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SPORT Gen 6 Side Loader Saving you time & money

• • • •

Up to 35% reduction in maintenance costs over the life of the vehicle Improved productivity with the UG-6 Universal Grab picking up 20% more bins per hour Remote diagnostics for preventative maintenance and reduced downtime New Bucher IQ control system – the perfect balance of simplicity and technology

What our customers are saying; “Larger paddle provides faster hopper clearance” “The Extend-A-Slide provides great reach around parked cars and in cul-de-sacs” “The narrower grab arm fits easily between bins, meaning there is no need to get out of the cab to move bins that are placed close together”

Providing savings straight to your bottom line! Customer Support Centre 65-73 Nantilla Road, Clayton North, Vic. 3168 Australia Phone +61 3 9271 6400 Fax +61 3 9271 6480

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Customer Service Centre Western Victoria 35 Spencer Street, Sunshine, Vic. 3020 Australia Phone +61 3 9314 8928 Fax +61 3 9318 0938

Bucher Municipal – Simply Great Machines! 1800 BUCHER 1800 282 437

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Cover Feature: SPORT Gen 6

May 2019 Volume 45 Number 6

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About the Cover With the introduction of strict national heavy vehicle Chain of Responsibility (CoR) legislation late last year, ensuring that waste collection vehicles comply with axle weight limits has never been more important. Bucher Municipal’s SPORT Gen 6 side-loader has been specifically engineered to meet the requirements of the CoR legislation. Turn to Page 12 for the full story.



Reducing landfill waste isn’t just about recycling

Dear Readers, While the majority of Australian councils and waste authorities have had significant success in diverting waste from landfill through residential recycling programs, and more recently, residential green organics collection and processing programs, the amount of waste still being disposed of in the nation’s landfills provides a stark reminder of the challenges that lay ahead. Unfortunately, recent events in the global recyclables marketplace have significantly increased both the depth and complexity of this waste diversion challenge. With that in mind, from a domestic waste services perspective, the next obvious move for many councils and authorities must surely be the development and implementation of ‘Alternative Waste Technologies’ which are capable of processing a variety of waste streams (including Municipal Solid Waste) into a range of value-added products. From Mechanical/Biological Stabilisation systems (which convert the waste stream into high calorific value Refuse Derived Fuels), through to ‘Bioreactor/Digester’ type systems (which focus on utilising the organic component of the MSW to produce either compost-type products or methane for power generation), the one common denominator among these technologies is their focus on maximising diversion of waste from landfill. By separating any ‘high-value’ component materials (including ferrous and non-ferrous metals) for recycling, and then processing the majority of the remaining 2

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

fraction into value-added product(s), several of these technologies have already proven their ability to reduce the amount of MSW being disposed of at landfill by over 90%. Even though recent years have seen a significant increase in the number of Australian councils and waste authorities utilising Alternative Waste Technologies, for many, the major issue with the introduction of these technologies has been that of cost. That’s not to say that these processing technologies are necessarily over-priced, or for that matter, that there is a lack of commitment to reducing the amount of waste being disposed of at landfill - it is quite simply a reflection of the relative cost of AWT processing per tonne when compared to the comparatively low costs per tonne of landfill disposal in Australia. Importantly, however, this equation is changing. Landfill costs are increasing (significantly) and the cost of technology is reducing – both of these factors work together to make AWT an increasingly attractive and affordable option. But I believe that we need to go even further. When one considers the true costs associated with the collection, processing and/or disposal of any waste stream, particularly MSW, together with the cost of providing high quality recycling and other waste management services, it is clear that another major challenge facing Australian councils and waste authorities is that of waste minimisation. Waste minimisation is not only a major environmental imperative, it is also a financial imperative - the epitome of

sustainability. Unfortunately, it may also prove to be the biggest waste management challenge yet. The first major issue with developing an effective waste minimisation strategy is that it’s no longer simply about educating the general public into changing their disposal habits – although that is a critical part of the process. They also need to be educated to changing their purchasing habits. In fact, successful waste minimisation requires a fundamental change in thinking by individuals, businesses, and society as a whole. Importantly, unlike many other waste management programs that are able to successfully function on a local and/or regional basis, for waste minimisation to be truly effective it must be approached on a national scale. This is particularly true when it comes to addressing the problems and issues surrounding packaging design and product stewardship. I have no doubt that Australia is capable of meeting the challenge of waste minimisation. One only has to look to the success of the many plastic bag and single-use plastics reduction programs to see what can be achieved. We can do it – but it will require no less than the full co-operation of all levels of government and private industry if it is to stand any chance of success.

Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor


Garwood International has been at the forefront of specialised waste collection & compaction equipment design and manufacture for over 42 years, providing high quality, innovative equipment solutions to meet the needs of even the most challenging operating environments. • Rear, Side & Front Loading compaction units • Single and split-body collection vehicles from 4m2 to 33.5m2 • VWS Enviroweigh bin weighing equipment for refuse vehicles Never afraid to ‘think outside the square’, Garwood International has built its reputation on innovation - with ground-breaking designs and smart solutions that can change the way you think about your collection services.



Calculating cost-effective conservation Maintaining existing conservation areas might be a more cost-effective investment than expansion, according to new research led by The University of Queensland. The study, led by Dr Vanessa Adams from UQ’s School of Biological Sciences, modelled data from protected areas around the globe, comparing the impact of expanding protected areas, versus improved protected area management. “Protected areas are widely seen as a cornerstone of our global conservation approach,” Dr Adams said. “They allow us to keep important areas intact and largely threat-free, to protect biodiversity.” “But given limited conservation funds and shortfalls in funding for existing protected area management needs, a critical question is: should countries and states spend new funds on purchasing more land or manage existing protected areas?” To answer this question, Dr Adams and her team used a "dynamic landscape model". “This type of modelling allows us to capture what we think are the essential defining factors about a landscape,” she said. “It includes variables like the amount of land protected or available for protection, or the processes that cause change, like threats degrading protected land or the act of purchasing land to expand protected areas.” The team soon discovered that, in contrast with spending patterns of most nations, which tend to focus on expansion rather than management, management is often the better first investment. “Management provides immediate biodiversity benefits that, for many realistic

The team’s work in Kakadu National Park has shown that the investment in the ongoing mimosa control and eradication program has avoided 58sq km of infestations.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

scenarios, are more valuable than the future benefits achieved by expansion,” she said. “This confirms what we’d seen on the ground for some time – protected area managers don’t have the adequate funding, staff, or time to support required management actions, like fencing protected area boundaries, removing weeds and prescribed burns.” “We’re seeing continued species population declines both inside and outside of protected areas, meaning they’re simply not effective without adequate investment in threat management. Despite this misdirection of funds, Dr Adams recognises that there are still many good examples of effective protected area management delivering positive impacts for species. “Our work in Kakadu National Park has shown that the investment in the ongoing mimosa control and eradication program has avoided 58sq km of infestations – keeping the floodplains healthy and supporting special species like the magpie geese. “Other examples include feral predator eradication, or putting in place predator-free fenced havens, which have saved species from extinction. “In the end we must realise that, rather than endlessly expand these spaces with our limited resources, we should be splitting budgets across both expansion and management, so that there’s always adequate money for management. “Otherwise we’re going to have to say goodbye to more of our precious species,” Dr Adams said.

WEEE Forum moves to counter online free-riders The WEEE Forum, international association speaking for 36 e-waste collection schemes, issued their response to the consultation regarding the study to support the preparation of the Commission’s guidance for extended producer responsibility organisation. Online free-riding is an issue of great concern. Online (often distance) sellers not registered and not undertaking take back, or not paying for collection and reprocessing, impose an unfair cost on other producers and retailers, distort the market, make compliant companies less competitive and result in an overstatement of WEEE collection rates. Free-riding not only undermines EU efforts towards a circular economy, it also places the single market is at risk if all Member States start adjusting the legal definitions of producer. The WEEE Forum is of the opinion that the solution to this problem is: • Updated regulatory measures, at EU and/ or Member State level, to define online platforms as the ‘producer’ of all products for which they facilitate, by whatever means, the import or entry into the Member State territory; • Better enforcement and enhanced, structured co-operation between producer responsibility organisations, on the one hand, and enforcement agencies, customs and other authorities, home delivery companies and marketplaces, on the other; and • Awareness campaigns to educate market operators about their EPR obligations.


Moreland Council gets plastic wise at local events Did you know that single-use plastic like straws, balloons and polystyrene make up nearly 50 per cent of the pollution found in waterways? For Moreland Council in Melbourne’s north, that’s plastic that ends up in places like Merri Creek, Westbreen Creek and Port Phillip Bay.

In response, Moreland Council recently joined a number of other councils when Councillors endorsed the Plastic Wise Policy, a policy that moves towards eliminating the use of single-use plastic within Council’s own operations as well as at Council run events. Moreland Mayor Cr Natalie Abboud said Council had been making the move towards reducing plastic at festivals and events over the last few years. “The move to reduce single-use plastics at Council events began in 2015, followed by a Council Resolution in 2016 to stop using single-use plastic bags at festivals and events,” said Cr Abboud. “Our Arts and Culture Unit has been working with stallholders over the years to reduce the reliance on plastic bags, and the use of balloons from all Council run festivals and events. “Our new Plastic Wise Policy will see the reduction in single-use plastic expand beyond our festivals and events, to all events presented by Council and events held on Council land.

“Taking this step addresses our concerns as a Council about the long-term environmental damage that plastic is having on our open spaces, waterways and marine environment.” The Plastic Wise Policy will apply to: • Single use plastic bags • Plastic cups, plates, bowls, straws, cutlery and take away containers • Single-use disposable cups and lids • Avoidable plastic packaging such as cling wrap, plastic bags or similar • Balloons Re-usable event materials such as promotional banners and flags are encouraged to be used where possible, and event sites and venues must be left litter free and returned to pre-event conditions. Moreland sporting clubs, aquatic and leisure centres and facilities managed by contractors can continue to sell single use plastic bottles while Council engages with them on the best ways to introduce the changes. Council will encourage clubs to provide access to drinking water and to supply, sell and promote reusable options.


Professor Bruno Oberle to chair independent mine tailings review The International Council of Mining and Metals (ICMM), the Principles for Responsible Investment and the United Nations Environment Programme recently announced Professor Bruno Oberle will chair their co-convened independent review of mine tailings storage facilities. The review will establish an international standard for the safe management of tailings storage facilities that can be applied to all tailings dams where ever they are located and whoever operates them. Professor Oberle is Chair for Green Economy and Resource Governance and Academic Director of the International Risk Governance Center at L'Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland, a panel member of the International Resource Panel and a member of the Leadership Council of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network. He was previously the Swiss Secretary of State for the Environment and Director of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment. Professor Oberle will oversee every aspect of the review and prepare a report which is expected to be published by the end of the year. Set up in response to the Brumadinho tragedy in Brazil, the review will be informed by evidence and lessons from this disaster as well as earlier mine tailings dam failures. Professor Oberle said: “This is a demanding role and we have a responsibility to the people of Brumadinho

to get this right. My objective is clear: I will oversee a comprehensive review of the current situation and draw up a new international standard for tailings storage facilities that draws on the best practice from around the globe.” In addition to the appointment of a chair from outside the mining sector, the independence of the review will further be assured by the appointment of a multistakeholder advisory panel consisting of non-governmental organisations, international bodies and responsible investors. The chair will also be able to draw on the experience of an expert panel of tailings and dam specialists drawn from academia and industry. Naysán Sahba, Director of Communications at UNEP said: “I am delighted that Professor Oberle has agreed to chair the review. He brings exactly the right experience and qualities to ensure that the review is robust and will lead to a step change in the international standards on tailings dams.” Tom Butler, CEO of ICMM said: “Professor Oberle clearly has the right credentials to lead this review. The new standard that the review agrees will be mandatory for ICMM members and adopted at all their operational assets globally. I hope that nonmembers will sign up to the standard too.” Fiona Reynolds, CEO of the PRI, said: “Alongside our investor representatives - the Swedish Council of Ethics and the

The Brumadinho dam disaster occurred on 25 January 2019 when a tailings dam at the Córrego do Feijão iron ore mine, 9 kilometres east of Brumadinho, Minas Gerais, Brazil, suffered a catastrophic failure, killing a reported 237 people.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

ABOUT ICMM ICMM is an international organisation dedicated to a safe, fair and sustainable mining and metals industry which brings together 27 mining and metals companies and 35 regional and commodities associations. Every ICMM member company adheres to 10 Principles and 8 Position Statements on issues relating to sustainable development.

ABOUT UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP) The United Nations Environment Programme is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system, and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. UNEP’s mission is to provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations.

ABOUT PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE INVESTMENT (PRI) The PRI is the world’s leading proponent of responsible investment. It works to understand the investment implications of ESG factors and to support its international network of investor signatories in incorporating these factors into their investment and ownership decisions. The PRI acts in the long-term interests of its signatories, of the financial markets and economies in which they operate, and ultimately, of the environment and society as a whole. The PRI is being represented in this process by John Howchin of the Swedish Council of Ethics and Adam Matthews of the Church of England Pensions Board.

Church of England Pensions Board - the PRI is very pleased with the appointment of Professor Oberle to chair the independent mail tailings review. The Professor’s experience and expertise will be a tremendous asset in this role, and we hope to see robust investor engagement around an international standard for the safe management of tailings storage facilities in the near future.” John Howchin of the Swedish Council of Ethics and investor representative of the Principles for Responsible Investment said: “We are pleased with the appointment of Professor Oberle and that he will give confidence in the independence of the review and setting the new international tailings storage standard.’ Adam Matthews of the Church of England Pensions Board and investor representative of the PRI said: ‘This review is extremely important to those investors that have publicly called for a new international standard. Professor Oberle will bring independence and rigour to this process.’


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Deakin-led Blue Carbon mapping to help fight to save Great Barrier A ground-breaking project, led by Deakin University, will map Queensland’s blue carbon resources to provide scientists with a new weapon in the fight to help save the Great Barrier Reef. Deakin Associate Professor in Marine Science Peter Macreadie, Director of the University’s Blue Carbon Lab, said the project, funded by the Queensland Government’s Land Restoration Fund, will reveal for the first time the full scale of the State’s blue carbon farming opportunities. “The project will identify how many tonnes of CO2 could be offset each year by coastal blue carbon systems and where along the Great Barrier Reef catchment area those opportunities exist,” Associate Professor Macreadie said. “A key output of the project will be the 'Blue Carbon Restoration Heat Map 1.0’, a user-friendly map of Queensland’s land area that shows where carbon farming opportunities are located.” Blue Carbon is the carbon stored in coastal and marine ecosystems. When protected or restored, blue carbon ecosystems can offset carbon emissions and fight climate change by capturing and storing carbon. When degraded or destroyed, these ecosystems emit the 8

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

carbon stored for centuries back into the atmosphere and oceans, becoming sources of greenhouse gases. “As well as helping mitigate climate change, coastal wetlands - such as mangrove forests and tidal marshes - are champions when it comes to catching sediment runoff and improving water quality for the Reef itself,” Associate Professor Macreadie said. Deakin’s Blue Carbon Lab is an awardwinning, multi-disciplinary research team focused on understanding and responding to impacts of global change on freshwater, coastal and ocean ecosystems. Associate Professor Macreadie said the new project would work to build understanding of Queensland's blue carbon future, feeding into a much larger, multi-year series of programs that will help expand carbon farming in Queensland through the development of a blue carbon market. “This project will help put Queensland at the forefront of international efforts to incorporate coastal carbon within CO2 mitigation strategies, helping to mitigate climate change, while improving water quality, enhancing natural capital, and contributing to jobs and economic growth,” he said.

“Importantly, it will provide new societal and financial impetus for restoration and protection of Queensland’s coasts, seeding new environmental markets and ensuring a legacy of optimal management of coastal ecosystems. “The work is timely given Queensland's blue carbon ecosystems have declined dramatically as a result of coastal development, and face added pressures with future climate change, including sea level rise. “Research outputs will help Queensland better protect and manage threatened coastal systems by providing predictive models of how much Blue Carbon could exist in the future under different management scenarios." The project is led by Associate Professor Macreadie as Director of the Blue Carbon Lab in close partnership with academics, project developers and industry. The multisector collaboration includes The University of Queensland, James Cook University, CSIRO, the Federal Department of the Environment and Energy (International Partnership for Blue Carbon), GreenCollar Group, North Queensland Dry Tropics, Qantas, HSBC and the Great Barrier Reef Foundation.

Graphic representation only. Actual detection field may vary due to end users requirements.

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Victorian Premier’s Sustainability Awards open with new category Victoria’s leading sustainability awards program, the Premier’s Sustainability Awards, are open for entries, featuring a new category, that celebrates the outstanding contribution made by volunteers. This year, the new Environmental Volunteering category recognises the impact made by thousands of dedicated individuals and groups who give their time so generously, looking after our most precious asset: our environment. “The annual Premier’s Sustainability Awards are the most prestigious awards program of their kind in Victoria and are a terrific showcase of leading edge sustainability practices,” says CEO Sustainability Victoria, Stan Krpan. Victorian businesses, schools, government and community groups are encouraged to enter. “Through these awards, we proudly showcase the businesses, government, schools, institutions and community groups who are leading the way, helping to stop the effects of climate change, developing more integrated circular economies, and creating a more liveable, engaged, prosperous community for us all,” adds Mr Krpan. “Now is the time to act. Let’s show the world how Victorians are leading the way in sustainability.” Recent research shows that while sustainability remains an important concern for most Australians, only half believe they are doing enough. Joining the program’s existing ten categories, the new Environmental Volunteering category will make the awards more accessible to more people who take environmental action in real, practical and tangible ways.

Reflecting this sentiment, the 2019 Premier’s Sustainability Awards include categories to showcase every type of sustainability endeavour. They are Built Environment, Community, Education, Environmental Justice, Environmental Protection, Environmental Volunteering, Government, Health, Innovative Products or Services, Small to Medium Sized Businesses and Large Business. 2018 winners included small business Yume Food for building a marketplace exclusively for surplus food; the Caulfield to Dandenong level crossing removal project that features a linear park; Beeac Primary School who developed an innovative art-based project; and a campaign by Zoos Victoria and Phillip Island Nature Parks which addressed the threat of plastic debris to marine life. Entries in the Premier’s Sustainability Awards close on Thursday 13 June. Please visit:

Taking sustainability to the next level New efforts to reduce and re-use waste to boost a ‘circular’ economy. The size and complexity of the waste challenge facing society dominated discussion at the first stakeholders’ meeting of the newly announced Circular Economy Innovation Network (CEIN). The CEIN is an initiative of the NSW Government through the Office of Chief Scientist and Engineer to bring together stakeholders from across governments, industry, universities and not for profit groups to work together to reduce waste and enhance sustainability by developing a circular economy in which waste is valued as a resource. CEIN Director, Professor Veena Sahajwalla, who is Founding Director of the UNSW Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology (SMaRT) Centre, said many stakeholders already have been making great progress in reducing waste and using it as a resource, and the first stakeholders meeting was a testament to that. “What is clear is that we need much greater coordination and connectivity across stakeholders to identify the opportunities and problems in getting a circular economy really going,” she said. “And that is where the new Network comes in. CEIN will bring stakeholders together to not only enhance current efforts to build a circular economy, but to identify the big impact opportunities.” CEIN Co-Director, Ashley Brinson, who is Executive Director of the Warren Centre at Sydney University, said the passion and enthusiasm displayed during the first stakeholder meeting session demonstrated a strong collective desire to truly establish a circular economy in NSW and Australia. 10

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

“We heard from both the Chair and Co-Chair of the NSW Government’s Steering Committee for the CEIN, as well as many stakeholders representing the different sectors and industries that are central to a circular economy, and a key acknowledgement was the need for a coordination of sustainability efforts.” The CEIN will look to map and identify opportunities for stakeholders to work together in the goal to reduce waste, enhance sustainability and ultimately boost industry (growth and jobs) by developing a circular economy. The first stakeholders’ meeting was held at UNSW as CEIN host, was attended by 150 stakeholders wanting to enhance sustainability, and was emceed by Michael Sharpe, Director of the federal government-initiated Advanced Manufacturing Growth Centre. The CEIN is undergoing its start-up phase and is developing a series of stakeholder workshops to identify themes and opportunities, as well as other activities such as identifying tools and resources needed to promote innovative solutions to reduce and re-use waste and improve product design and production to reduce and re-use waste. Veena said: “For instance, we can actually change the way things are done now in design, production and manufacturing to reduce waste, and we know we can use waste as a resource rather than for most of it to end up in tips. By making the right connections between researchers, businesses and governments, we can play a significant role in developing a true circular economy in Australia.”


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With the introduction of strict national heavy vehicle Chain of Responsibility (CoR) legislation for all vehicles over 4.5 tonne GVM (Gross Vehicle Mass) late last year, ensuring that all vehicles - including waste collection vehicles comply with axle weight limits has never been more important. Whereas in the past, a GVM over-loading infringement may have resulted in a fine and other penalties for the driver and/or owner of the vehicle, under the new CoR regulations, vehicle mass infringements can have serious consequences and can result in significant penalties for all parties in the Chain of Responsibility. From the driver and their employer, through to contractors, sub-contractors and even the council(s) for whom the contract is being carried out, the aim of CoR legislation is to make sure that everybody in the supply/operating chain shares responsibility for ensuring that Heavy Vehicle National Law is complied with. What’s more, when it comes to vehicle mass infringements, CoR legislation takes into account all aspects of the vehicle’s operation, including routing, collection scheduling, expected load weights, and whether one or more of the parties’ business practices caused or encouraged the driver to breach mass or loading requirements.



eveloped with a focus on aligning heavy vehicle laws more closely with workplace health and safety laws, CoR legislation also places an increased emphasis on measuring vehicle mass by axle group. Luke Aitken, General Manager - Sales with Bucher Municipal, explained: “As well as expanding the responsibility for compliant operation of heavy vehicles to all parties in the supply / operating chain, one of the other major changes with vehicle mass under CoR legislation, is that rather than simply focusing on the vehicle’s GVM, it places a specific emphasis on monitoring mass by axle group.” “This adds an extra level of complexity – especially for waste collection vehicles, which by their very nature, can end up with significant fluctuations in mass loadings over different axle groups during various stages of the collection process,” he said. And therein lay the major challenge facing Bucher Municipal’s engineering team: develop a design that balances axle group weights throughout the collection process without compromising safety, operability or payload capacity. “When it comes to waste collection vehicles, collection capacity is paramount,” Luke added. “Ensuring that you can fit the maximum allowable payload on-board helps to reduce the number of trips to the landfill or transfer station for emptying. This, in turn, maximises productivity, speeds the collection process and reduces the total

number of hours and kilometres that the truck is on the road.” “With that in mind, when it came to the new SPORT Gen 6 side-loader design, we worked with our clients to develop a collection vehicle which would not only be able to the meet the requirements of the CoR legislation, but also meet their quality, performance and productivity expectations out in the field,” he added.

BALANCED DESIGN ENGINEERED FOR PERFORMANCE The key to the success of the new Bucher Municipal SPORT Gen 6, lies within its well-balanced design, which has been specifically engineered to deliver maximum payload capacity whilst also satisfying the requirements of the CoR legislation. Andrew Mitchell, Bucher Municipal’s General Manager – Engineering, explained: “One of the major issues with more traditional side-loader designs, is that they tend to place an additional load on the front axles – especially during the early stage of a collection cycle. This is predominantly due to the fact that the lifter, the packer and the hydraulics are often positioned directly behind the driver’s cabin toward the front axle.” “Under CoR legislation, the maximum axle loadings must be adhered to at all times. That can be virtually impossible to achieve once there is a certain amount of collected waste on board if the vehicle’s design already has an abundance of weight over the front axle,” he said.


In keeping with the focus on safety, productivity and ease-of-operation, the SPORT Gen 6 also incorporates the Bucher IQ CANBus Control system which provides centralised access to all of the vehicle’s operational, control and diagnostic systems via a fully-integrated 12” in-cabin touch screen. The new touch screen monitor replaces the previous push button control console and provides access to all body/compaction functions and system maintenance through the one screen for a cleaner cabin layout. Fully configurable to suit specific applications, the Bucher IQ CANBus Control system features tactile keys and touch screen controls for simple operation, providing easy navigation through its onscreen menu. On-screen warnings provide the operator with visible notifications for optimal safety, while animated on-screen icons provide visual confirmation of functions currently in operation for improved driver awareness and safety. Safety is further enhanced by the SPORT Gen 6’s fully-integrated high performance multi-camera monitoring system, which provides camera views on the same screen, thereby reducing the need for multiple screens in the cab.

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



“We needed to come up with a design configuration which helped to reduce the loading on the front axle group without sacrificing payload capacity, operability or compliance with the NHVR (National Heavy Vehicle Regulator) or vehicle body builder regulations. What’s more, we needed to develop designs to suit the full range of available cab-chassis models and wheelbases,” Andrew added. The first major design modification saw the move to a high-performance compaction paddle, offering the lightest and most efficient compaction method. The new paddle design plays a major role in preventing overloading of the front axle during the lifting / loading cycle. Another major design review was focused on optimising all cab chassis and body configurations to position the body so the vehicle didn’t go over-weight on the front axle. This was achieved without the need for additional counterweights, which would have negatively impacted the vehicle’s GVM and payload capacity. As part of the design review, the compact tailgate was also made standard across all models, thereby providing Bucher with maximum flexibility in achieving a balanced vehicle weight. Importantly, the SPORT Gen 6’s design modifications have delivered the desired reduction in front axle weight loading,

whilst still keeping the lift arm in close proximity to the operator cabin for optimum operability. “Getting this design right really was a question of balance,” Andrew Mitchell said. “And I’m proud to say we’ve managed to deliver all we set out to achieve across a range of hopper sizes, chassis and wheelbase configurations. We’ve reduced the loading on the front axle group during all phases of the truck’s operation, without sacrificing operability, safety or productivity.” “In fact, the SPORT Gen 6’s CoRinspired design modifications, together with other new features such as the UG-6 Grab, Bucher IQ CANBus control system, new hydraulic tank with an integrated cooling package, and high efficiency hopper paddle have delivered our most efficient and productive SPORT sideloader yet,” Andrew Mitchell said. For added convenience, the SPORT Gen 6 is available with a choice of on-board weighing systems. This not only enables customers to stay with their own brand or system preference if they have one, it also helps to streamline the integration of new vehicle data with their existing fleet systems. For further information, please visit: or contact your local Customer Service Centre on: 1800 BUCHER (1800 282 437).

“Getting this design right really was a question of balance. And I’m proud to say we’ve managed to deliver all we set out to achieve across a range of hopper sizes, chassis and wheelbase configurations. We’ve reduced the loading on the front axle group during all phases of the truck’s operation, without sacrificing operability, safety or productivity.”


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UG-6 GRAB DELIVERS OUTSTANDING PRODUCTIVITY & PERFORMANCE As well as having the fastest hopper clearance rate in the market, one of the biggest advantages of the SPORT Gen 6 is the new UG-6 Universal Grab. Designed with a focus on productivity and ease-of-use, the UG-6 Grab provides good ‘positive contact’ with the bin during the entire lift cycle. It can lift bins with capacities ranging from 60 litres through to 360 litres without any need for adjustment, thereby eliminating issues associated with multiple bin sizes on one collection route. The UG-6 Grab is also 80mm narrower on both sides than its predecessor, providing easier access between bins that have been placed close together. These features, combined with the UG-6 Grab’s outstanding lift-cycle time, can deliver an increase of up to 20% in the number of bins collected per hour. Bin lift productivity is further boosted by the addition of the new Bucher Extend-A-Slide, which when combined with the UG-6 Grab, offers Australia’s longest bin lifter reach – making it ideal for working around parked cars and cul-de-sacs.



Hanergy Gears Up for the Launch of its Thin Film Flat SOLARtile in Global Market The clean energy giant, Hanergy Thin Film Power Group recently announced that it's all set for the global launch of Thin Film Flat SOLARtile, its cutting-edge solar roof tiling solution developed in collaboration with CSR Group, the largest roof tiles producer and roofing solution provider in southern hemisphere. The duo, Hanergy and CSR Group have also co-constructed the Renewable Energy Roofing Display Centre that was built last month at Monier Roofing Headquarter located in Rosehill, Sydney. Ahead of the global launch later this year, Hanergy marked the debut of its brand new Thin Film Flat SOLARtile at Renewable Energy Roofing Display Centre, welcoming the visitors and international companies across the globe to give them a first-hand view of this innovative solar roof tiling solution. The two companies will also sign an agreement to officially commence the presales of Thin Film Flat SOLARtile in Australia, New Zealand, South East Asia, Japan and Unite States markets. The Thin Film Flat SOLARtile is specially designed to meet overseas market needs. Unlike the curve shape of HanTile, Thin Film Flat SOLARtile is flat and has a square shape, which enables the house to meet local housing standards and harmonize better with the neighbourhood. It adopts CROSS BOND structure, where the tile-totile interlock is put right in the middle of next row’s tile to ensure best waterproof

performance. Junction boxes are covered by 2mm steel and safe trays are used to protect cables. The design of roofing system is inspired by Gympie Pyramid to feature a traditional Pacific vibe and improve the aesthetics of the housing. Mr Lv Yuan, Vice President of Hanergy Thin Film Power Group said, “We’re particularly excited about the launch of Thin Film Flat SOLARtile in the global market. We’re confident that our latest solar roof tiling solution will set a new standard in the global solar market. We’re also thrilled to join forces with CSR group.” With CIGS thin-film solar chips incorporated inside it, Thin Film Flat SOLARtile can achieve conversion efficiency, as high as 18.7% which is the world’s record. The product has received an outstanding rating for having been exceptionally wind, water proof and fire resistant. It can work under extreme conditions from -40 degrees to 80 degrees Celsius. Along with thin-film technology’s characteristics of being light, thin and flexible, as well as being able to work under low light conditions, it has great adaptability and can be applied in varied scenarios. Seizing over 70% market share in Australasia and the largest roof tiles producer and roofing solution provider in southern hemisphere, CSR Group is a major Australian industrial company producing building products for residential and

TOP: Thin Film Flat SOLARtiles have been designed to blend seamlessly with standard roofing tiles. ABOVE: Close up of the Thin Film Flat SOLARtile structure detail.

commercial construction. It also owns the biggest glass manufacturer in Australia and a curtain wall solution company. Earlier in December 2018, Hanergy had signed a co-operation agreement with CSR Group to co-develop Thin Film Flat SOLARtile. With CSR’s dominant market share in Australia market and rich experience in roofing industry, and Hanergy’s cutting-edge thin-film solar power technologies, the collaboration has borne great fruits.

ABOUT HANERGY THIN FILM POWER GROUP LTD Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Ltd is a Hong Kong-listed company, and a subsidiary of Hanergy Mobile Energy Group Company Ltd. As one of the leading thin-film solar companies in the world, Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Ltd is committed to "Building Mobile Energy". Since 2009, Hanergy has been working relentlessly to integrate worldwide solar technologies, and making a robust investment in research and innovation in the field of thin-film solar power. Thin film solar technologies have been applied to a series of commercial and noncommercial products, including HanTile, HanWall, Humbrella, HanPack and HanPower. Developed in collaboration with CSR Group, Hanergy’s Thin Film Flat SOLARtile looks set to revolutionise solar generation across Australia and beyond.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

For further information, please visit Hanergy’s official website:

Mobile Media Blasting - Wet & Dry

Nation wins if we all become 'energy literate' A new report prepared by University of Queensland sustainability and energy technology experts aims to push Australia closer to “energy literacy”. Researchers reported that householders were confused and there was concern across industry and government around issues such as energy pricing, power reliability and carbon emissions. At the same time there was little agreement on an accepted definition of energy literacy. UQ Chair in Sustainable Energy Futures Professor Peta Ashworth, who led the research with a team from UQ for the National Energy Resources Australia (NERA), said national action was needed to provide trusted and accessible information, tools and resources to improve Australians’ energy literacy. “Energy can do so much for people’s lives, depending on where they are around the world and their level of access to it,” Professor Ashworth said. “We are fortunate in Australia that we have reliable energy, but our challenge is to build understanding of how to manage the transition to a sustainable low-carbon society.” “Most efforts to build energy literacy have been in schools, and while this is important, it means some groups of people have been left behind,” she said. “We need to fill the gaps to ensure everyone has access to the information they need, in the format they would like, at the times they need it, to help raise literacy levels more broadly. This will help them to participate in energy policy discussions and ultimately support action across the whole energy supply chain,” Professor Ashworth added. NERA chief executive Miranda Taylor said the research showed informed communities and empowered consumers were key to Australia’s successful transition to a low-carbon future. “More needs to be done to fully understand the community’s concerns and to respond with information that engages and educates,” Ms Taylor said. The Building Australia’s Energy Literacy report proposes a national workshop bringing together stakeholders who deliver activities related to building energy literacy. The workshop would aim to take stock of electricity information availability around the country, and to identify information gaps across the whole energy supply chain. To take part in the discussion or attend the workshop, contact Professor Ashworth on:

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Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



Cat® Generator Sets Reduce Costs and Promote Growth for JMP Flowers JMP Flowers has over 40 years of experience in growing and selling flowers in Stężyca, Poland. After becoming Europe’s largest producer of orchids, reducing energy consumption and operation costs became a priority for JMP. JMP partnered with Eneria Cat and selected the Cat® CG260-16, producing 4.5 megawatts of electric power, a thermal output of 5.25 megawatts, and total efficiency of over 90 percent. JMP Flowers is a family-owned and operated business with over 40 years of experience in growing and selling flowers. JMP uses state-of-the-art technologies to grow and ultimately export their flowers throughout Europe, Russia, and Australia. JMP grows over 135 different varieties of roses and anthuriums (sometimes known as laceleaf flower) and over 2,000 varieties of orchids, grown in a greenhouse extending over 18 acres. Recently, the company increased its crop area to become Europe’s largest producer of orchids. Energy costs account for roughly forty percent of all costs of the typical greenhouse operation, so efforts to reduce energy consumption are always top of mind. With their recent expansion, the family wanted to make their newest greenhouse the most technologically advanced greenhouse in Europe.

Cogeneration power solution The orchid expansion led JMP to invest in a new high-efficiency cogeneration unit, which guarantees continuous lighting and air temperature regulation in the greenhouse.

JMP invested in a new Cat CG260-16 high-efficiency cogeneration unit, which guarantees continuous lighting and air temperature regulation in the greenhouse.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

JMP grows over 135 different varieties of roses and anthuriums (sometimes known as laceleaf flower) and over 2,000 varieties of orchids.

“After a thoughtful process, we ultimately decided to partner with Eneria Cat to purchase our power solution,” said Jarosław Ptaszek, CEO of JMP Flowers. “We’ve been happy with the Cat® generators we’ve used in the past and felt the most rewarding option for our growing business was to invest in a Cat CG260-16 generator set in our new greenhouse. We’ve worked closely with Eneria Cat to determine the best configuration to work with our existing installations,” said Ptaszek. The Cat CG260-16 produces 4.5 megawatts of electric power and a thermal output of 5.25 megawatts, with a total efficiency over 90%. Thanks to the simultaneous generation of electricity and heat from gas fuel JMP Flowers could reduce the energy cost compared to a classic supply (utility and boiler) and reach a payback time of 3 to 4 years Thanks to the Cat power solution being equipped with a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) gas treatment system, the carbon dioxide of the exhaust gases is

circulated throughout the greenhouses which stimulates growth of the flowers. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants turn carbon dioxide into oxygen, which in turn is released into the atmosphere. The cogeneration solution not only minimizes greenhouse gas emissions, but also produces oxygen, which has a positive impact on the environment and contributes to the circular economy. “Thanks to Caterpillar power solutions, we have met our demanding goals for energy costs, which has contributed to the dynamic growth of our company,” states Ptaszek. When completed in 2018, the JMP Flowers newest greenhouse was one of the most innovative facilities for orchid cultivation in the world. The entrepreneurial traditions of the Ptaszek family has continued for six generations - making them one of the longest running family businesses in Poland. For more information, please visit:


GCL System Awarded Patent for Shingled Solar Modules in Australia GCL System Integration Technology Co. Ltd (GCL System), a world's leading one-stop intelligent and integrated energy system provider, announced it had been awarded a patent for its shingled cell modules from IP Australia (Patent No. 2016393430), further enhancing its patent portfolio. The granted patents are in both Australia and China. Meanwhile a patent-applying status in the US and Japan, is expected to help GCL System further establish a presence in the world's high-end markets. The GCL SI shingled cell modules and cast mono modules at garnered significant interest at Intersolar in May. Shingled cell technology refers to a mainstream manufacturing process of high-density modules used within the photovoltaic industry. Use of shingled cell designs has drawn considerable attention from stakeholders for its efficiency, higher efficiency and higher power output and comparably lower balance-of-system (BOS) costs. Industry insiders estimate that if the adoption of shingled cell technology and the incorporation of SE-PERC high-efficiency cells continues to further increase this year,

the shingled module power of 60-type can be expected to increase to 340-350W. When compared to 270W modules popularized in 2017, this represents an increase in power output of 80W in just two years. The key point of shingling technology is to revolutionize the module-level technology of high-efficiency modules, which has resulted in an influx of investment by PV companies into the research and development of largescale manufacturing of shingled cell modules. Increased shingled module production capacity has led to higher application rates and widespread industry acceptance of the modules in several major high-end markets, including Europe and Japan. Shingled modules are typically used in high-efficiency application scenarios. Projects currently using shingled cell modules include the Top Runner Program and the Technology Top Runner Program, two programs under the aegis of China's National Energy Administration (NEA) supplied by GCL. The aesthetic design of the shingled modules also makes them ideal for use in distributed residential rooftop.

With continuous technological breakthroughs, GCL SI expects to improve its competitive advantage and continue its expansion into high-end markets.

Siemens Gamesa receives a new order for 43 SG 4.5-145 turbines to be installed in Canada

Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy has announced that it has signed a contract to supply and commission 43 SG 4.5-145 wind turbines, with flexible rating up to 4.8 MW, for a wind project in Canada with an undisclosed customer. The order is for a nominal capacity of 194 MW. One installed, the SG 4.5-145 will be the most powerful turbine with the largest rotor size to date in Canada. The 71-metre

blade integrates aerodynamics and noise reduction features—including Siemens Gamesa DinoTails® Next Generation technology—to guarantee a high production of energy and reduced noise emission levels. “We’re proud that our partners chose Siemens Gamesa and our SG 4.5-145 turbine for this project,” said David Hickey, head of the Siemens Gamesa business in Canada.

“The new SG 4.5-145 turbine will provide extremely cost competitive and clean energy to the consumers and communities of Canada.” With more than 3,000 MW installed in Canada, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy is the market leader by cumulative installed capacity. Our team of employees provide technical expertise, top-tier service, quality products, and ongoing support to all of our customers. Canada is 8th in the world for total onshore installed wind capacity with 12.8 GW as of December 2018, with a 20% annual growth rate for the last ten years.

ABOUT SIEMENS GAMESA RENEWABLE ENERGY Siemens Gamesa is a global leader in the wind power industry, with a strong presence in offshore, onshore and services. Through its advanced digital capabilities, the company offers one of the broadest product portfolios in the industry as well as industry-leading service solutions, helping to make clean energy more affordable and reliable.

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



Max Bögl’s Mobile Fabrication of Hybrid Towers for wind turbines wins bauma Innovation Award The success story continues: The Mobile Fabrication technology of Max Bögl Wind AG won this year’s bauma Innovation Award in the construction method category. The world’s most unique production concept for Hybrid Towers won over the jury for its technical innovation and contribution to climate protection and resource efficiency. The bauma Innovation Award has been awarded every three years since 2007 at the similarly-named world trade show for construction, building materials, mining machines, construction vehicles and equipment in five separate categories. This year Max Bögl Wind AG was able to convince a jury of representatives from the worlds of science and business with its unique concept for Mobile Fabrication. The Bavarian company is the market leader in the production, delivery and installation of Hybrid Towers. Thanks to this now award-winning mobile production concept, it is possible to manufacture hybrid wind turbine towers - a combination of concrete elements and steel segments - in German quality at almost any place on the planet. The evaluation criteria for the construction methods category, which are determined by the German Mechanical Engineering Industry Association (VDMA), include, among other things, the degree of innovation, contribution to resource efficiency and implementation requirements.

Optimized process flows worldwide Max Bögl mass-produces Hybrid Towers at two stationary plants. To make the production of the tower system economical and efficient for international projects as well, the serial production idea was transformed into a mobile concept. “The transformation from traditional construction to assembly-line construction at our company is an important building block to implementing projects even faster, more flexibly and more economically. For international projects we also rely on the established manufacturing processes that we use at our main plants,” explains Stefan Bögl, CEO of the Max Bögl Group. As a trained mechanical engineer, he brought the idea of serial production to the 20

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

Serial production directly at the project site with Mobile Fabrication from Max Bögl Wind AG. Image source: Max Bögl Wind AG

company at the very beginning and also applied it to the development of Mobile Fabrication. “Thanks to the standardised processes, we can quickly train the local workforce in whatever region we are active and at the same time ensure high process reliability.” “For the Mobile Fabrication concept, we were able to adapt all equipment. For example, we adapted the CNC concrete grinding milling system so that the concrete segments of the Hybrid Tower are ground milled with the same quality as in stationary systems. As a result, the concrete tower can be built internationally and under all weather conditions. With a production time of around two days per tower, Mobile Fabrication is extremely fast and efficient,” Mr Bögl added.

Award a success for all employees Stefan Bögl is also extremely happy about the prize: “From the idea to implementation and finally to this award: The entire Max Bögl team helped achieve this success with their great dedication and expertise. Only those who think boldly and are undaunted by challenges can realize innovative projects and make a lasting difference.”

Underlining the success of Mobile Fabrication, Josef Knitl, CEO of Max Bögl Wind AG, said, “Sustainability and climate protection begins with the production of renewable energy sources. With our first successful project in Thailand, we have proven that we can produce Hybrid Towers with German manufacturing quality and in a resource-conserving manner on a global scale. In the future such projects will be crucial to ensuring that the green energy revolution succeeds worldwide.”

Successful first use in the far east Up until the beginning of this year, some of Southeast Asia's highest wind turbines were built using Mobile Fabrication. This shows that the production concept meets all the technical requirements for German manufacturing quality while also adding value on the local level. Max Bögl Wind AG erected 90 Hybrid Towers with a hub height of 156.5 meters at the Thepharak wind farm. In the process the company relied primarily on local materials and workers. This increased the cost-effectiveness of the project, lowered the infrastructure burden and benefited the region as a whole.


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Energy Platform Connects Small Solar Farms with Buyers An online platform to connect medium to small-scale solar energy producers with independent electricity buyers will launch in the coming months in South Australia. By Angela Skujins Oxamii, a startup based in Adelaide, South Australia, has developed a system to make it easier for owners of solar arrays producing a minimum of 200 kilowatts to sell power on the spot market. Founders Aaron Yew, Luke Marshall and Ray Carclaw have secured a number of investors for the online platform and plan to launch before July. Yew said their aim was to allow customers to be more connected to their energy supplier, such as a farmer with a large solar array. “Up until now customers haven’t been able to have a relationship with their generator or have a relationship with their energy. The system now is basically choosing a retailer and receive a bill,” Yew said. Their platform connects buyers and purchasers by making Oxamii the agent that monitors energy flows, calculates bills and manages loads for its customers. Oxamii is targeting farmers who have existing solar energy they want to sell on the market, or farmers looking at gaining a second source of income through establishing a solar farm.


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The platform allows producers to sell electricity inside Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM) to clients at a fixed rate through a power purchase agreement (PAA) – first developed by Google on a multinational level. The PPA would offer stability and security for both parties against the constantly fluctuating NEM spot market prices. “We’re going to be partnering with a retailer and we’re going to white label their retail licence,” Yew said. “A customer would be buying energy from the generator at a fixed-price, so it would be exactly like buying from AGL on a certain tariff. The difference would be the generator.” Yew said that South Australian producers generating 100kW or more can apply for Large Generation Certificates and access the spot market, while generators producing between 5MW and 30MW can apply for a Small Generator Aggregator’s license. “The Small Generator Aggregators licence is designed for generators that can sell directly into the spot market. It was designed for these small-scale solar farms to easily sell into the spot market.

“The problem with selling into the spot market is that the prices are variable. That’s why the Small Generator Aggregators licence hasn’t taken off. I think only eight of these licenses have been given out from last year. The uptake wasn’t very big at all.” Oxamii’s retail licence also offers financial security and a market to sell renewable energy. Having a PPA allows medium and smallscale farmers to approach a bank for funds to establish a solar array. Yew said the software would help businesses of any size participate in renewable energy. “Without Oxamii, small businesses and medium-sized businesses wouldn’t have access to the same mechanisms these multinationals have. “No companies in Australia are currently allowing businesses to buy this kind of renewable energy from small scale farmers.” “This also allows them to oversize their solar farms and they can sell any excess electricity directly to other customers.” South Australia leads the nation in the uptake of wind energy and rooftop solar with renewable sources accounting for more than 50 per cent of the electricity generated in the state. Yew aims to keep the renewable energy local to help the economy and change the way people think about green energy by making it personal. “We want to promote local energy with the idea that if the energy is generated locally and bought locally then that money stays within the economy,” he said. “What our software does is that it allows customers to choose a preference of who they want to buy their energy from. “There might be a preference of say the local farmer, but then there might be a sports club, or it might be a church. Our platform will help tell these compelling stories, which will allow customers to say ‘you know what? I want to support that farmer’.”


Cutter Pump Cuts Sewage Costs Aussie Pump’s Tsurumi single phase C series cutter pumps have achieved huge success in wastewater treatment. Tsurumi’s advantage is the use of upsized motors, tungsten tipped cast iron impellers and oversized pump entry. The breakthrough design enables effluent to be transferred through cost effective 2” pipes, and at high volume. Tsurumi cutters achieve heads up to 11.5 metres and flows to 335 lpm. The cutter mechanism cuts fibrous material into small pieces permitting clog free pumping. These characteristics makes them ideal for installations in sewage systems located in townhouses, caravan parks and restaurants. “In fact, they are fantastic in any application where there is a high risk of blockages from rag or other biological matter,” said Aussie Pumps’ Neil Bennett. “The best news for consumers is that they are extremely competitively priced. This

provides massive cost savings as well as a product that will last, perform better and reduce maintenance costs,” he said “We often see mountains of dead third world pumps at pump repair centres around Australia. You would be hard pressed to find a Tsurumi in any of those piles of disappointment,” Bennett added. Tsurumi’s fully oil immersed mechanical seals eliminate failure caused by corrosion, abrasion or fouling. All Tsurumi submersible pumps are backed with a 3-year warranty. This is possible because they incorporate features that make them extremely robust and they are designed for an extended working life in severe conditions. Tsurumi C series cutter pumps can be supplied with either floats or guide rail configuration. Three-phase versions up to 11 kW are also available.

Free catalogues on the Tsurumi cutter pump range and other products are readily available from Australian Pump Industries or Master Distributors throughout Australia. For further information, please visit:



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Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019


As part of the Titan International Group of companies, Titan Australia offers the widest range of tyres and wheels available in Australia. We supply and service wheels and tyres for the industrial, mining, construction, earthmoving, transport, agricultural, recreational and passenger markets. And with service and products second to none, Titan Australia can keep you moving. Choose From Some Of The Biggest Brands... Titan stocks a wide range of tyres to suit all applications and equipment, from light trucks, 4WD’s and passenger vehicles, through to trucking fleets and the largest wheel construction, mining and agricultural equipment. Quality products from some of the world’s biggest brands.

Tyre Fitting Services... Titan Australia own and operate one of the largest fleets of dedicated tyre handler grab trucks in Australia. Titan are the OTR tyre and rim maintenance service provider of choice to a diverse client base dominated by mining companies, civil contractors, transport & logistics operators and OEM equipment suppliers. All tyre fitting vehicles are maned by experienced CERT 2 Qualified fitters who, in addition to regular day-to-day tyre fitting jobs, are also inducted on a wide range of mining and construction sites.

Wheels & Axle Assemblies... Titan is the market leader in the design, development and manufacture of wheels to the construction, mining and agricultural sectors. Titan offers a complete range of wheels, from 6” through to 54” in diameter, including fixed welded wheels, adjustable bolted tractor wheels, demountable (spider mount) rim options and clip-on dual applications. Titan also carries a complete axle assembly and spare parts range tailored to suit the needs of our national OEM and aftermarket customers.

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PFAS Beyond Defence by Professor Nanthi Bolan, Global Centre for Environmental Remediation (GCER), The University of Newcastle (UON) Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a diverse group of synthetic fluorinated compounds, which are bio-accumulative and toxic to humans and the environment. Aqueous film forming foam (AFFF) used in firefighting is a point source of PFAS input to soil and groundwater. Recently, there have been major concerns about contamination of groundwater sources with PFAS compounds in sites that have been testing AFFF for firefighting. Many studies have detected PFAS compounds in soil and groundwater sources resulting from AFFF used in firefighting sites, especially in defence sites. Incidences of PFAS contamination of soil and groundwater sources have been noticed beyond defence sites that include landfills and wastewater treatment plants. Biosolids and landfills are two other major diffuse sources of PFAS input to soil and groundwater sources. There have been limited research on PFAS compounds from other sources and their subsequent contamination in soil and water resources. The article provides an overview on the sources, distribution, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of PFAS compounds – beyond defence sites. Department of Defence has been very proactive in undertaking research on the remediation of PFAS in soil and groundwater sources. For example, the Australian Research Council (ARC) will fund a new research initiative, the PFAS Remediation Research Program through the ARC’s Special Research Initiatives scheme. Up to $13 million in total funding is available to support a range of research projects.

What are PFAS compounds? PFAS are a subset of the highly fluorinated aliphatic substances that contain one or more C atoms on which the H substituents have been replaced by F atoms, forming perfluoroalkyl moieties. These compounds are referred to as ‘ploy- and perfluoroalkyl substances’ (PFAS). PFAS are a family of manufactured chemicals, which do not occur naturally in the environment. Since these chemicals are resistant to heat, water, and oil, they have been widely used in general applications including non-stick cookware, grease-resistant paper, fast food wrappers, stain-resistant carpets and fabrics and water26

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

resistant clothing. In addition, PFASs have also been used in different industrial applications such as surfactants, medical applications, plastic manufacture, textiles and leather. Many PFAS are acids and may be present as anionic forms, or a mixture of both, depending on the pH of the environmental matrix. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are two of the most well-known PFAS and are contaminants. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is another chemical of the PFAS group and is present in some fire-fighting foams. PFAS are a complex family of more than 3,000 manmade fluorinated organic chemicals with varying functional groups, which can include other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, or sulphur. PFAS have been detected worldwide in fauna, ecosystems and humans since first use in the 1950s.

PFAS contamination sources Major sources of PFAS input to terrestrial and aquatic environments include release of AFFF, waste disposal and wastewater treatment plants. Waste materials containing PFAS are often disposed of in landfills

Class B fluorine-containing firefighting foams for extinguishing flammable liquid fires include aqueous film forming foam (AFFF), fluoroprotein (FP), and film forming fluoroprotein foam (FFFP). Firefighting foams containing PFAS are released into the environment through a variety of practices: (i) low volume releases of foam concentrate during storage, transfer or equipment calibration and apparatus testing; (ii) occasional, high-volume, broadcast discharge of foam solution for firefighting and fire suppression/prevention; and (iii) leaks from foam distribution piping between storage and pumping locations. Leachate from some municipal solid waste landfills and biosolid from wastewater treatment plants have been shown to be a source of PFAS release to the environment due to the disposal of consumer goods treated with hydrophobic, stain resistant coatings. PFAS can enter the environment from landfill sites that accept waste containing PFAS through ground and surface water via sewer discharges and leachate movement. For example, Dr Christie Gallen tested 35 landfills across Australia and detected PFAS in every landfill that was tested, in both operational landfills and closed ones. There are around 1,200 landfill sites in Australia receiving around 20million tons of waste each year. It is estimated that around 50 GL of leachate is produced which need to be treated before discharged to trade waste sewer treatment plants. Conventional sewage treatment methods are not efficient in the removal of PFAS. PFAS have been detected in influents, effluents and sludge from most of the tested wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) worldwide, which suggests that WWTP and sludge/ biosolids provide a major link for widespread diffuse contamination of PFAS in the environment. Due to extreme recalcitrance nature of PFAS, these chemicals are expected to increase in concentrations in biosolid-applied soils with sequential applications similar to heavy metal (e.g., cadmium) build-up due to their application in the past. Consequently, PFAS is likely to enter the food chain through plant uptake ultimately posing risk to human and ecological health. The recent report on ‘Assessment of Emergent Contaminants in Biosolids’ carried out by Australia New Zealand Biosolids Partnership (ANZBP) indicated the presence of a number of PFAS congener compounds including PFOS and PFOA in biosolids produced in Australia.

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Toxicological studies of PFOA indicate potential developmental or reproductive effects, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified PFOA as a Group 2B carcinogen, i.e., possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC, 2016). However, because humans are exposed to so many different PFAS compounds through consumer product use, it is difficult to determine the level of exposure from various sources. PFAS typically associate with the liver, proteins and the blood stream in humans, and have a half-life in the range of 2 to 9 years. Although avoiding PFAS exposure entirely is not possible, various worldwide surveys show that PFAS levels in people’s blood are dropping as companies reduce the use of PFAS in commercial products.

Remediation technologies

TOP: Many landfill leachate systems have also been found to contain PFAS compounds ABOVE: Biosolid application can also provide a link for diffuse contamination of PFAS in the environment

Exposure pathways and toxicity For the general population, ingestion of PFAS is considered the major human exposure pathway. The major types of human exposure sources for PFAS include: (i) drinking contaminated water; (ii) ingesting food contaminated with PFAS, such as certain types of fish and shellfish; and (iii) eating food packaged in materials containing PFAS (e.g., popcorn bags). However, using PFAS compounds has largely been phased out of food packaging materials. Hand-to-mouth transfer from surfaces treated with PFAScontaining stain protectants, such as carpets, also contributes to PFAS intake, especially in the case of young children. Workers in industries or activities that manufacture, formulate or use products containing PFAS may be exposed to higher levels than the general population. 28

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

Due to the chemical and thermal stability of PFAS and the complexity of PFAS mixtures, remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous media is challenging. For solid media such as soil and wastes (e.g., biosolids), PFAS can be removed through abiotic or biotic degradation or immobilized using adsorbents. Three of the relatively successful abiotic PFAS mineralization treatment technologies include: (i) oxidation processes including electrochemical oxidation, photolysis, and photocatalysis; (ii) reduction processes involving the use of zerovalent metals/bimetals with clay interlayers and co-solvent assisted Vitamin B12 defluorination; and (iii) thermal decomposition aiming to break C-C and C-F bonds under high temperature and these include thermal chemical reactions, incineration, sonochemistry, microwavehydrothermal, high voltage electric current etc. Although few reports exist on biotic degradation under laboratory conditions, their applicability to in-situ conditions is challenging. For aqueous media such as groundwater, landfill leachates and stormwater sources, the most common remediation approach is to use a pump-and-treat method with adsorbents such as granular activated carbon followed by off-site incineration of the spent activated carbon. Other methods for ex-situ PFAS removal include high-pressure membrane treatment using nanofiltration or reverse osmosis. For typical environmental remediation applications, however, membrane treatment has a higher cost than activated carbon, and other groundwater contaminants can impair effectiveness. Adsorption of PFAS using anionic adsorbents can also be used to immobilize PFAS in soil and other solid media such as biosolids. Immobilization of PFAS in solid media may reduce their mobility and bioavailability to plant and organisms. To date, biological methods have proven to be ineffective for PFAS remediation.

“PFAS typically associate with the liver, proteins and the blood stream in humans, and have a half-life in the range of 2 to 9 years. Although avoiding PFAS exposure entirely is not possible, various worldwide surveys show that PFAS levels in people’s blood are dropping as companies reduce the use of PFAS in commercial products.”

No-one in Australia goes further in recycling rubber. Every year, thousands of tonnes of tyres are dumped illegally. This is a major environmental and public health concern; but it needn’t be. In Australia, Tyrecycle is the market leader in tyre recycling, with a national network of collection and processing facilities. Our recycled rubber is used for sporting and playground surfaces, tile adhesives, brake pads and much more. It’s just another way of working towards our own goal of zero waste to landfill. To learn more about us visit call 1300 4 TYRECYCLE (1300 489 732) or email


Aussie innovation leading the way Smart SinksTM delivering outstanding results for labs and clinics From its initial installation in a Queensland dental lab, the Australian-designed and internationally patented Smart Sinks™ filtration system continues to go from strength-to-strength - delivering outstanding results for an ever-increasing number of laboratories and clinics around the country. Specifically designed to provide an affordable, easy-to-use and highly-effective method of preventing plaster residues washing down the sink, this Aussie innovation is garnering extraordinary interest from dental laboratories, podiatrists, hospitals and medical centres, as well as schools (for their art rooms), general laboratories and specialist manufacturers who are looking to overcome issues with residues blocking sinks.

Patented Smart Sinks™ filtration systems utilise a series of interlocking independent collection units, joined by a valve system to collect particles, plaster and sediment from the waste water.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

Bench-mounted Smart Sinks™ are ideal for any application where waste sediment is at risk of entering the sewer, drains or trade waste such as this dental laboratory.

An innovative solution for a common problem Whether it’s creating moulds in a dental laboratory, applying plaster casts to fractured limbs in a hospital or medical centre, developing corrective casts or moulds in a podiatrist clinic, or any other number of professional applications, one of the most common problems for anyone working with plaster, is that of plaster residues washing down the sink. With the Australian-designed Smart Sinks™ filtration system, these problems are a thing of the past. Excess plaster powder from mixing, unused mixed plaster and/or plaster ground from hardened casts or moulds during shaping, cutting and grinding can all spell disaster for drains. Indeed, in many labs

(even those fitted with traditional-style ‘plaster traps’), removing plaster residues from drains is a time-consuming and expensive task – and one which often requires a site visit from a qualified plumber to complete. What’s more, it’s an extremely common problem, and one which became the primary catalyst for the development of the Patented Smart Sinks™ technology. “The original idea came to me when we were completing a commercial fit-out project in a dental laboratory in south-east Queensland,” said Smart Sinks™ inventor Craig Hanson. “We immediately recognised the problems caused by plaster residues being washed down the sink, including the odours and, of course, the blockages.” “After speaking to a couple of dentists and dental laboratory owners, we realised how wide-spread the issue was and, perhaps most alarmingly, how often they had to have a plumber come and clear the drains and just how much this was costing - even in facilities fitted with traditional plaster traps.” “Some of these places were spending an absolute fortune on plumbers,” he added. In fact, the initial research, which included discussions with numerous dental practices, laboratories, and medical facilities, found that in many instances, practices were spending as much as $600 every 4-6 weeks to have drains cleared and plaster residues removed. And that wasn’t the only issue. In some of the busier facilities, the odours associated with plaster residues and sludge were impossible to eliminate – even after cleaning out the drains. This not only makes for an unpleasant working environment, it also provides an indication of a fungal or bacterial presence which can, in itself, present a health risk to those working in the facilities.


The waste sediment collects in the removable filter bag ready for quick and easy disposal.

from the waste water. Waste sediment and suspended particles are collected via 3 disposable filtration bags, which can then be easily removed from the unit and disposed of independently of the system - preventing the residues from passing into the drainage system. With the primary filtration bag collecting up to 92% of waste material, the subsequent filters remove finer particulates from the wastewater prior to disposal, resulting in water that runs clear and is free of plaster sediment and residues. Bench-mounted Smart Sinks™ can be installed into either existing or new benches, and plumbed-in as you would with a regular sink. The only difference is that the Smart Sinks™ unit will remove particles such as plaster and sediment from the waste water via the disposable filtration bags. This not only eliminates the ongoing maintenance problems and costs associated with sediment entering the drains, it also does away odour issues and the need for using messy, outdated under-bench plaster traps which can clog or leak.

For further information on the Smart Sinks™ range, including full video demonstrations of Smart Sinks™ in action, please visit:

Bench-mounted Smart Sinks™ can be installed into either existing or new benches, and plumbed-in as you would with a regular sink.

Smart Sinks™ filtration removes fine particulates, resulting in water that runs clear and is free of plaster sediment and residues.

Stopping the plaster residues before they become an issue Specifically designed to meet the needs of the dental and medical industries, the key to the success of the Smart Sinks™ filtration system, is that it prevents the plaster residues from getting into the drains in the first place – stopping them before they cause a problem. Patented Smart Sinks™ filtration systems utilise a series of interlocking independent collection units joined by a valve system to collect particles, plaster and sediment

Removing and replacing the Smart Sinks™ filter bags is an extremely fast and easy process.

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



OPEC Systems Engaged By Defence To Install PFAS Removal Technology At Oakey, Qld OPEC Systems has constructed a waste water treatment plant at the Army Aviation Centre in Oakey, Queensland to remove PFAS compounds from contaminated groundwater. The waste water treatment plan commenced operations in April 2019, using OPEC’s Surface Active Foam Fractionation (SAFF) technology to process up to 250,000 litres of PFAS contaminated groundwater per day. PFAS (per-and poly-fluoroalkyl substances) are organic pollutants of concern found principally in a now discontinued formulation of fire-fighting foam. SAFF technology has been methodically developed and independently tested by NATA laboratories and PFAS experts over several years. The system, which comprises a combination of treatment, water polishing and waste minimisation stages, can successfully remediate PFAS contaminated water to below drinking water guidelines. Following a comprehensive assessment of a broad range of technologies by the Department of Defence, OPEC Systems was one of just three companies selected to provide a full-scale wastewater treatment plant for the extraction of PFAS from contaminated groundwater. “PFAS remediation technology is in its infancy worldwide, and we have worked extremely hard to create an effective homegrown solution to an international problem,” said OPEC Systems Managing Director, Pete Murphy. “We know there is intense global interest in what the Australian Department of Defence is doing with PFAS remediation and I’m immensely proud that our team have delivered such an elegant and effective solution.”


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

“Using the principles of green chemistry, our goal was to create a system which produced minimal waste with zero environmental harm. The strength of our approach is we have leveraged the natural physiochemistry of PFAS molecules to engineer a system which is fast, efficient, sustainable and cost effective,” he said. “SAFF is a modular and expandable technology which can continuously treat large water volumes using minimal energy or additives. We believe this combination will be a game changer for sustainable large scale PFAS remediation,” Mr Murphy added. SAFF is a multi-stage process which broadly includes: • pre-treatment – the installation of groundwater extraction wells, adjustment of water chemistry to optimise PFAS extraction efficiencies and the removal of cross contaminants and dissolved and suspended solids; • a multi-stage, continuous flow, foam fractionation procedure to rapidly remove 99 per cent of target PFAS contaminants from the influent; • application of vacuum and solar heat processes to create a PFAS rich hyperconcentrate semi-solid; • use of final polishing technologies to remove the remaining estimated one per cent of PFAS in the treated water; • safe return of clean water to the environment following final analysis. “The two aspects of SAFF technology that distinguish us from other approaches are the use of foam fractionation, which exploits the inherent predisposition of PFAS compounds to adhere to specifically sized micro bubbles; and the introduction of a patented vacuum extraction system, which successfully harvests the vast majority of foaming PFAS compounds from the surface of the foam fractionator prior to applying ionic exchange polishing resins,” Mr Murphy said. Waste minimisation practices are incorporated on site through each of the PFAS treatment stages to help achieve zero waste objectives. SAFF technology incorporates solar technology to drive the system efficiency, minimise waste and reduce energy consumption.

OPEC Systems technician, Rowan Montefiore, observes foam fractionation in action using OPEC’s SAFF technology at Oakey, QLD. SAFF exploits the inbuilt tendency of PFAS contaminates to foam when aerated.

SAFF technology is scalable, and has the capacity to treat systems varying in size from 500 litres per hour to 100,000 litres per hour, or more if required. The technology has shown it can effectively remove over 99 per cent of longer chain PFAS molecules within 2-3 minutes, with longer processing times and supplementary polishing systems allowing the restoration of PFAS contaminated water to below new Australian drinking water guidelines and in many instances, below the limits of detection. “OPEC Systems has a long history of collaboration with the Department of Defence, and has implemented several environmental remediation projects during the past ten years. We look forward to building on this excellent working relationship, and delivering important remediation work for Oakey residents and the environment,” he said. “It’s important to note that in addition to ensuring mass removal of PFAS from the contaminated source zones at the site, the SAFF technology is also designed to prevent further migration of contaminants away from the site,” Mr Murphy concluded. The waste water treatment plant will operate for a 30-month trial period.

Water Sector Signs Innovative Energy Deal Thirteen leading Victorian water corporations have launched a new energy partnership that will help to minimise greenhouse gas emissions and maintain affordable water bills for customers. From October this year, the water corporations will purchase solar power together from Kiamal Solar Farm in north-west Victoria under a new umbrella organisation called Zero Emissions Water (ZEW). Purchasing energy as one large organisation compared to separately, means the water corporations can procure energy at a cheaper rate which will translate to maintaining affordable prices for customers. ZEW Chair Paul O’Donohue said that the Victorian water industry is committed to advancing projects that benefit the environment and create more return on investment for customers. “The security of Victoria’s water supply depends on our response to climate change now. This partnership is a smart way for the water corporations to reduce their carbon footprint, without passing the cost on to customers. “The water sector is helping to lead the way for other industries to reduce their emissions and operating costs through sector collaboration,” Mr O’Donohue said. The water corporations will purchase between 20 to 50 per cent of their total energy needs through ZEW and expect to have a collective emissions reduction of 80,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. This deal is the first of its kind in Australia and is a major step forward towards the sector achieving net-zero emissions by 2050. The 13 water corporations that are part of Zero Emissions Water include: • Barwon Water • Central Highlands Water • City West Water • Coliban Water • East Gippsland Water • Southern Rural Water • Lower Murray Water • South East Water • South Gippsland Water • Wannon Water • Westernport Water • Western Water • Yarra Valley Water

Left to right: Tracey Slatter (Barwon Water managing director and Zero Emissions Water board member); Victorian Minister for Water, The Honourable Lisa Neville; and Paul O’Donohue (Central Highlands Water managing director and Zero Emissions Water board member) at the launch of the ZEW partnership.

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



European support gives Lesotho lowlands improved access to water During a recent public ceremony in Lesotho’s capital Maseru, the European Investment Bank (EIB) signed a EUR 82 million (slightly over 1.3 billion Lesotho Maloti) loan for the “Lesotho Lowlands Water Development Project - Phase II” (LLWDP II), with the Minister of Finance of Lesotho, Dr Moeketsi Majoro. The objective of the project is to improve access to clean water in four priority areas of the Lesotho Lowlands. The LLWDP II is the second phase of the Lesotho Lowlands Water Supply Scheme that was conceived with technical assistance from the European Union. Previously, the EIB has also financed the first phase, known as the “Metolong Dam and Water Supply Programme”. The project will increase the reliable supply of bulk potable water and sanitation services, and strengthen the water authority’s capacity to operate and maintain the infrastructure. The final beneficiaries of the project are Lesotho’s citizens, as the LLWDP II will provide a sustainable water supply service to the population, as well as help service providers to better cope with climate change impacts in the project area. The project supports the UN’s sustainable development goals, the “availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". “Lesotho is increasingly feeling the impact of climate change, especially when it comes to extended droughts, as water scarcity constitutes a major barrier to economic development and inclusive growth,” commented EIB Vice-President Ambroise Fayolle. “The water development project in the lowlands aims to provide a sustainable water supply for the local population, and is expected to have a positive impact on as many as 300,000 direct beneficiaries, some 15% of the country’s population.” The Ambassador of the European Union to Lesotho, H.E. Christian Manahl, added that 34

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

The Lowlands Water Development Project - Phase II gives those in the Lesotho lowlands improved access to water

improved access to clean water and sanitation is a pre-requisite for Lesotho's further socioeconomic development. “While large quantities of premium water from the country's highlands are exported to South Africa, and generate revenues for the Government's budget, too many people and businesses, predominately located in the lowlands, are still struggling with reliable access to clean water and sanitation facilities,” Mr Manahl said. “This has a negative impact on the health situation in the country but also on attracting investments and creation of jobs.” The EU-EIB financing package, a 82 million EIB loan to be blended with a 41 million EU grant, accounts for more than 60% of total project cost, which also includes a World Bank loan. Lesotho’s Minister of Finance, Dr Moeketsi Majoro, added: “The project will contribute to the implementation of the Lesotho National Strategic Development Plans 2012/2013 2018/2019 that identified the provision of water access in the Lowlands, where about two thirds of the population lives, as a severe problem.”

“The project will enhance the resilience to climate change and will help the Lesotho government achieve the development goals reflected in its "Vision 2020" strategy; to have a healthy and well-developed human resource base by ensuring that all Basotho have access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation,” , Dr Majoro said. In practice, the project concerns bulk water infrastructure (river intake, water treatment plant, transmission mains, pumping station and distribution network), low-scale sanitation and hygiene measures, activities and awareness building regarding the reduction of water losses, and Technical Assistance (TA) to support the implementation of the project.

ABOUT THE LLWSS The Lesotho Lowlands Water Supply Scheme (LLWSS) was conceived more than twenty years ago. The first major investment envisioned under the scheme was the Metolong Dam and Water Supply Program (MDWSP), co-financed by the EIB and for which the main infrastructure has been completed, which already provides safe drinking water to Maseru and other major towns located north and south of the capital city.

Image courtesy WA DWER


WA Extends Award-Winning Water Program The WA State Government is extending an award-winning water improvement program with $1.6 million allocated in the upcoming State Budget. The money is earmarked for the Revitalising Geographe Waterways program which aims to improve water quality, waterway health and better manage the Geographe waterways. The program, which was due to finish its four-year, State-funded run in June, has been extended for a further year to ensure water quality improvements and nutrient reductions in the Geographe catchment can continue under the oversight of the interagency Vasse Taskforce. Speaking about the funding, WA Water Minister Dave Kelly said: “This Budget funding allows for the continued monitoring of the Vasse Wonnerup wetlands and priority waterways - crucial to identifying key ecosystem features and threats - so we can target

our actions and resources to protect and improve waterway health and water quality.” “The Vasse Taskforce is the driving force behind Revitalising Geographe Waterways and has representation from State and local governments, water service providers and catchment groups. I would like to thank Chair Sally Talbot and all taskforce members for their ongoing commitment and hard work in support of the program,” the Minister added. Since the inception of the program in 2015, there has been a significant reduction in nutrients (phosphorous and/or nitrogen) in 75 per cent of Geographe waterways. Improved fertiliser management over the last 10 years has also seen 2,000 kilograms a year of less phosphorous entering the Vasse Wonnerup wetlands and Geographe Bay. This additional funding will add value to the existing program through a range of

actions which will continue the substantial improvements made to the Geographe catchment while raising awareness and information to the community on water quality issues and progress. “Our waterways have important aquatic values, some providing habitat for threatened and priority species, and are of high value to both the local community and visitors,” Minister Kelly said. “This project is an example of how the McGowan Government is working with partner agencies and local governments to improve water quality, waterway health and the management of Geographe waterways,” he added. The Revitalising Geographe Waterways program - 2018 WA Water Association Award winners in the Program Innovation category - is supported by the WA State Government’s $20 million Regional Estuaries Initiative.

Improved evaporation solutions for industry

Commonly used in desalination plants, mining operations and decontamination applications, evaporation ponds are designed to efficiently evaporate water using sunlight and ambient temperatures. But nature can’t always work as fast as industry desires and that’s where the E46 Floating Evaporator can help. Rapid evaporation rates depend on high temperatures, low relative humidity and high wind speeds. Evaporation is also

affected by the salinity of the water with rates decreasing by about 1% for every percentage increase in salinity. The E46 Floating Evaporator is designed to increase the natural evaporation rate by at least 10-12 times the speed of nature. It even includes the option of a weather station so you can automate when the evaporator is in operation - depending on environmental conditions. It works by pumping water through

specially designed and patented nozzles which use the Venturi Principle to draw air into the water stream to produce water droplets which evaporate more readily. The nozzles’ unique design also minimise drift of contaminated water droplets outside the perimeter of the pond. The Floating Evaporator has 4 HDPE UV stabilised pontoons and a stainless steel lifting frame. Each nozzle is also HDPE to cope with hazardous ambient and corrosive liquids. The Floating Evaporator is modular so multiple units can be used in the same pond to achieve rapid evaporation. The E46 Floating Evaporator is only available from Tecpro Australia who holds the exclusive distribution rights in both Australia and New Zealand. Founded in 1982, Tecpro Australia is a specialist engineering supply company located in Castle Hill, NSW Australia. For more information, contact one of Tecpro’s Technical Consultants on 02 9634 3370 or visit

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



Successfully proven brine treatment

Oxford-led review shows rapid urbanisation increasing pressure on rural water supplies globally An international team of researchers has carried out the first systematic global review of water reallocation from rural to urban regions – the practice of transferring water from rural areas to cities to meet demand from growing urban populations. They found that 69 cities with a population of 383 million people receive approximately 16 billion cubic meters of reallocated water per year – almost the annual flow of the Colorado River. The study, published in Environmental Research Letters, found North America and Asia are hotspots for rural-to-urban water reallocation, with the practice on the rise in Asia. Twenty-one cities rely on multiple water reallocation projects, such as Amman in Jordan and Hyderabad in India. Since 1960 the global urban population has quadrupled, driving demand and increasing competition between cities and agriculture for water. With 2.5 billion more urban dwellers expected by 2050, this trend is set to rise. Even in the UK - where water is considered abundant - concerns about water shortages are prompting interest in water transfers, with Environment Agency Chief Sir James Bevan warning that England could run short of water in 25 years. Climate change will further put pressure on water resources and regional decisionmaking around water reallocation, as highlighted by drought crises in Cape Town, Melbourne and Sao Paolo over the past decade. The researchers observed that cities often hold the economic and political sway in water deals. When rural regions are not involved in the design, development and implementation of a reallocation project, reallocation can deepen inequality and foster resentment and resistance. The spectre of dusty and deserted agricultural towns looms large since the iconic project that reallocated water from Owens Valley farmers to Los Angeles, California in the early 20th century. Flashpoints of 36

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conflict have emerged from Melbourne to Monterrey. “Our research indicates that governance matters,” said lead author Dr Dustin Garrick, associate professor in environmental management at the University of Oxford’s Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment. “Cities and rural regions need forums to negotiate deals, assuage conflicts, mitigate impacts and share the benefits from these projects.” Historically, research on this topic has been limited. Professor Garrick assembled an international team with experts in key hotspots including China, India and Mexico, to review nearly 100 publications and establish a new global reallocation database. “The global figures represent the tip of the iceberg – a lower-bound estimate,” he said. “Our review shows that we are woefully underestimating the size and scale, as well as the costs and benefits, of rural-tourban water reallocation, due to major blind spots in the data, particularly where South America and Africa are concerned. These are the places where future water pressures are likely to be highest and our ability to track reallocation is most limited.” As a result, policies and investments are often made with limited evidence, say the researchers. Professor Garrick and his colleagues’ analysis offers a first step to identify both the threats and key ingredients for successful water reallocation projects, which could help identify ‘win-win’ situations for both rural and urban communities in the future. Contributing author Dr Lucia De Stefano, associate professor at Universidad Complutense de Madrid, added: “It is our hope that decision-makers can be better prepared to act on evidence, particularly before crises hit and the pressure for quick action can lead to rash decisions and avoidable risks.”

A leading producer of chlor-alkali products on the Indian market is benefitting from the improved efficiency of his chlor-alkali electrolysis by applying the new Lewatit MDS TP 208 as ion exchange resin from LANXESS. The finely dispersed polymer beads reduce the energy input effectively by preventing damage to the ion exchange membranes used for electrolysis and thus extending their lifespan. Consequently, this new generation of finely dispersed resins is being successfully introduced by LANXESS alongside the MonoPlus types. The chemical plant in the south of India has a production capacity of approximately 190 metric kilotons of caustic soda a year requiring a quantity of around 400 cubic meters of sodium chloride brine per hour. The brine used for electrolysis needs to be pre-treated to protect the electrolysis membranes from high levels of impurities. Left untreated, precipitations can harm the membranes, resulting in a less efficient process. The new Lewatit MDS TP 208 finely dispersed ion exchange resin is being used in one of three filters of one of the plant’s brine treatment lines to optimize brine purification. The resin reduces the hardness of the brine from an incoming level of 2 mg/l to below 10 µg/l (Ca2+, Mg2+). The chemical plant also has an effective process for removing barium and strontium levels to a concentration of below 100 µg/l. The use of the Lewatit MDS TP 208 chelate resin from LANXESS is delivering significant economic advantages for the plant operator, in particular in terms of significant energy cost savings. Further advantages include a longer lifetime for the membranes and the resin. For further information, please visit:

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Water Security: Where Is The Political Vision? by Warwick Lorenz, Managing Director, Australian Pump Industries The story is contributed by Warwick Lorenz, Managing Director of Australian Pump Industries. Lorenz is a veteran of the water industry having been drafted out of an advertising and journalist’s career at what was the old Tutt Bryant Group into managing its water pump manufacturing division, Pacific Pump. He has lived through the destruction of Australia’s industrial manufacturing sector, experienced the challenges of the “recession we had to have” and tasted the temporary delights of the Australian mining boom. He has worked with farmers, miners, the construction industry, defence, marine and food processing. Warwick is passionate about Australian manufacturing, agriculture and industry and is a long-time advocate for major water reform. By the time this story comes out, we will have elected a new government of one persuasion or the other. The major parties have presented their ideas on conservation, immigration, employment, education, defence and climate change. Despite the many ideas and platforms that have been floated throughout the campaign, I believe that all sides comprehensively failed to address one major issue. Indeed, it may be one of the most important major issues that we, as a nation are facing, namely: long-term water security. What’s more, I also believe there’s a fairly obvious reason for that, and it has something to do with 3-4 year political terms. 38

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Unfortunately, it appears that in spite of our creativity - and having the freedom to think anything we like – we have a real problem in imagining the future. We have 7.5 million square kilometres of territory inhabited by only 25 million people. We are the most arid continent on earth, and the most under-populated. We are also the wealthiest country in the world per capita, with the best lifestyle and the most freedom, and yet more often than not, we fail to think more than three years ahead when it comes to politics, the budget or even worse, the development of this wonderful country.

Population growth a reality As a race, we seem to have done okay over the past seventy years. No globally catastrophic wars, nuclear bombs have been kept locked up, and we’ve made tremendous progress in food production and medicine. As a consequence, the world’s population is aging, and growing fast. In fact, over the past seventy years, we’ve grown the global population by over 3 billion people. At the moment its about 7.6 billion - and we’re heading for 11 billion within 50 to 60 years!


That begs the question: How long do we Australians really think we can afford to keep vast tracks of Australia underpopulated and perhaps most importantly, massively under-productive?

The need for decentralisation Interestingly, despite Australia’s vast, largely underpopulated expanse, we are setting some great records in terms of urbanisation - the result of which is overpriced capital city real estate. Few would question that we need to decentralise our population. Take a trip through the Mid-West in the US and you’ll see the benefits of decentralisation on a massive scale. You’ll find great, rich cities like Chicago, St Louis, Omaha, Topeka, Ames, St Louis and more. They have built the most efficient agricultural production in the world. Why is it efficient? It’s all about scale. Why can’t we do it? They have water security and we don’t. Water is the answer and water security should be the major priority of every politician in the country, at any level. Water

security will enable us to spread and grow. We don’t all have to live within 40 kilometres of the coast and yet that’s what the greater majority of us are doing now.

Dams for our north Bradfield, the guy who built the Sydney Harbour Bridge, came up with a scheme in about 1934. His idea was to dam the northern monsoon rivers, and those on the coast of northern New South Wales and Queensland, and turn the water storage back into the inland where it’s needed. We’ve now had about 90 years to do that and even now politicians are talking about spending hundreds of millions of dollars on more studies. We need more committees and more studies like a hole in the head. The truth is, we allow disasters like the latest terrible drought in western Queensland, New South Wales and even Victoria to keep happening, and then we spend billions in recovery, only for it to happen again. As with previous droughts, that latest drought created havoc in many industries including dairy, cotton, cropping and livestock. As if the drought isn’t bad

enough, they always seem to be followed up with floods, which can be just as devastating. As an example, the recent Ross River flood in northern Queensland killed half a million beef cattle. Cattle which graziers had been struggling for years to keep alive through the drought.

The future for Australia Believing in Australia’s future is something we all have to comprehend. The rest of the world will not stop for us. The world will continue to change fast and the population will continue to increase. That will present tremendous challenges and opportunities for a vacant space like Australia! There is the same amount of water on the planet as there was 50 million years ago, so how come Australia can’t capture its share and use it efficiently for the good of mankind? Further information including copies of our documentation on the realities of drought proofing Australia are available from Australian Pump Industries

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



PRECAST INTEGRAL TO ROCKWALL SUCCESS PROJECT: West Beach Rock Wall LOCATION: West Beach, Adelaide, South Australia PRECASTER: Rocla CLIENT: City of Charles Sturt Council BUILDER: Lucas Total Contract Solutions ENGINEER: Kellogg Brown & Root


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019


Measuring 2000mm x 2800mm, the precast L-walls were locally supplied from National Precast member Rocla’s Edinburgh factory.

Australia’s coastlines are under threat. They are being eroded to the extent that receding shorelines are threatening seaside cities, suburbs and towns. With 85% of our population living within 50 kilometres from the coast and an increase in coastal development, the threat is real. Approximately 10 kilometres from the city of Adelaide, West Beach is experiencing extreme shoreline erosion, and it’s affecting the local community.

WEST BEACH COMMUNITY UNDER THREAT According to the City of Charles Sturt Operations Engineer Mark Chittleborough, environmental impact in recent years has damaged the structural integrity of the existing West Beach Coastal Seawall. The original Seawall was constructed in 1973, with the purpose of protecting nearby assets including car parks, the West Beach Surf Life Saving Club (WBSLSC), domestic properties, public amenities and tourist areas. Major storms in May 2015 and May 2016 prompted the question of whether the Seawall had reached the end of its useful life. Slumping in some areas, the existing Seawall was posing a threat to the safety of those using the area. Along with erosion of the Seawall, both sand management and the reinstatement of the Coast Path required attention.

Integral to the design is a series of precast L-walls manufactured by National Precast member Rocla. The L-walls measured 2000mm by 2800mm. Locally supplied from the precaster’s Edinburgh factory, the precast elements were selected to enhance the structural integrity of the design. A 50-year life has been implemented into the design of the Rock Wall, reflecting on the requirements in AS 4997-2005 Guidelines for the Design of Maritime Structures. Precast concrete was not only chosen for its longevity and strength, but also for its inherent mass to provide impact resistance against strong currents and storms. Unlike other materials, the council was confident that precast would withstand the chloride-induced corrosion from the aggressive marine environment. Cost and efficiency of construction were other considerations. Precast proved to be more cost competitive than an in-situ alternative, and its off-site manufacture and just-in-time delivery meant that erection and installation was efficient and simple. Mr Chittleborough says that once complete, the project will ensure that the rock wall will withstand significant storm events and projected sea level rise. “It will act as a barrier and protector for the Surf Club, the Coast Path, road, car park and homes along Seaview Road for the design life of the wall.”

PRECAST ADDS STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY To address the issues, council engaged engineers Kellogg Brown Root to design a rock wall that would improve the durability of the shoreline during severe storm events. This design has taken multiple factors into consideration, such as the surrounding amenities of the location, as well as the residents who live close by.

Once complete, the project will ensure that the rock wall will withstand significant storm events and projected sea level rise.

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E: Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019


International Symposium

Advances Corrosion Science Corrosion Engineering 24 - 25 July 2019 | Melbourne Marriott Hotel, Cnr Lonsdale & Exhibition Streets, Melbourne PROUDLY PRESENTED BY:


Overview of Event

Sponsorship Benefits

The Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) is holding an International Symposium to celebrate the significant contributions of the following ACA legends:


• Les Boulton • Bruce Hinton • Brian Kinsella • Brian Martin • Greg Moore • David Nicholas

Acknowledgement during the Opening and Closing Sessions. One complimentary registration at the event. The opportunity to display two company banners. One Trade Table – entitlements on the ACA website. A full page advertisement in the symposium book of proceedings, issued to each symposium delegate

Fifteen high calibre International and Australian speakers will each present a keynote of 45 minutes duration. A panel discussion and open forum will be held at the end of each day. Technical papers of high quality and substantive length will be available to delegates.

REGISTRATION – ONLINE Full Registration Includes: attendance at all sessions, morning/ afternoon tea, lunch and attendance at the social functions (including dinner on Wednesday evening) at the symposium. A hard copy book of the proceedings is included. Day Registration Includes: attendance at all sessions, morning/ afternoon tea, lunch and a hard copy book of proceedings. Day registrants are welcome to participate at the social functions on their day of registration, included in ticket price.

Registration Fees (inclusive of GST) Full Registration (includes book, social functions)


Day Registration (includes book, relevant social function)


Guest Dinner Ticket


(Dinner and Networking Drinks included in Full and Day Registrations)

Your company logo on the ACA event website and hyperlinked to your organisation’s website. Trade table opportunities are also available, check on the events tab via the ACA website.

ACCOMMODATION Located in the heart of the city, the 5 star Melbourne Marriott features exceptional facilities and services of a luxury hotel. To book your accommodation at the Melbourne Marriott for the symposium, please call their reservations department on 1800 331 118 and advise the hotel you are attending the symposium to receive the discounted rate for room and breakfast. Alternatively delegates are free to make their own alternative accommodation arrangements. For further information about this symposium please contact Annalee Gielb on +613 9890 4833 or email at

ACA Technical Events may be eligible for CPD Points.

To register visit the events tab at


Wednesday 24 July, 2019



8:20 – 8:50

Registration Day 1


8:50 – 9:00

Welcome and Seminar Opening

9.00 – 9:50

Alloy design for corrosion resistance

John Scully, University of Virginia (USA)

9:50 – 10:40

Corrosion of light metals: Status and in-situ analysis

Nick Birbilis, Australian National University (Canberra)

10:40 – 11:10

Morning Tea & Exhibition

Richard Reilly, ACA CEO Warren Green, Technical Committee

Topic 1 – Engineering Alloys | Chair: Bruce Hinton

Topic 2 – Corrosion Resistant Alloys | Chair: Les Boulton 11:10 – 12:00

Duplex Stainless Steels – The versatile alloys

Roger Francis, RF Materials (UK)

12:00 – 12:50

Facades to structures: Corrosion resistance and mechanical property developments in stainless steels

Graham Sussex, Nickel Institute/ASSDA (Aust)

12:50 – 13:40

Lunch & Exhibition Topic 3 – Corrosion Modelling & Prediction | Chair: Thunyaluk (Kod) Pojtanabuntoeng

13:40 – 14:30

Modelling of localised corrosion under atmospheric conditions in the presence of galvanic coupling

Rob Kelly, University of Virginia (USA)

14:30 – 15:20

Analysing the past to predict the future: Corrosion modelling and prediction

Aaron Sudholz, BAE Systems (Aust)

15:20 – 15:50

Afternoon Tea & Exhibition Topic 4 – Cathodic Protection | Chair: Brian Martin

15:50 – 16:40

On the mechanism of cathodic protection and its implications on criteria including AC and DC interference conditions

16:40 – 17:25

Panel Discussion & Open Forum | Chair: Technical Committee

Markus Buchler, Swiss Society for Corrosion Protection (Switzerland)

17:25 – 17:30

Day 1 Closing Remarks

17:30 – 19:00

Networking Cocktail Function & Exhibition

Anthony Somers, Technical Committee

19:30 – 23:30

Dinner | Awards Presentation to Boulton, Hinton, Kinsella, Martin, Moore & Nicholas

Day 2

Thursday 25 July, 2019



8:20 – 8:50

Registration Day 2

8:50 – 9:00

Welcome and Seminar Opening

Speaker Richard Reilly, ACA CEO Wayne Neill, Technical Committee

Topic 4 – Cathodic Protection (continued) | Chair: Brian Martin 9.00 – 9:50

The true meaning of cathodic protection measurements

9:50 – 10:40

Corrosion modelling for Oil & Gas applications

10:40 – 11:10

Morning Tea & Exhibition

Bruce Ackland, Bruce Ackland & Associates (Aust)

Topic 5 – Oil & Gas | Chair: Brian Kinsella Srdjan Nesic, Ohio University (USA)

Topic 5 – Oil & Gas (continued) 11:10 – 12:00

The Battle against Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Lessons learned and challenges for the Future

Laura Machuca, Curtin University (Aust)

12:00 – 12:50

Recent advances in investigating chemical inhibition of mild steel corrosion

Katerina Lepkova, Curtin University (Aust)

12:50 – 13:40

Lunch & Exhibition Topic 6 – Water & Wastewater | Chair: Greg Moore

13:40 – 14:30

Corrosion can be where you least expect it: Degradation of plastic pipes in the water industry

Graeme George, Queensland University of Technology (Aust)

14:30 – 15:20

Corrosion of cast iron water mains – Developing models for long-term prediction

Rob Melchers, University of Newcastle (Aust)

15:20 – 15:50

Afternoon Tea & Exhibition Topic 6 – Water & Wastewater (continued) | Chair: David Nicholas

15:50 – 16:40

Advances in condition assessment of Water Industry Assets

16:40 – 17:25

Panel Discussion & Open Forum | Chair: Technical Committee

17:25 – 17:30

Day 2 & Symposium Closing Remarks

17:30 – 19:00

Networking Farewell Cocktail Function

Paul Vince, WSP (Aust) Warren Green, Technical Committee

The ACA is a not-for-profit, membership Association which disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention or control, by providing training, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities.

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Corrosion of Stainless Steel in Aggressive Water Environments By R. Jeffrey, Pacific Testing; and L. Boulton, Les Boulton & Associates. First published and presented at the C&P2016 conference in Auckland, New Zealand. Republished in WWM Magazine with permission.

1. Introduction

Stainless steels have found increased applications in marine environments in many countries around the world over recent decades. Successful service provided by stainless steels, such as in desalination plants, has led to increased confidence in the suitability of the alloys for applications in aggressive aqueous environments such as seawater. This success has been accompanied by the increased knowledge of how design, fabrication and operational practices can achieve the best performance when using appropriate stainless steel grades for marine applications. Designers and engineering specifiers ideally require a good knowledge of the stainless steel grades available and the service capabilities of the chosen alloys in order to ensure the successful application of stainless steels. Knowledge of stainless steel fabrication practices and post-fabrication cleaning procedures for stainless steel are most important to avoid premature failure. Good industry practice for the successful use of stainless steels during service in aggressive waters, including seawater, is now more prevalent in the design of marine structures (1). However, situations are encountered, from time to time, where a grade of stainless steel has been incorrectly specified for water service conditions when the stainless steel is continually exposed to a corrosive salt water environment. Problems have also been experienced where poor design or use of an out of specification alloy has contributed to premature failure of stainless steel components in marine service. A case study of premature failure of the so-called ‘marine grade’ AISI Grade 316 stainless steel is discussed to illustrate how corrosion problems occurred using this grade of austenitic stainless steel.

2. Crevice Corrosion and Factors Influencing Crevice Corrosion 2.1 Crevice corrosion mechanism Crevice corrosion is a form of localised corrosion usually associated with a stagnant solution on the micro-environmental level (2, 3, 4). Such stagnant micro-environments tend to occur in crevices (fissures or shielded areas) such as those formed under gaskets, washers, insulation material, fastener heads, surface deposits, disbonded coatings, threads, lap joints and clamps. Crevice corrosion is initiated by changes in local chemistry within the fissure:

a) Depletion of a corrosion inhibitor in a crevice b) Depletion of oxygen in a crevice c) An increase in the acid conditions within a crevice d) Build-up of aggressive ionic species in a crevice, e.g. chlorides e) Development of differing potentials between active and passive stainless steel surfaces. As oxygen diffusion into the crevice is restricted, a differential aeration cell tends to be set up between crevice (microenvironment) and the external surface (bulk environment). The cathodic oxygen reduction reaction cannot be sustained in the crevice area, giving it an anodic character in the concentration cell. This imbalance can lead to the creation of highly corrosive micro environmental conditions in the crevice, conducive to further metal dissolution. This results in the formation of an acidic micro-environment from metal ion hydrolysis reactions, together with, in salt water, a high chloride ion concentration. All forms of differential and concentration cell corrosion on stainless steel can be very aggressive, and all result from environmental differences at the surface of the metal. Even the most benign atmospheric or immersed environments can become extremely aggressive. 2.2 Crevice Shape The geometry of the Stainless Steel (SS) crevice will influence its susceptibility to attack and the speed of progress (4). The narrower and deeper (relative to its width) a SS crevice, the worse corrosion attack will be. Metal to flexible plastic crevices tend to be narrower than rigid metal to metal gaps, so metal to plastic joints provide more aggressive crevices. 2.3 Environment The more aggressive the fluid outside the SS crevice, the more likely it is that the SS in the crevice will be attacked. If the electrical potential of the cathodic SS area outside the crevice is higher than the anodic SS area inside the crevice, then the anodic SS area in the fissure is more vulnerable to accelerated localised corrosion, because of a larger potential difference created on the SS surfaces. This is why crevice corrosion may be a more serious problem on SS fittings installed in a chlorinated salt water swimming pool, but crevice corrosion is not as serious on SS fittings in a chlorinated fresh water swimming pool.

Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



2.4 Temperature Once the Critical Crevice Temperature (CCT) is exceeded, then as with exceeding the Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT), higher temperatures mean corrosion on SS is more rapid. Based on the Arrhenius equation it can be expected that a 10° C rise in temperature can double the corrosion rate. At higher temperatures not only are SS crevices more likely to start corroding but, once corrosion initiates, the component will corrode faster. 2.5 Alloy corrosion resistance Using a more corrosion resistant SS produces less crevice corrosion attack (4, 5). For example, in seawater at ambient temperature, crevices will form on austenitic Grade 304 SS if there is less than a 0.9 mm gap, on Grade 316 SS if there is less than a 0.4 mm gap, and on Grade 904L SS (similar corrosion resistance to duplex grade 2205 SS) if there is less than a 0.15 mm gap. 2.6 Minimising the risk of crevice corrosion Good design, good fabrication and controlled operating practices will anticipate and help to minimise crevice corrosion on most of the SS grades. 2.7 Design to minimise corrosion It is good practice to design to minimise the presence of crevices in SS components and fittings for water immersion. If a crevice is a necessary part of a design, it is best practice to make the fissure as wide as possible to allow oxygen ingress into the fissure. Full penetration butt welds are best for joints in SS to minimise crevices. It is also good practice to seal lap joints in SS and to avoid gaps between SS pipes and SS fittings. 2.8 Pitting Resistance A factor that needs to be considered when choosing a SS grade for structures submerged in seawater is the Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREN). The theoretical PREN-value for austenitic SS is calculated using the following formula: PREN = %Cr + 3.3 x %Mo + 16 x%N (w/w) In general, the higher the PREN-value the more corrosion resistant the SS grade. Grades of SS with PREN-values above 40 are considered to be corrosion resistant when submerged in seawater. The PREN-value for Grade 316 SS is in a range from 2329, depending upon the Mo content in the 316 SS alloy. There is a likelihood that a structure fabricated from Grade 316 SS immersed in seawater during service may be subject to localised corrosion attack. The PREN value is only a guide. There are cases where

Figure 1: Stainless steel pool steps showing rust under cup nuts.


Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

Grade 316 SS has performed well when submerged in seawater If crevices are present in an immersed Grade 316 SS structure the likelihood of crevice corrosion occurring is higher. Due to the likelihood of localised corrosion occurring it is advisable not to employ grade 316 SS for seawater immersion. In the tidal zone or above, seawater grade it can give reasonable performance. However, using the generic name “marine grade” for Grade 316 SS is misleading since designers can inadvertently assume it is sufficient for the task in hand which can result in unexpected failures of the alloy due to localised corrosion if it is subjected to seawater immersion.

3. Case Study: Corrosion in a Swimming Pool 3.1 Observations Premature corrosion occurred on Grade 316 stainless steel fittings in a private swimming pool. The initial cause of concern was the stainless steel pool steps where corrosion was noticed on welds and cap nuts holding the step treads (Figures 1 and 2). Corrosion was also observed on the inlet suction port fitting, the water outlet fitting (Figure 3) and in the skimmer box. An underwater light fitting showed evidence of minor corrosion, however when the cover was removed rust staining was evident on both the cover plate and on the plastic light casing (Figure 4). At one end of the swimming pool a spa pool was installed. Stainless steel fittings in the spa pool, including lights and vents, all showed rust staining (Figure 5). The stainless steel fittings that exhibited the most corrosion were the aerator jet covers (Figure 6). The pool was heated by a solar unit on the roof of the house and the treated pool water at times reached 40° C. Originally, the water pipes feeding and leaving the solar heater were stainless steel but the pipes had corroded and had been replaced with plastic pipes. A lamp cover-plate, cap nuts from the pool steps and screws from the pool lamp were removed for analysis and further investigation. 3.2 Laboratory Examination of Components 3.2.1 Microscopic examination A stainless steel (SS) screw, removed from a pool light was examined under an optical microscope. The examination of the SS screw shank revealed that extensive localised corrosion had occurred. The hole on the cover-plate where the fastener passed through to hold the plate in place also showed signs of localised corrosion. The corrosion observed where the fastener entered the pool light cover plate and the face of the nut was consistent with crevice corrosion occurring on the components.

Figure 2: Corrosion on inner weld of stainless steel step.

Figure 3: Corrosion on inner edge of pool water outlet vent.


3.2.2 Material analysis The metal fittings in the lap pool and spa pool were specified as being Grade 316 SS. The lamp cover-plate, a cover-plate screw and a ladder cup nut were analysed for elemental composition in a laboratory using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). Table 1 gives the OES analysis results (element weight %) and the specification for the composition of AISI Grade 316 SS. As with all measurement there is some degree of uncertainty. The OES calculates its uncertainty from the standard deviation of a number of readings, the uncertainty of precision of the machine and calibration uncertainty resulting in a combined expanded uncertainty (95% confidence interval). A typical combined expanded uncertainty for Grade 316 SS is included with the results shown in Table 1.

an algicide. It should be noted that a report by the Urban Water Research Association of Australia, (6) suggests chloramines at levels in drinking water have no effect on stainless steel. Higher chloride levels may however make the chloramines more aggressive, similar to chlorine and increasing chloride levels. In order to ascertain if any of the chemicals used in the pool maintenance contained ammonia-based species an audit was undertaken of the chemical products added to treat the pool water. A list of pool additions and their active ingredients is given in Table 2. Another source of ammonia-based compounds, mostly in public swimming pools, is human perspiration and urine. It was assumed that the lap pool had insufficient use to consider this factor as a source of ammonia.

Table 1: Analysis of Pool Fittings

Table 2: Active components of pool water treatment


Ni %

Cr %

Mo %


Specification 316 SS

10.0 – 14.0

16.0 – 18.0

2.00 – 3.00

Cover plate




Cup Nut




Cover plate Screw




Combined Expanded Uncertainty




Mo slightly out of specification Mo slightly out of specification

The SS fittings analysed had close to the minimum, or below the minimum specification for the molybdenum (Mo) content of 316 SS. The correct Mo content is critical to provide the corrosion resistance expected of Grade 316 SS. Over recent years the composition of austenitic Grade 316 SS has tended toward the absolute minimum specification for Mo content and this is in part related to the high cost of molybdenum metal. The Mo content was at the bottom of the acceptable range. 3.2.3 Chemicals added to the Pool Water Chloramine, NH2Cl, forms by ammonia reacting with chlorine. Chloramine is very soluble in water and it can be used as a disinfectant in public swimming pools and water supplies. However, chloramine is known to increase the risk of corrosion occurring on stainless steels (2). The lap pool water was treated with a number of chemicals to maintain the correct water pH and chlorine level. The chlorine is added as a bacterial and viral disinfectant and as

Figure 4: Severe rust staining on stainless steel housing of pool light.

Pool Additive

Active Components

Pool Salt

Sea salt (sodium chloride)

Pool Acid

Hydrochloric acid

Balance Pak 100

Sodium hydrogen carbonate

Balance Pak 300

Calcium chloride

Salt Pool Sparkle

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate Sodium tetraborate pentahydrate

None of the pool water treatment chemicals contained ammoniabased compounds so it was unlikely that chloroamines had been formed to exacerbate corrosion on the Grade 316 SS fittings. However, the addition of sea salt (chlorides, Cl- ions) was of interest because chlorides can assist localised corrosion on Grade 316 SS if the SS fittings and other SS components are permanently immersed in salty pool water. In a salt water pool sodium chloride (NaCl) is added to facilitate electrolytically generate chlorine in the swimming pool and in the spa pool. Salt water pools typically have 3,000 to 5,000 mg/L chlorides added. 3.3 Discussion It was apparent that the premature corrosion on the swimming pool and spa pool Grade 316 SS fittings was due to crevice corrosion. Grade 316 SS is often called the ‘marine grade’ of stainless steel, but it is susceptible to crevice corrosion when immersed in salty water, particularly at temperatures greater than about 22° C. The Grade 316 SS used for the pool fittings contained very close to the minimum of the molybdenum composition which can diminish the corrosion resistance of the immersed fittings. Furthermore, the design of the pool steps with built-in crevices contributed to the initiation of crevice corrosion on the Grade 316 SS components.

Figure 5: Corrosion on stainless steel fittings in spa pool.

Figure 6: Corrosion on stainless steel spa pool aerator jet cover. Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019



3.4 Remediation A solution to the premature corrosion of the Grade 316 SS fittings was to extricate the pool fittings that could be unfastened and have the components electro-polished. The Grade 316 SS components that could not be removed from the pool needed to be thoroughly cleaned and well-polished in-situ with a water-resistant metal polishing agent to minimise future contact of the Grade 316 SS components with the pool and spa water. All crevices should then be sealed to prevent corrosion reoccurring unless they can be increased to be wider than the critical width (>0.4mm). In addition, the Grade 316 SS fittings in the pool need to be inspected regularly to ensure that crevice corrosion does not recur. Regular maintenance of the Grade 316 SS fittings is necessary to clean the 316 SS components and to remove any build-up of aggressive chemicals that might deposit in SS crevices.

4. Conclusions Although there have been successful applications of Grade 316 stainless steel in salty water and marine environments, the socalled “marine grade” 316 stainless steel has its limitations in aggressive service environments. It is preferred that austenitic Grade 316 stainless steel is not employed in full seawater immersion conditions due to the risk of localised corrosion occurring at joints and connections on marine structures where crevices exist.

In applications where a marine structure is likely to experience full or intermittent immersion in salty water it is best to choose a higher grade of stainless steel such as a super-austenitic grade or a super-duplex grade. The selection of the stainless steel grade is very dependent upon the expected service environment. If unusually aggressive water environments are anticipated during service due to the location of a marine structure it is advisable not to select ‘marine grade’ Grade 316 stainless steel.

5. References [1.] L. H. Boulton, Service Experience with Stainless Steels in Corrosive Waters, Proceedings of 18th International Corrosion Congress, Paper No. 115, Perth, Australia, 2011. [2.] J. W. Oldfield & B. Todd, Room Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steels in Indoor Swimming Pool Atmospheres, British Corrosion Journal, Volume 26, No.3, 1991. [3.] A. J. Sedriks, Corrosion of Stainless Steels, 2nd Ed., Ch. 5, John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA, 1996. [4.] L.H. Boulton & A. J. Betts, Crevice Corrosion – Causes, Cases and Control, British Corrosion Journal, Vol.26, 1991. [5.] R. W. Ross & A. H. Tuthill, Practical Guide to Using Marine Fasteners, Nickel Institute, Technical Series No 10045, 1990. [6.] Effects of Chloramination of Potable Water on the Performance of Materials, (1998), Report UWRAA 141, Urban Water Research Association of Australia.










Waste + Water Management Australia | May 2019

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Waste + Water Management Australia V45.6 May 2019  

Australia's premier water management, environment, sustainability and public health magazine.

Waste + Water Management Australia V45.6 May 2019  

Australia's premier water management, environment, sustainability and public health magazine.