Highway Engineering Australia V51.2 Aug/Sep 2019

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contents Published by:

Editorial and Publishing Consultants Pty Ltd

ABN 85 007 693 138 PO Box 510, Broadford Victoria 3658 Australia Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Fax: (03) 5784 2210 www.epcgroup.com Publisher and Managing Editor Anthony T Schmidt Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Mobile: 0414 788 900 Email: ats@epcgroup.com


Editor’s Column


Industry News


Cover Feature: New applications of the National Telematics Framework


Case Study - OLI Vibrators

22 Equipment Focus 24 Innovative Solutions

National Advertising Sales Manager Yuri Mamistvalov Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Mobile: 0419 339 865 Email: yuri@epcgroup.com

30 TMAA News

Advertising Sales - WA Licia Salomone - OKeeffe Media Mobile: 0412 080 600 Email: licia@okm.com.au Graphic Design Annette Epifanidis Mobile: 0416 087 412

TERMS AND CONDITIONS This publication is published by Editorial and Publishing Consultants Pty Ltd (the “Publisher”). Materials in this publication have been created by a variety of different entities and, to the extent permitted by law, the Publisher accepts no liability for materials created by others. All materials should be considered protected by Australian and international intellectual property laws. Unless you are authorised by law or the copyright owner to do so, you may not copy any of the materials. The mention of a product or service, person or company in this publication does not indicate the Publisher’s endorsement. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the opinion of the Publisher, its agents, company officers or employees. Any use of the information contained in this publication is at the sole risk of the person using that information. The user should make independent enquiries as to the accuracy of the information before relying on that information. All express or implied terms, conditions, warranties, statements, assurances and representations in relation to the Publisher, its publications and its services are expressly excluded save for those conditions and warranties which must be implied under the laws of any State of Australia or the provisions of Division 2 of Part V of the Trade Practices Act 1974 and any statutory modification or re-enactment thereof. To the extent permitted by law, the Publisher will not be liable for any damages including special, exemplary, punitive or consequential damages (including but not limited to economic loss or loss of profit or revenue or loss of opportunity) or indirect loss or damage of any kind arising in contract, tort or otherwise, even if advised of the possibility of such loss of profits or damages. While we use our best endeavours to ensure accuracy of the materials we create, to the extent permitted by law, the Publisher excludes all liability for loss resulting from any inaccuracies or false or misleading statements that may appear in this publication. Copyright ©2019 - EPC Media Group

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20 Company Profile: NVC Precast Rebrand

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Advertising Sales - SA Jodie Gaffney - AmAgo Mobile: 0439 749 993 Email: jodie@amago.com.au

AUG/SEP 2019 Volume 51 Number 2


26 Worksite Safety 32 Focus on Asphalt 35 ITS Special Feature 40 Special Report: Future Parking Aurecon


42 iMove CRC Feature 44 National Precast Feature 46 Small Bridges


50 ACA Corrosion Feature

About the Cover In November 2018, TCA received approval of a business case presented to the Transport and Infrastructure Council (TIC) for new applications and features of the National Telematics Framework. These new applications and features help to drive productivity and safety reforms, while reducing costs. Turn to Page 12 for the full story.


Parking access critical for public transport patronage Dear Readers, Even though the very nature of my work - and the fact that I am in the fortunate position of having been able to establish my office directly adjacent to my house – tends to preclude me from using public transport most of the time, wherever possible (and practical), I do endeavour to utilise public transport, particularly when my schedule incorporates a number of meetings in or near to the CBD of the city in which I happen to be. (A cumbersome and long-winded introductory paragraph, but please, stay with me... there is a point!) Now, whilst I may not be a regular daily user of public transport, over the course of the year, I do get the opportunity to utilise all modes of public transport (rail, tram, bus, ferry, O-Bahn) across the country. While most offer what I would consider to be a good level of service and amenity, I have noticed one issue that seems to plague a number of the networks, namely: parking availability for commuters. Unfortunately, in some cities, it's an issue which I believe is now at the point where it is severely limiting some people's access to public transport network. This, of course, not only reduces patronage, but also increases motor vehicle usage, vehicle emissions and congestion across the road network. In other words, it is totally counterproductive to the goals of any public transportation network. Before I continue, I would like to take this opportunity to stress that this editorial

2 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

is not a 'poor me, I couldn't get a park when I needed one' story - far from it. I'm simply using first-hand experiences and anecdotal evidence to highlight what I believe is a serious short-coming across a number of public transport networks. As an example, I recently wanted to take the train into the Melbourne CBD for a day of meetings. Rather than driving all the way into town, I decided to park at Greensborough (approximately 22kms from the Melbourne CBD) and commute via train to and from the city. Upon arriving at the Greensborough rail station (which is also a key modal interchange point between bus and train) I found that the clearly undersized car park was 'over-full' and that the only available parking in nearby streets, and other adjacent car parks was limited to 3 hours or less. Considering that a train journey from Greensborough to the Melbourne CBD takes between 38 and 45 minutes, these parking spots are clearly not intended for train travellers. Needless to say, this lack of parking availability resulted in me driving to the city and back. Unfortunately, this is a story that I have heard time and again from business colleagues, and friends around the country. An idea had been floated at one time that people using the commuter car park would have to show an inspector a valid ticket before they can park, but I think that this is largely missing the point (e.g. that parking by non-commuters is not an issue).

I believe the problem is a serious lack of parking for commuters. If we are serious in our aim of increasing patronage on our public transport networks, we must first ensure that they are a viable and practical alternative to private motor vehicle use. And for that to happen, we must also provide somewhere for commuters to leave their cars. After all, for many (dare I say most) people, public transport cannot be reached easily on foot - especially with our everexpanding cities. Multi-deck car parks may not be everyone's 'first choice' for a structure, but if the demand is there, then they may be the only solution.

Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor

TELL US WHAT YOU THINK! We value your opinion and welcome your feedback and input. Send your thoughts to ats@epcgroup.com


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Sydney transport company penalised $89,000 The Fair Work Ombudsman has secured a penalty of $89,250 in the Federal Circuit Court against Sydney transport company Eagle Tours Pty Ltd after it misclassified bus drivers as independent contractors. Following requests for assistance, Fair Work Inspectors found that four bus drivers were paid flat rates of $22 an hour, despite working 12-hour shifts and weekends. Inspectors also found that three of the drivers had been misclassified as contractors, rather than employees. Under the Passenger Vehicle Transportation Award, the Eagle Tours drivers were entitled to receive as much as $38.94 an hour on weekends and $48.68 on public holidays. The flat rates resulted in underpayment of their casual loadings, overtime rates, and penalty rates for weekend, public holiday, night and early morning work.

Automated vehicles bring new challenges for data access and insurance The National Transport Commission (NTC) recently released two policy papers on the future regulation of automated vehicles (AVs) in Australia. The papers consider the coverage of motor accident injury insurance for AV crashes and government access to Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) AV data.

4 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

Between November 2012 and February 2014, the four drivers were underpaid a total of $46,012, with individual amounts ranging from $7,982 to $15,960. Fair Work Ombudsman Sandra Parker said that the regulator is cracking down on companies that misclassify employees as independent contractors. “If employers misclassify employees as independent contractors to avoid their lawful obligations or to pay employees low flat rates that undercut the minimum wage, they face serious consequences such as court action, hefty back-payment bills and penalties,” Ms Parker said. Judge Robert Cameron rejected Eagle Tours’ submission that the breaches were due to a lack of awareness of its obligations under workplace laws. “All the relevant actions were intentional and not accidental. They were, for present purposes, deliberate,” Judge Cameron said. Judge Cameron said there was a need to impose a penalty to “discourage other businesses from believing that all bus drivers may be hired as contractors regardless of the true nature of their engagement.”

At the Transport and Infrastructure Council meeting held during August, Ministers agreed on the need for a national approach to the application of motor accident injury insurance to AVs. This reflects strong support from governments, insurers, manufacturers and other stakeholders for a consistent approach to ensure that no person is worse off if injured in an automated vehicle crash. Ministers also recognised that C-ITS and AV technology will generate new data that could be used for a range of public benefits and noted the importance of safeguarding the privacy of individuals. NTC Executive Leader, Future Technologies, Marcus Burke said that

Eagle Tours operates bus hire and coach charter services, which included a shuttle bus service for Transport Sydney Trains’ employees at the time of the contraventions. The four workers have been back-paid in full. Employers and employees seeking assistance can visit www.fairwork.gov.au or call the Fair Work Infoline on 13 13 94. An interpreter service is available on 13 14 50.

automated vehicles offer significant potential safety and mobility benefits. But Australians will not be able to access these benefits unless we have a legal framework in place for their safe operation. “There is a need to provide access to compensation for injuries caused by an automated driving system, while ensuring that responsible parties remain liable. This will provide certainty to industry and the public.” “There is also potential for government access to C-ITS to improve decision-making and deliver benefits to the public, but this access needs to be balanced with sufficient privacy protections. “These are important issues that need to be addressed to support the safe deployment of automated vehicles in Australia”, Mr Burke said. The NTC will take recommendations to ministers by November 2020 on all key legislative policy elements required to support a nationally-consistent approach to the commercial deployment of AVs in Australia. For more information please see the Regulating government access to C-ITS and automated vehicle data and Motor accident injury insurance and automated vehicles pages on the NTC website: www.ntc.gov.au



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Home-grown technology set to reduce car breakdowns globally Melbourne-based technology company Intelematics is set to reduce car breakdowns for local drivers as it readies to launch its connected vehicle software that predicts vehicle faults in the Australian market. The connected vehicle software is designed for auto clubs and has already helped reduce breakdowns on British roads after a successful trial in the United Kingdom through its premier auto club, The Automobile Association (AA). Intelematics’ Chief Operating Officer, Stephen Owens, says that the company is proud of its rich history of local innovation. “We are thrilled to be exporting our leading technology to the world and now making it available in Australia. Australian drivers will greatly benefit from our locally developed technology that has taken off on the world stage. “European legislative requirements – mandating connected vehicle technology – are having a flow-on effect here, with Australian auto clubs turning their attention more and more toward the role smart

vehicle technology can play for their business model. We are starting to see demand for smart vehicle products locally, which will greatly benefit drivers,” said Mr Owens. In Australia, auto clubs attend to over 5.6 million call-outs per year. By preventing breakdowns, Intelematics’ technology will increase the productivity of auto clubs by reducing call outs and minimising lost time on the road. The connected vehicle software will automatically send information about a fault directly to the auto club, explaining what is wrong and where the driver is, helping the auto club address the problem faster by sending out a patrol with the right parts to get the driver back on the road quicker than before. AA Chief Executive Officer, Simon Breakwell, says this Australian-born technology (which the AA has labelled Smart Breakdown) is changing the way the auto club interacts with its customers, bringing significant benefits to its business.

Sydney public transport: it’s an Uber ‘appening

Southern Hemisphere to benefit from up to date public transport information within its ride sharing app. This collaboration will help people make better decisions on how to get around the city and reduce congestion on our roads,’ said Andrew Constance, Minister for Transport and Roads. ‘The journey is no longer about a single mode of transport, it’s about a combination of modes to get to your destination in the most convenient way,’ he continued. ‘Linking public transport options with the Uber app was only possible due to the Government’s long-term commitment to open data and technology and we look forward to seeing what other initiatives emerge in future.’ Next up for the Transport for NSW / Uber relationship is to add public transport ticketing and payment functionality inside the Uber app. There’s no implementation date for that as yet, but it is being worked on.

by Scott Fitzgerald Sydney Uber users now have another transport mode to choose from, with public transport options now appearing as an option in users’ trips. That makes Sydney the fourth city in the world with this marriage of Uber app and public transport routes and timetables, following implementation in Denver and Boston in the USA, and London in the UK. When users type in their desired pickup location and destination, Public Transport will appear as an option, along with closest transport hubs, timetable, and pricing information. ‘We welcome the decision by Uber to choose Sydney as the first city in the

6 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

“The ground-breaking Smart Breakdown offering means that we can now be on the front foot with our customers – providing real value to them. We no longer have to wait for them to interact with us – we can now interact with them to make their life easier. “The AA is differentiating itself through investment in innovation to create simple and smart products, delivered by goldstandard service, that make members’ driving lives easier. By using data and new, smarter technologies, we can offer our members the enhanced digital roadside products they need and want,” said Mr Breakwell. Intelematics’ connected vehicle software will be available to Australian fleets and auto clubs later this year. For further information, please visit: www.intelematics.com

ABOUT INTELEMATICS Intelematics delivers the intelligence behind connected services to keep people moving. Since its establishment in 1999, Intelematics has continually been at the forefront of the telematics industry with a presence in Australia, North America and Europe. Intelematics’ expertise is delivered via a suite of scalable, multi-tenanted solutions. This includes connected transportation services such as real time insights and predictive services, connected motoring applications on vehicle dashboards and specialist safety and security services.

ABOUT THE AUTOMOBILE ASSOCIATION The AA, originally The Automobile Association) is a British motoring association founded in 1905, which currently provides car insurance, driving lessons, breakdown cover, loans, motoring advice, road maps and other services. It is the UK’s largest motoring association with more than 15 million members.


9th International Conference on WeighIn-Motion to be held in Melbourne, Australia The Board of the International Society for Weigh-In-Motion (ISWIM) is pleased to announce the 9th International Conference on Weigh-in-Motion (ICWIM9) will be held in 2023 in Melbourne Australia. ICWIM9 is an international conference designed to address the broad range of topics related to on-road and in-vehicle weigh-in-motion technology, its research, installation and operation, and use of mass data across variable end-uses. Along with an exhibition and demonstrations program, ICWIM9 promises to be a great event. Mr Chris Koniditsiotis, ISWIM President said “ICWIM conferences are held every three to four years and as such represent milestone events in reporting and bearing

witness to major advances in both the ability to collect mass information, and its use in better designing, maintaining, and operating infrastructure and transport networks.” “As with our previous eight conferences, ISWIM underscores the importance of stakeholder participation and interdisciplinary collaboration.” “It is particularly pleasing for me that Melbourne was selected by the ISWIM members, as it brings ICWIM9 – this

important event for the first time to Australia. Australian governments and industry have worked over many years to increase the productivity and safety of heavy vehicle operations. The collection and use of mass information has been a key enabler to achieving this,” Mr Koniditsiotis said. ISWIM will provide relevant detail including opportunities for partnership and sponsorships closer to the event. For more information, please visit: www.is-wim.org

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No keys to this future: Millennials ditch cars for transit Australian millennials are taking longer to get a driving licence and using public transport more, findings from an international study led by Monash University show. This study was the first to compare the travel behaviour of young adults at different life stages and income levels in some of the world’s most cosmopolitan cities – Melbourne, Brisbane, London, New York and Atlanta. Other UK metropolitan areas, such as the West Midlands, were also analysed. Researchers from Monash University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Oxford, University of Leeds and Georgia Institute of Technology collaborated on the study, published in the international journal Cities. All cities, apart from New York, recorded a substantial increase in transit kilometres taken by millennials over the past 10 to 15 years – with Brisbane the highest at 66 per cent and Melbourne increasing strongly by 45 per cent. Although auto travel by young adults in Brisbane increased slightly over time (16 per cent), auto kilometres travelled in Melbourne was almost the same as it was in the early 1990s. This may reflect the steady decrease in young Victorians getting a driving licence, from 76 per cent in 2000 to 57 per cent in 2018. “At this rate, only half of 18 to 23-yearolds in Melbourne will get a licence by 2025,” said Dr Alexa Delbosc, lead researcher and Senior Lecturer in Civil Engineering at Monash University. “The transport patterns of young people partly emerge from wider economic, social, environmental and political trends affecting the population at large. “But equally important, our study suggests that investments in transit infrastructure are critical if we want to see young people turn away from car travel.” Research data was drawn from annual household travel surveys of tens of thousands of young people worldwide. Findings showed transit use in Melbourne had increased 45 per cent since the 1990s, closely following significant increases in transit services delivered. The increases in transit use were greatest among low-income earners, but interestingly, parents of young children also saw a strong increase in transit use over time.

10 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

“The greatest increase in transit services were investments in Melbourne’s high-frequency SmartBus network,” Dr Delbosc said. “We also saw big increases in train patronage, reflecting strong growth in jobs and housing in the city centre.” Brisbane’s transit supply increased more than any other case study region, with a 40 per cent increase in service kilometres since the early 2000s when the city rolled out its bus rapid transit network (the South Eastern, Northern and Eastern Busways). This change is a key explanation for the significant increase in transit use among students. “However, it appears that the transit supplied isn’t serving the needs of young adults in later life stages. Transit use in Brisbane shows the largest demographic gap of any case study, with students travelling 3862 more kilometres each year than parents of children,” Dr Delbosc said. London had a 47 per cent decrease in auto kilometres, and 22 per cent increase in transit kilometres. The modernisation of the ‘London Overground’ and the introduction of the London Congestion Charge in 2003 – and subsequent price increase in 2016 – are behind this transit trend in British youth. The UK metropolitan areas also saw a 34 per cent jump in transit kilometres. New York was the only city to experience a significant decrease in transit kilometres travelled. This was despite a boarding increase between 1990 and 2010. Location played the most important role in transport decision-making, with many inner-city dwellers frequently using the service but travelling shorter distances. Atlanta had the highest auto kilometres of any case study city, but also experienced a jump in transit kilometres taken (16 per cent).

Dr Delbosc said cities needed to explore the role transit investments played in supporting the travel needs of young adults. In almost every city, investing in transit increased its use among young adults. Yet in Melbourne and Brisbane, transit service kilometres have levelled off or decreased since 2011, while the population continues to grow strongly. “There is little doubt that as millennials start to age and start their own families, they’re likely to adopt more car-oriented travel habits,” Dr Delbosc said. “But there’s evidence to show that being exposed to transit at a young age can influence travel behaviour much later in life. Investment in transit must keep up with this demand.” The research, titled ‘Millennials in cities: Comparing travel behaviour trends across six case study regions’, was led by Dr Delbosc with support from Dr Noreen McDonald (UNC), Gordon Stokes (Oxford), Professor Karen Lucas (Leeds), Dr Giovanni Circella and Yongsung Lee (Georgia Tech). To download a copy of the study, please visit: https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0264275118306930

“... it appears that the transit supplied isn’t serving the needs of young adults in later life stages. Transit use in Brisbane shows the largest demographic gap of any case study, with students travelling 3862 more kilometres each year than parents of children.”


Forescout reveals risk of enterprise IoT devices utilising unencrypted protocols Forescout Technologies, Inc., a leader in device visibility and control, has announced new research, “Rise of the Machines: Transforming Cybersecurity Strategy for the Age of IoT”, which investigates how surveillance cameras, smart lights, and other Internet of Things (IoT) devices within smart buildings could be attacked by cyber criminals and how to mitigate those attacks. Elisa Costante, Sr. Director of Forescout Research Labs, said, “Today’s connected world is made up of billions of devices that use a myriad of operating systems and network protocols to exchange data across industries and boundaries. We created Forescout Research Labs to explore the security implications of this hyper-connected world and research the associated threats and risks coming from these devices.” To demonstrate the cyber risks of a smart building, Forescout Research Labs set up a real-world smart building environment containing video surveillance, smart lighting, and other IoT devices, and analysed how an attacker could obtain initial access to this network and some of the attacks they could implement for each subsystem.

The research highlights the following findings: • Many IoT devices, including surveillance cameras, are set up by default to communicate over unencrypted protocols, allowing for traffic sniffing and tampering of sensitive information. • Forescout Research Labs demonstrated how sensitive information could be tampered with using surveillance cameras commonly used by enterprises. Researchers successfully replaced a network video recorder’s footage with previously recorded fake content. • Compromising the video surveillance system is an example of a cyber-physical attack. • A search on Shodan pulled up nearly 4.7 million devices that could be potentially impacted by using these unencrypted protocols. “We are at the forefront of the IT/OT convergence that brings massive benefits to enterprises, but unfortunately it also comes with an increased level of cyber risk,” said Costante. “You can expect to hear more from our team as we set out on a mission to educate the market on how to protect businesses and infrastructures from the bad actors that leverage device, network, and protocol vulnerabilities to damage or disrupt their functions.” Forescout Research Labs will leverage unique insights and data gathered from the Forescout Device Cloud, which is one of the world’s largest crowd-sourced device repositories and now contains more than 10 million devices from nearly 1,200 customers who share anonymised device insights. Read the blog and the full report at: www.forescout.com to learn more about the research into how IoT devices can be leveraged as an entry point to a building’s network.

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NEW APPLICATIONS AND FEATURES OF THE NATIONAL TELEMATICS FRAMEWORK In keeping with the evolving nature of transport technology and shifting demands from road managers, regulators, transport operators and other stakeholders, Transport Certification Australia (TCA) is introducing new applications of the National Telematics Framework to support productivity, safety and efficiency. This means offering quality yet cost-effective ways to support schemes that use applications on behalf of road managers, regulators and other parties. In November 2018, TCA received approval of a business case presented to the Transport and Infrastructure Council (TIC) for new applications and features of the National Telematics Framework. Since then, road managers, regulators, technology providers and transport operators have rapidly taken advantage of these new applications and features that drive productivity and safety reforms, while reducing costs. TCA’s business case was informed by extensive consultation with road managers, regulators, peak industry bodies and the telematics sector. Through this consultative process, it was clear there was a demand for other applications to manage heavy vehicle access and network use at the right level of assurance that met stakeholder needs. This meant adopting applications with lower levels of assurance, suitable to monitor lower risk road use activities.

12 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

COVER STORY A stakeholder report accompanying the business case consolidated stakeholder feedback that identified 16 initiatives which deliver benefits across the following stakeholder groups: road managers, regulators, technology providers, transport operators and drivers. The initiatives included: • New applications of the National Telematics Framework, including the Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) application (Level 1 assurance) and the Telematics Monitoring Application (TMA) (Level 2 assurance) • Enhancements that relate specifically to the Level 3 assurance Intelligent Access Program (IAP) application, to improve efficiency and reduce costs • New features usable across applications of the National Telematics Framework, for example applications supporting real time navigation and guidance on restricted access vehicle routes. With the introduction of RIM and TMA, road managers and regulators now have a choice of three separate access applications, including IAP, to cater for different infrastructure capacity and operational risks.

How RIM Works RIM enables the collection of road use data from a vehicle fitted with a telematics device through a service provider. The data is de-identified and aggregated. It can be used with other applications of the National Telematics Framework, where needed, to meet the conditions and requirements of road managers. RIM allows TCA to produce specialised reports on road usage, for example heavy vehicle traffic across a bridge, peak times of travel on certain routes, average vehicle

speed at a particular location, or common stopping places for rest breaks. These and other types of relevant data available through RIM can help inform road managers with transport maintenance, planning and investment decisions. Through RIM, governments and local governments may also be better informed to anticipate the risks of urban encroachment on high access routes for high productivity heavy vehicles and to apply the right futurefocused infrastructure planning.

Using telematics to inform road use management, planning and investment The Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) application is a new offering that provides an efficient, standardised way of collecting and analysing telematics data from heavy vehicles. By focusing on ‘big data’ from a large number of vehicles, road managers are able to better understand the planning, investment, maintenance and other needs of their road networks.

RIM creates the data that allows us to visualise the way participating vehicles use the road network – both at a whole-of network level, but also right down to the level of individual roads and bridges.

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 13


In a nutshell, through RIM, road infrastructure managers can: » Get de-identified telematics data about heavy vehicle use on the road network » Make better investment decisions on road use through specialised reports » Have a single point of access for valuable telematics road use data. An example of how RIM can be used to support industry knowledge is the is the joint research as covered in the report that TCA and the Australian Road Transport Suppliers Association (ARTSA) released at the 2019 Brisbane Truck Show. The joint report is on the network-wide usage of Performance-Based Standards (PBS) vehicles enrolled in applications of the National Telematics Framework. The network-wide analysis of vehicle movements across the research period provides rich insights to the freight industry, heavy vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, road managers and regulators on the use of PBS vehicles on Australia’s road network. “This is the first time we have produced this research arising from discussions with TCA on how we could collaborate and explore how using telematics data would be of value to ARTSA members, the relevant stakeholders, TCA and the broader community,’ said Martin Toomey, Chair of the ARTSA Board. “Our joint research is an example of how applications of the National Telematics Framework can be used in the future to better understand vehicle and road network use,” said Mr Toomey.

Using the power of telematics to drive access, productivity and safety In August, TCA released details of how road managers and regulators are using the new applications and features of the National Telematics Framework to drive productivity and safety reforms, while reducing costs. Application

Access arrangement


Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) application

Safety, Productivity, Construction and Environment Transport Scheme (SPECTS)

Greater Sydney

PBS A-Double combinations Telematics Monitoring Application (TMA)

Tasmania Special Purpose Vehicles (SPVs)

Telematics Monitoring Application (TMA) with Intelligent Mass Functionality

High Productivity Freight Vehicles (HPFVs)


Hill Descent Monitoring (HDM) application

Category 7 (A) AB-Triple combinations

Western Australia

HILL DESCENT MONITORING (HDM) – WESTERN AUSTRALIA The HDM application was introduced as a new safety application of the National Telematics Framework in December 2018. The new application monitors heavy vehicle speed on long or steep descents, as well as identifying if a vehicle has stopped before descending a hill (to indicate if drivers have performed brake safety checks and engaged low gear). Main Roads WA is using the HDM application to trial the operation of Category 7 (A) AB-Triple combinations travelling down Roelands Hill on the Coalfields Highway. The HDM application allows Main Roads WA to confirm that vehicles participating in the trial have stopped in the bay at the top of Roelands Hill to check brakes, engage low gear, and not exceed a speed of 40km/h when descending Roelands Hill. Significantly, Main Roads WA will extend the approved network for Category 7 (A) AB-Triple combinations participating in the trial from the section of Coalfields Highway already approved (to the South Western Highway) – as shown over the page. These extended access arrangements along the Coalfields Highway – between the Rest Area - Road Train Assembly Area and the South Western Highway – will open up access for vehicles travelling through to Bunbury without the need to break down. To participate in the trial, vehicles must be: • Installed with a type-approved telematics In-Vehicle Unit (IVU) which can support the HDM application • Enrolled in the HDM application through a Certified Service Provider. The use of the HDM application by Main Roads WA demonstrates how advancements to productivity and safety can be realised – offering benefits to road managers, regulators and the transport sector. It allows for new, innovative approaches to be adopted to manage the safe operation of heavy vehicles traversing long or steep descents. Further information on the trial can be obtained from the Main Roads WA website, or by contacting the Heavy Vehicle Helpdesk on 138 486 or by email to: hvs@mainroads.wa.gov.au

14 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019




From 8 July 2019, it is now easier and more cost effective for eligible vehicles to participate in the scheme.

‘Intelligent Mass’ defines the performance requirements for technology providers to combine mass data with other telematics data in a standardised and consistent manner, and builds upon the capabilities offered by type-approved On-Board Mass (OBM) Systems, which provide high levels of accuracy, reliability and robustness in the measurement of vehicle mass.

Operators can now use existing telematics systems and will simply need to participate in the Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) application with Transport Certification Australia (TCA). This involves filling out a participation form and sending data files in an approved format to TCA. It is important to note all individual data is held, secured and protected by TCA’s legal and privacy obligations. Only de-identified, aggregated data is used for reporting purposes to Roads and Maritime Services and participating local councils. The SPECTS Business Rules set out the administrative framework and additional obligations for participants. Participants must comply with the Business Rules as a condition of operating under the Notice.

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY FREIGHT VEHICLES (HPFVS) – VICTORIA The requirements for HPFVs operating in Victoria were updated in July to reflect the availability of type-approved On-Board Mass (OBM) systems. Although the use of an approved OBM system has been foreshadowed since HPFVs were first introduced in Victoria, the requirement was waived until such time as OBM systems which met the performance-based requirements set by TCA became available. The updated requirements for HPFVs include the fitment of Category B and C type-approved OBM Systems – which are a pre-requisite for Intelligent Mass functionality. Compared with Category A type-approval, Categories B and C allows mass data to be collected and transmitted for use in any application of the National Telematics Framework. TCA is currently progressing type-approvals received from OBM suppliers for Category B and C OBM Systems.

TCA announced new Intelligent Mass functionality through the National Telematics Framework in March 2019.

The Australian Standard for bridge assessment (AS 5100.7:2017), developed in conjunction with Austroads and released in 2017, highlights how collecting mass and configuration data through telematics applications can change the way bridge loading calculations are performed. Intelligent Mass can unlock heavy vehicle access constraints – which are often influenced by the outcomes of bridge assessments – by empowering road managers to make improved access decisions based on the availability of vehicle location, configuration and mass data.

Leveraging the capabilities of the National Telematics Framework Each of the new applications and features leverage the digital business infrastructure provided through the National Telematics Framework. TCA has released an updated suite of documents to provide greater clarity to road managers and regulators, technology providers and transport operators. With the Framework now in use across a diversity of policy areas, industry sectors and end-users, it's crucial that key components of the Framework are understood by all stakeholders. The updated suite of documents includes: • National Telematics Framework • Business Rules • Telematics Data Dictionary • Telematics Data Exchange • Levels of Assurance • Application Builder Together, these documents present the inter-related components which underpin the operation of the National Telematics Framework, which allows technology providers to link road managers, regulators and transport operators by offering applications with different levels of assurance to co-exist. The documents also highlight how the Framework enables outcomes to be achieved, which would not otherwise be possible without appropriate guidance from government. For example, providing an open technology market with expected levels of interoperability depends on a number of inter-related components of the Framework, including the Business Rules of the

Framework, the Telematics Data Dictionary and the Telematics Data Exchange. A new addition to the updated suite of documents is the Application Builder document. Targeted specifically for road managers and regulators, it demonstrates how new applications can be easily created by referencing the common components available through the Framework.

Digital infrastructure to support the new applications A centrepiece of the National Telematics Framework, and the ability to support all the new applications and features of the Framework is the Telematics Data Exchange. The Telematics Data Exchange specifies the standard methods and mechanisms for Business-to-Business (B2B) data exchange within telematics applications of the National Telematics Framework. It covers the standard business documents and reporting artefacts that are exchanged, and provides interoperability and consistency in the deployment and use of telematics applications. By providing common rules for B2B data exchange, multiple applications will use the same mechanisms to communicate and can be deployed by technology providers at a lower cost. The Telematics Data Exchange contains: • Standard document types and reporting artefacts used in telematics applications • Business data model and associated formats and encoding • Data exchange mechanisms used to transfer them between participants. The Telematics Date Exchange specification is intended for use by technology providers to develop the capability to communicate within the National Telematics Framework. TCA has developed a test system that can be used to test implementation of the RESTful API described in the specification. The test system allows technology providers to test sending any of the documents described in the Telematics Date Exchange, including data records, enrolment forms and enrolment reports. Technology providers can get access to the test suite by emailing: tde@tca.gov.au

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 15

IT’S TIME Australia is moving to MASH tested Crash Cushions on December 31st 2019 and the time to prepare, is NOW!


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With this date rapidly approaching, NOW IS THE TIME to start preparing for this critical transition.

SMART CUSHION has been ASSESSED, APPROVED & RECOMMENDED FOR ACCEPTANCE throughout Australia by ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel). SMART CUSHION has been used in the USA for almost two decades and in Australia for over 5 years.


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According to the Austroads / ASBAP ‘Transition to MASH’ process, tenders called for new crash cushions installed on Australian roads after December 31st 2019, will require them to be tested and approved under the AASHTO MASH guidelines, rather than the superseded NCHRP350 guidelines.

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SMART CUSHION is the ONLY crash cushion to have passed both the NCHRP350 and MASH-2016 crash test standards.



For most impacts up to 100km/h (by vehicles up to 2,270kg) the SMART CUSHION can usually be repaired and reinstated into service in under 60 minutes.


In 90% of all impacts in Australia, the only spare structural parts needed for repairs are 2 shear pins (COST <$5). After 59 impacts in Australia, the average cost for each reset was $169.


After more than 20 years of successful service internationally and over 5 years successful service in Australia, SMART CUSHION has been directly credited with saving numerous lives and signiďŹ cantly reducing the severity of injuries in literally thousands of impacts.

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Another precast concrete ‘Superload’ on the way from NVC Precast’s facility in Kilmore to Melbourne for use in the Rail Crossing Removal Program.

OLI VIBRATORS HELPS NVC PRECAST DELIVER THE GOODS FOR RAIL PROJECTS As one of Australia’s leading suppliers of specialist vibrators for concrete, OLI Vibrators works with concrete construction specialists, including precasters, across the country to develop vibratory solutions to meet their specific needs. From vibrating ‘pokers’ and high performance electric and pneumatic vibrators for moulds and formwork, through to the latest state-of-the-art radio-controlled Variable Speed Drives, OLI has provided vibratory equipment for hundreds of projects across Australia – including some of the country’s largest, most high-profile projects. In one recent project, the team from OLI Vibrators worked with Victorian precast concrete specialists NVC Precast to design, supply and install a vibratory solution for the company’s L-Beam production line, which had been set up to produce the massive precast elements required for Melbourne’s Mernda Rail Extension and Level Crossing Removal Projects. Established in 1989 in Kilmore, approximately 60kms north of Melbourne, North-Vic Constructions – now known as NVC Precast – has firmly positioned itself at the forefront of precast concrete manufacture across Victoria and southern New South Wales. From its earliest beginnings manufacturing precast bridge components, through to its more recent work, which includes the

18 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

production of massive precast concrete L-Beams for new rail lines and rail crossing removal projects across metropolitan Melbourne, NVC Precast has not only played a major role in supporting both employment and the economy in regional Victoria, it has also gained an enviable reputation for the quality of its work and excellent customer service. Indeed, NVC Precast has been awarded for its work by both the CCF (Civil Contractors Federation) Victoria and VicRoads. Not surprisingly, the company’s focus on quality has played a major role in its ongoing success and growth. NVC Precast’s General Manager, Steve Reilly, explained: “From the outset, our primary goal has always been to produce high quality products that meet even the strictest specifications and the clients’ tight construction deadlines.” “While quality and performance are clearly important for any precast components, when it comes to precast elements for major infrastructure projects, ensuring that the product meets all required standards and specifications is critical,” he said. “When it comes to major projects, especially major infrastructure projects, failure is simply not an option. Everything has to be right,” he added. “Every product we deliver needs to be able to perform as expected for its projected design life.”

OLI Vibrators supplied an array of 111 MVE1300/65 high frequency electric vibrators, which were fitted to the external surfaces of the moulds and connected to four 24-output multi-output radio controlled high frequency variable speed drives, with eight 12-output distribution terminal boxes.

While there are a number of key factors in ensuring that every precast element meets the required specifications – including mould design, the design and fabrication of the reinforcement, and concrete mix design – achieving the required level of concrete


Representing the latest in state-of-theart VSD technology, the variable speed drives allow the operators to remotely control both the frequency and intensity of the vibrations during each pour.

consolidation during the pour is of paramount importance. Eliminating voids, particularly around reinforcing steel and prestressing strand in detailed areas within a mould, helps to ensure that the finished concrete will perform as intended in both the short- and long-term. One of the most commonly-used and effective methods of achieving concrete consolidation is to use vibration – either in the form of vibrating ‘pokers’ which are inserted directly into the freshly poured concrete, or for precast elements, external vibrators which are attached directly to the mould. And that’s where OLI Vibrators comes in. “When it comes to precast concrete manufacture, the more complex the geometry of the component, or the more intricate or dense the reinforcing, the more difficult it is to ensure that the concrete flows around the reinforcing and throughout the mould without leaving any voids,” Steve Reilly said. “What’s more, this challenge gets exponentially more difficult as the mould increases in size.” “When we started out, the majority of our work involved producing precast planks and T-beams for small, mostly rural bridges. In 2009 a new T-beam bed was built allowing the manufacture of beams up to 1800mm deep by 42m long.” “In 2017 we were awarded the contract to produce L-Beams for the new Mernda Rail extension, with an average length of 25 to 31 metres, and weighing in at anywhere from 100 to 125 tonnes” he said. “When it came to developing the moulds for the L-beams, we got together with the team at OLI to provide us with a suitable vibratory solution,” Steve added. Together with the sheer scale of the moulds, and complexity of the L-Beam design, another major challenge was the limited lead time available before production was to begin.

“The available time-frame for establishing the new L-Beam production line was extremely tight,” Steve said. “We had to build the moulds and get everything ready for production - including getting the required vibratory solution designed, installed and operational - as soon as possible so we could commence production.” “The team from OLI worked with our designers and production team to come up with the appropriate solution. They were then were able get all of the equipment delivered, installed and operational within the required time-frame,” he added. Part of the global WAMGROUP and WOLONG MOTOR CO., OLI has been at the forefront of vibration technology since 1961 and is one of Australia’s leading suppliers of specialist vibrators for concrete construction. OLI produces an array of vibratory equipment to suit all manner of concrete applications, from electric highfrequency vibrators (both with and without in-built frequency converters), through to

pneumatic and electric vibrators for use with concrete moulds and formwork (both steel and wooden), as well as a range of high performance, multi-output high frequency variable speed drives. OLI Vibrators solutions for NVC Precast’s L-Beam moulds incorporated an array of 111 MVE1300/65 high frequency electric vibrators, which were fitted to the external surfaces of the moulds and connected to four 24-output multi-output radio controlled high frequency variable speed drives, with eight 12-output distribution terminal boxes. Representing the latest in state-of-the-art VSD technology, the variable speed drives allow the operators to remotely control both the frequency and intensity of the vibrations during each pour. OLI also supplied an additional 20 OPCV6000CW pneumatic vibrators for NVC Precast. Due to the success of the external vibration, and the unique shape of the mould high frequency pokers were not required to be used in the L-Beam production. Not surprisingly, NVC Precast’s success with the Mernda rail extension project played a significant role in the company subsequently being awarded contracts for the production of L Beams – including some units that are ‘stitched’ together in the Precast Yard at Kilmore to form U-Troughs weighing up to 280 tonnes for delivery to site – for sections of Melbourne’s Level Crossing Removal Program. In fact, with almost 500 units produced to date, NVC Precast is currently producing L-Beams for the level crossing removal works in Reservoir in Melbourne’s northern suburbs, and Carrum in the south. For further information, please visit: www.olivibrators.com.au

Comprising two L-Beams ‘stitched’ together to form a U-Trough, these massive components weigh up to 280-tonnes.

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 19

Strategically located just north of the Melbourne metro area, NVC Precast’s Kilmore facility is ideally located to supply products across Victoria, southern NSW and South Australia.


NORTH-VIC CONSTRUCTIONS REBRANDS TO NVC PRECAST For over 30 years the name North-Vic Constructions has been synonymous with the provision of high quality products and services focused on the design and construction of bridges and associated infrastructure for the Victorian and New South Wales markets. From its humble beginnings, the company rapidly gained an enviable reputation for quality, and has grown to become a leading provider of precast concrete planks, beams and other elements to some of Victoria’s

20 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

largest infrastructure projects. Indeed, specialist precast concrete production now accounts for the majority of its business. In recognition of that fact, North-Vic Constructions has now rebranded to NVC Precast. “We have recently changed our name from North-Vic Constructions to NVC Precast because it acknowledges the significant investment the company has made in precast capabilities,” explained NVC Precast General Manager, Steve Reilly.

“Our investment in our precast production processes and facilities over the past 15 years has led precast concrete to now be the most significant part of our business, and we’ll feel that the new name better reflects that focus,” he said. Located in Kilmore, 60kms north of Melbourne, NVC Precast’s purpose-built precast facility specialises in all precast and prestressed concrete elements, including: T-Beams, PSC Planks, L-Beams, PSRC Piles, Headstocks, columns, and many other products for the civil infrastructure market. Not surprisingly, this comprehensive product offering and production flexibility, coupled with their extensive industry expertise, focus on customer service, and production capacity has seen NVC Precast grow to become one of the leading concrete precaster’s in the market. “We have grown organically in parallel with the expertise of our people and consultants, allowing the company to take on a number of large contracts - mostly completed in-house - with a specialisation of completing much of it in precast,” Steve Reilly said. “Importantly, our strategy for NVC Precast moving forward is simple, and reflects a continuation of the strategies that got us to where we are today. Our intimate knowledge of the construction industry is the


of todays construction deadlines. “Our array of casting beds offer a level of production capacity and flexibility to service all of our clients, from a single span, single lane prestressed, post-tensioned plank structures, to large projects requiring prestressed reinforced concrete piles, piers, crossheads and beams for road and rail.

Features of the NVC Precast facility

cornerstone of our precasting success, with a focus on production variability and flexibility to allow for any changes in construction conditions experienced by our clients.” “With that in mind, we’ll be continuing to focus on using effective planning and robust manufacturing processes to deliver exceptional quality and product consistency to meet the client’s construction programs,” he added. “We pride ourselves on providing quality products on time, and at scale with some of the best capability in the market.”

The civil construction industry, when coupled with in-line design, is a vibrant, timecritical and ever-changing sector. To meet these challenges, NVC Precast specialises in short to medium production runs, allowing the time and capacity to run multiple projects concurrently. The company’s team of engineers and technical specialists, together with its in-house drafting and steel fabrication services, ensures it has the capability to achieve quick-response mould changeovers and production, providing the rapid turnarounds necessary to meet the demands

“We have grown organically in parallel with the expertise of our people and consultants, allowing the company to take on a number of large contracts - mostly completed in-house - with a specialisation of completing much of it in precast.”

• 25,000m2 of Engineered hardstand storage • Crawler cranes from 55 tonnes to 280 tonnes lifting capacity • 1800mm deep x 80m long, radiant heat cured “T” Beam prestress bed serviced by two 50-tonne gantry cranes, within an 8,000m2 purpose built building • 900mm deep x 60m long bed designed for both T-Beams, Planks and inverted U-slabs • Two 750mm deep x 600mm wide beds designed for Planks and Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Piles • 2,400m2 building for precast and steel fabrication serviced by two 20-tonne gantry cranes • 2200mm deep x 115.0m long radiant heat cured “L” Beam, prestress bed serviced by two 80-tonne gantry cranes. • In-house design, drafting, shop detailing and steel fabrication • Strategically located just north of the Melbourne metro area, NVC Precast’s Kilmore facility is ideally located to supply products across Victoria, southern NSW and South Australia Innovations in design and precast concrete construction are providing a plethora of solutions, allowing designers and contractors more freedom in creating aesthetically pleasing structures. The advancements in precast concrete for the civil construction industry also provide construction companies with the freedom of building in environmentally sensitive areas with minimal risk. NVC Precast offers many years of experience in detailed concrete works and manufacturing to specification with strict process controls and tight tolerances. Between them, NVC Precast’s management team has in excess of 150 years construction and precast experience, providing a wealth of experience to every project it delivers. NVC Precast holds prequalification with VicRoads and RMS NSW, and is independently certified to AS/NZS ISO 9001:2016 (quality), AS/NZS ISO 14001:2016 (environment), AS/NZS 4801:2001 and ISO 45001:2018 (safety). For further information, please visit: www.nvcprecast.com.au

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 21


DESIGNED WITH A VIEW TO COMPACTION NEW DYNAPAC CC4200VI BOOSTS SAFETY AND PRODUCTIVITY WITH INNOVATE FEATURES As any equipment operator will tell you, next to ease-of-operation, one of the most critical factors with any piece of equipment is visibility. After all, if the operator can’t easily see what they’re doing or where they’re going, it can have a major impact on both the quality of the work and, perhaps most importantly, safety on the worksite.

The innovative new CC4200VI from Dynapac incorporates an array of features to boost performance, productivity and safety.

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Now, thanks to an innovative new tandem roller from global compaction and equipment specialists Dynapac, the problems with poor visibility from the operator cabin are a thing of the past. Speaking about the new Dynapac CC4200VI, Chris Parkin, National Product Manager with Australian Dynapac distributor

Construction Equipment Australia, explained that the cabin design represents a major step forward in both safety and operability. “Dynapac has been at the forefront of large asphalt roller design and manufacture since 1964, and over that time has not only been credited with a number of major innovations but has also gained an enviable reputation for ease-of-use and performance in the field. The CC4200VI, takes it to the next level.” “From the operator’s perspective alone, the fact that the seat and steering module can swivel a full 255 degrees in the cabin, means that the operator is always facing in the right direction. As well as providing the operator with an excellent view of the work, it also allows them to clearly see any obstacles or hazards in the path of the roller,” Chris Parkin added. To achieve this, the engineers at Dynapac set about totally redesigning the operator cabin. The seat and steering module can be swivelled and are slidable between the left side and right side of the roller. This makes it possible for the operator to slide over and see the drum edges in a more ergonomic way while remaining in full contact will all operator controls. The seat can be swivelled up to 255 degrees, allowing the operator to face fully to


The seat and operator controls can be swivelled up to 255 degrees, allowing the operator to face fully to the rear of the unit.

the rear of the unit – for all intents, eliminating the limitations of defined forward and reverse working directions. This innovative design delivers a significant boost in worksite safety, whilst also providing the operator with the same full contact/full control ergonomics when the roller is moving backwards as when it is moving forwards. Together with the intuitive, easy-tooperate control panel, another key to the success of this new cabin design is the inclusion of an electronic mini-steering wheel that makes it even easier to steer the roller smoothly and accurately - taking the ergonomics and manoeuvrability to an even higher level. Accuracy is further enhanced thanks to the CC4200VI’s active front drum steering and drum off-set function. As well as providing outstanding manoeuvrability and control, being able to steer the front drum and off-set it by up to 520mm, makes it easy to compact around kerbs and other obstacles with outstanding accuracy. Needless to say, being an asphalt roller, it’s not just about the operator cabin and manoeuvrability – it’s also very much about the compaction. “The new CC4200VI is one of Dynapac’s ‘sixth generation’ machines, and while it delivers an array of new features capabilities, as with the previous generations of machines,

it hasn’t lost focus on the primary job at hand, namely, compaction,” Chris Parkin said. “These new machines continue Dynapac’s successful concept of providing a choice of high vibration frequency with low amplitude for compaction of thin asphalt layers. The new generation of double drum rollers can also be equipped with oscillation in place of conventional vibration” he added. High frequency compaction has long been an important feature on Dynapac asphalt rollers. Modern thin layer asphalt needs to be compacted fast because it cools off quickly. A higher amplitude will compact fast but might crush the aggregate material. Dynapac’s concept of using high vibration frequency with low amplitude delivers high efficiency and highly effective compaction on modern thin asphalt layers. Importantly, the inclusion of the rear oscillating drum will further protect not only the aggregate but also the general construction site from high vibration emissions, this can become very important when working near or on vibration sensitive buildings or installations. For more information, please visit: www.cea.net.au

“From the operator’s perspective alone, the fact that the seat and steering module can swivel a full 255 degrees in the cabin, means that the operator is always facing in the right direction. As well as providing the operator with an excellent view of the work, it also allows them to clearly see any obstacles or hazards in the path of the roller.”

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 23


“The support of the UNSW Hyperloop team perfectly matches Schaeffler’s digitalisation agenda locally. We’re constantly looking at ways to make industrial operations safer, more efficient, more productive and more costeffective through the collection and analysis of important data,” said Mr Kluge. “We decided to collaborate with UNSW Hyperloop because it’s important to support the future engineers of this country. Schaeffler places a high importance on education and pushing the boundaries of engineering excellence.”

A competition highlight: UNSW undergraduate engineers – who recently competed in the SpaceX Hyperloop pod competition – got to meet technology entrepreneur, Elon Musk.

SCHAEFFLER-SUPPORTED UNSW HYPERLOOP ENGINEERS EXCEL IN SPACEX HIGH-SPEED POD COMPETITION Schaeffler Australia – part of the global digitalisation and Industry 4.0 leading Schaeffler Group – is taking a further step to enhance ‘mobility for tomorrow’ through its support of the UNSW Hyperloop engineering team. UNSW Hyperloop – which comprises a team of undergraduate engineering students aspiring to innovate the future of high-speed travel – recently competed in the SpaceX Hyperloop pod competition, where they placed 7th overall – the best result for a newcomer to the competition. “As a company at the forefront of Industry 4.0 technologies, we are proud to partner with these bright young engineers, who have excelled in their first official Hyperloop pod competition,” said Mr Andre Kluge, Managing Director, Schaeffler Australia. The SpaceX Hyperloop pod competition’s goal is “to support the development of functional prototypes and encourage innovation by challenging student teams to design and build the best high-speed pod.” “In addition to placing 7th out of 21 teams, the UNSW Hyperloop team were the first ever

24 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

team to successfully complete a self-propelled test run at a first appearance at competition level. However, I think the highlight for many students was getting to meet Elon Musk in person!” said Mr Kluge.

SPACEX HYPERLOOP 2019 The SpaceX Hyperloop 2019 competition was judged on the entrant’s pod’s maximum speed reached, with successful deceleration (i.e. without crashing). All pods were self-propelled and had to use their own communication system. Previous winners of the competition have reached speeds of 284 mph (approx. 457 km/h) in SpaceX’s specially designed tunnel. 2019’s winner – Technical University of Munich – was also supported by Schaeffler, and managed to break that record and achieved 288 mph (463 km/h). Schaeffler Australia collects more than 40 million characteristic data points annually through its diverse suite of digital technologies, including condition monitoring devices for mining and resources, pumps, fans and machinery and wind turbines.

UNSW engineers show off their specially-designed pod for the 2019 SpaceX Hyperloop pod competition.

ABOUT SCHAEFFLER The Schaeffler Group is a leading global supplier to the automotive and industrial sectors. Its portfolio includes high-precision components and systems for engine, transmission, and chassis applications as well as rolling and plain bearing solutions for a large number of industrial applications. The Schaeffler Group is already shaping “Mobility for Tomorrow” to a significant degree with innovative and sustainable technologies for electric mobility, digitalization, and Industry 4.0. With around 90,500 employees, Schaeffler is one of the world’s largest family companies and, with approximately 170 locations in over 50 countries, has a worldwide network of manufacturing locations, research and development facilities, and sales companies. With more than 2,400 patent applications in 2018, Schaeffler is Germany’s second most innovative company according to the DPMA (German Patent and Trademark Office). The technology company generated sales of approximately EUR 14.2 billion in 2018. For more information visit: www.schaeffler.com.au





At A1 Roadlines we understand that our customers have a range of preferences when it comes to fleet vehicles. That’s why we fit and service the Scorpion II TMA across a full range of suitable host vehicles from world-leading manufacturers including ISUZU, UD, FUSO and HINO to name a few. So, when it comes to selecting a fully MASH tested, passed and eligible TMA that has also been ASSESSED, APPROVED & RECOMMENDED FOR ACCEPTANCE throughout Australia by ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel), the only name you need to remember is Scorpion II® TMA from A1 Roadlines. When it comes to the brand of host vehicle… that’s up to you!

THE EQUIPMENT YOU NEED – THE SERVICE YOU EXPECT A1 Roadlines Pty Ltd | 89 Rushdale Street, Knoxfield, Victoria 3180 | www.a1roadlines.com.au P: 1300 217 623 (A1ROAD) | F: (03) 9765 9499 | E: sales@a1roadlines.com.au


WORKFORCE TAKES DELIVERY OF NEW FLEET OF SCORPION® II TMAS In keeping with its focus on maximising safety for both roadworkers and road users, leading traffic management services company Workforce Road Services, together with the group’s Victorian arm Traffica Road Services, recently took delivery of a fleet of 13 new Truck Mounted Attenuators for use in road work zones throughout New South Wales, Queensland, and Victoria. As Australia’s largest provider of traffic management services, it’s hardly surprising that safety is at the forefront of everything that Workforce Road Services does – including purchasing new vehicles and equipment. This is particularly true when it comes to selecting key safety equipment, such as choosing the appropriate Truck

26 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

Mounted Attenuators (TMAs) to provide protection at road work zones, as well as for line marking and other traffic management operations. David Cook, NSW Manager with Workforce Road Services Pty Ltd, explained: “Safety is a primary consideration with everything we do.” “As a leader in our field, we’ve always placed great emphasis on safety, and have been responsible for many class-leading safety initiatives, including the introduction of Truck Mounted Attenuators and specialist Cone Laying Vehicles into our fleet,” he said. The use of Truck Mounted Attenuators (TMAs) - particularly in work zones adjacent to fast-moving traffic - is an extremely effective way of protecting the lives of road workers and motorists alike. TMAs are mounted to a shadow vehicle to protect the work crew in front of the vehicle, while at the same time providing a high level of impact protection for any motorist who may accidentally drive into the work lane. Lauded by road authorities, emergency workers and safety experts alike for their ability to absorb and dissipate energy during an impact, TMAs have been credited with

saving lives and reducing the severity of injuries to numerous workers and motorists both across Australia and around the world. “Truck Mounted Attenuators provide crucial frontline protection for all manner of road work zones,” David added. “From major road construction projects and smaller road repair sites, through to mobile work zones such as line marking and traffic management operations, TMAs provide protection for both workers in the work zone and road users passing the site.” While Truck Mounted Attenuators have been in use in Australia for almost twenty years, the ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel) ‘Transition to MASH’ process - a national harmonisation initiative which aims to ensure that all safety barriers and devices (including TMAs) comply with the updated Australian Standard AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 ‘Road safety barrier systems and devices’ - has ‘upped the ante’ in terms of testing and performance requirements. Under the ‘Transition to MASH’ process, all TMAs marketed and sold for use on Australian roads after December 31, 2020, will need to have been tested and approved to the strict


MASH (Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware) requirements, rather than the previous NCHRP350 testing standards. Building on the outstanding Australian and international success of the original Scorpion® Truck Mounted Attenuator, the Scorpion® II TMA was developed in response to the updated MASH testing and assessment guidelines. In fact, the Scorpion® II TMA was the world’s first Truck Mounted Attenuator tested, passed and eligible for MASH, TL-3 (tested at 100kph). Following its successful assessment by ASBAP as part of the ‘Transition to MASH’ process earlier in the year, the Scorpion® II TMA has also been approved and officially RECOMMENDED FOR ACCEPTANCE on Australian Roads. “When it comes to safety devices such as TMAs, making sure that the equipment you choose is ‘fit for purpose’, meets all of the required Standards and, perhaps most importantly, will perform as it’s supposed to in the event of an impact, is of paramount importance,” David Cook said. “After all, out on the worksite performance during an impact can, quite literally, be a matter of life or death.”

“Needless to say, as well as ensuring that any new TMAs we purchase are tested and approved to the latest MASH guidelines, we also needed to be sure that the new units will meet the ASBAP requirements and be fully-compliant with Australian Standards - not only for us, but also for our customers,” he said. “In fact, since the ‘Transition to MASH’ processes started, we’ve seen an extremely strong increase in demand for MASH tested and approved units from our customers, all of whom also want to ensure that all new equipment will meet all of the ASBAP requirements.” “For us, the Scorpion® II TMA ticks all of the boxes,” David added. “The fact that it’s tested and approved to MASH, as well as being approved and recommended for acceptance by ASBAP, made it an easy choice for us – especially given our extensive previous experience with the Scorpion® TMAs that we have out in the field, all of which continue to perform extremely well.” The thirteen new TMAs have been fitted to a fleet of new Isuzu FTR 150-260 cab-chassis units, each of which has been fitted with a custom A1 Roadlines tray body. The TMA trucks also feature a large directional arrow sign and a large, full-colour Variable Message Sign for maximum visibility. Eight of the Workforce Road Services units have been deployed in New South Wales, with a further two units deployed in Queensland. The remaining three units have been deployed in Victoria by Traffica Road Services. For further information on the Scorpion® II Truck Mounted Attenuator, please contact A1 Roadlines Pty Ltd, P: 1300 217 623 (1300 A1ROAD), E: janine@a1roadlines.com.au or visit the website: www.a1roadlines.com.au

QUICK & EASY TO DEPLOY The Scorpion® II TMA is extremely easy to use and fast to deploy in the field. Available to suit a wide variety of vehicle types and models, the Scorpion® II TMA’s compact design and balanced weight distribution minimises the impact on vehicle handling, while its ‘fold-over’ design helps to minimise the total vehicle height while in transit to and from the work zone, without having to compromise on performance in the field.

“When it comes to safety devices such as TMAs, making sure that the equipment you choose is ‘fit for purpose’, meets all of the required Standards and, perhaps most importantly, will perform as it’s supposed to in the event of an impact, is of paramount importance.” Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 27


BEWARE OF ‘FAKE NEWS’ With the move from NCHRP350 testing to MASH (Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware) as the preferred testing for Truck Mounted Attenuators (TMA’s) in Australia currently progressing there has been confusion amongst some equipment owners as to what equipment is compliant and, perhaps more importantly, what the status of their equipment will be after Australia moves to MASH as the testing standard.

The move by the Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel (ASBAP) towards MASH testing and certification is a complex process that will take some time to implement. The Panel is transitioning the current suite of accepted road safety barrier systems and devices within the Australasian market to MASH guidelines over an extended timeframe, with Part 2 Products (which includes TMA’s) to be completed by 31 December 2020.

This DOES NOT by any definition mean that non-MASH tested equipment is suddenly obsolete or can no longer be used. It also DOES NOT render TMA’s that have been previously approved as tested under NCHRP350 guidelines obsolete or unusable – to suggest otherwise is simply NOT TRUE.

While there is a formal agreement on the transition to MASH testing from NCHRP350 testing, there is NO CUT-OFF DATE for using equipment that has been certified under the NCHRP350 testing while it is operational – to suggest otherwise is simply NOT TRUE.

Even if a TMA is recommended for acceptance at an Austroads level by ASBAP, it must still be approved for use in individual jurisdictions by the relevant State Authority. The State Authorities are responsible for approving the use of TMA's in their individual jurisdiction.

This situation has no doubt been inflamed by the inaccurate information and spurious claims that have surfaced over the past 12 months – including claims that some units will no longer be permitted to be used after December 31, 2020. With that in mind, the following fact sheet has been developed to provide key FACTS as to the current status of the ‘Transition to MASH Guidelines’.

The transition to MASH guidelines is a lengthy and ongoing process and lists of ‘Austroads Approved Products’ are currently a Work in Progress. If a product does not currently appear on a jurisdiction’s list, or is not currently recommended for acceptance at an Austroads level by ASBAP, it DOES NOT mean that it has not been successfully tested and certified to MASH guidelines, or that it is not acceptable for use in that jurisdiction. It may simply have not yet been assessed by ASBAP.

The Scorpion® II Truck Mounted Attenuator was the first TMA to be fully certified as Tested, Passed and Eligible to MASH 16 by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Safety Eligibility Letter CC-132 for the Scorpion® II TMA can be viewed online at: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/reduce_crash_severity/barriers/ pdf/cc132.cfm

The Scorpion® II Trailer Attenuator is also fully certified as Tested, Passed and Eligible to MASH 16 by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Safety Eligibility Letter CC-138 for the Scorpion® II Trailer Attenuator can be viewed online at: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/reduce_crash_severity/barriers/ pdf/cc138.cfm



For further information, contact:


P: 1300 217 623 (1300 A1 ROAD) E: sales@a1roadlines.com.au www.a1roadlines.com.au


FORGING COLLABORATION TO EDUCATE LEARNER DRIVERS ABOUT ROADWORK SITES Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Stephen O’Dwyer and his newly appointed Executive Officer Louise Van Ristell, are spearheading a collaborative initiative with CCF NAT, RIAA, RA and AAPA to instil safe driving practices by learner drivers around roadwork sites. Mr O’Dwyer said the CEO’s of the abovementioned organisations had immediately come to the party to support this initiative, targeted at future drivers. “We want to be able to give learner drivers the knowledge and understanding of the mandatory signage and features on a worksite, so that they appreciate both the legal and human elements,” he said.

Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Stephen O’Dwyer

30 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

“Most people do not even realise signage is to be mandatorily obeyed by motorists, no matter what they think is around the corner or over the hill. We are collectively recommending more enforcement, and also greater education in the learner driver programs across the country, regarding traversing roadwork and construction area sites,” he said. “It is great to be working collaboratively with all the other Associations and organisations as they share the same impacts when their workers are hurt, experience a near miss, or tragically are killed.” The collaboration comes on the back on discussions about safety at a recent TMAA hosted Board Dinner in Melbourne, and is coinciding with a book launch by Colin Caudell, whose wife, Suzanne, was killed while she was working as a traffic controller in Queensland. As well, the anniversary of the death of Ken Altoft, who was killed on site by a speeding driver, is also sadly later this year. Mr O’Dwyer said all roadworkers from all our organisations are in high-risk jobs, and precariously positioned on roads and constructions sites. With so much infrastructure and road work planned by both Federal and State Governments, we all agreed it was critical to educate learner drivers, as they become part of the future road users. “It is our hope that additions can be made to the theory and practical components of learner driver requirements to obtain licenses. Just this small step could save lives, both road workers and road users,” he said.

“It is our hope that additions can be made to the theory and practical components of learner driver requirements to obtain licenses. Just this small step could save lives, both road workers and road users.” “I would like to thank our counterparts for their support and collaboration in seeking solutions to the threats out there every day for everyone on roads.” “This initiative is being sent to our Prime Minister, the newly created Office of Road Safety and to all State and Territory Transport & Road Ministers. More information regarding this initiative will be available in the next issue as we work to gain support.” For more information on the initiative, contact TMAA on tmaa@tmaa.asn.au or phone 1300 798 772.

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THE FUTURE OF THE ASPHALT PLANTS Incorporating the most modern concepts of Industry 4.0 and revolutionising the segment of asphalt mixture production, the new generation of plants, containerised with continuous type counter-flow, are become increasingly popular in the market. Configured in containers and divided into three modules (metering, filtering and drying/mixing systems), the new CARBON T-BOX 160 asphalt plants from MARINI have been developed using the most advanced concepts in technology and mobility. The new series has four models that meet the most diverse applications: 50, 100, 130 and 160 tons per hour. The key to the success of the CARBON T-BOX 160 asphalt plant lies within its decentralised design, which incorporates independent modules. This enables each plant to be customised to suit differing needs, thereby delivering significant improvements in both processes and the production efficiencies.

Together with this new concept of containerised asphalt plants, MARINI Latin America is also helping to reduce complexity, both of set-up and operation, through the concept of EASY systems: a system totally based on agility to start operations, cost optimisation and ease of service. These new generation asphalt plants utilise an array of advanced technology in control and automation. Each module features its own ‘Plug & Play’ intelligent communication system, which provides crucial information about its operation to all modules within the work cycle. CARBON T-BOX 160 brings the most modern solutions for the evolution of the market, which seeks to reduce transportation costs, practicality in installation and advanced technology for efficient, high quality production. The dosage of aggregates occurs individually, through four feeder silos, each with a capacity of 10m³ The dosage process is carried out through an automated system with dynamic weighing through a load cell. The system automatically manages the speed of the dosing belts

The CARBON T-BOX 160 control system features the EASY View and EASY Manager systems, offering the most advanced control and automation technology.

32 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

to keep a constant flow of aggregates, thereby ensuring total quality of the mixture and optimum injection of PAC. For drying and heating mixtures, the CARBON T-BOX 160 features the TITANIUM system, which offers the highest thermal efficiency in drying and heating the aggregates, as well as the largest dry mixing zone on the market, making ideal for the production of modified and special asphalt mixes. The drying of the aggregates is carried out gradually through the system against the flow, thanks to the design of the fins, which provide the homogeneous and efficient casting of the material. The thermal insulation of the drum ensures optimum temperature stability, to deliver maximum productivity even in cold regions. The Hauck burner features the optional EASY Flame system, which enables flame operation and regulation either from the control panel, or automatically via the Easy Flame system. Designed with a focus on energy savings and efficiency, the CARBON T-BOX 160’s TITANIUM mixing system shares the same energy as the drum drive, and does not require a separate engine for the asphalt mixing process. The rotation of the dryer, together with the angle of attack of each vane, results in a greater number of blows to the particles, synonymous with greater mechanical energy applied on the mass. Some special asphalt mixtures use filler, fibre and milled asphalt material (RAP), these materials need to be heated separately from the virgin aggregates, thus are added in a separate chamber and heated through contact with the drum.

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In addition, the TITANIUM system has a set of Multi Paddle reeds, which are designed with special cavities to reduce friction with the surface. This not only helps to extend the operational life, it also provides a greater number of blows and, consequently, greater mechanical energy to the mixture. The TITANIUM system drum offers the longest dry mixing time on the market, perfect for ensuring the highest quality of modified asphalt mixtures. The process of drying and mixing the aggregates with binder takes place in a continuous rotary process, in completely different sections of the drum, respectively, the dryer and the rotary mixer. This innovative design ensures there is no heat transfer from the burner flame to the mixing zone. The filtering system is responsible for the retention of solid particles from the drying of the aggregates, incorporating them into the mixture and avoiding their discharge into the atmosphere. The system of filtering elements guarantees an emission of particles of less than 20 mg/NmÂł, in accordance with the most stringent environmental standards in force. The retention of coarse particles also occurs in the dryer in the Venturi system, where particles larger than those passing through the #200 screen are retained due to the low speed of gases.

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These particles are reinserted into the mixing process while still in the dryer, reducing wear in the exhaust system and contributing to a longer life for the sleeves. Unique in the Brazilian market, the MARINI Latin America drying and mixing system, incinerates the toxic gases of the mixing process through the burner, ensuring the reduction of emissions. The CARBON T-BOX 160 control system features the EASY View and EASY Manager systems, offering the most advanced control and automation technology. Using the EASY View system, the operator has a 360-degree view, with a large, ergonomic climate-controlled operating cab and tilting sunshade flaps. The cabin can be easily installed outside the plant structure, with an adjustment system for levelling. The exclusive EASY manager control system provides quick responses to variations in the production process and, consequently, offers the best quality of the asphalt mixture produced. It has remote monitoring and access to the control system, as well as a user-friendly, extremely simple and highly intuitive operating interface, providing information on all operations and production control data. In addition, the operator can opt for operation in automatic or manual mode, ensuring productivity in any context. As well as delivering efficiency and high-quality asphalt mixtures, the CARBON T-BOX 160 combines productivity and sustainability. More and more common in several markets including Australia, the use of recycled material, known as RAP (Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement), is consolidating itself as an ecological, sustainable and economically advantageous application. Indeed, RAP is now being specified for an ever-increasing number of projects. CARBON T-BOX 160 already has the pre-disposition of the RAP ring as standard, and is able to process up to 30% of recycled material. In 2019, the first CARBON T-BOX 160 started operating in Brazil. Belonging to the Britapav Company, the asphalt plant was already in full operation in Paranรก State a few days after its arrival on the job site, producing high quality asphalt mix.

34 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

As expected, the plant is delivering a range of benefits. Together the innovative technology and speed of assembly, the CARBON T-BOX 160 has also proven its performance, not only in terms of its ability to produce extremely high quality asphalt mixes, but also in terms of the significant cost benefits of having a high-efficiency, modular plant that is quick and easy to set up at and can be put into production in an extremely short time frame. The plant is continuing to produce high-quality asphalt mixes for use in projects in the region and, not surprisingly, is gaining a significant amount of interest both locally and internationally, including in Australia. There are already several T-BOX plants on the way to Australia, and there is a lot of interest in the market for additional plants. A new generation of asphalt plants in ISO containers for the world market: More than just a new machine, the CARBON T-BOX 160 is the key to building a future with new possibilities. For further information please contact: Bliss & Reels P/L, T: +61 3 9850 6666, E: sales@blissandreels.com.au or visit the website: www.blissandreels.com.au


Intelligent Transport Systems News and Feature Articles


7TH AUSTRALIAN INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS SUMMIT A SUCCESS IN MELBOURNE The 7th Australian Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) Summit connected transport technology leaders from across the globe to explore the role of future technology in the context of international collaboration and rapidly evolving standards. The Summit, which was held on 28-29 August 2019 at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre (MCEC), was attended by more than 500 stakeholders within Australian transport technology, representing industry, government, and academia. The two-day program featured 45 speakers, from leading Australian and global ITS organisations. Twenty-five industry exhibitors filled the busy and expansive exhibition hall at the MCEC in Southbank, Melbourne. In prime position was the Lexus vehicle currently being tested in the

Attendees at the 7th Australian ITS Summit with the Lexus vehicle currently taking part in Queensland’s CAVI trials.

36 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

connected vehicle trials in a partnership between Lexus Australia and the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads. The Hon. Alan Tudge, Federal Minister for Population, Cities and Urban Infrastructure met exhibitors showcasing Australian innovation in the transport and technology sector before delivering his keynote address. From major industry players like Cubic and Kapsch, to new mobility innovators Via and Liftango, as well as technology and mapping specialists Aimsum and Here, the ITS Summit represented the full ecosystem of the ITS industry, both on the exhibition floor and the presentation stage. Diversity and inclusivity are key to the long-term strength and productivity of the industry, and a panel discussion facilitated

by Dennis Walsh, Chief Engineer at the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads explored that focus. The panel also included recent Churchill Fellowship recipient Zoe Eather of Arup on the integration of Smart Mobility to enable more liveable Australian communities, and Susan Proctor from the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC) on the important work they are undertaking reskilling older Americans into new roles for the smart transport sector and investigating supporting neurodiversity in STEM. David Bolt from Kapsch rounded out the panel, asking how does industry engage with younger generations and ensure wider diversity is achieved? How do we challenge ‘what an engineer looks like’?


(L to R) Peter Sweatman, Principal / International Enterprise Professor, CAVita LLC / University of Melbourne; Roland Pittar General Manager, Office of Future Transport Technology, Department of Infrastructure, Transport, Cities and Regional Development, Australian Government; Susan Harris, CEO, ITS Australia; Paul Krutko, President/CEO (Ann Arbor SPARK), Treasurer (American Center for Mobility), Chair, (International Association of Science Parks and Areas of Innovation IASP), Ann Arbor SPARK, American Center for Mobility, IASP; Susan Proctor, Strategic Initiatives Director, Michigan Economic Development Cooperation; John Wall, Program Manager Connected and Automated Vehicles, Austroads; James Sayer, Director, University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI).

Key topics discussed during the Summit included security of infrastructure, sustainable transport solutions, Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs), transport connectivity, Mobility as a Service (MaaS), and industry productivity. The ITS Summit’s audience heard about the increasing opportunities for transport networks afforded by the rapid advancement of technology. This year, there was a marked increase in the number of speakers addressing how the industry should consider the human impacts of its work, and how technological innovations can be used to improve lives, and how our cities communities work. Will O’Neil CFO at Busways presented a compelling case for the way that on-demand bus services that offer real customer and network benefits can be designed, working with Via and their ‘secret sauce’ route optimising algorithms and supported by Transport for NSW. A highlight of day two was a presentation from the Victorian Department of Transport’s Dale Andrea whose presentation encompassed both French enlightenment writer Voltaire and data visualisation.

The ITS Summit was officially opened by The Hon. Alan Tudge MP, Minister for Population, Cities and Urban Infrastructure who spoke about how transport technologies can, now and in the future, help to solve traffic congestion in Australia’s growing cities. “Avoidable congestion across our capital cities now costs $25 billion per year. Without any policy change, this is predicted to rise to as much as $40 billion per year by 2030,” the Minister said. Minister Tudge went on to describe some of the Intelligent Transport Systems projects that are taking place around the country, and which are combating congestion, as part of the Australian Government’s $100 billion program of transport infrastructure expenditure. “Intelligent Transport System solutions such as ramp metering, dynamic speed limits, reversible lanes, variable signage and traffic signal priority for emergency and freight vehicles - can massively increase road utilisation and hence, effective capacity,” he said. “While we look ahead and plan for the new technologies that could transform the sector, we are actively investing in the proven technologies

of today. The Australian Government's record investment in transport infrastructure can only benefit from better utilisation and better services and management made available through technology.” The 7th Australia ITS Summit look place along-side a meeting of the MichiganAustralia Exchange (MAX) on Future Mobility, a partnership between the State of Michigan and the Australian Government that came into being with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in October 2018 in Melbourne. “Australia is known for its innovation in transport and ability to deploy new technologies successfully; Michigan is a global leader in automotive manufacturing. There are unique opportunities for collaboration between the two regions. ITS Australia is proud to be part of this partnership and the potential it has to offer,” said Susan Harris, Chief Executive Officer, ITS Australia. The Summit also featured Dr James Sayer, Director of the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI).

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 37



7TH AUSTRALIAN ITS SUMMIT BY STEPHEN OWENS It was an honour co-chairing the 2019 Australian ITS Summit – a great event that promotes the development and deployment of technologies that deliver safe, efficient, and sustainable transport across all public and private modes. This year’s theme centred around Shaping Future Transport, which opened the door to exciting discussions and bold new ideas. Here are my top five takeaways from the twoday event:

The Hon. Alan Tudge MP, Minister for Population, Cities and Urban Infrastructure hears about the Lexus vehicle participating in Queensland’s CAVI trials from Alex Lockie, Senior Intelligent Transport Systems Specialist, Lexus Australia.


(L to R) Alex Lockie, Senior Intelligent Transport Systems Specialist, Lexus Australia; Martin Andrews, CEO, Chargefox; Prof. Rocco Zito, Professor in Civil Engineering, College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University.

“Regardless of significant differences in approaches to mobility and solutions available across the globe, one challenge that is universal is addressing and managing change relative to the status quo,” Dr Sayer said. Former Director of the Michigan Department of Transport, Kirk T. Steudle, was a keynote speaker at the Summit. Steudle, now Senior Vice President of Econolite Systems, spoke about how mobility technologies must evolve in concert with the vision and core values of the communities they are intended to serve. “The fusing of technology into our daily lives shows no signs of slowing down. Integration of technology into the transport network is needed for greater economic efficiency and expansion,” Mr Steudle said.

38 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

ABOUT ITS AUSTRALIA Intelligent Transport Systems Australia (ITS Australia) shapes future transport by promoting the development and deployment of advanced technologies to deliver safer, more efficient and sustainable transport across all public and private modes – air, sea, road and rail. Established in 1992, ITS Australia advocates the application of communication, data processing and electronic technologies for in-vehicle, vehicle-tovehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure and mode-to-mode systems to increase transport safety and sustainability, reduce congestion, and improve the performance and competitiveness of Australia’s networks. ITS Australia is an independent not-for-profit incorporated membership organisation representing ITS suppliers, government authorities, academia and transport businesses and users. Affiliated with peak ITS organisations around the world, ITS Australia is a major international contributor to the development of the industry and host of the 2001 and 2016 ITS World Congress. For more information visit: www.its-australia.com.au

The Australian transport industry has never seen the level of change that it is currently experiencing. MaaS offers the potential to drastically improve commuter choices, reduce travel costs, increase network capacity and transport sustainability while improving social and environmental outcomes. MaaS is no longer a concept with case studies being shared around alternative modes of transport, including on-demand bus services, electric scooters, and the early use of autonomous shuttles. What united the conversation was the better connections between the different modes of transport and the critical role data plays in connecting everything.

2. CONGESTION ISSUES IN METRO AREAS ARE ONE STEP CLOSER TO BEING SOLVED Did you know that approximately 30 per cent of urban congestion is caused by cars looking for a park? The good news – ITS partners are developing smart technology that shares realtime information about where to find a park to improve the flow of traffic. Another great example is the use of dynamic speed monitoring on major freeways. For example, The Western Australian Government is set to reduce congestion on its highways by approximately 30 per cent through the use of dynamic speed monitoring rather than building additional lanes.

3. PREDICTIVE TECHNOLOGY WILL PLAY AN ESSENTIAL ROLE IN THE FUTURE OF ITS Innovative ITS technologies are already available – providing real, tangible benefits to commuters.


For example, ‘time to leave’ alerts are gaining in prevalence and popularity. Thanks to predictive technology, commuters can now assess their route based on real-time congestion to minimise their time in transit. Intelematics has also developed a predictive battery algorithm that informs vehicle owners of an impending battery failure before it occurs. It’s these predictive technologies that work to keep people moving.


Many conversations centred around the sustainability benefits of ITS technology. ITS technology creates greater efficiencies across our transport networks; for example, the ability to regulate services on demand. These efficiencies create a reduction in emissions and congestion, which, in turn, make our cities more sustainable. Combined with the push for alternative, sustainable fuel sources and the development of infrastructure to support these vehicles, a future of zero vehicle emissions and zero roadside

casualties through smart, predictive transport systems may soon be a reality.


Collaboration, partnerships and diversity were recurring themes throughout this year’s Summit. In an industry with so many moving parts, the best solutions are developed when multiple players combine resources and ideas. We need to see continued collaboration, particularly between government and industry, to ensure we’re embracing ITS technologies in the best possible way to plan for a sustainable future that helps keep people moving. The quicker we embrace and develop ITS technologies, the faster we reap the benefits, which include improved safety, reduced harmful carbon emissions and reduced congestion. The ITS Summit is always a fantastic event – and this year was no exception. I, for one, can’t wait to see how ITS progresses over the next few years and how Intelematics will continue to play an essential role in keeping Australians moving. Stephen Owens is the Chief Operating Officer at Intelematics and served as co-chair at this year’s ITS Summit in Melbourne.

TYPE-APPROVED ON-BOARD MASS SYSTEMS A market of type-approved OBM systems now available A selection of type-approved on-board mass (OBM) systems is now available through the National Telematics Framework. Type-approved OBM systems deliver the levels of accuracy and reliability that transport operators demand. Look for the TCA type-approval logo when choosing an OBM system for your vehicle:

Use type-approved OBM systems to manage:  Safety  Vehicle loading  Chain of responsibility obligations.

Service Providers

We’re here to help Call (03) 8601 4600 or email tca@tca.gov.au. Suppliers of type-approved OBM systems are Loadman Australia, Tramanco Pty Ltd, E-Max Australia Pty Ltd and Airtec Corporation.


PARKING LOTS: AN URBAN ENDANGERED SPECIES This glimpse of the future was crafted by: Russ Yell We all know them: those custodians of the pavement, often donned in reflective uniforms and armed with their weapon of ticketry. Everywhere you go in the world, parking inspectors tend to provoke the same irritations and avoidance responses. This kerbside dynamic is pretty universal. Yet it’s becoming increasingly dated too. A new urban mobility revolution is underway, transforming our city streets at a thunderous pace, and repurposing our pavement for more connected, greener, multimodal forms of transportation. From bike shares to autonomous transit, along with more traditional options such as rail and walking, a new urban ecosystem is on the rise. It’s inevitably altering the physical landscape, as well as the conventional thinking underpinning city planning, and changing the way we own our sustained future. So, what will we do with all those car parks and kerbs, as automated vehicles (AVs) and shared vehicles increasingly dominate the road? How can we re-conceptualise these soon-to-be empty, unused spaces to foster more meaningful interactions and intelligent design, and to future-ready our cities? What opportunities will open for us when we no longer need to park?

40 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

It’s more than just a matter of parking – it’s an altogether different way of ‘doing city’.

bikes to pedestrians, car sharing to heavy rail, to provide ease of movement for all.

It’s about mobility, not cars

But where will the cars go?

As it stands, our cities have devoted an extraordinary amount of scarce space and resources to parking. In Melbourne alone, it’s estimated that “…there are 40% more residential parking spaces in the city than the vehicles owned”, adding to the fact that 61% of the city’s street space is allocated to roads and on-street car parking, despite vehicles accounting for only 22% of the trips to, from and within the Hoddle Grid. But a century-old automotive love affair is now coming to an end, as trends like ride sharing, electrification and Mobility-as-aService come onto the scene. Two strapping tonnes of steel in your driveway doesn’t hold the same lustre as a smart device that can facilitate a lifestyle of connected convenience. Suddenly, the conversation is far more about mobility than about cars. Authors of Faster, Smarter, Greener describe this shift to what they call a “CHIP” mobility environment – a world that is connected, heterogeneous, intelligent and personalised. The new fulcrum of intelligent design is based on people and their lifestyles, rather than on their vehicles. Consequently, cities will have to unlock a variety of mobility solutions, ranging from

The truth is, the parking industry argues, while we may not require as much space or parking lots in the future as we now have, “parking, as both a function and an industry, isn’t going anywhere” – but it won’t stay the same either. New modes of transportation like AVs (whether they will be owned or shared), will need to live ‘somewhere’ when not in use. With more than half of the population asleep at night, not all AVs will be occupying the streets at 2 am to pick up late night revellers or shift workers. And with Uber’s recent announcement that Melbourne will be one of the test sites for flying taxi service UberAIR, the need for adaptation to these new breeds of transportation is becoming more urgent than ever. The shift from humans parking cars to self-parking AVs will also revolutionise the infrastructure required. In fact, multinational automotive corporation Daimler has partnered with Bosch to introduce a ‘fully-autonomous auto valet parking environment’ at Mercedes World in Germany, where AVs can drop off passengers at the lobby and park themselves. MIT spin-off company WiTricity is currently developing an EV charger using patented


magnetic resonance technology that enables a charging panel on the ground to transfer power wirelessly into the car. It’s not only about offering spaces for cars anymore; it’s about what the spaces can offer.

From car parks to parks, office spaces and homes? But what if the great ‘carpocalypse’ actually does descend on our cities? What do we do with this abandoned architecture, and what will we build? Kerbs will be reimagined, with the current idle space repurposed for the future as a buzzing hive of data collection thanks to AVs dropping off and picking up passengers. Parking spaces will be narrower, allowing our streets to accommodate more public transport and active movement. Parking lots could become green spaces to enhance liveability and encourage cycling, walking and outdoor living. Parking garages could present all kinds of conversion opportunities, ranging from office space to apartment blocks to fitness centres. Architecture firm Gensler proposes that the infrastructure could even be reworked into living and working “pods”: automated vehicles drive into their portals

and open up into condensed living rooms, bathrooms and kitchens – the ‘ultimate micro unit’ of blended living design.

Driving the shift All these, however, are more than merely about finding solutions and ways of repurposing parking lots if and when they become obsolete. This is about driving the shift towards a new vibrant, connected and sustainable urbanism. Jennifer Henaghan, Deputy Director of Research at the American Planning Association, believes the big question about the future of parking and kerbs is not a threat but a great opportunity for planners. “Should it be used for housing, do we want more people to come in? Do we need more retail space? Should it be more places to encourage civic gathering spaces and public activities, parks and things of that nature?” she asks. “That really gives cities an opportunity to examine their values and priorities and what it is that they want to do with this sudden influx of available land, which in many cities has been quite a rarity up until this point.”

In addition to this, open source projects such as SharedStreets are doing what traditional maps cannot do, by building an open source infrastructure that enables public-private collaboration and empowers city stakeholders to inform better transport solutions for seamlessly connected streets. As AVs and other technological trends continue to converge, our city streets will naturally need to adapt and change. Governments will have to spearhead these conversations, looking at a whole suite of responsibilities including rezoning, new governance frameworks, new transport taxes, and investing in all kinds of new digital infrastructure and private partnerships to pull off true transformation. It’s no small feat, but it’s not really an option, is it? The cities that move faster towards change will be those who don’t put innovation ‘in park’, but instead drive it forward. Aurecon’s award-winning blog, Just Imagine provides a glimpse into the future for curious readers, exploring ideas that are probable, possible and for the imagination. This post originally appeared on Aurecon’s Just Imagine blog. Get access to the latest blog posts as soon as they are published by subscribing to the blog at: justimagine.aurecongroup.com

NEW ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT APP COMING SOON Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) is a new application of the National Telematics Framework. RIM introduces a new way of collecting road use data through telematics, which can improve road maintenance, planning and investment decisions. Heavy vehicle operators will soon have an opportunity to opt in to the RIM app.

Through RIM, road infrastructure managers can: • Get de-identified telematics data about heavy vehicle use on the road network • Make better investment decisions on road use through specialised reports

Vehicle data to TCA TCA de-identifies vehicle data TCA publishes road use reports

• Have a single point of access for valuable telematics road use data.

Visit TCA’s website for further information: www.tca.gov.au/new-applications Look out for more information on RIM, or talk to us – call TCA directly on (03) 8601 4600.


TRAFFIC CONGESTION IN AUSTRALIAN CITIES: WHAT’S REALLY HAPPENING, WHAT CAN WE DO? “The huge pipeline of road and rail projects across Sydney and Melbourne, both underway and planned, will not prevent the cities becoming paralysed with congestion by 2031, with the cost of lost productivity due to gridlock set to double over the next 12 years to $38.8 billion.” So opened the The Age’s recent reporting of Infrastructure Australia’s 2019 Australian Infrastructure Audit. It’s a scary forecast, but one we must pay attention to. Spend just a little time in peak hour traffic – or even weekend traffic – and you quickly see that things are bad now, and if left unchecked are likely to get worse. Although Sydney and Melbourne are named as the two cities that will bear twothirds of the projected congestion problem, but the current and oncoming burden is not theirs alone. The other Australian capital cities, and large regional cities, will all be affected.

Have commute times increased? But how bad is it and how horrendous will it become? A recent report from the Grattan Institute, Remarkably adaptive: Australian cities in a time of growth (2018) flagged that although congestion is a common lament at the backyard barbecue, it observed that: “So far, the impact of rapid population growth on commuting distances and times has been remarkably benign, despite regular media coverage claiming the opposite. The average commute distance barely increased over the five years to the most recent Census in 2016, and there has been little or no change in the duration of commutes.”

42 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019


iMOVE projects

The community is not just standing by wringing its hands. People have been altering their travel times, working more from home, moving house to lessen their commute and increasing their use of public transport. But public transport is also groaning under the weight of increased demand. Again, from The Grattan Institute: “Overcrowding of public transport and related impacts on service reliability also continue to be issues for the bigger cities. In 2016 almost all trains arriving at Central Station in Sydney between 8am and 9am on the T4 Illawarra Line were over-crowded by the time they reached Sydenham station, around 8 kilometres from the CBD. Once a train is filled to 135 per cent of seated capacity, passengers feel crowded and the train can run late because it has to dwell longer at stations.” The question therefore becomes what further steps can we take to deal with the looming problem. Expanding capacity of roads or rail is possible but is very expensive. Which (few) expansions should we undertake? And for those parts of the network that we cannot expand, what further adaptations can we make? Can we devise more flexible transport options that reduce people’s need to drive themselves? Do we need to rethink the start and finish times of our work and school? Can we change the locations at which the work is undertaken? Should we impose a charge for road use at peak times? The alarm bells are ringing. In response governments everywhere have been accelerating their infrastructure spend, and people have been adjusting their living and working patterns. But the problem is not solved and there is an urgent need for more initiatives at personal, regional and national levels.

iMOVE was set up to support these processes. Amongst the things we are looking at are: • Connected vehicles • Data use for improved transport management and journey reliability • Getting smarter with supply chain data • Mobility as a Service • Integrated land use and transport modelling • Green wave for high capacity public transport services There are no simple solutions, but we encourage discussion about the various options we face. Some changes will inevitably be required, and we need to debate the choices in a level-headed, factual, fair and bipartisan manner. If we do this, I am confident we can navigate through community involvement, and smart solutions, towards sustainably pleasant living and working environments.

AUTHOR: IAN CHRISTENSEN Ian is the Managing Director of iMove CRC. He's excited by the opportunity presented by the digitisation revolution to address the needs of the transport and mobility sectors, and looks forward to combining his CRC leadership experience with his interests in technology, enthusiasm for national progress, and familiarity with industry.









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COLLABORATION DELIVERING OUTSTANDING RESULT TO IMPROVE WA INTERSECTION SAFETY PROJECT: Wanneroo Road and Joodalup Drive intersection PRECASTER: PERMAcast LOCATION: Wanneroo, Western Australia ENGINEER: WSP BUILDER: CPB Contractors CLIENT: Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA) National Precast Member PERMAcast is playing a part in a major upgrade to a busy intersection in Wanneroo, Western Australia. The upgrade will, when complete, improve traffic flow and road safety, transforming the Wanneroo Road and Joodalup Drive intersection in Perth’s northern suburbs from a four-way intersection into a free-flowing interchange. It is part of a major $2.3 billion investment by the Commonwealth and Western Australian State Governments. Being constructed in two stages, works on Stage one began in September 2018. Services have been relocated underground, drainage upgraded, and a new pavement and temporary roundabout constructed in preparation for Stage two. Recently commenced, Stage two sees the construction of a bridge running along Joondalup Drive, which will also create an underpass on Wanneroo Road. According to PERMAcast's Managing Director Alberto Ferraro, PERMAcast worked cohesively with its client CPB Contractors to manufacture six specially designed piers with a 100-year design life for the new bridge. Each of the piers weighed 40 tonnes.

44 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

Measuring 3,500mm high by 6,500mm wide and 1,500mm thick, they were designed with radius faces, including compound curves, angles and tapers. The piers were heavily reinforced with 297 types of rebar profiles, weighing in at 380kg/m3. Quality was the driving force behind precast being chosen for this project. In addition, limited space on site perfectly suited off-site manufacture of the elements. Mr Ferraro says that the piers were cast in two sections. “The bottom sections were cast in-situ by CPB, using steel moulding that we designed to meet Main Roads WA’s specific requirements. 3D modelling software was used for an accurate and efficient result,” he comments. To meet the client’s requirements and to ensure structural integrity of the piers when cast in these moulds, the design of the moulds was certified by a third party. Steel was chosen for the moulds’ manufacture - which was also undertaken by PERMAcast - due to the material’s high stress capacity and the quality of finish that would be achieved once the moulds were removed. When fully assembled, the moulds weighed a total of five tonnes. “Achieving a high quality of finish for the bottom sections so they matched the factory cast bottom sections, was essential. Our involvement on site delivered that,” Mr Ferraro says. PERMAcast manufactured the top of precast concrete units in its Cardup factory.

The precast units feature Ancon’s BT couplers to allow for post installation of the starter bars. The inclusion of the BT Couplers was proposed by PERMAcast and later endorsed by the client. “This is an example of how we work with our clients to propose easy and efficient solutions,” said Mr Ferraro. With a quality management system third party certified to ISO 9001:2008 and a history of manufacturing precast dating back to 2006, the company was confident it could meet client requirements while maintaining safety for both its staff and clients. “Focusing on quality, safety and efficiency underpins everything we do, and this project was no exception,” he added. Stage two of the project has commenced and is due to be completed by early 2020.

Left & below: The new bridge incorporates a total of six piers, each of which features a top and bottom section. Manufactured off site at PERMAcast’s Cardup facility, the top precast section of each pier will be brought to the site and fitted to the bottom sections, which were cast insitu, thereby completing the pier. Images courtesy Main Roads WA

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Bellingen Shire Council’s Timber Bridge Renewal Program shows how it earned it’s reputation as ‘The Little Council that Could’ Despite a variety of challenges faced, including local government reform, funding constraints, infrastructure and maintenance costs and a low proportion of rateable land, Bellingen Shire Council or the ‘Little Council That Could’ as it’s affectionately known, has ambitious plans to tackle the challenges its timber bridge network presents head on. Bellingen Shire Council’s Deputy General Manager Operations, Matt Fanning, who is responsible for the fourth largest timber bridge network in New South Wales by length, is also in charge of the Council’s Timber Bridge Renewal Program, which features an investment of $29 million during the next 11 years and represents the Council’s most significant infrastructure investment to date. Mr Fanning said the Council’s Bridge Renewal Program was the end result of significant body of work undertaken by Council Engineers, who conducted detailed field based condition and structural inspections of the Shire’s 85 remaining timber bridge assets.

The $29 million Timber Bridge Renewal Program represents the Council’s most significant infrastructure investment to date 46 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

“In parallel, our Engineers also led the in-house development and implementation of Council’s Reflect System, a bespoke infrastructure asset management, inspection and decision support tool that employs risk based metrics to prioritise the scheduling of its road and bridge maintenance, repair and rehabilitation activities.” “Originally 22 of our 85 timber bridge assets were load limited which significantly impacted our ability to provide essential access to residents, the local agricultural, service and industrial sectors and subsequently compromised the operations of our shire’s emergency service agencies and utility providers.” “However, with the assistance of the bridge renewal prioritisation tool and our Reflect maintenance data, we have identified our bridge networks immediate, medium and long-term priorities, and subsequently delivered works which have seen the Shire’s total of 22 load limited bridges reduced to 15 and also identified a further 10 load limited bridges to be renewed during the next financial year,” Mr Fanning said. Mr Fanning said the Timber Bridge prioritisation tool and data had also provided Council with the supportive information necessary to lodge robust grant funding submissions which have resulted in the most recent injection of a further $3.98 million into the Council’s Timber Bridge Renewal Program.


“We have delivered works which have seen the Shire’s total of 22 load limited bridges reduced to 15, and identified a further 10 load limited bridges to be renewed during the next financial year”

“We need to be very strong politically to secure the financial support necessary to deliver the program, which is why we are actively pursuing every possible opportunity to secure grant funding, because every dollar we get reduces the impact on the community purse.” “That’s why we have also driven regional collaboration and advocacy efforts via the formation of the Mid North Coast Joint Organisation (MNCJO), with Port Macquarie Hastings and Kempsey Shire Councils to develop the MNJCO Timber Bridge Renewal Prospectus, which represents a $20 million investment to address a total of 91 bridges or 42% of the regions ageing timber bridges.” Mr Fanning said the MNCJO was seeking to establish a partnership with the NSW Government to facilitate a $20 million

investment based on co-contributions to address the priority renewal of 91 aged timber bridges, or 42% of the total number of bridges within the member council’s boundaries. “Through regional collaboration, and by working in partnership with the State Government, we are seeking to address infrastructure constraints and backlogs and advocate for the economic, social and environmental wellbeing of communities in the Mid-North Coast region,” said Mr Fanning. The MNJCO Timber Bridge Renewal Prospectus is currently being considered by the State Government, with all three member Councils confident that this new collaborative funding and delivery model will set the standard for future joint infrastructure projects.

Aug/Sep 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 47

So too, the Engineer can use the vast capacity of Finite Element analysis to validate, optimize and adapt data to create the finest design solutions.

Just as the Conductor uses all the instruments at his disposal to create the finest music...



Aerial View of Port of Brisbane

A COLLABORATIVE PROACTIVE APPROACH TO DELIVER CORROSION PREVENTION ON PRE-1990s WHARVES Brodie Chan and Gerardo Picerno – Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd, Daniel Anstice – GHD Pty Ltd, Chris Mein – Freyssinet Australia Pty Ltd and Mike Rutherford – ACA Applicators Technical Group.

1. INTRODUCTION Marine environments are the ultimate test of concrete durability. Concrete is the most common material for construction in the marine environment because of its versatility, strength and affordability. However, facility owners spend hundreds of millions of dollars every year to repair deteriorating concrete infrastructure. The durability and service life of a reinforced concrete marine structure is dependent upon preventing the initiation of electro-chemical corrosion. This is typically done by ensuring a quality concrete resistant to environmental attack and concrete cover over embedded reinforcement. Additional measures to extend the life of marine structures is the application of protective sealers, coatings, corrosion resistant materials and the installation of cathodic protection/ prevention systems This case study highlights the benefits of adopting a collaborative proactive approach between all parties to meet the challenges in determining the deterioration mechanisms present and the capability to assess the cause of the problem to develop a long-term remediation strategy.

50 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

2. HISTORY OF THE PORT OF BRISBANE WHARVES Since the 1980s, the Port of Brisbane (POB) has been responsible for handling around $50 billion in international trade annually. This is largely attributed to the significant growth and expansion of the Port, in order to accommodate the demand for increasing trade in the region and hence, throughput along the quayline. As early as 1945, land was reserved at the Fisherman Islands area for future Port development. This future was realised in 1976 with the establishment of the Port of Brisbane Authority by the Queensland State Government to oversee the development and

Figure 1 – The History of the Port of Brisbane

reclamation of the Fisherman Islands precinct. By the late 1970’s the first two container wharves were constructed (now referred to as Wharf 4 and Wharf 5). With the considerable expansion of the Port through the development of Fisherman Islands a further 230 ha was provisioned for the Future Port Expansion, which was to be strategic land reclaimed by dredged material placement. In 2010, The Port was leased to the Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd (POBPL), who hold a 99year lease from the Queensland Government and are responsible for the provision and management of the current infrastructure (Figure 2).


In 2012, Wharf 11 and Wharf 12 were constructed, which signalled the completion of the Fisherman Islands quayline. The Port of Brisbane is currently recognised as Australia’s largest capital city port, consisting of a total of 8200 m of quayline, with wharves / berths serving international import and export of bulk commodities, break bulk and containerised cargo. While the present quayline infrastructure has not changed significantly since the completion of Wharf 11 and 12, these assets require significant maintenance and sustaining capital works due to age, construction and exposure conditions.

3. CORROSION PREVENTION STRATEGIES With the Port of Brisbane being located around the mouth of the Brisbane River the wharves are subject to aggressive saline exposure conditions. With all of the wharves along Fisherman Islands being constructed from normally reinforced concrete superstructures founded on steel piles and constructed up to 41 years ago, the structures require continued vigilance from the Port to ensure on-going long term durability and serviceability of the quayline assets. The requirement to operate the port in an uninterrupted manner means that repair and maintenance work needs to be kept to a minimum and that any repair that is required is carried out in a planned manner. To this end Port of Brisbane have instituted a 10 yearly inspection and testing programme and review of their wharves. The intention of this review is to improve their understanding of how the wharves are performing in situ and facilitate appropriate decisions in relation to designing for durability in new structures and the repair and maintenance of existing structures. The first review of this type was undertaken in 1995-1996 by Queensland Transport. In the subsequent years, Port of Brisbane have installed impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems to reinforced concrete elements of some existing wharves, constructed new wharves, and trialled alternative reinforced concrete durability strategies such as silane impregnation and corrosion inhibitors, installed cathodic prevention systems during new construction, as well as increasing the height of the wharves above high tide.

3.1 Wharf Height At the Port of Brisbane, the concrete wharves were built to a deck height of RL 4.0m however the more recently constructed wharf decks were gradually increased to RL 6.0m to

address exposure issues, access, and vessel interface levels. Overall, raising the height of the wharf decks has ultimately improved the long-term durability characteristic of the wharves. In addition, raising the wharves has also resulted in improved accessibility for inspections and maintenance. Investigations carried out as part of the aforementioned 10 yearly inspection and testing programme found that construction of the wharf decks significantly above the tidal zone reduced surface chloride levels by approximately 40%, with a reduction in chloride levels at the depth of reinforcement by some 80%. However, diffusion coefficients were found to have increased, i.e. less chlorides but their penetration rate is quicker owing to the concentration effect of increased rates of evaporation.

3.2 Corrosion Prevention At the Port of Brisbane, ICCP has been selected as the corrosion management strategy for corrosion of steel in concrete. This strategy has been selected on the basis of an extensive review of industry experience and in particular early work by the Federal Highway Administration in the USA, which concluded that cathodic protection is the only rehabilitation technique that has been proven to stop corrosion in salt contaminated concrete regardless of chloride content. Although ICCP systems require routine monitoring and maintenance, with appropriate management and replacement of components as they deteriorate, the ICCP system can last the remaining required 50 year design life, typically 20-30 years after installation of the ICCP, with the possibility to review at that time if longer is required.

3.3 Predictive Modelling & Detailed Testing Detailed testing to evaluate the ingress of chlorides, continuity, and half-cell potentials has been undertaken at the Port of Brisbane to feed into predictive deterioration modelling to establish timeframes for the initiation of corrosion and the considerations for the time of installation of ICCP. This allows budget setting and planning. The results of the chloride testing were then fed into the corrosion activation model. The prediction of future chloride penetration, and hence time to corrosion initiation and subsequent deterioration of each wharf, is based on chloride diffusion coefficient (D) and chloride surface concentration (Cs) values that are calculated from chloride penetration profiles taken from the core samples. Historically, testing and chloride diffusion

modelling was carried out by Queensland Transport in 1996 and then by GHD in 2008 and 2013. Going forward, modelling is to be undertaken periodically, typically on a 10-year schedule as per the strategy implemented at the Port of Brisbane.

3.4 Verification of Modelling Results An intrusive investigation was carried out to physically verify the modelling predictions from the investigations conducted in 2013 at Wharves 1, 2 and 3, plus the Coal Wharf, at the Port of Brisbane. The chloride predictive modelling carried out by GHD in 2013 suggested that corrosion would have initiated at this time at the rear crane beam of Wharves 1 and 2, the extended deck beam of Wharves 1, 2 and 3 and the seaward deck slab at the Coal Wharf. Therefore, the purpose of the present investigation was to carry out limited intrusive site investigations on the above elements in order to verify, or otherwise, the findings from the chloride prediction modelling. This was achieved by locating, exposing, and recording / photographing visual evidence of corrosion of reinforcing steel within the above elements, thus verifying or negating the findings from the predictive deterioration modelling.

4. CATHODIC PREVENTION STRATEGY 4.1 Feasibility Studies / State of the Art Review In many instances, the results of an ineffective CP system installation are not realised for a period of time post installation, as indicative concrete damage by continuous corrosion can take significant time. Therefore, it is critical for issues to be identified before or during the commissioning of the system. Prior to conducting any detailed design work on the ICCP system for Wharf 3 at the Port of Brisbane, GHD were engaged in 2016 to conduct a review of the current reinforced concrete remediation technology, with a particular focus on ICCP, the performance of the historical ICCP systems at the Port of Brisbane, and the applicability of new technologies within the Port. The source information for this review incorporated textbooks and reference books on corrosion and CP, Australian and international standards, published research and journal articles, technical society reports and conference papers and GHD’s own experiences within the Australian market. There are many options available to prevent corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure. However, the options are

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significantly reduced once corrosion has initiated, particularly for chloride induced corrosion, which is synonymous with marine infrastructure. Once chloride induced reinforcement corrosion has initiated, cathodic protection is widely recognised as the most effective method to control corrosion. The two common methods of cathodic protection of reinforced concrete structure include galvanic cathodic protection and impressed current cathodic protection. Each have numerous variations of installation techniques, construction, anode shapes and materials. The disadvantage of galvanic anode systems is that, in providing protection, the anode is consumed. The life of the anode is then dependent on the demand for protection, driven by concrete resistivity. In a marine situation where chloride concentrations are high and resistivity of the concrete relatively low the galvanic anodes will be consumed more rapidly. Where access is not restricted, the benefit of not having to provide an ongoing impressed current might outweigh the cost of returning to replace the anodes at a number of intervals during the life of the structure. However, repeat installations of anodes on a working wharf with consequent disruption to operations is not acceptable, noting PBPL‘s preference for higher installation cost and lower ongoing costs. Hybrid CP systems are now available, whereby a higher temporary initial impressed current is used to halt the corrosion. The impressed current is then disconnected and galvanic anodes left in place to maintain the protection. These systems are relatively new to the industry and the life of the galvanic anodes after initial installation is still being monitored on various installations. The same concerns arise regarding replacement of anodes on an operating wharf. In the medium term, further confidence may be established in this technique. Issues arising from a review of the performance of ICCP on Port of Brisbane wharves and the means to address them include: • Anode acidification – correct zoning, correct anode selection for the environment, sufficient cover, high quality mortar; • Inferior ancillary equipment - a preference for reputable companies and products, easily replaceable products, no bespoke equipment or systems, operations and maintenance manual; and • Physical damage - correct specification and installation, consideration of placement and regular supervision inspection.

52 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

Recommendations from the review state that Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) remains the preferred solution. Anode systems continue to develop with the aim of extending life and streamlining the installation process. The underside of a wharf restricts some of the options in terms of overhead application, exposure to wave and other mechanical damage and vibration of the wharf operations above affecting applied cementitious layers while still curing. Generally, the titanium MMO anode is still the most suitable material for marine applications due to its stability in high moisture and highly saline environments. Anodes embedded in the parent concrete, either as ribbons in slots for discrete anodes in drilled holes, overcome most of the issues noted above. However, the selection of the most suitable anode configuration should be reviewed for each specific situation. In order to achieve a durable cost effective solution, it is generally recommended that careful consideration and review be conducted at all stages of the cathodic protection system design, installation and operation. Most notably: • The design should be conservative with redundancy in CP elements (e.g. anodes, connections, electrics) creating increased reliability and ensuring longevity at minor additional cost; • Stringent Quality Assurance and site supervision is essential to confirm that the final construction is free from common installation defects which can become extremely costly post demobilisation from site; • Utilise qualified and experienced designers and specialist contractors to minimise common mistakes and shortcuts; and • The owner must commit to regular monitoring and inspections to ensure the system has the best chance of achieving its maximum design life. Early contractor (Freyssinet) engagement was sought in regard to verification of project methodology, anticipated work movements and working cycles whilst operating in difficult and restricted tidal conditions, project risks and opportunities, access systems and budget costings. Lessons learned from several completed marine based projects contributed to this study.

4.2 Implementation Studies Prior to the Port formally committing to ICCP to Wharf 3, and long before the commencement of full-scale site operations, targeted implementation studies were undertaken by Freyssinet in consultation with the Port and GHD in order to confirm both

site conditions and ICCP design assumptions. These investigation works were predominately focused on confirmation of reinforcement electrical continuity at select locations, and also the confirmation of concrete cover using ground penetrating radar (GPR). The information captured during this early phase was completed efficiently from work vessels without need for the installation of access systems, enabling a high level of confidence and de-risking in moving forward on the project.

4.3 Detailed Design Further to the review carried out by GHD, the detailed design of ICCP systems for the crane beams and extended deck beams was carried out for Wharves 1 – 3 and the Coal Wharf. Lessons learnt from previous wharves are associated with acidification, embedded / underslung objects, revetment location, continuity repairs, selection of anode type, backfill material and design current demand. The systems are an impressed current CP system capable of supplying 20 milliamps of protective current per square metre of reinforcement surface in accordance with AS 2832.5. The expected lifetime of CP systems on concrete structures is typically 30 years before replacement of some components is required. The embedded anodes and cabling are expected to last significantly longer than this; conversely some components such as safety fuses may require more frequent replacement. Ongoing monitoring and maintenance of the system will be required to maintain protection of the reinforcement. The anode material to distribute the protective current to reinforcement is Mixed MetalOxide (MMO) coated titanium. Continuous mesh ribbon anodes installed in slots in the cover concrete is used to protect the reinforcement. Anode slots are backfilled in a cementitious mortar with appropriate electrical resistivity. Zoning has allowed separate control of the CP current to different areas of the elements to be protected. The total design current for each zone is approximately 5.0 Amp per zone. Individual anodes within a zone are connected together with titanium conductor bars spot welded to the anode mesh. Cable connections to the conductor bars are fully encapsulated in epoxy resin. Cable connections to the reinforcement, both for current carrying and potential monitoring purposes, were pre-made and comprised a mild steel lug with insulated cable attached, fully encapsulated in epoxy resin. During installation each lug was welded to the reinforcement to establish the connection.


Reference electrodes were required to monitor the performance of the system and the level of corrosion protection achieved. All cabling to be embedded in concrete will be insulated and sheathed and suitably resistant to the various acidic and alkaline conditions. A power supply and control unit (or Transformer Rectifiers (TR)) is located adjacent to each wharf in a lockable stainless steel or other corrosion minimised enclosure. It is comprised of a four-circuit DC power supply and capable of operating in constant voltage, constant current, or auto-potential mode. The unit incorporates an adjustable interrupter to facilitate instant-off potential measurements. The control unit has panel meters installed to monitor output current and voltage and all structure-to-reference potentials, and has terminals to allow monitoring using external instruments. Control and monitoring of the system is manual and on site. All Cathodic protection systems require ongoing maintenance and monitoring to ensure that appropriate protection levels are maintained in accordance with the Australian Standard criteria. On completion and commissioning of each system, an Operations and Maintenance Manual is prepared, setting out the requirements for ongoing operation and maintenance of the system.

4.4 CP Installation Trials – Wharf 3 In late 2017 Freyssinet mobilised to site to a remote hardstand area located around 1km from the works, with boat and work vessel launch facilities at an increased distance of around 2km. Several options were considered by Freyssinet and the Port, however Stevedore operations precluded closer access via the wharf deck itself. Initial verification trials carried out in early 2018 were aimed at confirming the GHD design and various design assumptions.

Figure 2 – Access and general working arrangement under Berth 1 and Berth 2

Access systems developed for the project were based on those used extensively by Freyssinet on similar marine based projects, incorporating composite materials designed for longevity. Due to regular pile spacings below the wharf under the extended deck beams, modular and uniform sized platforms were individually floated into position and suspended from the wharf soffit. These were connected via bridging units between spans, thereby allowing continuous access for beam lengths of around 50 metres. With beam soffits being located within the upper tidal range and also in close proximity to the rock revetment, platform heights were set at construction optimised levels. The design for ICCP under Wharf 3 was based on protection of 265Lm of extended rear deck beam, with sectional dimensions of 2.0m wide and 1.0m in height. Around 5,300Lm of Ti ribbon anodes were installed into deep slots cut into the extended beam soffit and side faces, with the majority located in the challenging overhead areas. Soffit and side face spacings were optimised as a result of the early stage CP trialling, to around 190mm and 250mm respectively. The completed system incorporated ten zones, monitored through embedded Ag/AgCl reference electrodes. Cabling from each of the junction boxes was routed back to a land based electrical sub-station via new aluminium cable tray, and existing pits and conduits.

Figure 3 – Cutting of beam soffit chases

As the wharf deck was constructed at a relatively low level as previously noted, with crane and deck beams subject to submersion on a regular basis, all aspects of the project were significantly challenged as a result of restricted access and working in tidal waters for significant periods. The impact on the project was limited as much as possible through adoption of staggered shifts, and the development of intrinsically safe systems and bespoke equipment.

Figure 4 – Cutting of soffit anode chases

Cathodic protection works to the overhead soffit areas presented the single largest challenge on the project. Concrete chase cutting in these areas was largely simplified through the design and development of bespoke cutting equipment (Figures 3 and 4). Reliability was proved in this difficult and corrosion aggressive environment over a twelve month period . Grout filling of anode slots was enhanced, from a quality and productivity perspective, through extensive material and equipment trialling.

Figure 5 – Concrete breakout of anode slots in side face of beam

A significantly reduced working height below the beams was encountered near the downstream end of the wharf, adjacent to the rock revetment. As a result of this restriction the conforming anode arrangement could not be safely installed, so an alternative discrete anode arrangement with side access was designed and trialled, and later successfully incorporated into the works (Figure 6).

Figure 6 – Inverted core hole drilling for discrete anode installation

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4.5 Commissioning and performance monitoring During the initial trial of the system in early 2018, Zones 1 and 2 were energised to 35% and 45% respectively of design current, potentials were measured in a grid pattern with a portable reference electrode. The results showed that the system polarised quickly with a large negative shift in all potentials and ultimately the results indicated protection was being achieved well in excess of the requirements. During commissioning in November 2018, the initial energisation was undertaken at 50% of the design current in accordance with the specification. Similarly with the trial results, it was found that the system was operating well and achieving protection up to 3 times what is required in accordance with AS2832.52008. The system was then adjusted with all zones (with the exception of Zone 10) reduced to operate between 15% – 30% of the design current. Zone 10 was changed to a discrete anode installation due to access limitations (as above) and required 50% of the design current to meet the protection criteria. The latest round of monitoring conducted in May 2019 indicated that the system is operating correctly and that all areas of the ICCP system are achieving criteria. Table 1 summarises adjustments and operating capacity. As can be seen, the system is operating at very low capacity for the majority of the structure.

Figure 7 – Extensive requirement for testing before, during and after installation

4.6 Design modifications and innovations for Wharf 1 and Wharf 2 From the initial trial energisation it was apparent that the system was operating with reserve capacity. At this point of the project, and with the learnings from the Wharf 3 trial and full-scale installation, the design calculations were revised and it was agreed to increase the spacing of the anodes to the soffit, essentially decreasing the number of anodes from 12 to 10. At the completion of the Wharf 3 works, further design efficiencies were developed

54 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019


Recommendations / Adjustments


Zone 1 shows a reference meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 15% of the design current.


Zone 2 shows satisfactory level of protection with no further adjustment needed (30% of the design current).


Zone 3 shows all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 20% of the design current.


Zone 4 shows all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 20% of the design current.


Zone 5 shows two references meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have a potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 15% of the design current.


Zone 6 shows a reference meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 20% of the design current.


Zone 7 shows a reference meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 15% of the design current.


Zone 8 shows a reference meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 20% of the design current.


Zone 9 shows a reference meeting the absolute passive criterion after 24h and all references have potential decay over 200mV in 24 hours. The current is to be reduced to 15% of the design current.


Zone 10 shows satisfactory level of protection after 72h – the current needs to be increased to 60% of the current design.

Table 1 – Monitoring Recommendations and Adjustments (May 2019)

for the adjoining structure (Wharves 1 and 2) with the spacing further increased in order to reduce the number of soffit anodes to 9. By having the ability to feedback real results into the design, and maintain effective collaboration between all parties, there has been in the order of 1,000Lm of anode reduction in the current works for Wharves 1 and 2.

5. OUTCOMES AND LESSONS LEARNT Collaboration between asset owner, designer and constructor at early stages to facilitate a project that was delivered and system that performed as required, enabled the Port to provision capital in financial modelling. Design was based on “As Constructed” information and small trial installation in one zone verified design philosophy and allowed further design refinement based on system performance. Under wharf restrictions such narrow workable tidal range that extended the initial works program, changing profile of rock wall reducing workspace to undertake installation resulting in changes to design (ribbon to discrete anodes).

Original wharf designers (justifiably) didn’t allow for future concrete CP system installation so existing conduit and pit network was utilised where possible, however, additional penetrations through wharf abutment and wharf structure were required to allow cable access between TR Unit and field wiring. For ease of access and protection from weather and errant container carrying forklifts the TR unit was installed inside an electrical substation within the wharf’s terminal area. The stevedore who also realised the ongoing benefits of the proposed ICCP system was also cooperative allowing the installation of an air compressor and potable water connection in their operational area. Access to install field cables through the conduit and pit network had to be coordinated with the ever changing shipping schedule so not to interfere with operational activities. Because the existing wharf and terminal electrical infrastructure was able to accommodate these initial wharf concrete CP zones, the work activities did not have any interruptions to the daily operational stevedoring activities. However, GHD’s chloride monitoring and modelling of the


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structure signals that it is only a matter of time and additional concrete CP zones will be required. This will require additions to the in-ground conduit & pit network and access penetrations through the existing wharf structure for the additional CP cables. This will require a higher level of coordination and cooperation with the stevedore as they will have to surrender the use of some of their terminal during these works. The Port will require to plan well in advance with CP designer and early involvement with civil and electrical contractor prior to any involvement with CP contractor. These pre-emptive actions by the Port will present the designer and installer easier tasks and result in a much better finished outcome for the asset owner. By implementing a preventative maintenance strategy, the Port of Brisbane has achieved the following: • Money saved due to delaying ICCP to the appropriate time • Confirmed “value” of inhibitor inclusion • Benefits of silane application • Fine tuning of ICCP design and procurement, improving value for money

56 Highway Engineering Australia | Aug/Sep 2019

• Facilitates planning of long term maintenance • No surprises • Strong monitoring history and planning via early adoption of strategy and view of asset perpetuity– i.e. 100+ year assets • Collaboration between asset owner, designer and constructor at early stages to facilitate a project that was delivered and system that performed as required, enabled Port to provision capital in financial modelling • Ongoing collaboration between all parties to rectify issues / conflicts etc. • Requires long term view of spatial provisions for components (i.e. challenges associated with topside spatial provisions for TRU, cable routing and etc) With the level of involvement that Freyssinet has on this facility, they were able to transparently discuss what measures had been recently adopted and what opportunities for improvement existed for the delivery of the proposed Berth 1 & 2 ICCP installation. A summary of outcomes and learnings are available upon request from the Freyssinet authors.

AUTHOR DETAILS • Brodie Chan is a Maintenance Engineer for the Port of Brisbane Pty Ltd • Gerardo (Gerry) Picerno is an Electrical Engineer at the Port of Brisbane • Daniel Anstice is a Technical Director at GHD • Chris Mein is Queensland Remedial Manager for Freyssinet Australia. • Mike Rutherford is Secretary of the ACA Applicators Technical Group and Director of Conspectus (QLD) Pty Ltd.

ABOUT THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, membership association, that disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention through the provision of training courses, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities. The vision of the ACA is that corrosion is managed sustainably and cost effectively to ensure the health and safety of the community and protection of the environment. For further information, visit: www.corrosion.com.au










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