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March 2019 Volume 45 Number 5

10 Cover Feature: Future Recycling



Innovative Solutions

20 Product Brief: Aussie Pumps 22 Equipment Feature


28 Fleet Maintenance 30 Focus on Water 34 Renewable Energy 38 Water Treatment


40 Product Focus 42 National Precast Feature 44 ACA Corrosion Feature 46 Special Report: Mike Haywood

Copyright ©2019 - EPC Media Group

Registered by Australia Post Publication No. 100001890

ISSN 1838-7098

About the Cover Constructed in partnership with Sustainability Victoria and the Victorian State Government as part of its Resource Recovery Infrastructure Fund, Future Recycling’s new $4.5 million Pakenham sorting and transfer station facility also stands as an ideal example of the benefits of good planning, foresight, and a focus on market-driven recycling. Turn to Page 10 for the full story.



Rethinking water management Is it time to start considering stormwater management on a national scale Dear Readers, Following yet another series of major tropical rainfall events, and the subsequent devastation faced by numerous cities, towns and regions across Australia - one could almost be forgiven for wondering if we are stuck in a 'Groundhog Day' style loop where we are condemned to a life of watching the same events and consequences play out time and again. Indeed, many areas of the country seem to barely have the opportunity to recover and rebuild from one major weather event, before they face the next devastating occurrence. This is particularly true when it comes to flooding. It's no small irony that the driest inhabited continent on earth should suffer so badly during major rainfall events. And that while great swathes of the country are submerged under floodwaters, much of our great continent remains arid and, in many aspects, massively underutilised and unproductive. Alarmingly, despite the fact that even in my relatively short lifetime, these major flooding events have occurred more times than I could possibly remember, we still seem to suffer the same extreme consequences. And the toll is horrendous - not only in financial terms (with costs often measured in hundreds of millions or even billions of dollars) but also in emotional and social terms. From massive stock losses – often involving stock which graziers have been 2

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struggling to feed due to drought - through to total devastation of homes, businesses and in some instances, entire towns or large CBD areas, as is the case with any major disaster, the true toll of a major flood is almost impossible to calculate. With that in mind, I believe that it’s time that we seriously start to consider stormwater management on a much larger scale – for instance, a state-wide or even national scale. Much of our great nation is sorely lacking in water for much of the year and as a result, is massively under-utilised and under-productive. At the same time, large areas are inundated by floodwaters with alarming regularity. What’s more, climate science provides clear evidence that extreme weather events will continue to occur with increasing regularity. Governments are stuck in a seemingly never-ending cycle of having to spend hundreds of millions of dollars repairing and rebuilding infrastructure after each of these major flood events, and it looks set to only get worse. Access to water is perhaps the single most important factor increasing the habitability and productivity of any area. I believe that the time has come for us to develop and implement a plan to capture and/or redirect and harness this stormwater to help 'open up' Australia's interior while at the same time, drought-proofing much of the country.

I’m well aware that this is an idea that has been floated in various guises for more than a century, mostly to be dismissed as either being too expensive, or for that matter, a pointless exercise for a country with a small population such as ours. However, our population, and the planet's population is growing at an extremely rapid rate. It's not only about having somewhere to live - everyone has to eat. This would be a 'Nation Building' project in every sense of the word, providing an opportunity to create a massive agricultural economy. Growth ONLY EVER comes from investment. This WILL cost many tens of billions of dollars. However, in a country with an annual welfare bill of more than $150 billion, the tens of thousands of jobs that this project would create (both during construction and ongoing), together with massive long-term economic benefits that a plan like this can deliver for generations to come – including for many remote indigenous communities - makes it an excellent investment. I firmly believe that the time has come to take a 'big picture' approach, and that this is a discussion that we need to have.

Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor


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Construction Commences on Australia's first WtE Facility Premier of Western Australia, the Honourable Mark McGowan MLA, and Federal Minister for the Environment, the Honourable Melissa Price MP, recently marked the commencement of construction of Australia’s first thermal waste-to-energy facility at a sod turning ceremony on the facility’s site at Kwinana. The facility, named Avertas Energy, will contribute to landfill reduction by processing 400,000 tonnes of waste, equivalent to one quarter of Perth’s post-recycling rubbish. Diverting this waste from landfill will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by more than 400,000 tonnes per year, equivalent to taking 85,000 cars off Perth’s roads. In addition, Avertas Energy will generate and export 36MW of green electricity to the local grid per year, sufficient to power more than 50,000 households. Scheduled to open in 2021, Avertas Energy already has 20-year waste supply agreements in place with Rivers Regional Council and the City of Kwinana, playing a role in supporting those local governments’ waste management strategies. As the preferred supplier of baseload renewable energy, Avertas Energy will also be supporting the green energy needs of the Western Australia Local Government Association (WALGA) and its members. Although new to Australia, thermal waste-to-energy has a long track record internationally. Avertas Energy is implementing moving grate technology which is used in approximately 2,000 facilities globally. In other countries, waste-to-energy is part of an overall solution for reducing landfill in conjunction with avoiding waste production, recycling and reuse. Waste managed by Avertas Energy will result in recovery of metallic materials that will be recycled and by-products that will be reused as construction materials. More than 800 jobs will be created over the course of the construction period and more than 60 new full-time positions once the facility is operating. Acciona, which has been appointed to build the facility, has begun engaging with local sub-contractors about opportunities during construction. Postconstruction, Veolia ANZ will operate and maintain the facility for 25 years. 4

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Premier of Western Australia, the Honourable Mark McGowan MLA, said: “Western Australia is at the forefront of new technologies for the management of waste and the reliable generation of new sources of energy. Pressure on landfill is a concern for communities around the world and Western Australia is taking a leadership position in Australia by embracing new methods and technologies that can sit alongside other strategies for managing waste over the long term.” Federal Minister for the Environment, the Honourable Melissa Price MP said: “This project means waste that would otherwise go to landfill is converted to energy, reducing carbon dioxide emissions and improving the stability of the grid. It also avoids more harmful methane emissions that add to our overall greenhouse gas emissions, and the Federal Government was pleased to support this project with a $23 million grant and up to $90 million in debt finance.” Frank Smith, CEO of Avertas Energy, said: “This facility represents a significant opportunity to reduce pressure on landfill capacity and create a new and reliable source of green power. We are proud to be supporting Western Australia to achieve its waste management and green energy goals, and we are committed to engaging with local communities throughout construction and once the facility is operating.” Bede Noonan, Managing Director at Acciona Geotech, said: “We are excited to be building the first thermal waste-toenergy facility in Australia, and proud to be continuing our work in WA. We anticipate this project will contribute to the development of specialist skills in the Western Australian construction industry, creating local opportunities for subcontractors.”

PepsiCo ANZ partners with REDcycle to convert chip packets in to furniture, bollards, signage and more PepsiCo ANZ has partnered with REDcycle to encourage consumers to recycle their chip packets. REDcycle processing partner, Replas, converts soft plastics in to a range of sturdy products – from fitness circuits, outdoor furniture, bollards and signage. Consumers can drop off their chip packets and other soft plastics at participating supermarkets across Australia knowing that they will be used to produce a huge range of recycled products. PepsiCo ANZ has made a commitment to purchase recycled-plastic products annually and will donate these to parks, public places and schools. Janine Cannell, PepsiCo ANZ Environment Manager said, “We are so pleased to be working with REDcycle, this is a great opportunity for us to recover what would otherwise go to landfill and use the recycled materials to better the communities we operate in.” REDcycle Director, Liz Kasell, commented, “We are delighted to have PepsiCo as REDcycle partners, and we look forward to seeing what we can create together using recycled materials.” PepsiCo is focused on delivering sustainable long-term growth while leaving a positive imprint on society and the environment – it is a global principle called Performance with Purpose. One of PepsiCo’s global Performance with Purpose goals is to strive to achieve zero waste to landfill in direct operations through efficient and responsible waste management by 2025. PepsiCo’s partnership with REDcycle complements their current strategy to design out waste by minimising the amount of materials used in packaging and to help build a circular economy by promoting recycling.


Converting soft plastics and toner into ‘TonerPlas’ asphalt additive Recycling innovator Close the Loop recently unveiled an upgraded manufacturing facility that could divert two-thirds of Australia’s 300,000 tonnes of waste soft plastics sent to local landfill annually. The new manufacturing line in Melbourne produces TonerPlas - an asphalt additive that contains the equivalent of 530,000 recycled plastic bags, toner from more than 12,000 recycled cartridges and 168,000 glass bottles in every kilometre of two-lane road. In conjunction with Downer, roads featuring TonerPlas have already been laid in Melbourne and Sydney.

Close the Loop Chairman Craig Devlin said the opening of the line coincides with National Recycling Week and will enable the company to produce the additive on a commercial scale. “Close the Loop has been at the forefront of the circular economy for more than 17 years. Our goal of zero waste to landfill has seen us partner with manufacturers through take-back programs across multiple sectors including printer cartridges, cosmetics and batteries. “TonerPlas is a great example of how valuable materials can be recycled to not just create new products, but better-quality products. The addition of TonerPlas improves the fatigue life of traditional asphalt by 65 percent, meaning longer lasting roads at a cost-competitive price. It also offers superior resistance to deformation over standard conventional asphalt for withstanding heavy vehicular traffic.” “At full capacity our new manufacturing line provides us with the ability to produce enough TonerPlas in a year to pave a twolane road from Sydney to Melbourne. That would contain the equivalent of 530,000,000

recycled plastic bags, 168,000,000 recycled glass bottles and 12,000,000 recycled toner cartridges. That’s more than 200,000 tonnes of soft plastics that currently go to landfill in Australia.” He added that policy changes in China had highlighted the importance of a local recycling industry and improved energy use across the design, use and reuse of products – a circular economy. “Our new manufacturing capacity to reuse soft plastics and toner into TonerPlas is a great example of what local companies can do. However, Australia needs to coordinate and invest in infrastructure to build a viable recycling industry and divert problematic waste streams from landfill. Banning plastic bags is a start, but it doesn’t solve the challenge, especially as plastic bags account for less than five percent of all waste soft plastics,” he said. Waste soft plastics can be dropped off at RedCycle collection points. Used printer cartridges can be recycled at over 4,000 public locations. Please visit:


Bringing the circular economy to home construction sites South Australian company Pre-Cycle is helping to bring the Circular Economy to construction sites, recycling and repurposing off cuts from new home construction sites, saving construction companies waste removal bills and keeping unused building materials from ending up in landfill. Joe Golotta began the Adelaide business 18 months ago after witnessing the need to reduce waste as the owner of Premier Insulation for over 30 years. “It all started when one of my builders basically said ‘I’m sick and tired of all your insulation waste filling my bins’,” said Golotta. “For the cost of $400-500 dollars to empty a bin it was costing them a fortune because they would have to empty a bin just for my insulation. So they came to me and asked ‘can you do anything about it?’” Golotta’s response was to start PreCycle, which charges the builder a small fee to take the usable excess waste from a home construction site after each of the six stages of construction, and then gives the collected off cuts to other companies that are able to repurpose or recycle them. Golotta has modelled this circular economy initiative into a profitable exercise that suits both builders and the environment. “What opened my eyes is that we did this one trial for a major builder, we brought 6

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all the waste from this building back to our warehouse, everything,” said Golotta. “You had to see it to believe it. I looked at this waste and thought ‘this is just one house’ and we build 10,000-12,000 homes a year in this state.” “For one who rarely gets excited, it has excited me about what we can achieve in this industry on the recycling side of it.” The construction and demolition industry produces more than 31 per cent of Australia’s waste, sending 7.1 megatons of waste to landfills each year. Golotta said the construction industry can only benefit from Pre-Cycle’s business model. “80 per cent of what we take from the building site doesn’t go to landfill and gets reused in some way,” said Golotta. “We go once a stage of construction has been completed, the builder leaves the excess in one pile and we take it away. There’s no sorting, in our system that’s not required so you’re saving a ton on energy. As far as we’re concerned its green all the way around.” “The site stays spotless, you won’t even find a nail on the ground. It becomes very work safe oriented, it’s a win-win for everything,” he added. Pre-Cycle makes a profit whilst saving builders money as they move on excess building waste for less than the standard cost of a six cubic-metre bin.

A typical house construction can fill six large bins, costing up to $3,000. Golotta said he can reduce this waste to one bin and charge a third less, saving the construction company thousands of dollars and 30m3 from landfill. The South Australian government, which released a report last year predicting a circular economy could create more than 25,000 jobs by 2030, has studied Pre-Cycle’s model but has yet to release its findings. “With their backing, it gives us a bit more ammunition to get out there and promote it,” said Golotta. “They’re all very excited, everyone that has been involved, they’re just blown away at how simple this process is and how effective it is at such a low budget and low cost.” “We’ve been authenticated and authorized. We’ve been really looked at through a microscope and have come out of it smelling roses, so it gives us a lot of confidence and strength.” Golotta plans to spin Pre-Cycle off from Premier Insulation as a stand-alone business. “For an old dinosaur like me, who never thought about this type of thing and generally was thinking about retirement, let alone starting up a new branch of my business, it has sort of given me a new lease on life,” he added.


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Overflow of household rubbish leads to black market bin sales in the UK Households across the UK are turning to desperate measures to dispose of their waste - including turning to theft to stash their rubbish. Research from a UK waste management agency,, has shown that households, struggling with collection times and space in their normal household bins, are turning to extreme measures in order to ditch their rubbish. Many local authorities have seen drastic cuts to their budget in recent years, meaning that services such as refuse collection have been slashed - and households are bearing the brunt. However, rubbish collections are one area where citizens are prepared to pay the price for improvements. A Sky Data poll showed 8

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that 54% of Britons would prefer that their council tax went towards more frequent bin collections than the legal minimum, suggesting that cuts have been keenly felt in this area - and that the mounting waste pile is a big issue for Britons. Looking for space to store their waste, some households are resorting to buying extra waste bins via online retailers such as Amazon. Jen, 37, from Nottingham, laughed: “With three kids, we get through a lot of rubbish. Collections every fortnight mean we end up with bin bags piling up outside and I worry about rats or foxes being tempted into our garden. We bought a second bin online and none of the bin men have ever complained, so it’s solved my problems!”

While this might seem like an easy fix, some Britons have gone one step further - with some people reporting that keen-eyed teens are seeing the chance to make a quick profit off desperate households. Jamie 38 from Leeds admitted: “When some local kids offered to sell me a ‘spare’ bin for twenty quid, I didn’t think twice. I needed the space and where they got it from isn’t really my problem. I’ve seen people Facebook groups selling them so loads of people must be doing it.” While this might seem like a bargain, with brand new bins costing between £50 and £150, it seems some of these wannabe entrepreneurs are simply turning to theft to make some cash, stealing bins from other homes in the areas, including empty houses and those whose residents are on holiday. Of course, thrifty Britons might like to avoid bin-related issues altogether - and save themselves some cash. Mark Hall, spokesperson, commented: “While it could be tempting for households to ‘acquire’ another bin, by legitimate - or otherwise - means, there’s plenty that can be done to reduce the load in their main rubbish bin. Ensuring proper recycling can often see a dramatic reduction in the waste going to their main rubbish bin - which goes to landfill instead of being re-used - and, once it’s part of your routine, it takes no time at all.” “Just recycling your cardboard and plastics - which is now simple and accommodated by councils across the UK - can reduce your main bin loads by up to 60%, meaning that you’re not struggling when it comes to fortnightly collections.” Of course, avoiding rubbish piling up in your garden isn’t the only goal. “While it will benefit households to recycle more, because they won’t find themselves struggling for space, it is also a much wider issue,” Hall added. “Not only will it help local authorities, who struggle with high landfill fees and penalties for poor recycling rates, meaning you can help avoid further cuts to services, it is also an environmental issue.” “Every single piece of rubbish that goes to recycling rather than landfill, particularly plastics, has a cumulative effect that can help slow the damaging effects of rampant waste disposal. We can make an enormous difference by making tiny changes to our routine - it’s time we actually made those changes,” he said.

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hile there can be no doubting the major challenges currently facing the Australian recycling and resource recovery industry – including significant reductions in commodities prices and the challenges of China’s Green Sword policy - Melbournebased recycling specialists Future Recycling are continuing to go from strength-to-strength. Indeed, in what has become the latest chapter in this recycling success story, Future Recycling recently opened a new multi-milliondollar transfer station facility in Pakenham in Melbourne’s outer south-east.

“We firmly believe, like any market or any commodity, recycling must always be, first and foremost, a marketdriven operation. There is simply no point in considering any other way.”

Constructed in partnership with Sustainability Victoria and the Victorian State Government as part of the $35 million Resource Recovery Infrastructure Fund, the $4.5 million Pakenham sorting and transfer station facility not only marks a major milestone in Future Recycling’s expansion, it also stands as an ideal example of the benefits of good planning, foresight, and a focus on market-driven recycling. “Our focus has always been on delivering high quality materials streams that meet market demands,” said Future Recycling’s Managing Director, Tyrone Landsman. “While it’s clear that China’s Green Sword policy presents a number of additional challenges - especially in terms of banned imports – when it comes to contamination in product streams, our targets and results have always been well inside the required levels.” “We firmly believe, like any market or any commodity, recycling must always be, first and foremost, a market-driven operation. There is simply no point in considering any other way,” Tyrone Landsman said. “Recycling for recycling’s sake doesn’t make economic sense or environmental sense.”

“If you are going to go to the trouble of sourcing, separating and transporting recyclable materials, you need to be sure that there is: a) a market for the products; and b) that the separated product streams are of high enough quality to make them a practical, usable - and therefore valuable – commodity. Otherwise you’re just going to end up with stockpiles of worthless product streams that will either need to be resorted or disposed of,” he said. “For us, it’s always been a matter of adding value,” he added. “After all, the cleaner the sorted product, the higher its value. It just made sense to us that we should try and maximise the value of the sorted products.”

NEW PAKENHAM SORTING & TRANSFER FACILITY Officially opened during March by Jordan Crugnale MP, Member for Bass, the new Pakenham sorting and transfer facility has been specifically designed with a focus on maximising resource recovery and recycling. In her opening speech Ms Crugnale stated, ‘The Resource Recovery Infrastructure Fund program has awarded $15.1 million to support 47 projects so far. Our government will continue

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



Top: (L-R) Cr Graeme Moore, Mayor Cardinia Shire Council; Jordan Crugnale MP, Member for Bass; and Mr Tyrone Landsman, Managing Director, Future Recycling officially open the new facility. Left: Jordan Crugnale MP, Member for Bass learning how clean concrete and brick material is separated in preparation for road base rock crushing at the inert processing plant. Below: Jordan Crugnale MP, Member for Bass addresses invited guests to the official opening of the new Future Recycling Transfer Station at Pakenham.

backing businesses like Future Recycling to improve the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recycled materials across Victoria.’ As well as representing a total redevelopment of the old site which was purchased by Future Recycling in 2016, the $4.5 million investment in the Pakenham facility includes the latest waste management equipment such as Sennebogen machinery, as well as a brand new, computerised public weighbridge, which records the volume and type of waste, along with the client’s details. Victorian Environment Minister Lily D’Ambrosio, who was unable to attend the launch, released this statement, ‘The Andrews Labor Government’s investment in state-of-the-art resource recovery centres such as this is not only good for the environment, it’s helping to support local jobs and industry. The new facility is boosting the local community’s recycling levels and reducing the amount of waste that goes to landfill. This grant means the best recycling technology is available right here in Pakenham.’ 12

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as possible from waste streams to avoid landfill. We also want to ensure that we are generating high quality recyclables streams that meet market expectations.” The site will be supported by bin hire, metal recycling, scrap metal and other resource recovery services. The traffic flow in the site is well-planned as all deliveries are directed by waste-stream to aid recovery and ensure efficiency. “We always strive to provide a comprehensive service that is tailored to our customers’ needs, while at the same time, ensuring that we’re safe and innovative in our approach,” he said. “We are really proud of our new transfer station, and we thank Sustainability Victoria and the State Government for working with us on this project,” he added. The transfer station will provide the local community and businesses with a better option for disposing of their waste and has also created ten full-time jobs with more in the pipeline as the business expands. While the facility will initially process around 15,000 tonnes of material per annum, it has been designed to cater for up to 100,000 t/pa, with the future addition of a walking floor in the receival pit and a TransPak compactor.


The site accepts a wide range of materials, including builders’ waste, general waste, green waste and recyclables such as cardboard, car batteries and metals including white goods and electronics, and is open to the general public, councils and contractors. The material is sorted manually to recover the maximum reusable and recyclable content, while also minimising contamination within the individual recyclable product streams. According to Future Recycling, this will enable them to divert at least 70% of the waste delivered to the site, away from landfill. Tyrone Landsman explained, “Our aim is to extract as much recyclable material

One thing that has remained a hallmark of Future Recycling’s operations from its earliest days in Shepparton in regional Victoria (when it was known as Future Metals) is the company’s focus on quality and innovation – its willingness to explore, develop and invest in new technologies and methodologies to meet the needs of an ever-changing recyclables market. Needless to say, this ‘forward thinking’ approach to recycling, and indeed to business in general, has played a significant role in the company’s continued success and growth, even in the face of challenges such as China’s Green Sword legislation. Tyrone Landsman explained: “Our industry is constantly changing. With the introduction of the Green Sword policy which banned the import of 25 recyclable products to China, Future Recycling saw this as an opportunity to be part of a local, circular economy.”


“With the copper component sorted, we’re also now working on finding a home for the recovered PVC Plastic from the cable, which will enable us to recycle all of the electrical cable,” he added.


“Rather than simply ‘giving up’ on products that could no longer be exported to China, we set out to find new and innovative ways to process those products into value-added materials streams for which there is an alternate market,” he said. “With that in mind, in 2017 we purchased and installed a Copper Granulator to process PVC Electrical Cable that was included on China’s banned imports list.” “Thanks to this equipment, the copper can now be sold directly into smelters in Australia and overseas,” he said. Scrap and offcut PVC cable from various sources (including manufacturers, contractors and material collected through the Transfer Station) is taken to Future Recycling’s Dandenong facility for processing. The Copper Granulator uses a number of processes to remove and separate the insulation and casing materials from the copper, leaving an extremely clean, high value material ready for recycling.

From its humble beginnings in 2008 as Future Metals – a scrap metal recycling company based in Shepparton in northcentral Victoria - Future Recycling has grown to become a leader in resource recovery and recycling in Victoria, with clients ranging from Mums and Dads, Tradies, Contractors, Small to Medium Size Business, Large Commercial Clients and Local Government. Every year Future Recycling diverts over 200,000 tonnes of product from Landfill Sites across Victoria by utilising a modern fleet of 30 collection vehicles, across 4 Sites operated by 70 personnel. The Future Recycling business includes the Future Recycling Transfer Station in Pakenham, Future Recycling Metals in Dandenong, Hallam and Shepparton, and Future Recycling Bin Hire. Not surprisingly, the company’s strengths lie within its focus on safety, service, innovation and environmental responsibility. All Future Recycling business divisions are accredited and certified ISO9001 Quality, AS/NZS4801 Safety and ISO14001 Environmental Standards. In addition, Future Recycling is also currently the only Australian Waste Management company to be Certified Carbon Neutral. Future Recycling Metals is a professional and modern metal recycling business. It has become an industry leader in scrap metal recycling - providing safe, efficient and environmentally sustainable metal recycling of all ferrous and non-ferrous metals. Future Recycling Metals also provides a complete metal collection service. Future Recycling Bin Hire has gained an enviable reputation as an efficient, professional and reliable company for skip bin hire and rubbish removal. Future Recycling Bin Hire provides daily deliveries and pick-ups of skip bins ranging in size from 4m³ to 23m³ across Melbourne’s outer south-east and surrounding areas.

For further information about these Future Recycling businesses, please visit:

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



QUALITY MACHINERY DELIVERS QUALITY RESULTS Not surprisingly, Future Recycling’s focus on quality is also evident in the equipment and machinery being used at each of the company’s facilities, including its fleet of specialist Sennebogen materials handling equipment. “We’ve always believed that if you want to do a job well, you have to be willing to invest in the best people and the best equipment,” Tyrone Landsman explained. “When it comes to selecting the equipment for a business such as ours, ensuring that it’s ‘fit for purpose’, both in terms of safety, operability and its ability to withstand the extremely harsh operating environments is critical.” “Large-scale recycling – especially metals recycling - is specialised work, and it needs specialised, purpose-designed and built equipment to do it properly and, perhaps most importantly, safely.” With that in mind, as part of the equipment assessment process, Tyrone and his team first looked at what equipment was being used at similar sites both in Australia and internationally. The team looked at how these were performing, and then assessed a short-list of available equipment to determine what would be best suited to each of their sites. “Not surprisingly, with so many waste and recycling facilities around the world 14

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using Sennebogen equipment, it was clear to us from the first look, that the Sennebogen material handlers would also be able to provide us with the ideal solution to meet our needs,” Tyrone said. Supplied exclusively in Australia by Pacific Materials Handling, Sennebogen has been leading the way in materials handling equipment for over 65 years. From their humble beginnings designing and manufacturing agricultural lifting equipment in Straubing, Germany, in the early 1950s, and their move into specialist material handling equipment in the 1960s, Sennebogen has grown to become the equipment of choice for many waste and recycling companies around the globe. Renowned for their innovative features, robust, versatile performance and highquality build, Sennebogen equipment is probably best known for its innovative ‘elevating cab’ design which provides the operator with an elevated view over the work area – improving visibility, safety, accuracy and productivity. Future Recycling has a range of Sennebogen equipment at each of its sites, including a 355E Multi-Handler and 818M Mobile Material Handler fitted with a waste sorting grab at the new Pakenham Waste Transfer and Recycling facility, and one of Sennebogen’s flagship 830M 36-tonne

Materials Handling Machines (fitted with an Orange Peel Grab) at the Dandenong metal recycling site. “We’re very happy with our Sennebogen machines,” Tyrone said. “They’re high quality, purpose-designed machines that are robust and extremely reliable, and the operators love the elevated cab position. It makes picking up and placing the materials significantly easier.” “Importantly, the service that we get from Byron Judd and his team at Pacific Materials Handling is also excellent. We’ve been dealing with them now for a number of years, and whether it’s supplying machines and accessories, servicing, parts or after sales service, they’ve always been extremely friendly, helpful and efficient,” he added.

Since 1986 Pacific Materials Handling have successfully provided quality and globally renowned capital equipment to customers throughout Australia on a sales or rental basis with the emphasis on being able to provide excellent service support.

Sennebogen has been offering the largest range of purpose built material handling machines since 1952. Sennebogen offer material handling machines suitable for the waste industry ranging from 20t to 60t, with a maximum reach up to 20m. Suitable in a variety of waste applications: paper, wood, commercial and household waste, tyres, scrap and demolition waste.

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The growing problem of e-waste recycling: Where to go for Australian businesses? Australia’s unquenchable thirst for new technology is matched to its growing volume of electronic waste (e-waste). According to the Global E-waste Monitor published by the United Nations University, current estimates suggest the world’s population is on track to generate 60 million tonnes of e-waste by 2021. A considerable portion of this is business IT equipment, made up of computers, laptops, printers and multifunctional devices.

Where will all this product go? Like many other nations, Australia is grappling with the challenge of preventing the unsafe disposal of e-waste, and increasing the volume of e-waste recovery and recycling. Australia’s National Waste Policy was founded on the provision of a coherent and environmentally accountable approach towards waste management. A key pillar of this is the Product Stewardship Act 2011, under which the National Television and Computer Recycling Scheme (NTCRS) 16

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was launched, seeking to mitigate the environmental impact of electrical products. In seven short years, more than 1,800 collection services have been made available and in excess of 230,000 tonnes of TV and computer e-waste has been collected and recycled. This is more than the weight of Melbourne’s iconic Eureka Tower standing 91 floors above the city at an impressive 301 metres. Over this time, more than 90% of materials recovered under the Scheme have been recycled. TechCollect is Australia’s only notfor-profit Co-regulatory Arrangement operating under the NTCRS. Governed by the Australia and New Zealand Recycling Platform (ANZRP), their approach is to ensure Australians have access to convenient, secure and responsible e-waste recycling. Key to this is their recycling partner network operating to the highest grade with strict adherence to the standards of collection, storage, transport and treatment of collected e-waste.

ANZRP CEO Warren Overton says the program is supported by their members whom represent some of the largest and most influential global IT and electronics manufacturers. “With the support of the likes of HP, Dell, Toshiba, Microsoft and Canon, ANZRP-TechCollect is well placed to capture end-of-life electronics. In six years, our dedicated channel has recycled over 130,000 tonnes of e-waste.”

Doing the right thing As pressure mounts on organisations to reduce waste and maximise reuse and recycling opportunities, facility managers need to remain diligent with their efforts to ‘go green’. As a 21st century phenomenon, the effective management of e-waste is pivotal. In addition to the growing importance of upholding a strong corporate social responsibility reputation, sending e-waste to landfill will soon be a legal offence in Victoria, as the state-wide e-waste ban comes into effect on 1 July 2019.


By working strategically and in collaboration with third party organisations like ANZRP, companies can easily map out a path for e-waste management that is economically viable and environmentally sustainable.

A problem requiring multiple solutions: managing your e-waste responsibility No ‘silver-bullet’ exists to help you achieve a smart, sustainable and efficient approach towards your organisation’s e-waste recycling. Here are some suggestions you might consider: • Develop an e-waste strategy: Help avoid the unwanted build-up of stock by identifying the problem (possibly through an e-waste audit) and putting forward a workable plan to address your site’s requirements. By identifying the potential waste stream, you can make sure you are prepared to manage it appropriately.

• Make life easy: Focus on implementing a solution that makes it easy for people to embrace responsible recycling. Adopting the KISS principle, ensure processes are simple to follow, receptacles are easily identifiable, and communication is kept clear and concise. • Select reputable recycling partners: Protect your brand. Always ensure strict standards for downstream vendor processing and materials traceability are adhered to. This should include, at a minimum, compliance to the Australian standard for e-waste recycling (AS/NZS 5377:2013) as well as HSE legislation. • Clearly define the scope: To gain the benefits of a well delivered program, it is recommended users are familiar with inclusions and limitations of the service. Clear communication and appropriate collection systems are vital. • ‘Clean the decks’: Work with your team to create specific campaigns helping collect and recycle e-waste. One such example is the implementation of a ‘Clean the decks’ initiative - a one-off collection drive to help facilitate the responsible handling of e-waste and educate staff. • Call TechCollect: ANZRP-TechCollect is happy to provide assistance in the development of effective e-waste management and communications campaigns to support better e-waste recycling services.

What about the data? Research undertaken by ANZRPTechCollect revealed that personal data is a key concern amongst Australians, with 64 per cent stating they don’t recycle e-waste over fears information contained on the hard drives of their electrical devices may fall into the wrong hands. It’s understandable to be concerned about risk surrounding data security. Deleting files from a computer’s disk drive or reformatting does not ‘physically’ overwrite data. Options available include ‘wiping’ data with specifically designed software packages, or utilising an external data destruction service, deploying a combination of software and physical data destruction processes. A comprehensive guide about data deletion/destruction can be found at:

You can take steps towards a Circular Economy You have probably heard a lot of late about the ‘circular economy’ and the importance of moving away from our current linear ‘take-make-dispose’ approach. Responsible management of e-waste is an excellent example of what we can do now to recover valuable commodities from end-of-life equipment and return it to our manufacturing industry. For more information, please visit:

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



Technology achieves full nitrogen removal in less than two hours The Oro Loma Sanitary District in San Lorenzo, CA in the USA, has partnered with Microvi Biotech, Inc. and WesTech Engineering, Inc. to showcase a large-scale demonstration of the Microvi MNE™ solution for Oro Loma’s wastewater treatment plant. The demonstration’s primary objective was to tackle increased nitrogen discharge limits that are expected to be implemented over the next decade in the San Francisco Bay Area. The district is using the demonstration to proactively evaluate cost-effective, innovative technologies to meet these projected effluent limits, possibly as low as <6 mg/L total nitrogen (TN). Installed in April 2018, results from the demonstration show that the combined nitrification-denitrification process can achieve effluent levels consistently below 3 mg/L and even as low as 1 mg/L TN from influent ammonia (NH3) concentrations as high as 45 mg/L. These results occur with a retention time of under two hours, and little to no biosolids are produced. This result is unprecedented, compared to available technologies for nitrification. The next phase of the Oro Loma demonstration will focus on side-stream treatment of ammonia concentrations as high as 500 mg/L. “Microvi’s technology is compelling because it allows us to meet potential future nitrogen limits while making the most of our existing treatment facilities at Oro Loma. In the Bay Area, treatment requirements are expected to tighten, and many plants have no room to expand. We need to find solutions to make existing facilities meet our future needs,” said Jason Warner, General Manager of Oro Loma. “We are excited to partner with Microvi and WesTech to implement innovative technologies to help improve the quality of the water in the San Francisco Bay.” Microvi MNE is the next generation biological process for water and wastewater treatment. The solution combines groundbreaking Microvi technology with proven WesTech process equipment for a costeffective approach to biological treatment. This demonstration is a single pass system that requires minimal operation time and maintenance, while eliminating the need for biosolids treatment and disposal. Customized integrations of the process for various applications have provided consistent BOD/COD removal, nitrification and denitrification. The process has a significantly smaller footprint, minimal biosolids production, reduced pumping requirements, and reduced energy costs. The solution is operatorfriendly, stable, robust, and can be used in existing infrastructure. The Microvi technology uses novel biocatalytic composites (biocatalysts) that intensify biological processes, while maintaining a controlled population of targeted microorganisms at a much higher density than existing technologies. Despite the complexity of the MNE biocatalysts themselves, the design and operation of the systems are simple. Microvi’s technologies have been implemented in the U.S., Australia and the U.K. for drinking water, municipal wastewater, and industrial applications.


Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019

Partnership key to improving soil health

Soil health in South Australia is getting a boost thanks to a partnership between Australian Vermiculture, the country’s largest worm casting producer, and South Australian leader in rural services, Platinum Agricultural Services. With a focus on soil, plant health and sustainability, Australian Vermiculture was founded from humble beginnings in the NSW town of Broken Hill. Founder, Brendon Price notes, “For something like soil biology, that has so long been conveyed as so complex, our solution has been simple, the humble worm.” Trials, research and development work in the early 2000’s was conducted in the Millewa region, west of Mildura, VIC. The farming conditions are incredibly harsh and yet, where Australian Vermiculture products were used, the plants thrived and success saw fertilisers being replaced completely in many broadacre cereal and legume programs. Mr Price attributes this success “to the replacement of endemic microorganisms that symbiotically live with plants feeding off the exudates in roots and in return feeding nutrients directly to the plants.” This exciting partnership will initially see over two thousand tonnes of Australian Vermiculture’s pelletised worm castings acquired for Platinum Agricultural Services’ clients. They will cover a range of crops from fruit & vegetables to cereal crops and pastures. Australian Vermiculture’s, Technical Consultant, Xavier Smith, said he believed the synergies in the partnership will support the development of growers understanding of biological farming practices whilst allowing them to work specifically with local farmers to improve the benefits in soil regeneration as well as the end produce. “As we move forward, we will begin to pin point exactly what the specific functions these microorganisms are having on our soils as well as in our end produce,” Mr Smith said. “It has been well known for a long time the efficacy of using vermiculture based products in home gardens, but to develop and be able to commercially provide a product that positively affects soil health and regularly improves yield, has the potential to be a game changer in the agricultural and horticultural sectors.” “We’ve only scratched the surface uncovering the benefits of using vermiculture products in farming systems,” he said. “We know it increases yield and increases consistent nutrient uptake, for example, Phosphorous. We also know that having biologically balanced soil minimises risks of soil-borne diseases like Pythium,” Mr Smith added. “Securing this partnership and working alongside a leader in the industry, with a network of Agronomic specialists, allows us to continue to unlock the benefits of vermiculture in farming and we look forward to seeing further positive results for Platinum Agricultural Services’ clients.” General Manager of Platinum Agricultural Services, Peter Cook, says, “Our existing relationship with AV, has enabled us to market this product exclusively for Platinum Agriculture Services’ clients.” “We are excited about the product, given the market testing through a number of trials with SA-based growers has consistently produced an increase in yield. The potential of increased production and healthier soils for growers across a broad range of crops is something we are very interested in,” Mr Cook concluded.

Metal invention strips impurities from wastewater It may look like a simple piece of alfoil, but when added to wastewater this high-tech strip of iron can remove impurities like dyes and heavy metals in just minutes. Researchers at Edith Cowan University have found a way to modify the internal structure of iron-based alloy to develop a new type of crystalline alloy capable of stripping contaminants like heavy metals, dyes and other organic pollutants from wastewater. Lead Researcher Associate Professor Laichang Zhang from ECU’s School of Engineering said the technology could have significant applications in the textile and mining industries. “Mining and textile production produces huge amounts of wastewater that is contaminated with heavy metals and dyes,” he said.

Cost effective “We can produce enough crystalline alloy to treat one tonne of wastewater for just $15. Additionally, we can reuse the crystalline alloy up to five times while still maintaining its effectiveness,” Professor Zhang added. This offers significant advantages to the traditional method of treating wastewater using commercial iron powder. “Firstly, using iron powder leaves you with a large amount of iron sludge that must be stored. Secondly it is expensive to produce and can only be used once,” Professor Zhang said.

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When added to wastewater the high-tech strip can remove impurities like dyes and heavy metals in just minutes.

Reordering structure Professor Zhang said the crystalline alloy was based on his previous work developing metallic glasses. “Whereas metallic glasses have a disordered atomic structure, the crystalline alloy we have developed has a more ordered atomic structure,” he said. “We produced the crystalline alloy by heating metallic glass in a specific way. “This modifies the structure, allowing the electrons in the crystalline alloy to move more freely, thereby improving its ability to bind with dye molecules or heavy metals leaving behind usable water.” Professor Zhang said he was now working with partners in industry to further improve the efficiency and reduce the cost of producing the crystalline alloy. The research ‘Compelling Rejuvenated Catalytic Performance in Metallic Glasses’ was published late last year in Advanced Materials. A video of the crystalline alloys removing dye from wastewater is available at: watch?v=c1nyVtmmlas&

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Titanium Submersible Solution Australian Pump has an innovative solution for handling corrosive wastewater spilt during transfer at sewage collection stations. Originally designed for marine applications, Tsurumi titanium submersible pumps are being successfully installed in the containment sumps. Sydney Water’s sewage collection station at Douglas Park, south west of Sydney, is emptied by tanker on a daily basis. The large spill containment pad ensures any corrosive sewage leaked during the transfer is collected in the sump pit. Ferric chloride is added to sewage in the holding tank for odour control. As a result, the collection pit needs a pump that can handle corrosive liquids. Sydney Water is now specifying Tsurumi TM series titanium submersible pumps for the drainage sump. Tsurumi’s TM series are particularly suitable for applications where corrosion is an issue. The stator housing is titanium whilst the pump casing, stand and motor cap components are all manufactured from FRP resin moulded material. Although the range was originally designed for seawater it has proved to be ideal for highly corrosive chemical applications in food and chemical plants. The pumps are compact in design and are available in single or three phase motor drive. They range from pumps capable of 240 lpm flow right up to 350 lpm. Heads vary from 9 m to 15m. The pump used in the Douglas Park station sump pit is a Tsurumi 50TM2.4S single phase submersible with flows to 290 lpm and a max head of 12m. The TM series feature a vortex impeller made from glass-fibre reinforced resin. An anti-wicking cable gland prevents water incursion due to capillary wicking should the power cable be damaged or the end submerged. A dual silicon carbide mechanical seal is protected in an oil chamber so neither seal face contacts the pumped liquid. This eliminates abrasion and facilitates cooling and lubrication of the seal faces. The oil chamber incorporates a patented oil lifter that ensures lubrication even if the oil level in the chamber drops. This increases the time between routine pump maintenance.

Barry Cook, Sydney Water, installs a TM series titanium pump at the sewage collection station at Douglas Park to handle the sewage spills during transfer to collection tankers.

Combined, these features result in lifecycle costs that are significantly lower than the industry standard. Tsurumi Pump supports their confidence in the product with a three-year warranty. The TM series are also available with floats for automatic operation. The float height can be pre-set and the automatic pumps offer a low-cost control solution. Installation is simple as there is no external control panel or additional wiring required. Further information - including a free comprehensive guide on the complete range of Tsurumi pumps - is available from Australian Pump Industries, t: 02 8865 3500 or visit:

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Available in a choice of two sizes, the Clean Cube uses solar powered compaction to hold up to eight times more waste than a standard bin, while its smart technology monitors the fill level in real time, notifying operational staff when the bin needs to be emptied. And thanks to the fact that the Clean Cube uses either a standard 120 or 240 litre wheelie bin, emptying the bins is quick and easy, with no heavy carrying or lifting required. The Clean Cube also looks like no other bin! With solar-powered backlit ad panels and LCD screens, the Clean Cube can provide audio and video community messages or advertising opportunities. It can even be set up as a WiFi Hot Spot.

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Safety first

Superior pak sets a new benchmark in front loader and side loader safety As is the case with the operation of any large vehicle or piece of equipment, operating a front loader or side loader collection vehicle presents a number of safety risks – especially for people in the immediate vicinity of the vehicle and/or bin. While the greater majority of front loader and side loader operators are extremely well trained in all aspects of vehicles’ operation and safety procedures, the size of the vehicles and the nature of the task at hand, means that even with the best designed vehicles and most highly trained operators, there is a risk that the operator may not see a person walk into the path of the bin, grab or lifting arms during the lifting cycle. With front loader vehicles, the major issue is that there is a time during both the upward and downward section of the bin lift cycle, where the driver’s view is obscured by the bin passing in front of the windscreen. For side loader vehicles, the main issue stems from someone passing into the path of the bin lifter or grab arm once the lift cycle has commenced. The other major challenge facing all collection vehicle operators is that there’s a lot going on during the bin lift cycle, and a lot to keep an eye on – both in terms of screens and mirrors, and the surrounding environment


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– for numerous (often hundreds) of bin lifts per shift, in all manner of ambient light and traffic conditions. The harsh truth is, it only takes a fraction of a second - a mere a moment of inattentiveness on behalf of someone outside the vehicle - for a serious accident to occur, and the consequences can be extreme… or even fatal. With that in mind, Superior Pak has worked with its customers to develop number of ground-breaking safety systems to help minimise the risk of injuries to anyone in the vicinity of the vehicle during the bin lift cycle.

Significant Boost To Front Loader Safety At the forefront of Superior Pak’s new hightech Front Loader safety systems, is new high-tech pedestrian protection system. Designed and developed by Superior Pak, the patented Front Loader Pedestrian Detection System eliminates the issues associated with someone moving into the path of the bin or lifting arms during the lifting cycle. The system uses two high-tech sensors in two detection zones to establishes a 3D ‘Bin Lift Zone’ during the lifting cycle. It detects all objects in zone, and in the event that a person

or object moves into the zone while it is active, the system will sound an alarm and bring the bin lift cycle to an immediate stop. The operation can only be recommenced once the driver acknowledges the alarm and checks that the Bin Lift Zone is clear. All alarm events and acknowledgements are logged and recorded within the on-board control to assist with monitoring and reporting. In keeping with its ‘holistic’ approach to safety, Superior Pak has also placed an emphasis on making the operator’s job easier, which in turn, makes it easier for them to focus on the surroundings. This has been achieved by automating and simplifying the bin lift and tip cycle. Rather than requiring the operator to activate separate controls to lift, angle, tip and return the bin during the bin lift cycle, Superior Pak’s new Front Loader Auto Bin Lift and Tip System significantly reduces the complexity of the lift cycle for the operator by automating a number of functions. As well as helping to improve consistency and efficiency across all collections and routes, the Auto Bin Lift and Tip System helps to improve safety – by enabling the operator to focus more on their surroundings rather than focusing solely on bin lift and tip operations.


Safety for Front Loader operators has also been further enhanced through Superior Pak’s new Wireless Bin Lift System, which has been specifically designed for situations where the operator has to get out of the vehicle to move a bin out from an inaccessible position. Rather than having to get back into the truck to access the in-cab controls, the operator is able to stand outside the vehicle and operate the bin lifter with the wireless remote control.

Side Loader Pedestrian Detection System With Side loader vehicles primarily used for domestic bin collection, they are generally operating alongside footpaths, which comes with a high risk of pedestrians entering the operation zone while the bin is being emptied and being injured during the bin lowering phase.

To address this risk, Superior Pak has developed a system which creates a detection zone around the bin lifter and grab arm during the bin lift cycle. Known as the Side Loader Pedestrian/ Object Detection System, this patented system utilises a small, high-performance radar sensor originally designed for use in heavy-duty applications such as construction and mining to create a ‘Bin Lift Zone’ measuring 1000mm wide x 2000mm deep. Chosen for its ability to detect multiple stationary and moving objects of various characteristics simultaneously, the rugged sensor is also fully-sealed (to meet IP69K standards) and is able to withstand shocks, vibrations and the severest of weather conditions.

When a hazard is detected during the bin lifting operation (after the bin has reached a height of 1400mm), an alarm will sound, and the operation will be stopped. The driver must acknowledge the alarm and confirm that the Bin Lift Zone is clear before the operation can be completed. As with the patented Front Loader Pedestrian Detection System, all alarm events and acknowledgements are logged and recorded within the on-board control to assist with monitoring and reporting. In addition to these systems, Superior Pak also offers a range of OEM / after-market safety equipment and options across both its Front Loader and Side Loader ranges, including: • Single View 360° CCTV System • Reversing Sensor Systems with Automated Emergency Braking • Complex CCTV and Digital Recording Systems • NMI Certified Payload Weighing Systems For further information, please visit:


Toyota forklifts leading hydrogen charge Toyota Material Handling Australia (TMHA) has put the first Toyota hydrogen fuel cell-powered forklifts outside of Japan into action at its Australia's parts centre located at its former manufacturing plant at Altona, Victoria. The zero CO² emission Toyota hydrogen fuel cell (FC) forklift demonstration is an extension of Toyota's simultaneous trial for its Mirai fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV), which share the same hydrogen-powered technology. The Toyota hydrogen FC forklifts - with a nominal rating of 2,500kg lift capacity - take pressurised hydrogen which is fed into a fuel cell stack, where it is combined with oxygen to create a chemical reaction that produces electricity to drive various motors depending on demand for motive power or hydraulic power for steering, braking or lifting loads.

Toyota hydrogen fuel cell (FC) forklifts will be especially suitable for logistic and warehouse operations given they can be conveniently refuelled in just a few minutes, offering obvious productivity efficiencies. Toyota Material Handling Australia General Manager - Corporate Compliance and Project Development, Bob Walmsley, said the hydrogen FC forklifts take around three minutes to fill the hydrogen tank compared with around eight hours to recharge a conventional battery. “This means we can use these forklifts more often, without having to wait long between charges or use second-shift batteries to achieve the same utilisation,” Mr Walmsley said. TMHA president and CEO, Steve Takacs, said the Toyota hydrogen FC forklifts are another example of the synergies available

to Toyota Material Handling Australia from Toyota's automotive arm. “We at TMHA are committed to constantly developing new and better technologies that raise the bar in terms of safety, performance, efficiency and sustainability, which will ultimately benefit our customers.” “These hydrogen FC forklifts are a clear demonstration of our commitment to the environment through the adoption of new and sustainable technologies. They have excellent environmental credentials as they do not emit CO² or substances of concern (SOCs) during operation. The Toyota hydrogen FC forklifts and Mirai are not currently for sale in Australia mainly due to a lack of hydrogen refuelling infrastructure.

Specialist crusher buckets deliver for the foundry sector The metallurgical sector, and foundries in particular, are moving to the forefront when it comes to protecting the environment and the impact of their waste stream on the ecosystem. We are talking about millions of tonnes of special waste which need to be disposed of every year involving significant resources and huge costs. Managing waste disposal is an expensive business: especially for foundries. Companies both large and small have to deal with the high cost of storage, transport, screening and crushing at their facilities, as well as the cost of disposal. Operating in five continents, MB Crusher has listened to several entrepreneurs and has realised they all prioritise the same objective: to reduce disposal costs. Not surprisingly, MB's response reflects its own corporate mission: turning waste into advantage. Since 2001, the year when the first Crusher Bucket was patented, MB Crusher has been working alongside many companies enabling them to exploit what they have in order to generate income, reclaiming and reusing in complete autonomy. And according to MB, there’s no need to go anywhere. The foundry is the place where you find the means to achieve cost reductions, reduce waste and increase earnings. MB's Crusher Buckets and Screening Buckets have been engineered to make the most of foundry resources, but addressing 24

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019

the waste streams, and recovering valuable resources at the site. Wherever waste from cast iron, steel, light metals and nonferrous metals is produced, as well as slag and foundry soil from non-reusable moulds and cores, MB Crusher Buckets manage the complete recycling cycle directly on site, even within the plant itself. The handy compact models of the MB range have been specially designed to fit closed or small environments. With experience in thousands of plants around the world, MB Research & Development objectives are clear: to develop a range of versatile, on-site solutions that are both reliable and easy to use. The Crusher Buckets and Screening Buckets are installed directly and quickly on the heavy equipment, like any other attachments. Casting waste, fine castings, metal sprues and all other types of slag are crushed and screened, allowing them to be immediately reintegrated in the production cycle. In this way waste immediately becomes a reusable and saleable An MB-LS170 screening bucket in action, sorting ferrous-waste by size prior to reprocessing.

commodity, without the need for additional transport and/or off-site processing. Importantly, the data from facilities with MB crushing and screening equipment is clear: it is possible to recover and reuse more than 85% of the waste material and obtain, from this cost, a productive, economic and environmental advantage. With MB Crusher Buckets and Screening Buckets, work is managed in the plant with times and methods that are most profitable for the company, even taking advantage of the blast furnace's break times. The screening buckets can process huge quantities of material, quickly sorting it for different re-uses and providing quality material streams which, depending on the type of materials recovered, can either be reused in the production process, or used for other purposes such as construction and road works. Reducing disposal and replacing virgin materials with recycled resources is a true win-win for both the businesses and the environment.



Where full size performance meets compact manoeuvrability

When it comes to waste and recyclables collection services, ensuring that you have the right equipment for the job is critical. This is particularly true in areas with limited access, including cul-de-sacs, laneways, narrow suburban streets and small rural roads which can severely limit access or practical operation of a full-sized collection vehicle. Interestingly, where limited access for large collection vehicles was once an issue predominantly associated with the CBD’s and inner-city suburbs of large cities, the narrow, winding streets and cul-de-sacs which are now often a feature of new urban developments, also present a significant access challenge for waste collection vehicles. Indeed, in many new residential or mixed-use developments, residents and businesses are left with no other choice than to walk their bins to the end of the street or laneway so they can be collected. Not surprisingly, the issue of large vehicle access is not limited to major cities, suburbs or regional centres - it also presents a major challenge for thousands of rural and remote communities across Australia. Daniel McHugh, Managing Director with Australian waste collection and compaction equipment specialists Garwood International, explained: “Access for waste collection vehicles is a major issue for many rural and remote communities across Australia. Narrow, often winding roads - many of which are heavily treed or are dead-ends that require the truck to turn around to make its way out – are a major challenge. Indeed, in many instances, the roads are so narrow that it’s simply not possible to get a full-size collection vehicle in or out,” he said. 26

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Unfortunately, for many small regional communities, the challenge of selecting an appropriate collection vehicle is further compounded by their extremely remote location in relation to transfer or disposal facilities. “For remote communities, selecting an appropriate vehicle is really a question of balancing truck size and collection capacity,” Daniel said. “For many of these communities, a return trip to the nearest transfer station or landfill to empty the truck can involve several hours of driving and/or several hundred kilometres, so they need to be sure the vehicle has the collection capacity to make the service viable.” “With that in mind, when it came to developing our GII LITTERPACT range of side-loaders, we had our focus squarely on balancing accessibility, collection capacity and operability,” he added. Not surprisingly, since its launch, the Garwood GII LITTERPACT range has proven to be extremely popular with inner-city, urban and remote councils and collection contractors alike, with numerous units now operating across the country – including in some of Australia’s most remote communities. Available with a choice of 6, 8, 10,12 or 15m3 body capacity on either a 4x2 or 6x2 chassis, the Garwood GII LITTERPACT delivers the ideal combination of compact manoeuvrability and collection capacity, with features and performance normally only associated with much larger vehicles. The GII LITTERPACT is also available in either DualSteer ‘step out to load’ or Right-Hand Steer ‘automated’ configurations. The ‘automated’ Right-Hand Steer configuration not only

simplifies operation in areas where there are small clusters of collections separated by significant distances (where under NHVR rules the driver would have to change back over to the right-hand driving position as they are not engaged in collecting bins), it also provides a significant reduction in the cost of the vehicle. Adding dual-steer capability to a vehicle is a complex and costly exercise. The GII LITTERPACT’s ‘automated’ option incorporates an array of cameras – including a camera mounted on the lifting arm – that allows the operator to line up and pick up suitably positioned bins safely and accurately from the right-hand driver position. For situations where the driver has to manually move the bins into position near the lifter, the ‘automated’ option also incorporates a cabled remote control that allows the lifter to be operated from the lefthand side of the vehicle. Suitable for bins with capacities ranging from 80 to 360 litres, the GII LITTERPACT units are supplied as standard with an ejector/ compaction blade, featuring a rapid packing cycle that doesn’t delay lifts. The control system disables the lifting arm operation during the packing cycle, thereby preventing material being deposited on the wrong side of the packing blade. For added safety and litter control, the units are also fitted with an automatic hopper cover which lifts and lowers with the lifting arm. An optional hydraulic sliding hopper cover is available for units in areas with limited overhead operating space. The GII LITTERPACT is also available with an optional tipper body with a pendulum packer. For further information, please visit:


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Safety First

Titan’s ‘total tyre & wheel solutions’ approach helps to maximise safety When it comes to the safe operation of vehicles and equipment, the design, performance and condition of tyres, wheels and undercarriage components is of paramount importance. Indeed, for the majority of vehicles and equipment, any type of failure with the tyre, wheel or undercarriage will, more often than not, bring it to a stand-still. While few would argue that nonfunctioning equipment and vehicles can be inconvenient and expensive, problems caused by tyre and wheel failures can also represent a major safety risk for operators, site workers and road users alike. In short, whether it’s a car, truck or large piece of equipment travelling on the road network, or wheeled or tracked construction, mining or agricultural equipment, good quality wheels and tracks which are fit for purpose, well maintained and in good condition, provide the stability and control required to minimise the risk of accidents and incidents. Failures – especially at highway speeds or in situations where traction is critical – can, quite literally, spell disaster.


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Alarmingly, despite the fact that they provide the critical interface between the equipment and the ground, for many equipment owners and operators, wheel and tracks tend to only get the bare minimum of attention – that is, until something goes wrong. Unfortunately, by then, it’s too late! With that in mind, leading tyre, wheel and undercarriage specialists Titan Australia have developed a ‘Total Tyre & Wheel Solutions’ approach to inspection, supply, fitting and maintenance. Titan Australia Chief Operating Office, Adam Oakenful, explained: “Poorly maintained, excessively worn or poor quality tyres, wheels or undercarriage can spell disaster on the roads and on the worksite.” “Together with obvious risks posed by a lack of tread, and the dangers faced if a tyre blows-out or shreds at speed, poor quality or badly maintained tyres or tracks on the worksite also present a significant OH&S hazard – both to the operator and others working in the vicinity.” “Unfortunately, despite their critical importance, tyres and tracks often get little more than a brief visual inspection - if that -

and in many cases are barely given a second thought… until something goes wrong!” “With that in mind, we focus on working with our customers to streamline the entire supply, fitting, maintenance and monitoring process,” he said. “As well as providing our customers with high quality tyres, wheels and undercarriage components that are specifically designed and manufactured for the job at hand, we also work with them to develop inspection and maintenance schedules that monitor for wear and tear or damage – and where necessary, carry out repairs or provide replacements,” Adam Oakenful added. Perhaps most importantly, Titan’s ‘Total Tyre & Wheel Solutions’ can not only help to reduce maintenance costs – by streamlining processes, reducing the risk of significant downtime and costs associated with major tyre and track failures, and offering a range of high quality, certified repair and refurbishment services – it can also play a significant role in improving OH&S. By reducing the risk of major failures caused by excessive wear or undiscovered damage, Titan’s ‘proactive’ active approach to tyre, wheel and undercarriage maintenance helps boost safety and productivity. For further information on Titan’s full range of products and services, call:1300 791 672 or visit:

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Identifying probable outcomes of unconventional gas production on water resources Unconventional gas production – such as coal seam gas and shale gas - is a highly contentious issue, with concerns that groundwater contamination could be among many possible issues. However, just because something is possible does not mean it is probable; and it is quantifying the probability of impacts on water resources that presents an interesting and important scientific challenge. Researchers have identified very low chances of problems with groundwater contamination due to fracking, but a very high likelihood of some kind of incident at the surface where unconventional gas is produced - although they recognise that the severity of the consequences of contamination at the surface as opposed to what happens in the aquifer could be quite different. The research team of Dr Margaret Shanafield, Professor Peter Cook and Professor Craig Simmons at Adelaide’s Flinders University conducted this study – Towards Quantifying the Likelihood of Water Resource Impacts from Unconventional Gas Development to quantify the likelihood of surface water and groundwater contamination, and shallow aquifer depletion from unconventional gas developments. Results show that spills at the surface can and do happen everywhere that gas production from unconventional reservoirs occur, and that production processes require human vigilance for the prevention and mitigation. The researchers note that more attention is needed to bring the probability of surface spills down. The researchers believe the likelihood of something bad happening underground is much lower than the general public may tend to believe, having examined a wide range of possibilities. However, they warn that this risk will be quite variable, depending on how deep the gas is and what the geology between that gas and the potable water above it looks like. “To minimize this risk we must use appropriate well construction technology, really understand our geology (faults and fractures and permeability), and monitor extensively,” explains Dr Shanafield. “It is 30

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extremely difficult to understand exactly what is going to happen at depths of several kilometres, and there will likely be some areas where risks are too high to proceed. “Each site and system really does need to be considered on a case by case basis.” This research compiled several hundred global scientific comparisons – from Australia, North America and Europe between the likelihood of impacts to surface and groundwater sources from producing shale gas, tight gas, and coal seam gas. “Our work synthesises global literature and fundamental scientific understanding to quantify the probability of impacts on water resources occurring,” explains Professor Simmons. Introducing gas production from unconventional reservoirs has led to widespread environmental concerns, amplified by difficult public access to trustworthy data on the likelihood of adverse impacts to their community.

Dr Shanafield says the new report provides an important step forward in presenting quantifiable scientific information, but she recognises that communities still have broad issues surrounding possible unconventional gas production that need to be addressed. “This is not just about science. We should not underestimate the socio-economic impacts on communities, even if no contamination occurs,” Dr Shanafield says. “These are outside the scope of our work, but gaining a social license to operate is profoundly important. “The likelihoods presented in our research provide a starting point for comparing the probabilities of adverse impacts between types of water resources and pathways, rather than just articulating possible impacts in qualitative terms. This quantitative scientific understanding is critical for ensuring a well-informed, evidence-based discussion and debate.”


Farm dams good place to cut carbon emissions A Deakin University study quantifying the greenhouse gas emissions from farm dams shows they are a significant contributor to man-made climate change, but emissions could be cut in half with targeted changes to farming practices. The study, which was published late last year in Global Change Biology, sampled agricultural dams from regional Victoria and found that when combined they produce the same daily emissions as 385,000 extra cars on the state’s roads. Lead author Quinn Ollivier, a PhD candidate in Deakin’s Blue Carbon Lab, said while his study found farm dams had one of the highest emissions per square metre of all freshwater ecosystems, they were not currently accounted for in any greenhouse budgets. “We found that nutrient management in farming areas would result in a major reduction in C0²-equivalent emissions, so this is an enormous opportunity for government to work with landholders,” Mr Ollivier said. “Landholders may be able to reduce emissions by something as simple as re-plantation of native plants along dam edges, this could help to reduce the nutrients entering the dam and therefore the greenhouse gases coming out. “Our results showed that emission rates were linked with dissolved nitrate concentrations, and were significantly higher in livestock rearing farm dams when compared to cropping farm dams.

“We estimate that by reducing nitrate nutrient levels by 25 per cent – through activities like minimising excess fertilisation and containing animal effluent – we may be able to reduce the emissions of some farm dams by up to half.” Freshwater ecosystems, like farm dams play a major role in global carbon cycling through the breakdown of organic material and release of greenhouse gases. “Put simply, the freshwater in farm dams creates a unique environment for microbes, and when all these little microbes munch on the plant and animal matter coming into the dams they breath out potent greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide,” Mr Ollivier said. “Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from lakes, wetlands, reservoirs and small natural ponds, have been well studied, however the emissions of highly abundant, small-scale agricultural dams have until now remained unknown. “When it comes to farm dams, I think their small size has helped them stay under the radar both figuratively and literally. “Global satellite networks have only made it possible to correctly assess the distribution of farm dams in the last decade. In satellite images farm dams closely resemble a kind of chicken pox across the entirety of agricultural Australia.” As part of his study, Mr Ollivier measured 77 small agricultural dams within the Corangamite catchment area between Ballarat and Geelong.

“By extrapolating this data to the whole of Victoria we can estimate farm dams produce greenhouse gas emissions more than three times higher than state-wide reservoir emissions in spite of farm dams covering less area,” Mr Ollivier said. In Victoria there are 375,000 farm dams, with a combined volume 1.5 times the Sydney Harbour. “While our data was gathered in Victoria, this is certainly a nationally-relevant issue and likely a global one too,” Mr Ollivier said. His paper was recently shared with the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in Rome, and Mr Ollivier hopes the next step will see countries around the world pay closer attention to the emission impact of agricultural dams. “Previous estimates have put the global emissions of large freshwater reservoirs, such as for hydroelectricity and water storage, at around 7 per cent of all global human produced emissions, and our study suggests that farm dams may be emitting three times more carbon into the atmosphere than reservoirs,” Mr Ollivier said. “Not considering farm dams would therefore have a significant effect on country and region-specific carbon emission estimates, and is particularly applicable to Australia as we have a large agricultural industry.” This research was funded and carried out in collaboration with the Corangamite Catchment Management Authority.

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



New alloy to solve lead problem in drinking water Material scientists at the University of NSW (UNSW) have come up with a lead-free brass alloy to replace traditional plumbing brass materials that have been shown to leach lead into drinking water. The breakthrough alloy, which the group has named ‘bright brass’, has been designed to retain all the advantages that lead provides to brass for its manufacturing but without the toxicity. Dr Kevin Laws from the UNSW School of Materials Science and Engineering says he and his research group in 2014 had developed a ‘high-entropy’ alloy system very similar to brass and bronze. And with the growing concern about lead from brass fittings dissolving in household drinking water, the researchers turned their attention to creating a lead-free brass alloy. “Developing a viable alternative to standard plumbing fixtures and hardware became a high priority, particularly when it became known how widespread lead contamination in NSW drinking water is – with reports that 56 per cent of households in NSW are contaminated,” Dr Laws said. “Not only is this an issue for Australian health but also the nation’s IQ as lead has an impact on intelligence.” A 2016 Macquarie University study that tested samples of drinking water extrapolated that 56 per cent of Australian households have drinking water containing lead, while 8 per cent exceeded the limit of 10 micrograms per litre set in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines. Low level lead poisoning has been associated with reductions in IQ, poor attention spans and aggressive behaviour among children. The UNSW researchers, who created a company called Advanced Alloy Holdings to commercialise its alloy system, needed to find a replacement for lead in brass fittings without losing its main advantages. Up until now, lead has played an important role in how brass plumbing parts are manufactured. “The lead forms tiny globules, like oil in water, which can be seen under the microscope,” Dr Laws said. “These globules provide lubrication, just like lead in leaded petrol, which helps with ‘free machining’ and associated manufacturing processes, as well as helping the brass to seal once in service.” 32

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With a view to developing lead-free brass with similar lubricating particles, Advanced Alloy Holdings was provided with a $15,000 Techvoucher Grant from the NSW Government’s Boosting Business Innovation Program to conduct a research project with UNSW. Dr Warren McKenzie, CEO of Advanced Alloy Holdings, said the project was a working success. “Within a few months, the UNSW team delivered an alloy which can be made by existing manufacturers to solve a water contamination problem that has affected Australians for more than a century,” Dr McKenzie said. The key to the discovery was that the new particles to replace lead – still under wraps by the team while the final products are being developed – meet all these criteria. “This project has been successful achieving a proof-of-concept thanks to the support of the Boost program,” Dr Laws said. “We have successfully cast bright brass that includes safe, lubricating particles that form as the alloy cools down after casting. Our new alloys are silver in colour to allow for better identification for these lead-free applications. They are cost-competitive and perform mechanically similarly, if not better, than leaded brass.” NSW Deputy Premier and Minister for Small Business John Barilaro said the project was an example of how the NSW Government’s $18 million Boosting Business Innovation Program was bringing great business and academic minds together to create new products and ideas. “It’s all about entrepreneurs tapping into top-notch research provided by the university sector,” Mr Barilaro said. “As a government we want to be doing everything we can to create the right environment for people to have the confidence to launch a business idea, and then get the support they need to make sure it succeeds. “I look forward to seeing the potential contribution this product could make to improving the lives of people living in NSW,” he said. Dr Laws says the last stage of the project is to complete machining and manufacturing trials to see exactly how much better they perform. He says that such is the extent of the leaded brass in Australian plumbing

systems, that change to safer components will be a long and slow process. “There is no legislation in Australia which bans the use of lead in brass fittings, with standards allowing up to 4.5 per cent lead content in brass alloys used in plumbing, while the US and Canada limit its composition to 0.25 per cent, some 18 times smaller,” Dr Laws said. “The solution is not just replacing taps, but the entire aging plumbing network leading to your home. New legislation will only prevent extra lead being added to the network or as town-water infrastructure is upgraded to lead-free.” Dr Laws thinks the bright brass products may be available in a year once the R&D process is complete. Already, the company has been approached by others who are watching the lead-free plumbing space with interest.

Engineering contractor SEE Civil installing the giant SPEL Stormceptor system as part of new drainage works at Gold Coast Airport.

Gold Coast airport installs massive stormwater interceptor tank Another step in the expansion of Gold Coast Airport has been taken, with the successful installation of a giant new stormwater unit – the largest of its kind in the southern hemisphere. Installation of the unit is part of a suite of ground transport infrastructure project activities at Gold Coast Airport, initiated to divert trunk stormwater infrastructure around the footprint of the proposed Southern Terminal Expansion (STE), which is part of the $370 million Project LIFT redevelopment. The new stormwater alignment will service the new terminal, as well as the new 192-bed hotel that is due to be constructed on the airport precinct from the end of this year. Queensland Airport Limited (QAL) Executive General Manager of Property and Infrastructure Carl Bruhn said the new SPEL Stormceptor was designed to collect and treat an anticipated 96ML of stormwater run-off – equivalent to almost 40 Olympicsized swimming pools – from a catchment area of more than seven hectares per year. “The successful installation of the Stormceptor represents a significant milestone in the groundwork preparation ahead of construction of the new terminal and hotel precinct,” Mr Bruhn said. “Measuring 27 x 3.5 metres in length and weighing in at 13.3 tonnes, the Stormceptor is the largest system of its kind built by SPEL in Australia. “The new stormwater alignment diverts stormwater around the new terminal footprint, where it then enters the dual-chamber SPEL system which filters out pollutants including suspended solids, light liquids and gross pollutants prior to releasing the treated water back into the drainage channel. “This represents a win for the environment, while allowing QAL to progress with our exciting new expansion plans.” Installation of the Stormceptor was overseen by civil contractors SEE Civil alongside manufacturer SPEL, and involved the intricate placing of the giant structure to within millimetres of its designated resting area, six metres below ground level. “Our contractor SEE Civil used a 250-tonne crane to carefully lift the unit into place. The excavation for the unit removed 3700m3 of spoil to a final depth of six metres below surface level,” Mr Bruhn said. “It was a significant engineering feat to install this system and we thank our contractors, staff and everyone involved in the project for their outstanding professionalism.” The new system was commissioned late last year. The Project LIFT redevelopment will ensure the facility can accommodate future growth, with passenger movements expected to reach 16.6 million annually by 2037.

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World's largest façade installed with organic photovoltaics in the port of Duisburg Approximately 185m² of Heliatek's organic photovoltaic films have been installed on the façade of a warehouse of the Duisburger Hafen AG in Germany. It is a sub-project within the cooperation agreement "Drehkreuz Energiewende", which was established between the Duisburger Hafen AG and the energy company innogy in 2016. The trial installation has 192, 3-metre long HeliaSol® film panels, making it the largest facade installation to date with organic photovoltaics (OPV). HeliaSol® is an extremely lightweight, very thin and flexible solar film that is produced in an energy-efficient, roll-to-roll process in Germany. Equipped with a self-adhesive backing, the film can be applied directly to a variety of surfaces without further assembly efforts, and without affecting the structure underneath. With the project in Duisburg, the solar films were glued directly onto the metal facade of the warehouse. Ventilation or cooling is not necessary as the films do not lose power or efficiency at high temperatures, unlike crystalline solar technology.

The solar films cover an area of approximately 185m², and generate about as much energy as a 5-person household would consume annually. Due to the efficient use of materials and manufacturing process, the solar films produce 80 times more energy over their lifecycle than is needed to produce them. When compared to the CO2 emissions of various other types of energy production, Heliatek's solar films claim to provide the lowest CO2 footprint, with 20g CO2 per kWh.

Working together to make the energy transition The construction of the solar facade is one of four areas of cooperation and a large number of measures implemented between innogy and Duisport for a successful sustainability strategy. Duisburger Hafen AG is the operator of the world's largest inland port and intends to position itself as a major hub for the energy transition. That is why a strategic partnership with innogy was established in 2016, with the goal to jointly test new methods of energy conservation, and using renewable energy

for major industries and in logistics. Alexander Garbar, Project Manager Corporate Development, Duisburger Hafen AG, states: "With completion on this, we have achieved yet another sub-project. Heliatek's photovoltaic solution is really fascinating, and we are pleased to have brought a German manufacturer on board. We are curious what the outcomes will be in the coming months." The project follows from two others, namely: a biogas plant in BergheimPaffendorf, and a façade installation at the Lechwerke in Augsburg. With the inauguration of a new production facility in 2020, Heliatek is committed to actively shaping the future of a decentralized and decarbonized future. Following a successful test run on the Duisburg port site alone offers potential to use up to 10 million m² of façade and roof space for the production of solar energy. Since 2016, innogy SE has worked in cooperation with Heliatek GmbH, and has actively supported the preparation of Heliatek's market entry since then. Martin Neweling, Project Manager Group Strategy innogy SE, states: "We are pleased to have created another eco-friendly solar façade with Heliatek in Germany. The building exterior of duisport received a second skin, one that generates energy. With each new project, we gain experience in installation, and also in terms of handling. The current short installation time of just a few minutes per film is impressive."

Leading to sustainability With the German Federal Government's goals of achieving a virtually climateneutral standard of buildings by 2050, the premises for this industry are set in Germany. Buildings cause about one third of all CO2 emissions and total energy consumption in Germany. One method of energy reduction for buildings, for example, lies in energyoriented building renovations. This allows for a significant impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions. Heliatek organic solar films, and especially the ready-to-use solar film HeliaSol®, provide an efficient and highly effective solution. For further information, please visit: 34

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Europe's largest floating solar system, located in Piolenc (France), powered by 17MW of Trina Solar PV modules. Image courtesy: Akuo Energy

Trina Solar supplies 17MW to the largest floating PV system in Europe Trina Solar Limited, a leading total solutions provider for solar energy, has supplied 17MW of PV modules to the largest floating PV plant in Europe. The O'MEGA 1 PV project has been developed by Akuo Energy, France's leading independent producer of renewable energy, under the specific constraints of the French CRE4.1 tender, won with Trina Solar low carbon footprint modules. Once operational, the plant located in Piolenc (Vaucluse) will produce 100% renewable energy covering the consumption of more than 4,700 households. The plant is spread over a 17-hectare property and will avoid the emission of roughly 11,100 tons of CO2 per year. O'MEGA 1 is powered by more than 46,000 units of Trina Solar's TSM-DEG14.20(II) dual-glass PERC monocrystalline modules in its low carbon footprint version. The DUOMAX M Plus module offers high output performance for large utility-scale solar farms. Available with industry-leading 1500V

UL/IEC rating, the DUOMAX M Plus top-end efficiency and high-power density ensures maximum energy output while withstanding challenging environmental conditions. Its durable dual-glass structure made with high quality solar glass and encapsulation protects solar cells from strong humidity over lifetime, preventing energy loss from PID (potential induced degradation). Eric Scotto, President and co-founder of Akuo Energy concludes: "O'MEGA 1 means multiple premieres for Akuo Energy: first floating solar power station in France; first time the group opens the capital of a project to individuals; and a common, first bank financing for floating solar. Through this societal project, we act as a global player in the energy transition and we hope to make this plant an example to follow. It is a great pride for us to be associated with all these actors who make it an exemplary and inspiring project." Gonzalo de la Vina, Head of Module Business Europe at Trina Solar, says: "We

are honoured to have been chosen by Akuo for the largest floating solar system in Europe. This project developed under the specific constraints of the French CRE4.1 tender uses a competitive technical and economical solution, based on our low CO2 dual-glass monocrystalline PERC modules in combination with a Ciel et Terre floating structure.â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;We trust this project will open doors to the further development of floating PV projects across France and Europe," he added.

ABOUT TRINA SOLAR Trina Solar is a leading global total solutions provider for solar energy. Founded in 1997, Trina Solar develops proprietary smart PV solutions for large power stations as well as commercial and residential solutions, energy storage systems and photovoltaic modules. As one of the world's leading providers of integrated solar energy solutions, Trina Solar has taken the lead in evolving into a brand in the world of energy IoT (internet of things) and is committed to becoming a global leader in this new and emerging sector. Please visit:

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



Sungrow ships 200MW of 1500v central inverter solutions for Nevada project

Sungrow, Leading inverter solution supplier for renewables, Sungrow, recently announced the supply of its featured 1500V turnkey inverter solutions tailored for North American market to Techren-2, a 200 MW solar project in Nevada. The installation marks another milestone for Sungrow in the utility-scale solar segment. Much of the state is covered in sun-bathed desert, making Nevada one of the nation's best regions for solar power potential. The project is expected to be grid-connected by the end of 2019 and creates hundreds of jobs for the local community. Once fully operational, it will power local residences at large and increase the share of Nevada's electricity generation from solar resources compared to other energy sources. The project is in an arid high plateau which can experience temperatures in summer exceeding 40 degrees Celsius. Sungrow's state-of-the-art 1500V central inverter SG2500U-MV applied onsite, characterizes the excellent performance 36

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from -30 degrees Celsius (-22 F) to 60 degrees Celsius (140 F). The turnkey solution with the central inverter, transformer and auxiliary power supply, enables lower initial investment on installation and commissioning and caters to the complex requirements of the American grid code, making it the ideal solution for this remarkable project. The Neveda installations follow 2.75 MW of turnkey solutions installed by Swinerton for the first utility-scale solar plant in Wyoming in during September 2018. They are also being used for a 205 MW project in California's Central Valley. The EPC company Swinerton Renewable Energy is providing turnkey engineering, procurement and construction services for the project developer and asset management service provider Clenera LLC. “Swinerton is excited to partner with Sungrow to build this landmark project,” said George Hershman, President of Swinerton Renewable Energy.

“Sungrow's proven performance track record and efficient commissioning features support the delivery of a high-quality product to Clenera and to the people of Nevada.” “We take pride in being a part of the 200 MW solar project and we are pleased to bring clean energy to the great State of Nevada,” said Jack Gu, President of Sungrow PV & Energy Storage Division. “The North American solar market is vital and full of opportunities and we are dedicated to providing excellent products and solutions from coast to coast as we charge toward a brighter future,” he added.

ABOUT SUNGROW Sungrow Power Supply Co. Ltd ("Sungrow") is a global leading inverter solution supplier for renewables with over 79 GW installed worldwide as of December 2018. Founded in 1997 by University Professor Cao Renxian, Sungrow is a leader in the research and development of solar inverters, with the largest dedicated R&D team in the industry and a broad product portfolio offering PV inverter solutions and energy storage systems for utilityscale, commercial, and residential applications, as well as internationally recognized floating PV plant solutions.

Image courtesy: ib vogt


ib vogt delivers largest solar park in the Netherlands Large-scale solar energy projects specialists, ib vogt, recently celebrated the successful delivery of the solar park Scaldia in the Netherlands. With a capacity of 54.5 MWp and more than 140,000 solar panels Scaldia is the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest solar park. The official opening ceremony was performed by Mayor Dijksterhuis of the municipality Borsele, Alderman Verhage of the municipality Vlissingen, project initiator Hans Hoven and CEO of ib vogt Anton Milner. With a symbolic start-up of the generator they put the largest solar park in Zeeland and in the Netherlands into commercial operations. Solar park Scaldia represents an important facility in the achievement of the Netherlandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; climate goals. During its 30

years lifetime, the solar park will reduce the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s CO2 emissions by more than 738,000 tonnes. The park is built in the vicinity of the North Sea Port in the municipalities of Borsele and Vlissingen. ib vogt acquired the permits of the solar park Scaldia in February 2018 from developer Solarpark Zeeland. HSH Nordbank provided 47 million euro of project finance to Scaldia to enable construction. Following two and half years of careful and considerate preparation and permit procedures, ib vogt constructed the project in just half a year. Energy and certificates of origin are sold to ENGIE Netherlands and marketed by Engie to its consumers under a long-term contract covering more than half the lifetime of the project.

Scaldia has a capacity of 54.5 MWp and covers an area of 38 hectares with more than 140,000 solar panels. The solar panels are positioned east-west for optimal use of land and for power generation. In total the solar park delivers 51,000 MWh of renewable energy annually for 30 years, which is the equivalent amount of energy consumed of approximately 14,000 households.

ABOUT IB VOGT GMBH Established in 2002, ib vogt GmbH focuses on developing and delivering high-quality large-scale turnkey PV plants worldwide. As a manufacturer-independent integrated developer with a strong worldwide network of local development partners ib vogt provides high-quality turnkey PV plants, designed and engineered in Germany, to end investors internationally. Since 2009 the family-owned company has realized plants with a total rated capacity of over 846 MWp worldwide. Headquartered in Berlin, Germany, the company has business operations in 59 countries, including offices in UK, USA, Australia, Panama, Poland, Spain, India and South East Asia, as well as several joint ventures across Africa.

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



Australian water cleaning system prepares for Asian expansion An Australian company is preparing to ramp up production of its unique water disinfection systems following the success of pilot projects in Asia. Article by Andrew Spence After rigorous testing and the successful completion of field trials in India in 2018, South Australian company Hydro-dis is awaiting signoff on its system from the Mashelkar Committee, which will give it approval to roll out its technology across India’s 27 states. The water treatment systems can be built to various sizes and can disinfect up to 3 million litres of water a day. They are designed for use in remote villages to make water safe to drink and can also be used to treat wastewater for non-potable purposes such as irrigation or vehicle cleaning. Headquartered in Adelaide, Hydro-dis has been working on its technology since 2001.

A solar-powered Hydro-dis pilot plant just out of Kolkata.


Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019

CEO Mark Carey said the Hydro-dis technology did not require additional raw materials such as gas because it used minerals and salts already in the water to fuel the process. It can be designed to be solar powered or run by mains electricity Hydro-dis’ treatment technology uses insitu electro-catalytic generation of chlorine to disinfect water and can be used for various industries to treat potable, non-potable and wastewater. The unique technique creates chloride ions from salt already present in the water even when it is present in very small amounts, making it suitable for freshwater and saltwater sources. Five units are operating in rural areas in Australia, another two are being built and six units have been shipped to India and Malaysia in the past six months. “The Australian market is still a good opportunity for us but the volume will come from Asia,” Carey said. “Based on the interest that we are getting we are gearing up to pull the trigger on high production numbers.” The interest in India began in 2016 on a visit to Rajasthan – a sister state to South Australia – which led to a partnership with the Rajasthan Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Management and a demonstration plant at Malaviya National Institute of Technology in Jaipur. Overseen by MNIT’s Professor of Civil Engineering A B Gupta, the trial was signed off in February 2018 after achieving the project outcomes. The data for regulatory approval has been submitted to the Ministry for Drinking Water and Sanitation. India’s Mashelkar Committee is also doing its own field inspections and lab testing. A second solar-powered demonstration unit has been trialled in Bengal. Carey said he hoped the regulatory approval would be granted early in the very near future, creating an initial wave of commercial orders. He said while disinfecting drinking water supplies in remote villages was the main target in India, there was also interest in other applications such as treating wastewater to wash municipal bus fleets that previously were cleaned with precious potable water. “We designed it in Australia for rural and remote communities and the Outback towns where disinfected water is needed so it fits well into the small community and village level water disinfection requirements throughout Asia,” Carey said.

Powering a Sustainable Future

The Hydro-dis pilot plant at MNIT in Jaipur, Rajasthan.

“In India they have these huge underwater tanks that capture all the water from the monsoons and that’s the only water that a village has for the year. “In Rajasthan there are 80,000 of them that are not disinfected but the reality is we’re not going to get an order for 50,000 units tomorrow but we will get orders of 10, 20 or perhaps 100 initially.” “In another (Indian) state alone 40 million people in regional areas don’t have safe drinking water. “We’ve also had people from Maharashtra come to Jaipur to inspect the system to see what it can do and as a result of that inspection we’ve got in-principle approval for two pilot projects in wastewater applications in Mumbai.” The system’s key IP is in its cells, which Hydro-dis plans to continue manufacturing in Australia. However, Carey said the controller part of the units could be manufactured in India or China for Asian markets to keep costs down and maintain competitiveness against traditional disinfection methods such as chemical dosing, UV and Ozone treatments. He said the Hydro-dis system is simple to use, reliable, portable and it doesn’t have a lot operator inputs such as hazardous chemicals so it removes the potential for problems. Hydro-dis also won an Australian Smart Water Award in 2018 for its Rajasthan demonstration Unit and the collaboration with Rajasthan Centre of Excellence for Water and Resource Management, the International Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Management, Dematec Automation, the Water Industry Alliance, the South Australian Government and Austrade. Improvements to the system through the inclusion of the latest Generation 4 Cell has also allowed Hydro-dis to develop an “underbench” prototype for the home market. Carey said the demand for safe drinking water among Asia’s rising middle class had led to the company identifying an opportunity for the consumer market. “As a result of the work we’ve been doing in India, Vietnam, Cambodia and China we’re looking at developing a small household unit that we think will be a bit of a game changer,” he said. “In Hong Kong for example, everybody boils the mains water to drink because they are worried it’s not safe to drink. When you look at the electricity consumption and the greenhouse effect of six million people boiling two or three litres of water a day just so they can have a drink it is significant. “In Vietnam, households buying the 11 litre containers of drinking water are paying about $25 a kilolitre – if that was coming out of the tap they would be paying about 15 cents.” For further information, please visit:

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Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019


PRODUCT FOCUS HRS produces evaporation-based concentration systems for a wide range of different materials from brine and wastewater to slurry and sewage.

• HRS scraped surface evaporation systems - When concentrating fluids with elevated viscosities (which lowers heat transfer) or those which have a higher fouling risk, such as organic solutions with high dry matter concentration, HRS uses the HRS Unicus Series of scraped-surface heat exchangers. • HRS Digestate Concentration System - The HRS Digestate Concentration System (DCS) is specifically designed to reduce the volume of digestate from anaerobic digestion (AD) systems. In most situations the process utilises surplus heat from the CHP engine. The DCS works by superheating digestate in a vacuum to facilitate concentration, using evaporation to significantly reduce digestate volumes while, at the same time, increasing the nutrient content and commercial value. The HRS DCS is a multi-effect system, in which the steam produced from this first heating cycle is re-used as the heating media for the second, and subsequent, effects. The number of effects is determined by the level of dry solids required, and the amount of spare heat available, up to a maximum of four cycles. After the final effect, the steam is condensed back into water and can then be used to dilute feedstock going into the front end of the digester, creating a completely closed loop system. The DCS is wholly self-sufficient – no energy or water is brought in or wasted, and everything is re-used.

Types of Evaporation

Packaged solutions for waste stream concentration Liquid and semi-liquid waste streams are an unavoidable aspect of many industrial processes, from energy production to food manufacturing; from chemical processing to wastewater treatment; systems which can reduce the volume and water content of such waste streams can not only cut disposal costs, but often turn a waste into a potentially valuable resource. Evaporation is an efficient way of reducing the volume of effluents and wastes. HRS evaporation systems raise effluent, digestate or liquid waste to its boiling point so that water is evaporated and then condensed, thereby obtaining a concentrated end product and water. Forced recirculation uses a pump to send the product through the evaporator at high speeds, ensuring that heat transfer rates remain high and the negative effects of fouling are limited. HRS evaporation systems are frequently integrated with waste heat sources to achieve an effective and sustainable process, which maximises energy efficiency and reduces running costs. There are three main types of HRS evaporation system: • HRS corrugated tube evaporation systems - These are designed for the evaporation of low viscosity effluents with reduced particle size, like wastewater, brines and effluents with low concentrations of organic solids. These systems utilise HRS K Series corrugated heat exchangers as evaporator modules, providing high heat transfer and good resistance against fouling. 40

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HRS uses two technologies to maximise energy efficiency within its range of evaporation systems: • Multi-effect evaporation - These systems combine various evaporation stages. The evaporated steam obtained from a previous stage is used as the thermal energy source for the resulting stage. Multiple stages can be combined to reduce the energy consumption needed for the total amount of water evaporated. • Mechanical vapour recompression (MVR) - In these systems, an additional compressor is used to increase the pressure and temperature of the water vapour or steam, which also provides the thermal energy source for the evaporation process. The only additional energy required is the electricity to power the compressor. This replaces the thermal energy used for evaporation with electrical energy and therefore increases efficiency. • Thermal vapour recompression (TVR) systems - When configured in a TVR setup, high pressure boiler steam is combined with the recovered (evaporated) low pressure steam in a thermocompressor. This maximises the use of the recovered steam and provide considerable energy savings when compared with the use of boiler steam alone. All of HRS Heat Exchangers’ waste concentration systems are designed specifically for each application and the client’s needs, ensuring the greatest levels of effectiveness, efficiency and return on investment.

ABOUT HRS PROCESS SOLUTIONS Located in Melbourne, HRS Process Solutions is part of the HRS Group which operates at the forefront of thermal technology, offering innovative and effective heat transfer solutions worldwide, across a diverse range of industries. With over 35 years’ experience, HRS Process Solutions specialises in the design and manufacture of an extensive range of tubular, corrugated and scraped surface heat exchangers. All HRS products comply with global standards. HRS has a network of offices throughout the world: UK, Spain, USA, Malaysia, Australia, New Zealand and India; with manufacturing plants in the UK, India and Spain. For further information, please visit:

CDEnviro Equipment helps to reduce disposal and transport costs Based in Stoney-Creek, Ontario, Da-Lee offer a range of waste classification services. The company provides treatment, disposal, transportation and handling of a wide range of hazardous and nonhazardous waste around Southern Ontario from Toronto to the US border. Prior to investing in CDEnviro equipment Da-Lee handled a range of solid liquid wastes by adding sawdust to solidify the materials sufficiently to allow them to be taken by truck to landfill. While this remains a responsible way to process these wastes, there were a number of efficiency issues that Da-Lee wanted to improve upon, namely: • Sawdust was an expensive commodity and represented a considerable annual overhead, not just in its purchase, but the logistics of purchasing and handling onsite. • By adding sawdust, the material was solidified but not dewatered. This means that the weight of the water was still going to landfill at a significant cost, rather than being removed and processed through their onsite liquid waste treatment centre. • Once the weight of the water is added to the weight of the solids and the sawdust, the cost of taking these materials to landfill was considerable – both in terms of $/ton gate fee and the carbon footprint impact of the entire operation. This led to the search for a more sustainable approach, one that decreased the weight of the waste going to landfill, the logistical burden on the team, and the impact on the environment. With an increasing demand for their services, Da-Lee needed a highly-efficient process which reduced both disposal and transport costs in order to maintain the level of service their customers are used to. With that in mind, they selected the CDEnviro G:MAX unit, installing it at the Stoney-creek site to treat storm drain material, gully waste, culverts, gross pollutant traps, hydro excavation waste and a range of other materials. The CDEnviro G:MAX employs wet processing techniques specifically designed to treat and dewater the waste streams, extracting sand and oversize components in the process, and leaving the residual water easier to treat. Recovered sand output products can be diverted from landfill and can be reused in a number of low-grade construction applications such as pipe bedding, road fill and landscaping. The remaining dewatered material is easy to both dispose of and handle. With increased efficiency, Da-Lee are accepting more contracts than before and bringing the best value to their customers. David Rogers, CEO at Da-Lee Group, said, “The G:MAX has helped us dewater many of our solid/liquid waste streams in a more efficient way than we were previously. From cost savings to a more streamlined process onsite, this has made a big impact across the business” CDEnviro provide waste classification systems for a number of waste streams including: Hydro excavation / daylighting waste; Road sweepings and gully waste; and Contaminated soils For more information on the G:MAX, please visit:

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



NATIONAL PRECAST ANNOUNCES NEW SERVICES, MEMBERSHIP FEES AND BOARD OF DIRECTORS National Precast’s Precaster membership offers Australian precast manufacturers valuable resources, support and exposure to take their business to new heights and in November 2018 the organisation announced the details of a major overhaul. This includes revised membership fees, new services, and a new Board of Directors. National Precast’s Chief Executive Officer, Sarah Bachmann, says that with a change in membership category structure and a solid package of services now on offer, membership is continuing to grow. “Our work stands out for all the right reasons as we strive to promote, protect, and empower the precast industry,” Ms Bachmann comments.

SERVICES THAT STACK UP National Precast membership network offers fantastic return on investment - now more than $56k in savings. “New services available to Precaster members offer access to important information needed to boost productivity, remain compliant, and gain a competitive edge,” Ms Bachmann says. Included in the new package of services for precasters are: • 35+ Australian Standards for download and print More than 35 precast-specific Australian Standards are now available to Precaster members for download and print. Valued at up to $14,000pa, this one service can pay for a year’s membership for a small to medium sized precaster. • Monthly Cordell Precast Project Reports Partnering with CoreLogic, National Precast sends Precaster members monthly Cordell Precast Project Reports. These reports have been tailored to contain essential details for 200+ projects where precast has been specified, that are valued at $2M-plus from around Australia. • Discounted Cordell Connect subscriptions CoreLogic now offers Precaster members a 50% discount on its Cordell Connect Project Detail subscription rate. This discount can save members up to $14,000 (one user, national annual subscription, commercial categories). Subscribe to receive information on civil projects in three local government areas for as little as $99 +GST per month. • Cordell Construction Monthly reports Cordell Construction Monthly reports are sent to all National Precast members, giving an overview of construction market activity. They also serve as a regular update on the number and value of construction projects that are in planning or have commenced construction across residential, community, commercial and infrastructure developments. • ACIF News and the Customised Forecasts Dashboard All Precaster members can now determine what the local construction market will look like in 12 months or 10 years by accessing the Customised Forecasts Dashboard. This is a highly regarded, valuable forecasting tool that has been developed by the Australian Construction Industry Forum’s (ACIF) Construction Forecasting Council. ACIF Forecasts provide a credible ‘compass’ on upcoming demand for work across all sectors in all states, as well as what is happening with construction costs and labour requirements. 42

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019

• Case Studies Precaster members can have five project case studies written for them every year. Once finalised, members are provided with 20 printed copies, which can be distributed to existing and potential clients. Many members use these as a part of their tender submissions. These case studies are also supplied to National Precast’s media partners for publication in a range of national and international magazines. Publications such as Roads and Infrastructure Australia, Built Offsite, Construction Engineering Australia, and Build Australia are just a few examples. These magazines – and member project case studies – are read by thousands of builders, architects, and engineers. As well as the new services, National Precast is appointing State Co-ordinators for each state. Part of this role is to organise informal gatherings for local precasters and their suppliers, and liaise as a regular conduit between precasters and the CEO. “National Precast is about adding value, whether that is to our members as they run their businesses or to the broader industry,” Ms Bachmann says. “That can mean helping precasters to solve problems or helping designers to understand precast’s sustainability benefits and the ever-evolving aesthetic options. The new package of services now available to precasters really stacks up and gives a very positive RoI.” Precasters wishing to find out about National Precast membership should visit National Precast’s website at or contact Sarah Bachmann on 0414 880 351.

SWEEPING LEADERSHIP CHANGES FOR THE NATIONAL PRECAST BOARD 2018’s Annual General Meeting saw the biggest change to the National Precast board in its 27 years of operation. Goodbyes were said to inaugural Board member Matt Perrella (Delta Corporation), as well as to Peter Healy (Hollow Core Concrete) and Glenn Degenhardt (formerly from Humes). Reappointed were Kevin Crompton (Ultrafloor), Craig Zinn (Stresscrete), Ian Coulter (Precast Concrete Products), Graham Underwood (Rocla) and Michael Waeger (Waeger Precast).This new Board term welcomes new Board members Paul Adams (Humes), George Spiropoulos (Euro Precast), Daniel Coutts (Austral Precast) and Riccardo Musella (Reinforced Earth).

Pictured above (L-R): Michael Waeger, George Spiropoulos, Kevin Crompton, Graham Underwood, Daniel Coutts, Sarah Bachmann (CEO), Craig Zinn, Ian Coulter, Riccardo Musella and Paul Adams.

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The Measure of Success

by Paul Vince, Associate Materials Engineer, Water, WSP It is unlikely that a corrosion engineer will be chosen as a crew member for the first human mission to Mars. But why not? A corrosion engineer could be an extraordinarily valuable member of the first Martian society. They could assess the environment and evaluate the performance of all sorts of materials on Mars. I can visualise crowded racks of coupons being studiously inspected by a corrosion engineer shuffling along in a space suit making salient notes on a clipboard. Red will be the new black and all the paint suppliers will have their own webcam so we can watch paint dry on another planet! I was fortunate to hear Buzz Aldrin speak at the NACE Corrosion conference in New Orleans in 2008. He talked about his impressive life and achievements, including the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, but noted that he never dreamed of such things as a child. There was no such thing as an astronaut when Buzz was in his youth. In 2013, the US Department of Labor reported that 65 per cent of today’s school children will eventually be employed in professions that do not currently exist. Dell Technologies recently postulated that 85 per cent of jobs that will exist in 2030, have not been invented yet. Why not add Martian corrosion scientist to the list of future professions? For the time being, the exotic sprinkling of corrosion engineers that exist on this planet are fully occupied saving everything that has already been built. Our ageing infrastructure is a dormant nightmare that threatens to undermine the forward movement of humanity. Our roads, our bridges, our electricity, our water, our digital communications all depend on physical assets. All of these assets require a minimum condition to function as intended. A plan is required for every asset to ensure it can be maintained and renewed to achieve its purpose. Enter stage right: durability professional. The role of a durability professional is intrinsically linked to the success of our planet. But how do we define that success? And, is humanity actually moving forward? One would hope that we are on an upwardly trending learning curve, extracting poignant lessons from our failures and applying new knowledge to future projects. But is this the case? At the 2017 ACA Annual Conference we were blessed to hear a keynote presentation from Dr Brian Skerry, Global Director – Corrosion Programs for Sherwin Williams. His presentation showed that coating technology is clearly advancing and we are 44

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developing sophisticated techniques for proving their performance. Given that one of the primary functions of coatings is to protect assets, these advancements are a good thing. Dr Skerry was also a co-author of a 1983 study of ‘Corrosion in Australia.’ That study found that the cost of corrosion in Australia was equivalent to 1.0 per cent of Australia’s GDP. It noted that improved technology transfer and implementation could potentially recover a large portion of the corrosion costs. At the completion of Dr Skerry’s keynote presentation, Professor Derek Northwood, from the University of Windsor in Canada, asked a pertinent question that set a number of hares racing in my mind, pinballing against the inside of my skull and foreshadowing significant anguish. He asked about our progress as a corrosion community. He acknowledged we had gained a great deal of knowledge since the Cherry Skerry Report of 1983, but asked whether we have been successful in changing our industries and reducing the cost of corrosion? Good question. Professor Northwood was no doubt cognisant of a series of studies into the cost of corrosion. Most of these focused on the financial cost which is estimated in specific countries to be about 3 per cent of GDP. While there are only a small number of studies, there is little evidence to show that the cost of corrosion is decreasing. In 2016 the IMPACT Study conducted by NACE International concluded that the annual global cost of corrosion was US$2.5 trillion, equivalent to 3.4 per cent of the global GDP. The study found that 15-35 per cent of the costs were avoidable using currently available corrosion control practices. That’s a remarkable sum at US$375-$875 billion. The BIG question rattling around inside my head was ‘WHY?’ Why have we failed as corrosion engineers in our crusade against asset decay? Why is the cost of avoidable corrosion so high? Not to mention the indirect costs such as loss of production and, in extreme cases, loss of lives. The Mina Al-Ahmadi Refinery fire in Kuwait in June 2000 resulted in six deaths and caused US$4 billion in damage. It was found to have been caused by vapour cloud explosion due to a corrosion leak in a 10-inch condensate pipe. There is no doubt that corrosion engineers around the world are working tirelessly to prevent such events.


The answer to the rising cost of corrosion was found in a theme running through these studies that stretches back to 1983 and even back to studies in West Germany and the United Kingdom in 1969 and 1970. Corrosion control technology and techniques exist to reduce the amount of corrosion. A small population has detailed knowledge of those technologies and techniques but dissemination of that knowledge has been like honey through filter paper – a slow trickle. Some knowledge has filtered out to a larger diameter of engineers and scientists and some proactive outsiders have sourced rich veins of knowledge directly from the honeypot. But a large portion of society demonstrates a low level of corrosion literacy, including managers, asset owners, business owners and consumers. In many quarters, there is an agnostic lack of awareness, but some behaviour can only be described as deliberate apathy. The ACA’s own study into the ‘Corrosion Challenges in the Australian Urban Water Industry’ in 2010 found that the annual cost of corrosion was AU$982 million. The report identified several opportunities to reduce the cost of corrosion. Some of the most significant recommendations relate directly to the employees within the water industry. The first relates to corrosion training. It was found that there was a significant amount of training available to workers but that this training included minimal corrosion content and no competency units that specifically related to corrosion. It was identified that corrosion training at all levels of employment would enhance the performance of the water industry. Corrosion knowledge would improve design, improve data capture, improve asset knowledge and improve decision making. The report goes on to make two further recommendations. The first is that it should be mandatory for designers and auditors in the water industry to demonstrate a minimum level of competency in corrosion understanding before being accredited. The second is to introduce specific regulatory or legislative requirements for the design and operation of critical infrastructure – that is, where failure of that infrastructure will be catastrophic to public health and safety or to the environment. Such measures would be advantageous for many other industries also. Clearly there is an opportunity for a proactive bunch of evangelists willing to share the good gospel of corrosion prevention. There is a need for corrosion awareness to infiltrate all levels of political and corporate thinking from government to the stock market to the production line. The most common measure of corporate success is the annual profit statement. Increasingly, there is recognition that financial success is not always the best outcome for the advancement of humanity. The corrosion engineer is interested in the life cycle of an asset, not just the capital cost. There is an opportunity to partner with asset owners and operators to attain a higher level of corrosion knowledge and consider longer reporting cycles. Then, I am sure wiser investment decisions can be made. One day, when I am inspecting my coupons on Mars in my mithril space suit, designed by the random alloy generator from Monash University, I will have the opportunity to look back at Earth through my telescope. I hope I will see a vibrant, active and beautiful planet where communities are thriving. Because then I will know that someone, somewhere listened to a corrosion engineer. That will be the ultimate measure of success.

Protective Coatings in the Real World The economic impact of corrosion represents an annual cost of billions of dollars to the economy. It is important that owners and operators of high-value assets understand the cost implications of ignoring the effects of corrosion. There are many advantages of planning for corrosion control and mitigation. Two of the main ones are: that the life of an asset is extended, making it more profitable; and maintenance time and costs are reduced, increasing the asset's utilisation. Protective coatings are used across a multitude of industries including: construction, infrastructure, maritime, water/wastewater, mining and oil and gas. The longevity of protective coatings varies enormously with modern coatings capable of providing very high levels of corrosion protection, value for money and durability even in the most extreme environments. Think assets of all kinds including but not limited to: pipelines, sewers, ships, and deep sea O&G platforms to name but a few. To help address industry challenges, The Coatings & Applicators Technical Group of the Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) has produced a technical program that focuses on discussing pragmatic considerations and outlining practical and optimised solutions for the Coatings and Applicators Industries. The one-day event titled, Trips, Tips and Hits – Protective coatings in the Real World, will be held on 4 April 2019 at the Royal Society of Victoria in Melbourne and will be followed by networking drinks. This event will bring together all stakeholders to discuss various corrosion issues focusing on lessons learnt and exploring both successes and failures across the Coatings and Applications industries. For more information and to register online please visit:

ABOUT THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, membership association, that disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention through the provision of training courses, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities. The vision of the ACA is that corrosion is managed sustainably and cost effectively to ensure the health and safety of the community and protection of the environment. For further information, please visit:

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



Has CDS highlighted significant flaws in Australian Recycling? by Mike Haywood, Director, Mike Haywood Sustainable Resource Solutions

With the expansion of CDS/CDL and the requirements that MRF’s not only recover the commodities but ensure recycling to achieve the 10c deposit, we are seeing a frantic search by the waste industry to find outlets for these materials. Recycling and sustainability consultant Mike Haywood asks ‘…is it their role?’ After years of promotion and lobbying it appears that sooner rather than later Australia will have a national container deposit scheme. Victoria and Tasmania will soon recognise that they are being left behind and will see the need to move into the 21st century. This approach should be bipartisan as it is embraced by both sides of the isle in other states. In NSW and Queensland, the implementation of the CDS strategies are staring to bear fruit with substantial volumes of materials being recovered and sent off for recycling. I will note however that the onerous audit requirements of the scheme operator on the processing 46

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facilities from my point of view appear to be a significant burden on the industry. I believe this money could be better spent on better recovery and developing end use markets. In WA, they are gearing up, although it appears that they may be watching the eastern states to see how they bed their programs in before they finalise their approach. With all of this extra product coming into the market place, and with discussions in each and every state revolving around the circular economy, I thought it would be timely to start a discussion regarding single-use products in the CDS scheme such as glass and plastic products. Back in 2015 I wrote an article entitled “Is Australia the great recycler or the great sorter and exporter?” I suggested that with all of the money that various businesses and states are spending on the recovery of resources, would we be leaving ourselves vulnerable to world commodity prices? Worse still, what if our trading partners all of a sudden decided that they had enough of their own rubbish to meet their

recycling and PEF needs and refused to allow our materials to be imported. I also noted that those of us who were around, remember well the panic when the GFC hit and scrap fell from $400 plus per tonne to an unwanted commodity almost overnight. Nobody wanted it, let alone plastics, tyres, cardboard and paper. We had already seen that China had banned the import of end-of-life tyres from Australia and that might just expand to other products and other countries. It’s fair to say that I got a fair bit of response from that article, however, our process did little to change… and so now we find ourselves trying to deal with the China National Sword policy. Once again, the waste industry is trying to clean up after someone else’s mess. “But that is their job” I hear you cry… but is it? Is it really our job to try and fix the mess from bad manufacturing practises and poor policy? I have never seen a bottle filler or a packaging manufacturer fined because of stockpiles of their products that have been recovered but, for lots of reasons, are struggling to be able to be reused.


One way single-use glass bottles I remember way back in the 80’s I used to go to a facility in Adelaide’s inner-west that washed bottles and returned them to the bottle fillers for reuse. I remember going in there one day and he advised me that this was their last week, and as of that Friday, the site would close. As they had lost their contracts, the industry was moving towards light-weight, single-use bottles. Prior to this change, bottles weighed average about 320 grams. Today, they can weigh as little as 120 grams. The industry will tell you that is a huge saving on materials energy and transport costs… which on the surface, it is. However, considering a whole-of-life environmental cost, the heavier washable bottles would last more than 20 times through the cycle of fill / sale / use / recover / wash and back for fill again. I suggest that that would be a significantly better environmental outcome than that of the transport savings achieved through the use of the lighter bottles. Why is this an issue in the 21st century? Because we are currently seeing and have for some time, massive stockpiles of single-use glass. With most schemes having a recycling component to achieve the 10c deposit, the industry is starting to see a frantic search for beneficial reuse of these materials. After all, unless they are recycled, the MRF is not able to recover the deposit, once again the onus is on the industry, not the bottle filler. Where is their responsibility in the chain of responsibility?

It isn’t beyond the realms of thinking that even very clean well-presented glass will soon overwhelm our current beneficiation plants and glass manufacturing capacity. Indeed, this may have already happened. Current alternative thinking includes bedding sand, asphalt fillers and the like, with some being used in the glass manufacturing process. The problem is that there are just far too many bottles being recovered, and the current markets are not big enough. Neither is the recovered value sufficient to cover manufacturing costs. Meanwhile bottles are continuing to be manufactured, with Australia consuming about 1.36 million tonnes per annum.

Multi polymer plastic packaging Surely, in the 21st century, we can produce a container - plastic or otherwise - that is made from one common material. Why, for example, can’t the caps of PET bottles be made of PET? I also don’t believe the answer is mass burn or any incineration. That is the last resort. In the 21st century, all products even plastic - must be constructed for deconstruction. Importantly, I believe that failure to accommodate this is the problem of the bottle filler - not the waste industry collector. I believe that the waste industry’s only role is to collect, recover, return and get the 10c, and that the manufacturer must take responsibility

for the beneficial reuse of the returned materials. Then, and only then, might these businesses take responsibility for their manufacturing and packaging materials.

Final thoughts – Things I think we need to consider After all the years that the community has been moving away from a landfill focus for waste management, there’s no doubt in my mind that we have made a number of mistakes. Three that are a stand out in my mind are: • Diversion from landfill at all costs: Our focus on managing waste has been too closely based around the philosophy of diversion from landfill. If we are to measure our success by diversion, we have done extremely well, however, if we changed the metric to how well we have created an environmental outcome where we process and beneficially use EOL materials; by that measure, the outcome would be totally different. • Is the MRF really the answer? The second area I think we are guilty of, is believing and selling the dream that the MRF is the answer to everything. In many instances, I believe that has caused both the industry and consumer to become somewhat lazy. I will shout it to anyone who will listen: ‘the best value commodities are those that are source separated’. As someone who has worked around MRF’s for many years, I believe that they are a great tool. But it’s very hard and time consuming to unscramble the egg - especially when it’s been really well scrambled. MRF’s have a place, but they can only work as well as the materials presented. Is it time - with CDS/CDL - to consider if these products should even go into the kerbside recyclables bin (yellow Lid). I can hear the MRF screaming at me ‘you know that’s the best source of revenue we have’, but the stockpiles of broken glass suggest that it also causes a lot of grief. The best commodities come from the CDS/CDL collections facilities. They are clean, well sorted, caps off, and must I go on?

Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019



• Recycling is not exporting the difficult bits: The third issue is that we claim we recycle, when in actuality, we’ve traditionally exported the most difficult products to recycle (and to some degree still do). There are three aspects to this (or three stakeholders if you like), namely: the product manufacturer, the EOL recovery and the user of the recycled product. Like all things in nature, there is a balance - and if one stakeholder lets the system down, the whole system suffers. Product manufacturers need to move toward easily recovered packaging; for example, construction for deconstruction and recovery. If you laminate two polymers together, how are we supposed to recover and recycle the materials to produce a new product? For effective EOL recovery and processing, all of those involved - from the designer and producer, through to the consumer - must be smarter. The more we source separate, the easier it is to recover,


Waste + Water Management Australia | March 2019

process and transform the material into saleable products. We can create high value products at an economical price that easily competes with virgin products. Consumers, including all levels of Government and the general public, must put a value in purchasing decisions. Choosing products that include the use of high-quality recycled materials. Importantly, they also need to recognise that the metric of ‘cheapest cost per tonne’ is not the 21st century metric for engaging a waste or recycling contractor! We have done that in the past - and how well has that worked out for us? That is my hope and my dream - I just hope I am around long enough to see it. Rant Over. I welcome your feedback and comments. Please feel free to contact me at:

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mike Haywood has over more than 25 years of working in the waste management field. Mike is recognised as a national leader and practitioner

in all the waste management disciplines and has extensive experience and a proven working knowledge of the current waste management sector with its nuances, legislative policies, opportunities and challenges. Mike is highly regarded for his skills in waste management strategy, direction and implementation. In 2010, He established a small business consulting to the recycling industry with a focus to take the skills and knowledge he has developed into the wider field as a consultant to Local Government, Waste and Recycling Companies as well as the Regulators.

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Waste + Water Management Australia V45.5 March 2019  

Australia's premier water management, environment, sustainability and public health magazine

Waste + Water Management Australia V45.5 March 2019  

Australia's premier water management, environment, sustainability and public health magazine