro-

EPMagazine

Maar er zijn alternatieven – Er is is why the EPM is so important. biologische brandstof – The EPM is different from other plantenolie. Hoewel dit niet magazines. It is written by pupils nieuw is, Rudolf Diesel de for pupils all over Europe. Reading uitvinder of de dieselmotor heeft the magazine you can enjoy fascial geëxperimenteerd met nating stories of human achievebiologische brandstof. Hij ment and learn how your world has voorspelde dat op een dag deze been shaped. You should also unbiologische brandstof heel derstand science and history better belangrijk zou worden. En hij in school if you are studying these subjects. As a great bonus in the had gelijk, maar hij had waarschijnlijk niet verwacht dat EPM you can read articles in your we zo onvoorbereid zouden zijn. own language or in many others. If We hebben technologie, maar you are learning English it is a kan dat olie vervangen? We great help - you can always read kunnen zonne-energie gebruiken articles in English. en de energie van de wind en de If you enjoy reading the artizee. Auto’s kunnen op waterstof cles, why not try to write an article rijden, maar dat betekent dat we yourself? After all the articles are waterstof moeten bezorgen. Er written by people just like you! If is geen makkelijke oplossing en your article is accepted for the ons gedrag moet veranderen. magazine, you will have a wonderWetenschap en technologie ful sense of achievement to see moeten samen komen om een your work in an international uitweg te vinden, maar we magazine, and know that pupils all moeten zeker ook leren van de over Europe will get the chance to geschiedenis. read it. By writing an article for the Daarom is het ook zo Magazine, you get the chance to belangrijk om naar de explore and discover an area that wetenschap en technologie te you are interested in and let students all over Europe know all about it. If you are lucky enough to have your article voted the best article of the Magazine, you will also get the chance to visit one of the partner countries and partake in one of the meetings, make some friends and THE TOTAL ECLIPCE—PARTIAL PHASE

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getto e partecipare ad uno degli incontri, fare nuove amicizie e conoscere la cultura del paese ospite. Se non vi sentite in grado di realizzare un articolo da soli, perché non formare una squadra con degli amici? Lavorare in un gruppo può essere divertente – si possono distribuire i compiti ma anche le tante idee in comune. Scrivere per l’EPMagazine può anche aiutare nel lavoro scolastico, non solo in storia e scienze, ma anche in inglese. I vostri insegnanti sono lì per aiutarvi e forniranno tutto l’aiuto e la guida di cui avrete bisogno. Delle direttive generali sono state fornite per aiutarvi e sono disponibili sui siti web di EPMagazine

experience the culture of the host country. If you don't feel like writing an article on your own, why not team up with some friends? Working in a team can be fun - you can share the work and also share a lot of ideas together. Writing for the EPM can also help you in your schoolwork, not only in history and science but also in English. Your teachers are there to help you and will give you the help and guidance you need. Full guidelines have been developed to help you and they are on the EPMagazine websites.

ΣΗΜΕΙΩΜΑ ΤΟΥ ΕΚ∆ΟΤΗ Το περιοδικό European Pupils Magazine (EPM), Ευρωπαϊκό Μαθητικό Περιοδικό, είναι στην πραγµατικότητα ένα

VISITING A TRADITIONAL CERAMICS FACTORY

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kijken in een sociaal en historisch verband. Dat is ook de reden waarom EPM zo belangrijk is. EPM is anders dan andere tijdschriften. Het wordt geschreven door leerlingen over heel Europa voor leerlingen over heel Europa. Door het tijdschrift te lezen leer je op een leuke manier wat mensen over de jaren hebben bereikt in de wetenschap en technologie en leer je hoe je wereld is gevormd. Ook zul je de wetenschap en geschiedenis op school beter begrijpen als je over deze onderwerpen leest en leert. EPM heeft een geweldig voordeel, je kunt de artikelen lezen in je eigen taal en in vele andere Europese talen. Als je Engels leert zijn de artikelen een geweldige hulp – ze zijn namelijk altijd ook in Engels. Als je het leuk vindt om deze artikelen te lezen, waarom zou je dan niet eens proberen er zelf een te schrijven? Bovendien zijn alle artikelen geschreven door leerlingen net als jij! Als je artikel wordt geaccepteerd voor het tijdschrift, zul je een geweldig gevoel hebben om dat jouw artikel in een internationaal tijdschrift staat, en mensen over heel Europa het zullen lezen. Door een artikel te schrijven voor het tijdschrift krijg je de kans om meer te weten te komen over onderwerpen die jou interesseren en kun je mensen over heel Europa er alles over laten weten. Als je geluk hebt en

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ОТ РЕДАКТОРИТЕ Европейското Ученическо Списание е абсолютно европейски проект, събиращ децата от изток и запад и от север и юг заедно,в името на обща цел: да разучават историята на науката и технологията. "КАЛМАСТ” е горд да е част от EPM беше родена в Сицилия, в найюжната част на Европа и се разпространи на север, запад и изток, отваряйки се към всички деца. Основано на Уотърфорд, в южната част на Ирландия, ние сме най-далечния партньор в този проект. Наскоро всички партньори се събраха в Турция, учтиво домакинствани от най-далечните източни партньори от Кайсери. Разделени сме от повече от 4000км., но в списанието всички се събрахме заедно, независимо от разстояния и различия. Срещата в Турция даде на всички партньори шанса да се насладят на всеизвестната топлина и гостоприемство на турския народ; шанса да видят от близо неговата култура и ние получихме бонуса да наблюдаваме слънчевото затъмнение. КАЛМАСТ е основан на Института за технологии Уотърфорд, трето ниво колеж, и цели да постигне всеобщо знание и разбиране в света на науката и технологиите. Научихме важността на това да поставим историята "обратно в

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Πανευρωπαϊκό Πρόγραµµα, που ενώνει τους Ευρωπαίους µαθητές, από το Βορρά ως το Νότο και από την Ανατολή ως τη ∆ύση σε ένα κοινό στόχο: να εξερευνήσουν την ιστορία της επιστήµης και της τεχνολογίας. Το Πειραµατικό Γυµνάσιο του Πανεπιστηµίου Μακεδονίας έχει την τιµή να συµµετέχει στο Πρόγραµµα αυτό. Η ιδέα του EPM γεννήθηκε πριν δύο χρόνια στη Σικελία, σ’ ένα από τα νοτιότερα σηµεία της Ευρώπης, και διαδόθηκε σε ανατολή, βορρά και δύση και είναι ανοικτή για να δεχτεί όλους τους µαθητές. Έχοντας την έδρα µας στην πόλη της Θεσσαλονίκης έχουµε την τιµή να εκπροσωπούµε τη χώρα µας στο φιλόδοξο αυτό µαθητικό σχέδιο. Πρόσφατα, όλοι οι εταίροι συναντήθηκαν στην Καισάρεια της Τουρκίας όπου συζήτησαν για το µέλλον του σχεδίου και του περιοδικού. Η συνάντηση αυτή έδωσε την ευκαιρία στους εταίρους να ανταλλάξουν απόψεις για τη συνεργασία τους αλλά και να παρακολουθήσουν την ολική έκλειψη ηλίου. To Πειραµατικό Γυµνάσιο του Πα νεπι στη µί ου Μακεδονίας επιδιώκει να συµµετέχει στο σχεδιασµό και την υλοποίηση εκπαιδευτικών καινοτοµιών σε θέµατα επιστήµης και τεχνολογίας. Η εκπαίδευση µας έχει διδάξει τη σπουδαιότητα του να θέτουµε «το πρόβληµα µε όρους επιστήµης». Στην Ευρώπη, υπάρχει η πεποίθηση ότι οι πολίτες πρέπει να κατανοούν τα θέµατα που σχετίζονται µε την επιστήµη και την τεχνολογία, αν πρόκειται να

je artikels is uitgekozen als het beste artikel van het tijdschrift krijg je de kans om een vergadering bij te wonen in een van de partnerlanden – om vrienden te maken en om van de cultuur en gasvrijheid te genieten van het gastland. Als je geen zin hebt om in je eentje een artikel te schrijven, waarom zou je dan niet samen werken met een paar vrienden? Samenwerken in een team kan leuk zijn en je kunt het werk en ideeën delen. Schrijven voor het E P M he l pt j e me t j e schoolwerk, niet alleen met geschiedenis en wetenschap maar ook met Engels. Je leraren zullen je ook helpen en zullen je de steun en hulp bieden die je nodig hebt. Hulpformulieren zijn samengesteld om je zo veel mogelijk te helpen, ze staan op de EPM website

EDİTÖR YAZISI EPM; batıda, geneyden k u z e y e , d oğu d a n b a t ı y a Avrupalı çocukları tek bir ortak hedef etrafında bir araya getiren projedir. Amacı; bilmin ve teknolojinin tarihini yeniden keşfetmektir. CALMAST’ta böylesi bir projede yer aldığı için mutlu hissetmektedir. EPM fikri Avrupa’nın güneyinde Sicilya’da doğdu ve batıya, doğuya, kuzeye yayılarak bütün çocuklara kucak açtı. İrlanda’nın güneyde Waterford’da yer alarak bizde projenin en batıdaki ortağı olduk. Yakın zaman da bütün ortaklar Türkiye’nin

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine

πάρουν αποφάσεις ως µέλη µιας науката”. Из Европа се смята, δηµοκρατικής κοινωνίας. Γι αυτό че гражданите трябва да το λόγο είναι πολύ σηµαντικό να разбират издания, свързани с γνωρίζει κανείς (και ιδιαίτερα οι наука и технологии, ако от тях σηµερινοί µαθητές) τον τρόπο зависи да вземат решения като αλληλεπίδρασης της επιστήµης, членове на демократично της τεχνολογίας και του общество. Най-важното е да се κοινωνικού πλαισίου κοινωνία στις види как науката, διάφορες εποχές. Για το λόγο αυτό технологиите е обществото са η ιστορία της Επιστήµης και της повлияли в миналото, каква е Τεχνολογίας θεωρείται ένας πολύ била ролята им. σηµαντικός τοµέας για τον История на Науката и εµπλουτισµό των γνώσεων και την Технологиите е важна част. κατανόηση των κατακτήσεων και Напредъкът в науката и της µεθοδολογίας της επιστήµης. технологиите е повлият от Από την άλλη πλευρά τα хода на човешката история. επιστηµονικά και τεχνολογικά Така науката ни помага да επιτεύγµατα επηρεάζουν разберем историята. Също така σηµαντικά την πορείατης историята ни помага да оценим ανθρώπινης ιστορίας. Για το λόγο историята на науката. Всяка αυτό και η ίδια η επιστήµη µας често срещана наука е била βοηθά να καταλάβουµε την изучавана от като списък от εξέλιξη της ανθρώπινης ιστορίας. прости факти. Често е поΜε τον ίδιο τρόπο, η ιστορία µας интересно да изучаваме дадена βοηθάει να εκτιµήσουµε την наука чрез историите за εξέλιξη της επιστήµης. Πολύ научните открития. συχνά η επιστήµη διδάσκεται σα Кое е най-голямото µια λίστα ξερών γεγονότων. Είναι, предизвикателство пред света в момента? Най-вероятно енергията. Развитите страни са зависими прекалено много от петрола и газта и тези страни бързо увеличават исканията си. Петролът и газта са отбелязали прогрес през последните сто години. Първият комерсиален кладенец за петрол бил сондиран преди по-малко от 150години. В началото петролът бил използван само за осветяване, но TRADITIONAL TEXTILE PRACTICE IN KAISERY

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ortasında yer alan Kayseri’de çok iyi bir şekilde misafir edildik. 4000 km.’nin üzerine yayıldık ama bu dergi sayesinde mesafe ve uzaklık gözetmeksizin bir araya geldik. Türkiye’de buluşmak bütün ortaklara ünlü Türk misafirperverliği ve sıcaklığının keyfini çıkarma, onların kültürlerini keşfetme şansını verdi. Aynı zamanda güneş tutulmasını seyretmek bu toplantının bize en büyük hediyesi oldu. CALMAST Teknoloji Enstitüsünde üçüncü seviye bir kolejdir. Bilimin ve teknolojininhalk tarafından anlaşılmasına çaba sarf eder. Bilimin tarihini, bilimle buluşturmanın önemini öğrendik. Bütün Avrupa’da şöyle bir inanış vardır ki eğer vatandaşlar demokratik toplum olmanın gereği karar vereceklerse bilim ve teknoloji ile ilgili konuları anlamak zorundadırlar. Aynı zaman da bilimin teknolojinin ve toplumun geçmiş zamanlarda nasıl birbirini etkilediğine de göz atmak önemlidir. Bilimin ve teknolojinin tarihi önemli bir alandır. Teknolojik ve bilimsel gelişmeler insanlık tarihi, alanını da etkilemiştir. Bu yüzden bilim bizlerin tarihi anlamasına yardımcı olur. Benzer şekilde tarihte, bizlerin bilimin öyküsünü değerli bulmamıza yardımcı olur. Genellikle bilim, kuru

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History of Science and Tecnology

European Pupils Magazine

PARTIAL PHASE OF TOTAL ECLIPCE

р а з в и т и е т о д в и г а теля с вътрешно горене създава нова цел за петрола. Нуждата нараснала в 20ти с появата на повече коли. Всички видове транспорт: влакове, камиони, самолети и кораби станали зависими от петрола. Петролът и газта станали важно гориво за електричеството и домакинското отопление. Дори в ранната част на 20ти век хората се тревожели, че запасите може да свършат, но това никога не се случило. Петролната индустрия откри нови резерви и стана още подобра в добива на петрол. Но нашите нужди продължават да растат. И сега, когато нуждата от петрол надминава запасите, цените ще продължават да се покачват. Европа изнася повечето от петрола си. Колко безопасно е това? Какъв ще бъде ефектът от постоянно увеличаващите се цени? Можем ли да намалим ползването? Какво ще стане, когато петролът свърши? Имаме ли друг енергиен източник? Какво могат да

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όµως, συνήθως πιο ενδιαφέρον να µαθαίνει κανείς την επιστήµη παίρνοντας υπόψη τα ιστορικά στοιχεία της επιστηµονικής ανακάλυψης. Ποια είναι η µεγαλύτερη πρόκληση που αντιµετωπίζει ο κόσµος σήµερα; Πιθανόν, η ενέργεια. Οι ανεπτυγµένες χώρες έχουν πλήρη εξάρτηση από το πετρέλαιο και το φυσικό αέριο, ενώ οι αναπτυσσόµενες χώρες αυξάνουν γρήγορα τις ανάγκες τους. Το πετρέλαιο και το φυσικό αέριο ήταν η πηγή της προόδου των τελευταίων εκατό χρόνων, περίπου. Η πρώτη εµπορική εξόρυξη πετρελαίου έγινε πριν λιγότερο από 150 χρόνια. Στην αρχή το πετρέλαιο χρησιµοποιήθηκε µόνο για φωτισµό, αλλά η ανάπτυξη της µηχανής εσωτερικής καύσης δηµιούργησε µια νέα χρήση για το πετρέλαιο. Η ζήτηση κορυφώθηκε τον εικοστό αιώνα όταν τα αυτοκίνητα έγιναν πιο δηµοφιλή. Όλα τα είδη µεταφοράς: φορτηγά, αεροπλάνα, πλοία και τραίνα εξαρτώνται από το πετρέλαιο. Το πετρέλαιο και το φυσικό αέριο έγιναν σηµαντικές πηγές για την παραγωγή ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας και οικιακής θέρµανσης. Ακόµη από τα πρώτα χρόνια του εικοστού αιώνα ο κόσµος ανησυχούσε για την εξάντληση των αποθεµάτων, που όµως δεν έγινε ποτέ. Η βιοµηχανία του πετρελαίου βρήκε περισσότερα αποθέµατα και βελτίωσε τη διαδικασία εξόρυξης, αλλά οι ανάγκες των ανθρώπινων κοινωνιών συνέχισαν να αυξάνουν. Τώρα που η ζήτηση για πετρέλαιο

gerçekler listesi biçiminde bize öğretilir. Ama bilimsel keşiflerin öyküleri ile öğretilmesi bilimi daha ilginç kılmaktadır. Şimdi dünyanın karşı karşıya kaldığı en büyük tehdit nedir? Muhtemelen enerjidir. Gelişmiş ülkeler benzine ve doğal gaza fazlası ile bağlı olduğu gibi, gelişmekte olan ülkeler ise taleplerini hızlı bir şekilde artırmaktadırlar. İlk ticari petrol günümüzden 150 yıl önce çıkarıldı. İlk başlarda sadece ışıklandırma için kullanıldı ama daha sonra meydana gelen teknolojik gelişmelerle petrolün yeni kullanım alanları ortaya çıktı. üretiminde ve ev ısınmasında da önemli bir hale geldi. 20.y.y.’lın başlarında bile insanlar bu doğal kaynakların biteceğinden kaygılandılar ama bu kaynaklar bitmedi. Petrol sanayisi, yeni rezervler buldu ve petrole ulaşmada gayet iyi donanımlar geliştirdi ama petrole olan talebimiz artmaya devam etti. Talebimiz arttıkça petrol fiyatları yükselmeye devam edecek. Avrupa petrolün birçoğunu ithal ediyor. Bu kaynaklar ne kadar güvenli? Bizler daha az kullanabilir miyiz? Bittiği zaman ne olacak? Daha başka enerji kaynaklarımız var mı? Bilim ve teknoloji kurtarabilecek mi? Bu konuda tarih bize ne diyor? Tarih bize birçok şey söylüyor. İlk başta daha öncede petrol krizi yaşadık 1973’te Arap Petrol Üreten Ülkeler Birliği Amerika’ya ve Batı

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History of Science and Technology

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направят науката и технологиите, за да ни спасят? Какво може да ни каже историята? Оказва се, че историята може да ни каже много. Имали сме петролни кризи и преди. През 1973 съюз на Арабските нации, произвеждащи петрол спрял да го изнася за Щатите и Източна Европа. Имало много сериозен недостиг. Дори когато ембаргото се вдигнало, високите цени се задържали. Икономии били спазвани трудно. Имало курсове по запазване на енергията и се появил голям интерес към р а з в и т и е т о н а възобновяващите се енергии. Както и да е, за по-голямата част това не продължило много. Петролът станал евтин и се запазил така, а ние отново започнахме да го харчим на пълни обороти. Има алтернативи – биодизел – петрол от растенията. Това не е нова идея - Рудолф Дизел, изобретателят на дизеловия двигател, е експериментирал с биодизел. Той предсказал, че някой ден биодизелът ще стане много важен. Бил прав, но трудно можел да си представи, че ще сме толкова неподготвени. Имаме технологии, но може ли това да измести петрола?Можем да използваме слънчевата енергия и движението на вятъра и морето. Колите могат да се движат чрез водородни клетки, но това значи, че ни трябва

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αρχίζει να ξεπερνά την προσφορά, οι τιµές παρουσιάζουν ανοδική πορεία. Η Ευρώπη εισάγει το περισσότερο πετρέλαιο που χρειάζεται. Πόσο ασφαλής είναι η προµήθεια; Τι συνέπεια θα έχουν οι συνεχώς ανερχόµενες τιµές του π ε τ ρ ε λ α ί ο υ ; Μ π ο ρ ο ύ µ ε να µειώσουµε τη κατανάλωση; Τι θα συµβεί αν το πετρέλαιο εξαντληθεί; Έχουµε εναλλακτικές πηγές ενέργειας; Μπορεί η επιστήµη και η τεχνολογία να βοηθήσουν; Τι µπορεί να µας πει η Ιστορία σχετικά µε τη χρήση των πηγών ενέργειας; Η Ιστορία είναι σε θέση να µας διδάξει πολλά. Πρώτα, ότι ε ί χ α µ ε κ ρ ί σ ε ι ς πα ρα γω γή ς πετρελαίου και στο παρελθόν. Το 1973 οι κυριότερες πετρελαιοπαραγωγές χώρες σταµάτησαν την εξαγωγή πετρελαίου στις ΗΠΑ και τη ∆υτική Ευρώπη. Παρατηρήθηκαν πολύ σοβαρές ελλείψεις. Και α κ ό µη ό τ α ν το ε µπ ά ρ γκ ο σταµάτησε οι τιµές που ζητήθηκαν ήταν αισθητά υψηλότερες. Οι

PARTIAL PHASE OF ECLIPCE

Avrupa’ya petrol ihracatını durdurdu. Birçok ciddi sıkıntılar doğdu. Ambargo kaldırıldıktan sonra çok yüksek fiyatlar talep edildi. Ekonomi ciddi şekilde etkilendi. Yenilenebilir enerjiyi geliştirme ve enerjiyi korumak için bir akım doğdu. Petrol geçmişe oranla yeniden ucuzladı ve bizler tekrardan savurgan olduk. Biobenzin, biodiezel gibi yeni altarnatifler gelişti. Ama bu yeni değildi. Dizel motoru bulan Rudolf Diesel daha önce biodiezel deneyleri yaptı ve bir gün biodiezelin önemli olacağını o zamanlardan söyledi. Doğruydu ama bizim hazırlıksız olacağımızı düşündü. Teknolojimiz var ama bunlar petrolün yerini tutabilir mi? Güneş enerjimizi, rüzgârın hareketini ve denizi ele alabiliriz. Arabalar sadece hidrojen ile çalışıyor ve bu demektir ki bizler hidrojeni kullanabilme yeteneğinde olmalıyız. Başka basit bir çözüm yok ve bizlerin davranışları değişmelidir. Bilim ve teknoloji bir çözüm bulacaktır. Ama bizde tarihten ders almalıyız. Bu nedenle, bilim ve teknolojiye tarihsel ve sosyal içerikten bakmak önemlidir. İşte bu yüzden EPM önemlidir. EPM diğer dergilerden farklıdır. Bütün Avrupa’daki çocuklar tarafından yazıl ma kt adır. Dergiyi okurken, muhteşem insan başarı öykülerinden keyif alabilir ve dünyamızın nasıl şekillendiğini öğrenebilirsiniz. Eğer okullarınızda bu konuları

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History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine

достатъчно водород. Няма просто решение и нашето поведение трябва да се промени. Науките и технологиите могат да ни дойдат на помощ, но трябва да се поучимот историята. Също така е важно да погледнемкъм науките и технологиите от гледна точка на историята. Ето защо EPM е толкова важно. То е различно от всички други списания. То е написано от ученици за ученици от цяла Европа. Четейки списанието, човек може да се наслади на запленяващите истории за човешките постижения и да научи как светът се е променил. Може също така да разбере по-добре науката и историята, ако ги изучава в училище. Голямо предимство е, че човек може да прочете статиите не само на своя роден език, но и на много други. Ако учи английски примерно, списанието може много да му помогне – може да чете статиите на английски. Ако харесваш да четеш статиите, защо не опиташ сам да напишеш някоя? В крайна сметка статиите са написани от хора точно като теб. Ако статията ти е одобрена от списанието, ти ще изпиташ прекрасното чувство на постижение, да видиш работата си в международно списание и да знаеш, чеученици из цяла Европаще имат шанса да го прочетат.

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BIOLOGY LESSON

οικονοµίες επηρεάστηκαν σηµαντικά. Αναπτύχθηκε µία κίνηση για αποθήκευση ενέργειας και υπήρξε µεγάλο ενδιαφέρον στην ανάπτυξη ανανεώσιµων πηγών ενέργειας. Εντούτοις αυτό δεν διήρκεσε πολύ. Το πετρέλαιο έγινε αλλά και παρέµεινε σχετικά φτηνό και οι ανθρώπινες κοινωνίες προσαρµόσθηκαν στο νέο επίπεδο προσφοράς και έγιναν και πάλι σπάταλες. Υπάρχουν εναλλακτικές λύσεις- τα βιοκαύσιµα (καύσιµα από φυτά), η ηλιακή και η αιολική ενέργεια. Η έρευνα σε αυτές τις µορφές έχει ξεκινήσει πριν πολλά χρόνια. Ηδη ο Rudolf Diesel, ο εφευρέτης της µηχανής ντίζελ, είχε πειραµατισθεί µε βιοκαύσιµα. Προέβλεψε ότι κάποια µέρα τα βιοκαύσιµα θα αποκτούσαν µεγάλη σηµασία. Είχε δίκιο, αλλά δε θα µπορούσε καθόλου να πιστέψει ότι θα ήµασταν τόσο ανέτοιµοι. Έ χ ο υ µε τεχνολογί ε ς , α λ λ ά µπορούν αυτές να αντικαταστήσουν το πετρέλαιο; Μπορούµε να τιθασεύσουµε την ηλιακή ενέργεια, την κίνηση του ανέµου και της θάλασσας; Τα αυτοκίνητα µπορούν να κινηθούν µε στοιχεία καυσίµου υδρογόνου, αλλά αυτό συνεπάγεται τη

görüyorsanız bilimi ve tarihi daha kolay anlayacaksınızdır. EPM’ in artısı olarak bu makaleleri kendi dilinizde ve birçok farklı yabancı dilde okuyabilirsiniz. Eğer İngilizce öğreniyorsanız makaleleri her zaman İngilizce okumanız size yardımcı olacaktır. Makaleleri okumaktan keyif alıyorsanız kendi makalenizi yazmayı neden denemiyorsunuz. Bütün makalelerde, sizin gibi öğrenciler tarafından yazılmaktadır. Eğer makaleniz dergiye kabul edildi ise çalışmanızın uluslararası bir dergide yayınlanmasının keyfini yaşayacaksınız. Şunu bileceksiniz ki Avrupa da ki birçok yaşıtınız sizin makalenizi okuma fırsatı bulacaktır. Dergiye makale yazarak ilgilendiğiniz alanda keşif ve icatlar yapma şansı yakalayacaksınız ve bütün Avr upa’daki öğrencilerin bunları bilmesine imkân sağlayacaksınız. Eğer makaleniz dergide en iyi çalışma seçilecek kadar şanslı iseniz ortak ülkelerde yapılacak toplantılara ücretsiz katılma şansı yakalayacaksınız, yeni arkadaşlıklar edinecek ve o ülkenin kültürünü yerinde görme fırsatı yakalayacaksınız. Ama tek başınıza yazmak istemiyorsanız niçin takım çalışması yapmıyorsunuz? Takım halinde çalışmak; eğlenceli olabilir, işler paylaşılır ve birçok fikir birlikte tartışılır. EPM için yazmak sadece bilim

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Пишейки статия за списанието, ти получаваш шанса да откриеш сферата, която те интересува и да дадеш шанс на всички европейски ученици да научат за това. Ако имаш достатъчно късмет статията ти да бъде избрана за най-добра в броя, ще получиш възможността да посетиш някоя от партньорските страни и дори да участваш в някоя от срещите, да се сприятелиш с нови хора и да опознаеш културата на страната. Ако не искаш сам да пишеш статия, винаги можеш да го направиш с приятели. Работата в екип може да бъде много забавна – може да разделите работата и да обсъдите различните идеи. Да пишеш за EPM може също да ти помогне в училище, не само по история и наука, а и по английски. Учителите ти ще ти помогнат за каквото имаш нужда. Пълните ръководства са развити, за да ти помогнат. Можеш да ги намериш на Уеб – страниците на EPM

δυνατότητα παροχής υδρογόνου. ∆εν υπάρχει, µάλλον, απλή λύση και η συµπεριφορά των ανθρώπων πρέπει να αλλάξει. Η Επιστήµη και η Τεχνολογία θα προστρέξουν προς βοήθεια αλλά θα πρέπει επίσης να διδαχθούµε από την Ιστορία. Στη διαδικασία αυτή η εκπαίδευση των νέων ευρωπαίων πολιτών έχει πολλά να προσφέρει. Από την άποψη αυτή το ΕΡΜ θεωρούµε ότι έχει πολλά να προσφέρει. Το ΕΡΜ γενικά γράφεται από τους µαθητές και προορίζεται για τους µαθητές της Ευρώπης. Στο περιοδικό µπορεί κανείς να βρει συναρπαστικές ιστορίες ανθρώπινων επιτευγµάτων και να καταλάβει καλύτερα πως έχει διαµορφωθεί ο κόσµος µε τη βοήθεια της επιστήµης. Ο µαθητής µπορεί να καταλάβει καλύτερα ότι διδάσκεται στο σχολείο του µελετώντας το περιοδικό. Τα άρθρα είναι γραµµένα στις γλώσσες των χωρών που συµµετέχουν και στα αγγλικά. Αυτό βοηθά τους µαθητές στην εκµάθηση άλλων ευρωπαϊκών γλωσσών. Εάν απολαµβάνεις τη µελέτη των άρθρων του περιοδικού γιατί να µην προσπαθήσεις να γράψεις ένα του περιοδικού γιατί να µην προσπαθήσεις να γράψεις ένα

www.epmagazine.org A CLASS AT SCHOOL 127, SOFIA

EPMagazine

wwww.liceoboggiolera.it/epm

ve tarihi değil İngilizcenizi de geliştirmeye yardımcı olur. Öğretmenleriniz size yardım için ordadırlar ve ihtiyacınız olan yardımı ve rehberliği size yapacaklardır. Size yardım için web sitemizde geliştirilmiş kılavuz yer almaktadır. άρθρο και συ ο ίδιος; Άλλωστε όσοι γράφουν στο περιοδικό είναι µαθητές όπως εσύ! Κάνοντας την προσπάθεια αυτή θα έχεις την ικανοποίηση να δεις τη δουλειά σου να εµφανίζεται σε ένα διεθνές περιοδικό και να ξέρεις πως οι συµµαθητές σου από όλη την Ευρώπη µπορούν να τη διαβάσουν. Αν ακόµη το άρθρο σου ψηφισθεί από τους αναγνώστες του περιοδικού ως το καλύτερο της χρονιάς θα έχεις τη δυνατότητα να συµµετέχεις σε µια από τις συναντήσεις της συντακτικής επιτροπής και της οµάδας εργασίας του περιοδικού. Για τη συγγραφή άρθρου θα µπορούσες να συνεργασθείς µε οµάδα συµµαθητών σου. Η συνεργασία µας δίνει πάντα τη χαρά του να µοιραζόµαστε ιδέες µε τους συµµαθητές µας και να προσπαθούµε από κοινού για την υλοποίηση τους. Να θυµάσαι ότι στην προσπάθεια σου αυτή θα βρίσκεις πάντα συνεργάτες τους καθηγητές σου. Για την ελληνική έκδοση του περιοδικού EPM, Τα µέλη της συντακτικής επιτροπής,

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News 7th EPM Project Meeting in Kayseri, Turkey 28 March – 1 April 2006 Nikos Georgolios, Kosmas Touloumis, Marilena Zarftzian Experimental H.S.U.M., Thessaloniki, Greece

The 7th EPMeeting took place in two small towns, Incesu and Bunyan, in the Kayseri region between 28th March and 1st April 2006. The host schools were M. Ozkan Anatolian High School (Incesu) and Bunyan Anatolian High School. At first, the partners discussed what had been done to date in the project. Italian students presented how they work to prepare each issue, and the Greek team proposed guidelines for authors, supervising teachers and referees, which had been accepted after STUDENTS FROM INCESU discussion. A lot of discussion was spent about the ethics of the content of submitting articles (i.e. respect of different cultures, religion, the different aspects of historic memory). It has been decided, in order to avoid any inconvenience, that such articles should have the consensus of all the partners. THE UR FAIRY CHIMNEYS During the meeting days, all partners had the opportunity to participate in many activities. They had been met by the local authorities, who welcomed the foreign delegations. They visited the historical and cultural places of Incesu, where the students made a presentation of their local history. On the 29th on March the Bunyan students made a presentation on the solar eclipse. After that the partners went to Erciyes University campus, where they had the unique opportunity to observe the total solar eclipse. In addition, the partners visited the private Hisarcıklıoglu High School, where they had lunch, the ski center on Erciyes Mountain, the fairy chimneys of Urgup and the Orthodox cave churches at the wonderful open air museum of Gereme. The goodbye dinner took place in a cave restaurant at Urgup region, with traditional music and dance. It must be noted that the warmth and the hospitality of Turkish partners and the Turkish people THE PRESENTATION OF will be unforgettable. Next meeting will be held in Thessaloniki in November 2006.

School Nє 127 Ivan Denkoglu, Sofia, Bulgaria Mustafa Özkan Anadolu Lisesi, Kayseri.,Turkey Experimental School of Macedonia University, Thessaloniki, Greece Bunyan Anatolian High School, Kayseri.,Turkey Waterford Inst. of Technology, Waterford, Ireland Liceo Statale Boggio Lera, Catania, Italy

EPMagazine

ECOMEDIA EUROPE

Tzvetan Kostov Ali Kalem Stelios Friligos Hatice Uzug Sheila Donegan Angelo Rapisarda

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European Pupils Magazine Presentation about EPMagazine at the Ecomedia workshop Tzvetan Kostov, Anamaria Kozarova School 127 Ivan Denkoglu, Sofia, Bulgaria

As we have informed you in our previous issue an international workshop Virtual learning and school education under Socrates Comenius 3.1 network Ecomedia-Europe took place in Sofia from 7-10 June 2006. 43 teachers, headmasters, experts and educational authorities from Austria, Slovenia, Latvia, Norway and Bulgaria took part in the event: EcoMedia Europe: Europe – In relation to various communication technologies and new media. The event is organized by school 127 Ivan Denkoglu, Sofia and The National Agency Socrates. The Network partnership consists of 23 institutions of 19 European countries. The Co-ordinating institution is Schulgemeindeverband Wolfsberg, Austria.

PARTICIPANTS IN THE WORKSHOP

KRISTIN ANDERSEN, NORWAY AT THE WORKSHOP

Thematic Network Area: Strategic development of ICT (Information- and communication technologies) and Media based education in the field of Comenius and school education. At the workshop Tzvetan Kostov has made a presentation “Educational On-line Resources Created by European Students of EPMagazine”. All the materials from the workshop are available at: www.ecomedia-europe.net/

On 22 June 2006 school 127 Ivan Denkoglu, Sofia had visitors from British Council – Neil Shaw (UK) and Yana Docheva (BG). The Bulgarian students made a presentation about EPM and have demonstrated how they are preparing the next issue for printing. They explained how they use ICT in different subjects. They made a small EPM exhibition, showed them all the issue, the multimedia CDs and the websites. The guests were very impressed by the work of EPM team and the idea of this magazine. The British guest have invited the students to present the EPM activities at the workshop organized by

THE STEERING GROUP OF ECOMEDIA-EUROPE

the British council in October. He said that we are a good example for international collaboration in the field of education.

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Theodora Istoriou

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Experimental High School of University of Macedonia Stratopedo Strempenioti, 56701 Neapoli, Thessaloniki, Greece mail@gym-peir-uom.thess.sch.gr

THE ORIENTATION OF ANCIENT GREEKS Introduction From 8000 B.C. till the end of the Hellenistic era, the Greeks developed their nautical skills to a high level, so they had been dominating in Mediterranean for centuries. But the main question coming up is how the Ancient Greeks were oriented? How did they find the latitude and the longitude of a certain region? How did they find their route? For this purpose different instruments were used, i.e. a kind of compass, sundials, the polometer or even some constellations. Pyxis (pyxida)-psaraki Nowadays, it is well known that the basic instrument of sailing is the pyxis (compass). Did Ancient Greeks have a similar device? Which people used it first? It has been proved that the only people who have used this compass beyond Europe were the Arabs and Chinese. The compass was a clay, stone or metal disc in which the four points of horizon were designated. A magnetic stone showed the South and later the North. The first important information about the use of an iron fish as a compass (pyxis-psaraki), is referred to by the Chinese

DEPICTIONS OF SHIPS WITH PSARAKI IN THEIR BOW FROM PROTOCYCLADIC FRYING PANS (3RD MILLENNIUM B.C.)

EPMagazine

Ο ΠΡΟΣΑΝΑΤΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ

ΤΩΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΩΝ ΕΛΛΗΝΩΝ Εισαγωγή Από το 8ΟΟΟ π.Χ. ως το τέλος της ελληνιστικής περιόδου, οι Έλληνες ανέπτυξαν τόσο πολύ τη ναυτική τέχνη, ώστε για αιώνες ήταν οι κυρίαρχοι της Μεσογείου. Πώς όµως προσανατολίζονταν οι Αρχαίοι Έλληνες, πώς εύρισκαν το γεωγραφικό µήκος και πλάτος µιας περιοχής, πώς ακολουθούσαν την πορεία τους στη θάλασσα; Για το σκοπό αυτό χρησιµοποιήθηκαν διάφορα όργανα, όπως ένα είδος πυξίδας, το ηλιακό ρολόι των Φιλίππων, ο πολοµετρητής αλλά ακόµη και κάποιοι αστερισµοί. Η πυξίδα -ψαράκι Γνωρίζουµε ότι βασικό όργανο της ναυτιλίας στις µέρες µας είναι η πυξίδα. Είχαν οι Αρχαίοι Έλληνες κάτι αντίστοιχο; Ποιοι λαοί την χρησιµοποίησαν πρώτα; Οι µόνοι λαοί που χρησιµοποιούσαν πυξίδα εκτός Ευρώπης είναι οι Άραβες και οι Κινέζοι. Η πυξίδα ήταν ένας δίσκος από πηλό, πέτρα ή µέταλλο, που ακτινωτά στην περιφέρειά του ήταν σηµειωµένα τα σηµεία του ορίζοντα. Με µια µαγνητική πέτρα έβρισκαν τον νότο και αργότερα τον βορρά. Γύρω στο 1044 µ.Χ. αναφέρεται η πρώτη σηµαντική πληροφορία για τη χρήση ενός σιδερένιου ψαριού ως πυξίδας από τους Κινέζους. Βεβαιωµένη χρήση της πυξίδας σε πλοίο έγινε την εποχή που η Κίνα ήταν η µεγαλύτερη ναυτική δύναµη στον κόσµο, γύρω στο 1000-1300 µ.Χ. Από την άλλη µεριά τα κείµενα που αναφέρονται στη χρήση της πυξίδας-ψαράκι από τους Άραβες χρονολογούνται στο 1200 µ.Χ. Μαγνητική πέτρα πυξίδας σε σχήµα ψαριού είναι και το ψαράκι του προϊστορικού πλοίου του Αιγαίου που έδειχνε τον νότο. Το ψαράκι εµφανίζεται στην πλώρη του προϊστορικού πλοίου και το σχέδιο βρίσκονταν πάνω σε παράξενα πήλινα αντικείµενα που βρέθηκαν σε τάφους κυκλαδικών νησιών. Χρονολογούνται από την πρωτοκυκλαδική περίοδο (2800-2300 π.Χ.) Είναι δυνατόν το ψαράκι να χρησιµοποιούνταν ως πυξίδα τη µακρινή εκείνη εποχή; ή µήπως ήταν ένα είδος ανεµουρίου και έδειχνε την κατεύθυνση των ανέµων. Αν το

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at about 1044 A.D. Nevertheless, a verified use of a ship compass appeared when China was the biggest marine force of the world at around 1000-1300 A.D. On the other hand, the texts referred to the use of the fish-compass by Arabs are dated to 1200 A.D. The fish found on the bow of the prehistoric ship from Cyclades pointing to the south, was actually a compass made from magnetic stone. The same fish was incised on some strange clay artifacts (known as frying pans), found in Cycladic tombs, which are dated to the protocycladic period at ca. 28002300 B.C.

ψαράκι χρησιµοποιούνταν πραγµατικά ως πυξίδα γιατί δεν βρίσκουµε κάποια συν��χεια στις απεικονίσεις; Τελικά στο ερώτηµα αν χρησιµοποιούνταν κάποιος τύπος πυξίδας από τους Αρχαίους Έλληνες δεν µπορεί να δοθεί µια καταφατική απάντηση µε βεβαιότητα. Οπωσδήποτε οι Αρχαίοι Έλληνες ναυτικοί χρησιµοποιούσαν κάποια µορφή οργάνου, που είχε σχέση µε την πυξίδα που γνωρίζουµε, αλλά και µε το µαγνητίτη λίθο.

Το ηλιακό ρολόι των Φιλίππων Ένα άλλο όργανο POLOMETER, INSTRUCTIONS OF USE προσανατολισµού ήταν το ηλιακό ρολόι. Από τα πιο αξιόλογα είναι αυτό που βρέθηκε The sundial of Philippi Another instrument for orientation is the sunστους Φιλίππους. Αποτελείται από τρεις dial. One of the most remarkable sundials has been δακτυλίους. Ο εξωτερικός µεγαλύτερος δακτύλιος found at Philippi, region of Macedonia. It consists of χρησιµεύει για να στερεώνονται τα καρφιά / άξονες an outermost device, ring shaped, that supports three που στηρίζουν τον 3° εξωτερικό δακτύλιο. Ο 3ος inner rings. The third ring (the outer one) carries a δακτύλιος φέρει µια οπτοµετρική οπή για τη view hole aiming at the sun. The second ring is σκόπευση του ηλίου. Ο 2ος δακτύλιος αποτελείται made of two half rings where the names of cities, από 2 ηµιδακτυλίους και εκεί υπάρχουν τα ονόµατα months and other measurements are engraved, from των πόλεων, οι µήνες και άλλες µετρήσεις. the center to the edges. Πολοµετρητής Υπήρχε ένα απλούστατο Polometer or kanal An instrument that has lost its όργανο που η χρήση του use through ages is the Polometer χάθηκε στους αιώνες. Ο or kanal. According to captain πλοίαρχος Κολαίτης Koletis, this instrument had been υποστηρίζει ότι είχε invented in antiquity and helped the ανακαλυφθεί στην αρχαιότητα Greek shipmen and explorers in και βοήθησε τους Έλληνες their travels. The information about θαλασσοπόρους και εξερευνητές it is derived from Greek transcripts στα ταξίδια τους. translated in Arabian. It consists of Πήραµε πληροφορίες για αυτό από τα Αραβικά συγγράµµατα a rectangular board, 25 cm in length όπου ονοµάζεται καµάλ ή στα and 15 cm in width. A small semiελληνικά πολοµετρητής. circular opening is located in the middle of one of the small sides of BRONZE MOBILE CLOCK FROM PHILIPPI Είναι κατασκευασµένος από ένα AFTER 320 A.D., ITS USE the board. Below the opening at παραλληλόγραµµο σανίδι. Στο

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about 8 cm, a small hole exists through which a packthread is passing. The instrument can be used POLOMETER, INSTRUCTIONS OF USE only on cloudless nights. The observer holds it, with his left hand, in that way he can see through the semicircular opening the Polar Star, while the other small side touches the horizon. At that position, he pulls the packthread to touch the tip of his nose. At this point he carefully makes a knot. Depending on the route of the ship, the knot does not always touch the observer’s nose. When the distance of the nose gets shorter, then the ship is in a more northerly position compared to its original route. In case of longer distance, the ship deviates to the South. Taking the above into account, an experienced captain would be able to correct the ship’s route. Construction of the polometer Materials One piace of wood, thick cardboard or felizol, dimensions 25 cm´15 cm. A piece of packthread . A blade. Construction 1st step: in the middle of one of the narrow side, using the blade we create a semicircular opening 2 cm in diameter. 2nd step: 8 cm below the opening, we make a small hole, where we attach the packthread by making a knot. The polometer is now steady. Guidelines of use In a cloudless night stand in the open air, so that the horizon line is visible. Scan the sky and detect Ursa Minor and Ursa Major, as it is shown in Fig.

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µέσο µιας από τις στενές πλευρές του έχει µια ηµικυκλική εγκοπή. Λίγο πιο κάτω από αυτήν υπήρχε τοποθετηµένος ένας σπάγκος. Ο παρατηρητής κρατούσε το όργανο µε το αριστερό του χέρι και το τοποθετούσε έτσι ώστε το κάτω µέρος να εγγίζει τη γραµµή του ορίζοντα και µέσα από την εγκοπή να βλέπει τον πολικό αστέρα. Σταθεροποιώντας τον πολοµετρητή τραβούσε το σπάγκο µε το δεξί του χέρι και τον έφερνε στην άκρη της µύτης του. Σε αυτό το σηµείο έκανε έναν κόµπο προσεχτικά. Ανάλογα µε την γραµµή πλεύσης του καραβιού, όταν άλλαζε η θέση του κόµπου στο σπάγκο, αν µεγάλωνε τότε είχε βόρεια διαφορά πλάτους κι αν µίκραινε είχε νότια διαφορά πλάτους. Η πείρα του ναυτικού οδηγούσε στο να διορθώσει την πορεία του. Κατασκευή πολοµετρητή Υλικά 1 κοµµάτι ξύλου, χοντρού χαρτονιού ή φελιζόλ mµε διαστάσεις 25 cm µήκος και 15 cm πλάτος. 1 χοντρό σπάγκο, αρκετά µακρύ κοπίδι Κατασκευή 1ο βήµα: Αφού επιλέξουµε τα υλικά, στο µέσο της µιας από τις δύο στενές πλευρές κόβουµε το υλικό έτσι ώστε να σχηµατιστεί ηµικυκλική εγκοπή διαµέτρου 2 cm. (εικ. 7 α, β) 2ο βήµα: 8cm από το κέντρο του κύκλου σχηµατίζουµε µια µικρή οπή. Εκεί στερεώνουµε το σπάγκο. Ο πολοµετρητής είναι έτοιµος.(εικ.7γ) Χρήση Σταθείτε σε ανοιχτό χώρο όπου διακρίνεται η γραµµή του ορίζοντα. Απαραίτητες προϋποθέσεις είναι να είναι νύχτα και να έχει ξαστεριά. Σαρώστε τον ουρανό µε το βλέµµα σας και εντοπίστε τη Μικρή και τη Μεγάλη Άρκτο. Η θέση τους είναι όπως στο σχήµα. Βρείτε τον πολικό αστέρα στην ουρά της Μικρής Άρκτου, είναι το πιο φωτεινό αστέρι. (Σηµ:Η Μεγάλη και η Μικρή Άρκτος είναι αειφανείς αστερισµοί, δηλαδή είναι όλο το χρόνο ορατοί.) τον πολοµετρητή από τη µία από τις µακριές του πλευρές µε το αριστερό χέρι(η εγκοπή να βρίσκεται στο πάνω µέρος). Τοποθετήστε τον έτσι, ώστε η κάτω στενή του πλευρά να εγγίζει τον

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14 16 1. Find the bright star of the constellation, by following the tail of Ursa Minor. It must be noted, that Ursa Minor and Ursa Major are visible throughout the year.

History of Science and Technology

European Pupils Magazine ορίζοντα ενώ µέσα από την εγκοπή της πάνω πλευράς βλέπετε τον πολικό αστέρα. Κρατώντας σταθερά τραβήξτε τον σπάγκο µε το δεξί σας χέρι. Τεντώστε τον σπάγκο µέχρι να αγγίξει την άκρη της µύτης σας. Στο σηµείο αυτό, κάντε προσεκτικά έναν

Hold the polometer with your left THE STARS, LIKE CHILDREN, SUBMERGE IN THE SEA BY SUNRISE. RED-FIGURED CRATER, 435 B.C. LONDON, BRITISH MUSEUM hand, so that the openκόµπο. ing looks to the sky. The lower narrow side should touch the horizon, in order to see the polar star Μετακινηθείτε αρκετά βήµατα και κάντε το ίδιο. Θα δείτε ότι η θέση του κόµπου είναι through the opening of the upper side. Holding it διαφορετική. steadily, pull the packthread with your right hand. Stretch out the packthread till it touches the tip of the Με αυτόν τον τρόπο διαπίστωνε ο ναυτικός την observer’s nose. At this end of the packthread careαλλαγή της πορείας του πλοίου. fully make a knot. Remove some steps and repeat the above procedure. You will notice, that the knot’s poΗ µεγάλη και η µικρή άρκτος sition is different (does not touch the nose anymore). «Οι Έλληνες» λέει ένας σοφός του 4ου µ.Χ. Following the above procedure, a sailor could αιώνα,«έδωσαν στ' αστέρια ονοµασίες φηµισµένων measure any change of the ship’s route. ηρώων για να είναι ευκολογνώριστα και κατανοητά, επειδή όντας ανώνυµα προκαλούσαν µεγάλη σύγχυση σ' αυτούς που επιθυµούσαν να τα σπουδάσουν». Έτσι Ursa Minor and Ursa Major th At the 4 century A.D. a wise man suggested λοιπόν, οι Έλληνες πρόβαλλαν τους µύθους τους στα that the Greeks should named the stars after famous άστρα και θέλησαν να τα κατατάξουν σε οµάδες. heroes in order to be easily recognized and underΑυτές οι οµάδες είναι οι αστερισµοί. stood. The nameless stars had been bringing confusion to the scholars of that time. Hence, the Greeks Συνδέοντας τα άστρα µε νοητές γραµµές created groups of stars, the constellations, according έβλεπαν κάποιο σχήµα Για παράδειγµα ο to their myths. αστερισµός της Αργoύς διαγράφει σχήµα που θυµίζει πλώρη καραβιού. Έτσι φαντάστηκαν ότι είναι το µυθικό Connecting the stars with imaginative lines, they καράβι, η Αργώ. Με αυτό τον τρόπο οι αστερισµοί ήρθαν πιο κοντά στους ανθρώπους. Οι αγρότες, οι were able to create in their mind a certain shape. For κυνηγοί, οι ποιµένες και οι ναυτικοί έβρισκαν example, the shape of the constellation of Argo reευκολότερα το δρόµο τους στις στεριές και στις minds us of the bow of a ship. This constellation was attributed to the mythical ship of Argo. Hence, this θάλασσες. Όριζαν τις ώρες της µέρας και της νύχτας την kind of star nomenclature familiarized the people εποχή του οργώµατος και της σποράς. Ο πολικός αστέρας, για παράδειγµα, το τελευταίο αστέρι του with the stars. The peasants, the hunters, the shepαστερισµού της Μικρής Άρκτου τους έδειχνε πάντα το herd and the sailors could find easily their way, either in the land or in the sea. They could also deterβορρά. Παρόλο που δεν ήταν πρώτοι οι Έλληνες που mine the hours during the night, the season of plowing and sowing. For example they could find immeθέλησαν να ταξινοµήσουν και να ονοµάσουν τα

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diately the north direction by watching the Polar Star. Although the Greeks were not the first people who named and classified the stars into constellations, since they borrowed knowledge from the nations of the East, they transformed and adapted this knowledge to their own spirit. That’s why they preferred to use their own myths about each constellation. Two of the well known constellations are Ursa Minor and Ursa Major. According to the Greek mythology Eliki and Kynosoura, nymphs from Crete, hid and took care of Zeus in a cave, when he was a baby. They wanted to protect him from Kronos who used to eat all his children. When Zeus came in power, expressed his gratitude by making them stars. Another story for the same constellation claims that nymph Callisto, priestess of Artemis, betrayed the oath to Artemis to stay for ever a virgin, when Zeus fell in love with her, giving birth to a child named Arcadas. Artemis got mad with her and transformed her to a bear. When her son saw her, he started to hunt her, thinking she was a real bear. Zeus fell sorry for them and transformed them, mother and son, into stars. Hence, Ursa Major (Callisto), and Ursa Minor (Vootis, the Arcas) have been born. Ever since, these constellations help travelers and sailors, whereas, in the past, the use of polometer was based on them. Bibliography and Iconography Christos D. Lazos, Nautical Technology in Ancient Greece, Aiolos, Athens1996 Greek Mythology, Ekdotiki Athinon Stella Vlahopoulou, Myths and Stars - Diary 2006, Kedros Ath. Gialouri, Myths of Ancient Greeks for constellations, Delphini Arktos, a protection project of the brown bear and its biotope 1995

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α σ τ έ ρ ι α δηµιουργώντας αστερισµούς, καθώς πριν από αυτούς επιχείρησαν το ίδιο και οι λαοί της Ανατολής, ότι δανείστηκαν το προσάρµοσαν στο δικό τους πνεύµα. Γύρω από το όνοµα του κάθε αστερισµού έπλεξαν τις δικές τους ιστορίες. ∆ύο από REPRESENTATION IN A REDτους γνωστότερους FIGURED VASE, 4TH CENTURY CALLISTO IS WATCHING αστερισµούς είναι η B.C. HER HAND BEING TRANSΜικρή και η Μεγάλη FORMED IN BEAR’S FOOT Άρκτος. Σύµφωνα µε την αρχαία ελληνική µυθολογία η Ελίκη και η Κυνόσουρα, νύµφες από την Κρήτη, έκρυψαν τον ∆ία όταν ήταν µωρό σε µια σπηλιά και τον φρόντιζαν από το φόβο µήπως τον φάει ο Κρόνος. Από ευγνωµοσύνη όταν πήρε στα χέρια του την εξουσία, τις πήρε στον ουρανό και τις έκανε αστέρια, τη Μικρή και τη Μεγάλη Άρκτο. Για τη Μικρή και τη Μεγάλη Άρκτο λέγεται κι άλλη ιστορία. Η νύµφη Καλλιστώ, που ήταν ιέρεια της Άρτεµης δεν τήρησε τον όρκο της να µείνει για πάντα αγνή, όταν την αγάπησε ο ∆ίας και έγινε µητέρα του Αρκάδα. Η Άρτεµη που θύµωσε µαζί της την µεταµόρφωσε σε Αρκούδα. Όµως καθώς ήταν αρκούδα την είδε ο γιος της και θέλησε να την σκοτώσει. Ο ∆ίας τους λυπήθηκε και τους έκανε αστέρια στον ουρανό. Έτσι γεννήθηκε η Μεγάλη Άρκτος, η Καλλιστώ, και η Μικρή Άρκτος ή αλλιώς Βοώτης, ο Αρκάς, που τότε πήρε το όνοµα Αρκτούρος. Ο Αρκτούρος είναι το πιο λαµπρό αστέρι στον αστερισµό του Βοώτη. Από τότε αυτοί οι δύο αειφανείς αστερισµοί δείχνουν το δρόµο σε ταξιδιώτες και ναυτικούς ενώ πάνω σε αυτούς του αστερισµούς βασίζονταν η λειτουργία του πολοµετρητή.

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Danina Stefanova, Gergana Baikusheva School 127 “Ivan Denkoglu” www.127sou.com Parchevich 43, Sofia, Bulgaria denkoglu@mail.bg

THE INVENTION OF THE COPY MACHINE

ИЗОБРЕТЯВАНЕТО НА КОПИРНАТА МАШИНА

Can you imagine life without the copy machine? Probably not. Well who knew that this universally used and important office appliance was actually invented by a Bulgarian? Not many, and because of that we will introduce you to the man who G. NADJAKOV helped make a Г. НАДЖАКОВ small step for humanity and a huge are for Bulgaria. This man was Georgi Nadjakov who became one of the greatest inventors of modern times. And this is how he created the so called xerox. But who was the person behind this brilliant invention?

Можете ли да си представите живота без копирната машина? Вероятно не. Добре кой знае, че този световно използван канцеларски уред, всъщност е изобретен от българин? Не много, затова ние ще ви представим човека, който е направил малка стъпка за човечеството и голяма за България. Този човек беше Георги Наджаков, който е станал един от най-известните изобретатели на модерното време. А той открива така наречения ксерокс. Но кой е човекът, който стои зад това блестящо събитие?

Georgi Nadjakov is one of the most famous Bulgarian physicists. He was born on December 26, 1896 in Dupnitza. There he studied maths and physics and graduated at the University of Sofia. After the first term he went to the army. There he gained officer's rank, taught recruits and took part in several campaigns. When he left the army, Nadjakov continued his studies. As a front-fighter he was credited with one term at the university each year in the army. In 1920 after attending lectures during only four terms, he finished his higher education. In 1921 the university appointed him physics assistant. His skills were recognized by the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, which gave Nadjakov the permission to study abroad with Marie Curie and Paul Langevin.

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Георги Наджаков е един от най-известните български физици. Той е роден на 26 декември 1896г. в град Дупница. Там учил математика и физика и завършил Софийският университет. След първия семестър отишал в армията. Там спечелил офицерски пост, обучавал новобранци

ELECTROMETER ЕЛЕКТРОМЕТЪР

и взел участие в няколко битки. Когато напуснал армията, Наджаков продължил следването си.Като боец на фронта му били признати по

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Before going to Paris he had never seen electrometers. To increase his knowledge he read books during the night and attended lectures at the Sorbonne and at the University of Paris. While at Langevin’s laboratory Nadjakov researched insula-

един семестър за всяка година в армията. През 1920г., след като е посещавал лекции само четири семестъра, завършва висшето си образование. Университетът му дал място на помощник физик. Неговите възможности били

ACADEMICIAN GEORGE NADJAKOV AND HIS WIFE VERA POSTAMPIROVA WITH PROFESSORS AND STUDENTS IN PHYSICS AT THE SOFIA UNIVERSITY IN 1922 АКАДЕМИК ГЕОРГИ НАДЖАКОВ С ЖЕНА СИ ВЕРА ПОСТАМПИРОВА И ПРОФЕСОРИ И СТУДЕНТИ ПО ФИЗИКА В СОФИЙСКИЯ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ 1922Г.

tors and semi-conductors for a year. In addition to a grant the fund of University of Sofia gave him 5000lv. for materials. His results were published in Bulgaria and they were Georgi Nadjakov’s first scientific publication. The Faculty of Physics and Mathematics elected Nadjakov associate professor in experimental physics. Throughout his work he kept experimental physics courses and an electrical engineering course, which included new demonstrations and laboratory experiments. He later became a professor in experimental physics.

МINOLTA - DI-183 COPIER

Georgi Nadjakov was dean of the Faculty of Physics and the University of Sofia principal. Together with his teaching activity he continued working on the photoelectric effects and

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забелязани от Физико-математическия факултет, което позволило на Наджаков да учи в чужбина с Мария Кюри и Пол Ланжвен. Преди да отиде в Париж той никога не бил виждал електрометри. За да обогати знанията си, чете книги през нощта и посещава лекции в Сорбоната и в Парижкия Университет. Докато бил в лабораторията на Ланжвин, Наджаков правил проучвания върху диелектрици и високоомни полупроводници. Като признание фондът на Софийският университет му отпуснал 5000лв. за материали. Неговите резултати били публикувани в България и те били първите научни публикации на Георги Наджаков. Физико-математическия факултет избрал Георги Наджаков като доцент в катедрата по опитна физика. По време на работата си той ръководел курсове по експериментална физика и курс по елекрическо инжинерство, което включвало нови демонстрации и лабораторни

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discovered the photoelectric state of the substances. With this discovery he put his name in the world history of physics and technique. Until the end of his life he worked in this field of studies – he worked out and built new types of electrometers and for some of them he got a patent. Georgi Nadjakov gained international prestige and he awarded a lot of prizes. He died on February 24, 1981.

експерименти. По-късно той станал професор по експериментална физика. Георги Наджаков бил декан на Физикоматематическия факултет и директор на Софийския университет. Заедно с преподавателските си дейности той продължил да работи върху фотоелектричните явления и открил фотоелектретното състояние на веществата. С това откритие той поставил името си в световната история на физиката и техниката. До края на живота си работи в тази научна сфера – той разработил и направил нови видове електрометри и патентовал някои от тях. Георги Наджаков спечелил световно признание и получил много награди. Починал на 24-ти февруари 1981г.

Electrometers Academician Gerogi Nadjakov was the first to create a new standard physical apparatus. Those apparatus were mainly different kinds of electrometers. Four electrometers were original. He also suggested a new method of measurement. Along with Vera Postampirova, Georgi Nadjakov invented a new electrometer system. He also found a common formula about all electrometers created by him. He built a Електрометрия complicated surface SERTIFICATE Академик Георги of a quadrant with СЕРТИФИКАТ Наджаков е първият, collaborators. Deкойто създал физически апарт по нов стандарт. pendence between deviation of a needle and potenТези апарати били по-скоро различни видове tial of a measure quadrant was linear in the new електрометъри. Четири електрометъра били electrometer. оригинални. Той също предложил нов метод за измерване. Photo electrets On September 1925 the Bulgarian physicist George Nadjakov arrived in Paris and went to Paul Заедно с Вера Постампирова, Георги Langevin to ask him to work in his laboratory. He Наджаков изобретил нов високо-системен wanted to work on the photoelectrical effect. After електрометър. Също така създал и обичайна his work in Paris he went back to Bulgaria and conформула за всички елекрометри, които е tinued working on the photo electrets. In 1937 he изобретил. Той изградил сложна повърхност от discovered permanent internal photo-polarization. квадранти. Отношението между ъгъла на

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He used light and electricity for making the electrets. The new electrets was called photo-electrets. The previous type of electrets, which was obtained by heat and electricity was called by him thermoelectric. On 22nd June 1937, the considered date of the discovery, Paul Langevin reported to the French Academy of Science. Announcements for the discovery were published in the magazine of the Academy (Sur une nouvelle espèce de polarisatiron permanente des dielectriques) and in the German magazine Physikalische Zeitschrift.

отклонение на иглата и измервания потенциал било линейно в новия елетрометър. Фотоелектрети През септември 1925 българският физик Георги Наджаков пристига в Париж и отива при Пол Ланжвен да го помоли да работи в неговата лаборатория. Той искал да работи над фотоелектричния ефект. След работата си в Париж той се върнал в България и продължил да работи върху фотоелектрети. През 1937 той открил постоянната вътрешна фотополяризация. Той използвал светлина и електричество, за да направи електрети.Новите електрети бяха наречени фотоелектрети. Предишният вид електрети, който беше получен от топлина и електричество, бяха наречени от него термоелектрети. На 22 юни 1937г., считаната дата на откритиет, Пол Ланжвен съобщил на Френската Академия на науката. Съобщение за откритието беше публикувано в списанието на Академията (Sur une nouvelle espèce de polarisatiron permanente des dielectriques) и в немското списание Physikalische Zeitschrift.

SAMSUNG-SCX-5315F

The discovery of the photoelectric state was the most considerable result of George Nadjakov. He legitimated his authorship in Bulgaria only in 1981. Why did he wait so long to legalize his discovery in his own country? He explained: I was waiting to see what application it will find. Now his discovery is on the first place in the Golden book of the Bulgarian discoverers and inventors. Applications of Nadjakov’s discoveries Researching groups in Russia, Japan, Brazil and United States started scientific works. The discovery became the base for the development of the classic electro photography. It is put into practice

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Откриването на фотоелектретното състояние било най-значимият резултат на Георги Наджаков. Той узаконява своето авторство в България едва през 1981г. Защо той е чакал толкова много, за да легализира своето откритие в неговата собствена страна? Той е обяснил: Изчаквах да видя какво приложение ще намери то Сега неговото откритие е на първо място в Златната Книга на българските откриватели. Приложение на откритията на Наджаков Изследователски групи в Русия, Япония, Бразилия и Съединените щати бяха започнали научни дейности. Откритието станало база за развитието на класическата електрофотография. Приложен е в практиката,

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European Pupils Magazine в производството на копирни машини и снимки от космическите спътници и в сферата на невакумната телевизионна техника, запаметяващи устройства и т.н. Интересът към фотоелектричните ефекти и полу-управлението нараства. Ще завършим статията с думите на Наджаков: Имах своя собствена идея. А това е най-важното. Защото можеш да имаш най-скъпи уреди, най-модерна апаратура - нямаш ли собствена идея, откритие няма да направиш Затова нека да последваме нашите идеи. Те могат да се превърнат в нещо добро, интересно и полезно. A PHOTO FROM A SPACE SATELLITE СНИМКА ОТ ИЧЕСКА СТАНЦИЯ

in the production of the copy machine and photos from space satellites and in the sphere of non vacuum television techniques, memory devices, etc. The interest to the photoelectrical effects and semi-conductors increases. We will end the article with Nadjakov’s words: I had my own idea. And this is the most important thing. You can have the most expensive devices, the most modernistic apparatus, but if you don’t have your own idea, you will not make a discovery. So let’s follow our ideas. They can turn into something good, interesting and useful. Bibliography 1. www.issp.bas.bg/lab/ephi/Museum/ acad_GNadjakov/GN01-page2.html 2. www.wikipedia.org 3. A. Vavrek, Half century from the discovery of the photoelectrets, Association of the physicists in Bulgaria, 1986, book 4, pages 36-40 4. Science and life № 10, 2002, 111-115 5. www.segabg.com/online/article.asp? issueid=1498&sectionid=6&id=00011

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Iconography 1. www.issp.bas.bg/lab/ephi/Museum/ acad_GNadjakov/GN01-page2.html 2. www.issp.bas.bg/lab/ephi/Museum/ acad_GNadjakov/gn01-41.jpg 3. www.issp.bas.bg/lab/ephi/Museum/ acad_GNadjakov/GN11-page3.html,eDecember 10, 2004 4. www.faxexpress.com/graphics/samsung/ samsung-scx-5315f.jpg 5. www.orau.org/ptp/collection/electrometers/ largedolezalek.htm 6. www3.uj.edu.pl/Muzeum/angielski/images/ elektrostatyczna.jpg 7. www.digitalsystemcopiers.com/ Minolta_DI_183F_%20Copier_specs.html 8. www.dpreview.com/news/0308/minolta/ diamgez1-angle.jpg 9. http://images.google.bg/imgres?imgurl=http:// www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/main/satellite/ satel05.jpg&imgrefurl=http:// www.cypnet.co.uk/ncyprus/main/satellite/ &h=454&w=578&sz=36&hl=bg&start=9&tbni d=tL70KB4criLzqM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=132&p rev=/images%3Fq%3Dphoto%2Bspace% 2Bsatellite%26svnum%3D10%26hl%3Dbg% 26lr%3D

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Fun pages

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Cellular metabolism, meiosis, chromosome, mitochondrion, chloroplast cytoplasm, vesicle, cellular membrane, RNA, mitosis ribosome, DNA, lysosome

CREATED FOR YOU BY

Manuele Gangi Liceo Boggio Lera, Catania, Italy gangi_90@hotmail.it

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European Pupils Magazine Science game 7

8 5 1 2 6 3

4

1. Theory of seeds of life from space. 2. Zacharian Janssen, a Dutch optician, made it at the beginning of the XVII C. 3. He was the first who used the telescope for his astronomical observations. 4. Those from which derives the name of the atom. 5. During the French revolution he was doing chemical experiments. 6. He invented the first vaccine. 7. He wrote "Origin of Species". 8. He saw the famous apple falling down the tree. CREATED FOR YOU BY

Ersilia Rappazzo Liceo Boggio Lera, Catania, Italy ersily@hotmail.com

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Science men's inventions

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You should find science men and fill up boxes

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- gas oven - X-ray - physiology science - cell - penicillin - inheritance

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7 - rabies vaccination 8 - electricity 9 - living's existence and animal like behaviors 10 - telescope

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1. Penicillin was invented by … 2. He is the “father of the computer”. 3. He is the creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. 4. He discovered the relationship between electricity and magnetism (electromagnetism). 5. His surname starts with U and he is a famous writer. 6. Invented the microwave oven. 7. He created the first digital calculator. 8. He developed the theory of relativity. 9. There is a physical law, that states the potential difference between two points along a connected path and the current flowing through it, named after him. 10. He discovered the “germ theory of diseases”. 11. Invented the diagnostic X-Ray scanner or Cat-Scan. 12. Invented the computer mouse and the first GUI software before Microsoft or Apple.

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Katerina Tsigelidou Experimental School of University of Macedonia Strempenioti, Thessaloniki, Greece tsigkat@in.gr

MEDICINE IN ANCIENT GREECE The confused opinion of the world concerning the ancient Greeks’ knowledge of medicine has been changing into admiration over the years, since scholars realized that most of the basic theoretical knowledge and the traditional, practical medicine was established in that era.

H IATΡΙΚΗ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΑ ΕΛΛΑ∆Α Η συγκεχυµένη αντίληψη που υπάρχει σχετικά µε τις γνώσεις των αρχαίων Eλλήνων στον τοµέα της υγείας µετατρέπεται σε θαυµασµό µε την πάροδο του χρόνου, αφού συνειδητοποιούµε ότι το µεγαλύτερο µέρος των βασικών θεωρητικών γνώσεων και της παραδοσιακής πρακτικής διαµορφώθηκε εκείνη την εποχή.

Asclepios Ασκληπιος The transition from sorcery to MAKING A HOLE IN THE SKULL Η µετάβαση από τη µαγεία FOR MEDICAL REASONS science has been achieved graduστην επιστήµη έγινε σταδιακά. Ο ally. Asklepios was the main god of medicine in anθεός Ασκληπιός ήταν ο κατεξοχήν ιατρός - θεός cient times and was worshipped in many temples. της αρχαιότητας που λατρεύονταν σε εκατοντάδες Asclepiads was taught by centaur Hiron how to ναούς. Ο Ασκληπιός έµαθε από τον Χείρωνα να cure people either by using words which caused θεραπεύει τους ανθρώπους είτε µε λόγια που miracles, or drugs, or by surgery. It seems true that προκαλούν θαύµατα, είτε µε φάρµακα, είτε µε χειρουργικές επεµβάσεις. Φαίνεται λοιπόν ότι η real medicine was early connected with the worship πραγµατική ιατρική συνδέθηκε ήδη από νωρίς µε of Asclepiads in the island of Kos. There, ever since th την λατρεία του Ασκληπιού στην Κω. Εκεί, από the 5 century the doctors achieved an advanced τον 5ο ήδη π.Χ. αιώνα, οι γιατροί έφθασαν σε level of medical competence. They got together to υψηλό επίπεδο γνώσεων, organize the group of Asclepiads. οργανώθηκαν και δηµιούργησαν In Asklepieia miraculous treatτην οµάδα των Ασκληπιάδων. ment was performed. This method was known as animisms, i.e. people Στα Ασκληπιεία εφάρµοζαν τη lay down in the holy temple and θαυµατική θεραπεία. Η µέθοδος followed a typical rite of sacrifices της θεραπείας αυτής ήταν η waiting eagerly for the appearance ‘’εγκοίµηση’’ δηλαδή η κατάκλιση of the god in their sleep. The god των ασθενών µέσα στο ιερό could suggest a way for the therapy συνδυασµένη µε ένα τυπικό or he could cure the patient during θυσιών και την αναµονή της his visit. He might disguise himself εµφάνισης του θεού κατά τη as a snake, dog or another animal. διάρκεια του ύπνου του ασθενή. Ο The patient who was cured would θεός µπορούσε να υποδείξει τον leave the temple after either writing τρόπο θεραπείας ή ακόµα και να a report about his cure on a column γιατρέψει τον ασθενή κατά την ASCLEPIOS επίσκεψη του αυτή. Συχνά έπαιρνε or setting on it a model of the cured

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µορφή φιδιού part of his body. Through these columns and the ofσκύλου ή άλλου ferings we can learn details about the miracleζ ώ ο υ . Ο working treatment. On one of these columns a paθ ε ρ α π ε υ µ έ ν ο ς tient wrote that he had been suffering from an injury ασθενής έφευγε ή on his toe. He had gone to the temple, and after falγράφοντας σε ling asleep and a snake had come out of the Abaton στήλη το χρονικό and cured him by licking it. When the patient woke της ίασης του ή up, he said that he had seen a handsome man in his αναθέτοντας στο sleep who put some medicine on his foot. ιερό οµοίωµα του The promotion of these miracles (maybe for µέλους του propaganda reasons) in the remedial procedure of σώµατός του που MAKING A HOLE IN Asklepieia proves, nevertheless, a valuable experiθεραπεύτηκε.Από THE SKULL FOR ence of the personnel of the sanctuaries in the remMEDICAL REASONS τις στήλες αυτές και edy of various diseases. This experience led them to τα αφιερώµατα use practical methods on the patients congregated in µαθαίνουµε σήµερα λεπτοµέρειες για τη the holy site. This is undoubtedly proved by the sevθαυµατική θεραπεία. Σε µια από αυτές τις στήλες eral medical tools, which have been revealed during κάποιος ασθενής έγραφε ότι υπέφερε από µια the archaeological excavations in the sanctuaries. πληγή στο δάκτυλο του ποδιού του. Πήγε στο th ιερό, κοιµήθηκε και ένα φίδι που βγήκε από το Later, during the 4 century B.C., the combinaΆβατο θεράπευσε την πληγή γλείφοντας την. tion of the remedy through miracles and the practical Ξυπνώντας ο ασθενής είπε ότι είδε στον ύπνο του measures becomes obvious. This was due to the fact έναν ωραίο νέο που έβαλε πάνω στο πόδι του that people ceased to believe in the almightiness of κάποιο φάρµακο. the gods. Now the priests or the paΗ προβολή tients see in their αυτών των dreams the god θαυµάτων, ίσως who shows them και για λόγους the way to be προπαγάνδας, στη cured. So in Askleθεραπευτική pieia of Pergamos διαδικασία των the neurotic orator Ασκληπιείων Aristidis was cured αποδεικνύει thanks to the sugασφαλώς την gestions of the gods πολύτιµη πείρα A MEDICAL TOOLKIT FOUND IN THE EXCAVATION OF AN for cold baths, vein του προσωπικού ANCIENT ASCLEPIEION puncture, enemas, των ιερών αυτών

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horse riding. According to the legend, Asclepiads was wearing a woolen, white gown and a garment and holding a sceptre.

στην ίαση διαφόρων ασθενειών. Η πείρα αυτή οδηγούσε, προφανώς, σε πρακτικές ιατρικές επεµβάσεις στους ασθενείς που συγκεντρώνονταν στο χώρο. Αυτό τουλάχιστον αποδεικνύουν τα διάφορα ιατρικά εργαλεία που αποκαλύφθηκαν στις ανασκαφές των ιερών.

Ηippocrates There were many distinguished personalities in the Greek-Roman times when the evolution of medicine was notable. The most eminent among them Αργότερα, κατά τον 4ο π.Χ. was Hippocrates. Maybe the most gloriαιώνα, ο συνδυασµός της ous inheritance that he left us is the code θαυµατικής θεραπείας και των of medical behavior, the famous oath of THE PLANT MANDRAKE USED πρακτικών µέτρων αρχίζει να FOR ANAESTHESIA Hippocrates. Through his work Hippoεκδηλώνεται. Σ’ αυτό έπαιξε ρόλο το crates expressed some theories which ότι οι άνθρωποι έπαψαν να πιστεύουν στην many doctors share nowadays. The main characterisπαντοδυναµία των θεών. Τώρα οι ιερείς ή οι tics of Hippocrates’s medicine are: ασθενείς βλέπουν σε όνειρο τον θεό που τους υποδεικνύει πώς να θεραπεύσουν ή να •For the first time the diseases are attributed to θεραπευτούν. Έτσι στο Ασκληπιείο της physical causes. Περγάµου ο νευροπαθής ρήτορας Αριστείδης •For the first time the observation has a specific θεραπεύεται µε υποδείξεις του θεού για ψυχρά meaning as a diagnostic method. λουτρά, φλεβοτοµία, κλύσµατα, ιππασία. •For the first time diet has a meaning. Η παράδοση αναφέρει τον θεό Ασκληπιό ντυµένο µε µάλλινο λευκό χιτώνα και ιµάτιο Below there are some of the elements which κρατώντας σκήπτρο πάνω στο οποίο τυλίγονταν Hippocrates’ theory was based on ένα φίδι. 1. He expressed that the main Ιιπποκρατης characteristics of the human body is Στην εξέλιξη της Ιατρικής the blood, the phlegm, the yellow κατά τους ελληνορω Μαϊκούς and the black bile. All these must be χρόνους διακρίνονται πολλές εξέin the right proportion so as not to χουσες µορφές µε πιο σηµαντική cause a disease αυτή του Ιπποκράτη. Η µεγαλει2. He declared that the morωδέστερη ίσως κληρονοµιά που biferous causes are outside the huµας άφησε ο Ιπποκράτης είναι ο man body but it depends on the idioκώδικας ιατρικής συµπεριφοράς, syncrasy of each person. But heredο γνωστός όρκος του Ιπποκράτη ity has a special impact too. που έχει υιοθετηθεί ως πρότυπο 3. Diseases go through three από τον ιατρικό κόσµο όλων των stages. In the first stage an upset in εποχών και χρησιµοποιείται και the balance of the elements of the σήµερα κατά την τελετή απονοµbody is noticed. In the second one ής των πτυχίων σε πολλά πανεπιthe human organism reacts with high στήµια και ιατρικές σχολές. Ο THE DOCTOR IAPYX COMFORTS temperature and at the end in the Ιπποκράτης µέσα από τα έργα WOUDED AINEIAS. third stage people die. του διατύπωσε κάποιες θεωρίες (SIRICOS’ HOUSE. POMPEIA) 4. The main curing factor is naτις οποίες τις συµµερίζονται

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ture. The doctor must fortify the physical defense of the organism. All of his theories and instructions, written in his books, established a great medical school which reAN ANCIENT DOCTOR TREATING A sulted in the develPATIENT opment of three medical fields: the diet, the pharmacy and the surgery. The Other Doctors A doctor’s life in ancient Greece was spent in the simple environment of the operating theatre. The immediate treatment of the diseases required the application of different tools and medicines. A typical example is the depiction of an open case at the base of a moment in the Asklepieio of Athens which contained several tools (see figure in the middle of page 36). In the picture we can recognize knives for bloodletting, nippers for cauterisms, cupping-glasses and needles for cataracts. In the field of orthopedics the knowledge was limited. We just know from some books that they used to fit artificial limbs like wooden legs. In the field of dentistry we have indications that in the 6th century B.C. they used foils of gold, animals’ bones or teeth to fix people’s teeth. Medicines In ancient times there were possibilities for narcosis. Since the second half of the millennium the juice of the poppy has been known as opium and for its ecstatic effect. Patients drank opium diluted in wine or they smoked it. Few years later, however, the doctors began to use the juice of mandrake, a plant with narcotic attributes (see the upper figure of page 37). But in a time when the science of chemistry did not exist, doctors did not know how to create curative combinations. So, when they found a for-

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πολλοί γιατροί στη σηµερινή εποχή. Τα ιδιαίτερα χαρακτηριστικά της Ιπποκρατικής Ιατρικής είναι: • για πρώτη φορά οι ασθένειες αποδίδονται σε

φυσικά αίτια • για πρώτη φορά δίνεται ξεχωριστή σηµασία στη παρατήρηση ως διαγνωστική µέθοδος • για πρώτη φορά δίνεται σηµασία στη δίαιτα. Ας αναφερθούµε όµως σε ποια στοιχεία βασίστηκε η διδασκαλία του Ιπποκράτης 1. ∆ιατύπωσε την άποψη ότι τα κυριότερα χαρακτηριστικά του σώµατος είναι το αίµα, το φλέγµα, η κίτρινη και η µαύρη χολή. Όλα αυτά ανέφερε ότι πρέπει να είναι στη σωστή αναλογία έτσι ώστε να µην υπάρχει αρρώστια. 2. . Είπε πως οι νοσογόνες αιτίες βρίσκονται συνήθως έξω από το ανθρώπινο σώµα. Το αν θα προξενήσουν βλάβη εξαρτάται από την ιδιοσυγκρασία του οργανισµού. Ιδιαίτερη σηµασία, όµως, έχει η κληρονοµικότητα. 3. Οι αρρώστιες περνάνε από 3 στάδια Στο πρώτο γίνεται η διαταραχή των συστατικών του σώµατος. Στο δεύτερο ο οργανισµός αντιδρά µε πυρετό και στο τρίτο επέρχεται το τέλος. 4. Ο κυριότερος θεραπευτικός παράγοντας είναι η φύση. Ο γιατρός όµως πρέπει να ενισχύει τη φυσική άµυνα του οργανισµού. Όλες αυτές τις θεωρίες και τις διδασκαλίες του τις διατύπωσε στα συγγράµµατα που έγραψε και µετέδωσε µε τη µεγάλη σχολή γιατρών που ίδρυσε και όπου αναπτύχθηκαν οι τρεις κλάδοι της ιατρικής: η διαιτητική, η φαρµακευτική και η χειρουργική. Οι Υπολοιποι Γιατροι Η καθηµερινή ζωή του γιατρού στην αρχαία Ελλάδα περνούσε στον απλά διαµορφωµένο χώρο του ιατρείου. Η άµεση αντιµετώπιση των ασθενειών προέβλεπε κυρίως πλήθος επεµβάσεων µε διάφορα εργαλεία και φάρµακα. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγµα είναι η παράσταση µιας ανοιχτής θήκης πάνω στη βάση ενός µνηµείου από το Ασκληπιείο της Αθήνας που περιείχε διάφορα εργαλεία (βλέπε εικόνα on page 36). Στην εικόνα, µπορούµε να αναγνωρίσουµε

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ASCLEPIOS AND HYGEIA TREATING A PATIENT

mula for a medicine they wrote it on papyrus. Doctors in ancient times made pills from the tallow but also collyriums for the eyes from wax. At least with all this knowledge on many medical fields no one can dispute the contribution of ancient doctors in medical function and ideology. Bibliography & Iconography 1. American School of Classical Studies in Athens: Cure and Cult in Ancient Corinth. Guide. 1977 2. Λυπουρλής ∆.: Ιπποκρατική Ιατρική. Εκδόσεις Παρατηρητής. 1983 3. Μαντάς Κ.: Ασθένειες και Ιατρική στην Αρχαία Ελλάδα και τη Ρώµη. Περιοδικό Corpus, τεύχος 37, 2002 4. Νάνου Χ.: Στο χειρουργείο του 7ου αιώνα πΧ. Εφηµερίδα Αγγελιοφόρος. 2006 5. Πάπυρος Λαρούς Μπριτάνικα: Ιατρική. Eγκυκλοπαίδεια. 6. Σαλµανίδης Α.: Ιατρική στην Ιπποκρατική περίοδο και η εξέλιξή της παγκοσµίως ως σήµερα. Eφηµερίδα Αγγελιοχώρος. 2006

µαχαίρια για αφαιµάξεις, για λεπτές επεµβάσεις, βελόνες για τον καταρράκτη στα µάτια, λαβίδες για τον καυτηριασµό σάρκας, βεντούζες για την αφαίρεση αίµατος, εργαλεία µε τα οποία µετρούσαν το βάθος της πληγής κλπ. Στον τοµέα της ορθοπαιδικής οι γνώσεις τους ήταν λίγες. Γνωρίζουµε, όµως, από κείµενα ότι χρησιµοποιούσαν προθέσεις, όπως π.χ. ξύλινα πόδια. Στον τοµέα της οδοντιατρικής έχουµε σαφές ενδείξεις ότι τον 6ο π.Χ αιώνα χρησιµοποιούνταν φύλλα χρυσού, κόκαλα ή δόντια ζώων για τη επιδιόρθωση της οδοντοστοιχίας. Φαρµακα Στην αρχαιότητα υπήρχαν δυνατότητες αναισθησίας. Από τη 2η π.Χ. χιλιετία ο χρησιµοποιούνταν ο χυµός της παπαρούνας, γνωστός ως όπιο αλλά και για την εκστασιακή του επίδραση. Το όπιο το έπιναν µέσα σε κρασί ή το κάπνιζαν. Λίγο αργότερα όµως για να πετύχουν την αναισθησία χρησιµοποιούσαν το χυµό του µανδραγόρα, φυτό µε ναρκωτικές ιδιότητες (βλέπε εικόνα on page 37). Σε µια εποχή όµως που η επιστήµη της χηµείας δεν υπήρχε, οι γιατροί δεν ήταν σε θέση να αποµονώσουν ουσίες για να δηµιουργήσουν θεραπευτικούς συνδυασµούς. Έτσι όταν έβρισκαν την συνταγή για τη κατασκευή ενός φαρµάκου την κατέγραφαν σε παπύρους. Οι αρχαίοι κατασκεύαζαν επίσης χάπια µε λίπος αλλά και κολλύρια για τα µάτια µε κερί. Με τόσες γνώσεις πάνω σε διάφορους τοµείς της υγείας, εποµένως, κανείς δεν µπορεί να αµφισβητήσει τη συµβολή των αρχαίων ιατρών στο ιατρικό λειτούργηµα και την ιατρική ιδεολογία όπως την εννοούµε στις µέρες µας..

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www.EPMagazine.org Rick Hilkens

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Maria Cannavo, Camilla Cannavo Liceo Scientifico Leonardo, Giarre CT, Italy Corresponding Author: Camilla Cannavò cannavocamilla@tiscali.it

ROMANTICISM

ROMANTICISMO

Oggi noi studenti, e quanti inToday, we students, and those traprendono l’affascinante viaggio who undertake the fascinating dello studio delle scienze, facciamo study trip into science can often use spesso utilizzo di supporti e mateessential supports and equipments riali indispensabili per l’apprendifor learning, but we aren’t well mento, ma non ci rendiamo conto, aware of their routine use, of how vista l’ovvietà con cui li usiamo, di much effort was behind their realiquanto essi esprimano nell’ambito zation. del loro significato e della loro stoIn chemistry the periodic taria. ble is an example: comfortable, easy to use, fundamental instruNel campo della chimica la tament to the problems but…do peovola periodica ne è un esempio: ple know who invented it or how comoda, facile da usare, fondamenthe periodic table started? tale strumento per la risoluzione dei If you share our purpose, come problemi ma quanti di noi si sono along with us on this trip to the orichiesti da chi fosse stata inventata o gin of the periodic table but…, meglio quale e quando ha avuto before starting, we have to explain inizio la storia della sua nascita? to those who don’t like the subject THE KISS very much or have only a superfiIL BACIO Se avete intuito le nostre intencial knowledge, what this famous zioni, ripercorrete con noi questo viaggio lungo le table is. origini della tavola periodica ma, prima di cominThe periodic table of the elements or periodic ciare, ci vien d’obbligo spiegare a chi non è tanto System is a diagram that contains all the chemical appassionato della materia in questione e possiede elements, arranged in the order of their ascending magari solo una conoscenza superficiale dell’argoatomic number and the periodicity of their characmento, in che cosa consiste questa rinomata TAVOteristics. But before describing the table, we have to LA wonder: what we mean with chemical elements Chemical elements refer to substances that are La tavola periodica degli elementi o Sistema constituted by the same atoms, all containing the periodico è uno schema che racchiude tutti gli elesame number of protons. Nowadays over one hunmenti chimici, disposti in ordine di numero atomidred elements are known, some of which, the so co crescente e in modo da rispettare la periodicità called trans-uranium elements, are very radioacdelle loro caratteristiche. Ma prima di andare avanti tive. These, in fact, do not exist in nature and man con la descrizione della tavola, dobbiamo porci una produces them by bombarding the atomic nucledomanda: che cosa si intende esattamente per eleuses of other elements with electrically loaded parmenti chimici? ticles. A first classification subdivides the chemical Per elementi chimici ci si riferisce a sostanze elements in metals and non metals; the metals are costituite da atomi dello stesso tipo, tutti contenenti

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un ugual numero di eletelectropositive or rather troni e di protoni. Si cothey tend to give up elecnoscono più di 100 eletrons, on the contrary the menti, alcuni dei quali, i non-metals are electrocosì chiamati elementi negative or rather they transuranici, molto radiotend to gain electrons. It is attivi. Questi, infatti, non possible to include a third si trovano in natura ma group of so called semivengono prodotti per mano metals that possess interdell’uomo bombardando mediate properties. If the nuclei atomici di altri eleelements are catalogued menti con particelle eletaccording to their atomic tricamente cariche. number, proportional to TAVOLA PERIODICA DEGLI ELEMENTI the positive charge of the nucleus, we notice a (unique) periodicity of the Una prima classificazione suddivide gli elementi physical and chemical characteristics, and this sugchimici in metalli e non metalli; i primi sono eletgests a further division into families, like for examtropositivi cioè tendono a cedere elettroni, al conple the family of the alkaline-earth metals, of the trario i non metalli sono elettronegativi vale a dire lanthanides, of the noble gases and so on. tendono ad acquistare elettroni. È possibile indiviClosing this digression, the periodic table is duare un terzo gruppo dei cosiddetti semimetalli che subdivided in to seven horizontal lines, called peripossiede proprietà intermedie. Se gli elementi venods, and into eighteen vertical columns, called gono catalogati in base al numero atomico, proporgroups. The first three periods are defined as short zionale alla carica positiva del nucleo, si nota una periods. The others, called long periods, contain singolare periodicità delle caratteristiche fisiche e from eighteen to thirty-two elements. chimiche, e questo suggerisce una ulteriore divisioAccording to the method introduced by IUPAC ne in famiglie, come per esempio la (International Union for Pure and famiglia dei metalli alcalinoApplied Chemistry), the groups are terrosi, dei lantanidi, dei gas nocounted from one to eighteen probili ecc. ceeding from left to right. All the elements belonging to a definite group present very similar chemical properties and at the same time different from other groups. We talked of periodicity in the chemical-physical characteristics of the elements, but what does periodicity mean? In chemistry periodicity means a law that states that the chemical and physical properties of the elements are systematically, repeated according to the increasing atomic

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Chiudendo questa digressione, la tavola periodica è suddivisa in sette righe orizzontali, chiamate periodi, e in diciotto colonne verticali, dette gruppi. I primi tre periodi sono definiti periodi corti. Gli altri, chiamati periodi lunghi, contengono dai 18 ai 32 elementi.

DAVY

Secondo il metodo introdotto dall’Unione Internazionale di chimica pura e applicata (IUPAC), i gruppi si contano dall’uno al diciotto procedendo da sinistra a de-

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numbers. This definition sends us back to its history, exactly when, in the XIX century, with the development of electrochemistry, the British scientists Humphry Davy and Michael Faraday discovered new elements and started a careful study on their chemical properties. Consequently, we must admit that the passionate 1800 isn’t only Romanticism or pure patriotism as critics say, on the contrary this century presents, in the area of research, very surprising events and discoveries … (the fact remains that the discoveries in other centuries were very important too!). Then we can state that in the field of science too, and in particular of chemistry, the 19th century was important for the levels of knowledge reached by chemistry. In the first decade of 1800 fourteen elements were added to the short list, that it was already known. We remember the chemists who took part in this discovery: Davy, Gay-Lussac and Thenard, Wolloston, Berzelius, Tennant, Hatchett and Ekeberg. Davy, through electrolysis, focused on six new types; Gay-Lussac and Thenard isolated boron; Wolloston discovered palladium and rhodium while Berzelius cerium. Tennant recognized osmium and iridium; followed by Hatchet with his columbium (officially niobium) and Ekeberg with tantalum. So, in 1830 fiftytwo different elements were already known. Chemistry began to wonder what was the origin of CANNIZZARO

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stra. Tutti gli elementi che appartengono ad un preciso gruppo, presentano proprietà chimiche molto simili e allo stesso tempo molto differenti agli altri gruppi. Abbiamo parlato di periodicità nelle caratteristiGAY LUSSAC che c h i mi c o fisiche degli elementi ma cosa significa il termine periodicità? In chimica per periodicità s’intende una legge, la quale afferma che le proprietà chimiche e fisiche degli elementi ricorrono in modo sistematico in base ai numeri atomici crescenti. Con tale definizione possiamo finalmente catapultarci indietro nella storia, esattamente quando nel XIX secolo, con lo sviluppo dell’elettrochimica, gli scienziati britannici Humphry Davy e Michael Faraday scoprirono nuovi elementi e diedero inizio ad un accurato studio sulle loro proprietà chimiche. Viene spontaneo sottolineare a questo punto che il passionale 1800 non è solo romanticismo o puro patriottismo come spesso è stato detto da critici e studiosi, anzi presenta, nell’ambito della ricerca, avvenimenti e scoperte a dir poco sorprendenti (nulla da togliere a quanto è avvenuto negli altri secoli, questo è chiaro!); quindi possiamo senza ombra di dubbio dichiarare che anche nel campo delle scienze, e in particolare della chimica, il 1800 docet!! Ripercorrendo in dettaglio gli avvenimenti di quel tempo notiamo che nel primo decennio dell’Ottocento furono aggiunti al breve elenco già conosciuto ben quattordici elementi. Ricordiamo i chimici che parteciparono a queste scoperte: Davy, Gay-Lussac e Thenard,Wollaston,

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Berzelius, Tennant, Hatchett ed Ekesuch a big number and if it was posberg. Davy, per mezzo dell’elettrolisi, sible to order the elements. The first focalizzò ben sei nuovi tipi; Gaywho recognized a certain order Lussac e Thenard isolarono il boro; (relationship) was the German Wollaston scoprì il palladio e il rodio chemist Dobereiner, who noticed mentre Berzelius il cerio. Fu la volta that bromine possessed chemical di Tennant che individuò l’osmio e properties similar to chlorine and l’iridio; seguì Hatchett con il suo coiodine. But not only! The scientist lumbio (ufficialmente niobio) ed Ekeobserved that there were some berg con il tantalio. groups of three elements triadi, whose properties followed a regular set: on one side there were calcium, Così nel 1830 si conoscevano già strontium and on the other sulphur, cinquantadue elementi diversi e fu per selenium and tellurium. But other tale motivo che ci si cominciò a chiechemists weren’t impressed by the dere il perché di un numero tanto granchemical affinity and wondered if de e se era possibile ordinare gli eletheir table ordering was a waste of menti. time. AVOGADRO In 1859 the spectroscope, develIl primo che individuò un certo ordine oped by German physicists Robert Wihelm Bosen fu il chimico tedesco Dobereiner, il quale notò che and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, offered an imporil bromo era dotato di proprietà chimiche che semtant impulse to search: new elements were discovbravano essere tra quelle del cloro e quelle dello ioered and in 1860, during the international congress dio. Ma non solo! Lo scienziato osservò che vi eraof chemistry, the Italian scientist Stanislao Canno alcuni gruppi di tre elementi (le cosiddette trianizzaro, announced that some elements like oxygen di) le cui proprietà si collocavano secondo una serie were found in nature under the form of diatomic regolare: da una parte vi erano il calcio, lo stronzio molecules. The spectroscope gave a great contribue il bario e dall’altro lo zolfo, il selenio e il tellurio. tion in tracking different ways of analysing the posTuttavia gli altri chimici non furono impressionati sible relation between elements. da queste affinità chimiche. Infatti che motivo c’era To highlight Cannizzaro’s fundamental contridi sprecare il tempo fantasticando su costruzioni di bution, we must open a parenthesis on his life: born futili tavole? in Palermo in 1826 and died in Rome in 1910, he Nel 1859 lo sviluppo della spettroscopia per took part in the Sicilian insurrections of 1848 but opera dei fisici tedeschi Robert Wihelm Bosen e the revolt failed and he escaped to Paris. After reGustav Robert Kirchhoff offrì un importante imturning to Italy in 1851, he worked as a teacher in a pulso alla ricerca: fu scoperta l’esistenza di nuovi boarding-school of Alessandria and immediately elementi e nel 1860, durante il primo congresso inafter, at the university of Genova (1855), Pisa ternazionale di chimica, lo scienziato italiano Sta(1861) and Rome (1871). In Alessandria, he comnislao Cannizzaro annunciò che alcuni elementi pleted the report, that is today famous with his come l’ossigeno, si ritrovavano in natura sotto forname, that: in the presence of concentrated alkama di molecole biatomiche. Queste notizie aiutaroline hydroxides, one molecule of aldehyde changes no a seguire diverse vie per analizzare le possibili ed into (is reduced into) alcohol and another one is eventuali relazioni fra le caratteristiche degli eleoxidized into acid. He not only specified the differmenti. Per sottolineare il fondamentale contributo di ence between atomic, molecular and equivalent

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weight, but also contributed to the knowledge of the period; he followed a criterion (famous as Cannizzaro’s law) for defining the atomic weight of the elements starting from the molecular weight of compounds. All his work, developed on Avogadro’s law, was fundamental for the periodic classification of elements. Closing this parenthesis, in 1864 we found another event worth remembering: lithe chemist John Newlands developed a table of elements following the properties regularly detected every eight spaces. He called this repetition law of eighths. Since Newlands’ periodicity was limited to grouping a few elements, his discovery was undervalued and so it wasn’t published. Only with Mendeleev and with the German Meyer came a big success for chemistry: in 1870 a law was drawn up which definitively confirmed the properties of all five elements as periodic functions of atomic weights. In particular Meyer considered the volume taken by constant weight contained the same number of atoms of specific elements concluding that the ratio between the volumes of singular atoms of those elements. It was then possible to speak of the atomic volumes. Consequently the first term element of Meyer’s table was hydrogen that alone made the first period. The second and third period included seven elements each respecting the law of eighths of Newlands. But his studies were underestimated because of Mendeleev’s previous publication. Mendeleev worked on the period length but unlike Meyer, he left empty spaces in his table: they, theoretically, had to correspond to elements that weren’t discovered yet. The theory was confirmed by the use of the spectroscope which allowed the discovery of the new elements imagined by Mendeleev himself. But who was Medeleev? (Tobolsk, Siberia 1834 - S. Petersburg 1907). Mendeleev Dimitrij Ivanovic was a Russian chemist who carried out his studies in St. Petersburg University on the density of different substances. In 1859 he went to Heidelberg University where he finished his experiments on the capillary

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Cannizzaro è doveroso aprire una parentesi sulla sua vita: nato a Palermo nel 1826, morto a Roma nel 1910, partecipò ai moti siciliani del 1848 ma, fallita la rivolta scappò a Parigi. Tornato in Italia nel 1851, divenne L. MEYER docente presso il collegio nazionale di Alessandria e subito dopo professore alle università di Genova (1855), Pisa (1861) e Roma (1871). Durante lo studio svolto ad Alessandria, ultimò la relazione, che oggi è nota con il suo nome: in presenza di idrossidi alcalini concentrati, una molecola di aldeide viene ridotta ad alcol e un’altra ossidata ad acido. Precisò inoltre la differenza tra peso atomico, peso molecolare e peso equivalente, contribuendo alle conoscenze del periodo; presentò anche un criterio (noto come legge di Cannizzaro) per definire i pesi atomici degli elementi partendo da quelli molecolari dei composti. Tutto il suo lavoro, elaborato sulla legge di Avogadro, risultò fondamentale nella classificazione periodica degli elementi. Chiudendo questa parentesi nel 1864 troviamo un altro avvenimento da ricordare: il chimico John Newlands promulgò una tabella nella quale erano scritti gli elementi in ordine crescente secondo il peso atomico e constatò che alcune proprietà ricorrevano con regolarità ogni otto posti. Nominò questa ripetizione legge delle ottave. Poiché la periodicità di Newlands era limitata ad un gruppo poco consistente di elementi, la sua scoperta venne sottovalutata e di conseguenza non venne pubblicata.

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phenomenon, on the noble gas as on the chemical affinity and he collaborated with the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro. In 1863 he returned to St. Petersburg and was appointed professor of chemistry in Polytechnic. In 1869 he published the first version of the periodic table. In 1874, another version came out in which the scientist left vacant squares indicating the unknown elements. He wrote the theory of solutions, and studied the theory of the thermal expansion of liquids and the theory of the origin of petroleum. In 1890 he left university teaching and in 1893 he was director of Weights and Measurements Organization of S. Petersburg until his death. These blank spaces, we mentioned above, were filled, in 1875, by Gallium called eka-aluminium of Mendeleev, discovered by Boisbaudran; in 1879 by, Scandium of Nilson that was the eka-boro of Mendeleev; in 1886 by the Germanium of Winkler that was the eka-siliceous of Mendeleev. Now that we have outlined the history of chemistry which changed our studies and conception, we have to conclude that the law of the periodicity has suffered two important changes since the original draft of Mendeleev and Meyer. The first modification extended the law to three noble gases (helium, argon and neon) discovered between 1894 and 1898 by the British scientists Rayleigh and Ramsay. In particular Ramsay heated a gas blister that didn’t react and saw the shining lines of the spectrum. The clearer lines didn’t coincide to those of any known element. And so this blister contained a gas heavier than nitrogen and chemically inert; for this it was called argon, a Greek word that means slow or tardy. Ramsay, following the theory of Mendeleev, noted that Argon can’t be a unique case, so he continued his research and discovered Helium, Krypton and Xenon. The second modification originated from the expansion of the periodicity law because of Bohr’s theory (1913) on the electronic structure of the atom (but it was already in 1900!). Chemistry, certainly, will not stop at these extraordinary discoveries: in many periods, research

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Solo con Dimitrij Mendeleev e con il tedesco Julius Meyer arrivò un grande successo per la chimica: nel 1870 fu stilata una legge per la quale veniva definitivamente sancito che le proprietà di tutti gli elementi sono funzioni periodiche, dei pesi atomici. In particolare Meyer prese in considerazione il volume occupato da pesi costanti di vari elementi. In tali vincoli ogni peso conteneva lo stesso numero di atomi dello specifico elemento verificando alla fine che il rapporto tra i volumi dei diversi elementi coincideva al rapporto tra i volumi dei singoli atomi di quegli elementi. Ne derivò la possibilità di poter parlare di volumi atomici. Di conseguenza il primo termine della tavola di Meyer fu l’idrogeno che costituiva da solo il primo periodo. Il secondo e il terzo periodo comprendevano sette elementi ciascuno rispettando la legge delle ottave di Newlands. Tuttavia i suoi studi valsero a poco poiché fu anticipato nella pubblicazione da Mendeleev. Mendeleev lavorò anch’egli sulla lunghezza dei periodi ma a differenza di Meyer, lasciò nella sua tabella spazi vuoti che in teoria dovevano corrispondere ad elementi che non erano ancora stati scoperti. Tale teoria fu verificata con il ritrovamento, grazie all’uso dello spettroscopio, di quegli elementi immaginati da Mendeelev stesso. Ma chi era Mendeleev? (Tobolsk, Siberia 1834 - San Pietroburgo 1907). Mendeleev Dimitrij Ivanovic era un chimico russo che aveva compiuto gli studi presso l’università di San Pietroburgo per analizzare la densità di diverse sostanze chimiche. Nel 1859 si recò all’università di Heidelberg dove portò a termine esperimenti di laboratorio sui fenomeni della capillarità, sui gas nobili e sull’affinità chimica e collaborò con il chimico italiano Stanislao Cannizzaro. Nel 1863, tornato a San Pietroburgo, fu nominato professore di chimica al Politecnico. Nel 1869 pubblicò la prima versione della tavola periodica. Nel 1874 uscì un’altra versione, nella quale lo scienziato aveva lasciato in bianco le caselle indicanti gli elementi sconosciuti. A lui confluiscono anche la teoria delle soluzioni, lo studio

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has always gone ahead and, for sure, science can’t limited into symbolic borders but it will continue developing until the world exists.

1. 2. 3.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Isaac Asimov, Breve storia della chimica, Zanichelli, Bologna, 1968 G. Valitutti, A. Tifi, A. Gentile, La chimica in moduli, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2001 Giovanni Treccani, Enciclopedia italiana Treccani, Istituto poligrafico dello Stato, Roma, 1970

ICONOGRAPHY 1. Hawez, Il bacio, pinacoteca di Brera, Milano, 1859 2. Foto di laboratorio dell’Ottocento, Accademia nazionale delle scienze, www.accademiaxl.it, Roma 3. Tavola periodica degli elementi, www.cicap.org, Comitato italiano per il controllo delle affermazioni sul paranormale, Padova, last update: 24/03/2006 4. IUPACLogo, www.tutms.tut.ac, School of Materials Science, Toyhoshi University of Tecnology 5. Humphry Davy, www.corriosion-doctors.org 6. Gay-Lussac, John H. Lienhard, www.uh.edu, University of Huston, Huston 7. T h e n a r d Eugene Chevreul, www.hdelboy.club.fr, Alchimie Astrologie Statistiques Musique Echecs, last update: 15/03/2006 8. Cannizzaro Stanislao, Direttore Filippo Sorbello, www.unipe.it 9. Avogadro Amedeo, www.nndb.com 10. Meyer Julius Lothar, www.answers.com, enciclopedia on-line 11. Mendeleev Dimitrij, www.bbc.co.uk 12. Bohr Niels, www.gc.cuny.edu

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dell’espansione termica dei liquidi e la teoria sull’origine dei petroli. Nel 1890 lasciò l’insegnamento universitario e nel 1893 fu nominato direttore dell’Ente dei pesi e misure di San Pietroburgo fino alla morte. Quegli spazi bianchi di cui abbiamo parlato sopra furono occupati, nel 1875 dal gallio scoperto da Boisbaudran che non era altro che l’eka-alluminio di Mendeleev; nel 1879 dallo scandio di Nilson che consisteva nell’eka-boro di Mendeleev; nel 1886 dal germanio di Winkler che risultò essere l’ekasilicio di Mendeleev. Avendo così ripercorso l’affascinante storia della chimica che ha irrevocabilmente cambiato i nostri studi e le nostre concezioni dobbiamo concludere che la legge della periodicità subì due cambiamenti dalla stesura originale di Mendeleev e Meyer. La prima modifica estese la legge ai tre gas nobili (elio, argo e neon) scoperti tra il 1894-1898 dagli scienziati britannici Rayleigh e Ramsay. In particolare Ramsay riscaldò una bolla di gas che non reagiva e osservò le linee brillanti dello spettro. Le linee più chiare non corrispondevano a quelle di alcun elemento conosciuto. Pertanto questa bolla era composta da un gas più pesante dell’azoto e chimicamente inerte; per questo motivo fu chiamato argo, una parola greca che significa appunto inerte. Seguendo la teoria mendeleeviana Ramsay constatò che l’argo non poteva essere un caso isolato, così continuando le sue ricerche scoprì l’elio, il neon, il cripto e lo xeno. La seconda modifica si ebbe con l’espansione della legge della periodicità grazie alla teoria di Bohr (1913) sulla struttura elettronica dell’atomo (ma già siamo nel 1900!!). La chimica, certamente, non si ferma su queste straordinarie scoperte: nel corso degli anni la ricerca è sempre e comunque andata avanti perché come sappiamo la scienza non si chiude dentro dei simbolici confini (quindi non è concentrata soltanto all’interno del 1800) e non potrà mai farlo finché il mondo continuerà a svolgere i suoi cicli. Spetta a noi quindi continuare a far conservare il fuoco della voglia di scoperte: buona fortuna!

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