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ABN 85 007 693 138 PO Box 510, Broadford Victoria 3658 Australia Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Fax: (03) 5784 2210 www.epcgroup.com Publisher and Managing Editor Anthony T Schmidt Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Mobile: 0414 788 900 Email: ats@epcgroup.com Business Development Manager Lawrence Whiter Mobile: 0418 543 821 Email: lawrencewhiter@bigpond.com National Advertising Sales Manager Yuri Mamistvalov Phone: 1300 EPCGROUP (1300 372 476) Mobile: 0419 339 865 Email: yuri@epcgroup.com Advertising Sales - SA Jodie Gaffney - AmAgo Mobile: 0439 749 993 Email: jodie@amago.com.au Advertising Sales - WA Licia Salomone - OKeeffe Media Mobile: 0412 080 600 Email: licia@okm.com.au Graphic Design Annette Epifanidis Mobile: 0416 087 412

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ISSN 0046-7391

2

Editor’s Column

4

Industry News

12

Cover Feature: A1 Roadlines Scorpion II TMA

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APRIL/MAY 2019 Volume 50 Number 6

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Road Safety

20 Equipment Feature

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30 Innovative Solutions 34 TCA News 37 ITS Special Feature

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40 TMAA News 42 Electric Vehicles 46 National Precast Feature

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48 ACA Corrosion Feature 54 iMove CRC Feature

About the Cover

Following its successful assessment by ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel) as part of its ‘Transition to MASH’ process, the Scorpion® II TMA (Truck Mounted Attenuator) has been approved and officially RECOMMENDED FOR ACCEPTANCE on Australian Roads. The ASBAP Approval ensures that everything is in place for the Scorpion® II TMA prior to the planned December 2020 transition date. Turn to Page 12 for the full story.


EDITOR’S COLUMN

Addressing Australia’s massive road maintenance challenge While I feel confident that the majority of you, like me, are watching with a balanced blend of excitement, expectation and scepticism about the myriad funding promises that are being wheeled out in the lead up to the federal election (pun intended), I must admit to being a little disappointed – although, perhaps not necessarily surprised – that despite the appalling condition of many of the nation’s local roads and smaller rural highways, the focus of the big infrastructure spending promises seems to be exclusively on new major transport projects. At this point, I will also take the opportunity to clearly state that, as with each of my editorials, the commentary in this editorial is no way intended to be construed as a partisan piece. It isn’t aimed at any political party or intended to favour any political party. It is only intended to highlight what I see as a major issue in our road infrastructure planning and spending. That said, while I am generally the first to argue our urgent need for additional public transport (with adequate parking facilities), new motorways and improved arterial connections - and as such, welcome any announcements of funding for such projects - I believe there are a couple of critical points being overlooked in the frenzy of spending announcements, viz: • The spending does not and can not stop with initial construction; • New major road and transport projects, while always welcome (and let’s be honest, not a bad sell point in the lead up to any election) are not the only infrastructure projects we need;

2 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

• EVERYTHING requires some form of maintenance eventually; • There is no point having a selection of major projects that feed out into a road network which is so under-funded and in such a poor state of repair that it is unable to cope with the vehicle loadings (both in terms of numbers and mass) it is expected to cater for. Now, before anyone decides to fire off a vitriolic email detailing the planned 10 year $100 billion rolling infrastructure spend in the 2019 budget (including a $2.2 billion Local and State Government Road Safety Package) or for that matter, feels the need to highlight the many billions of dollars being spent annually by State, Territory and Local Governments across the nation on road and bridge maintenance, I am well aware of the funds being allocated and spent on road and bridge maintenance and repair. I do, however, have this to offer in response… Have you seen the condition of much of Australia’s rural and regional road network? Or for that matter, have you driven to or from many of the sprawling outer developing suburbs in our major cities? As I noted previously, any spending on transport infrastructure is, in my humble opinion, worthwhile spending, however, it is clear from the condition of much of the road network, that we are clearly not spending enough. Our road and bridge network is, quite literally, falling apart under the strain. Indeed, we’re even in a situation where most, if not all of our major capitals still have unmade roads forming part of

their road network. For added affect, I’ll just repeat that… UNMADE ROADS… in 2019!! And it’s not about playing the ‘blame game’ either. It serves no purpose to lay the blame for all of the shortcomings of our road and bridge network at the feet of any level of Government… it doesn’t fix the problems. Nor does spending the majority of road infrastructure budgets on feasibility studies. What is needed is a genuine cooperation between all levels of government; a genuine willingness to get on and fix the issues; and, perhaps most importantly, genuine budgetary commitments that provide sufficient funding for the maintenance and repairs the network so desperately needs.

Anthony T Schmidt Managing Editor

TELL US WHAT YOU THINK! We value your opinion and welcome your feedback and input. Send your thoughts to ats@epcgroup.com


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INDUSTRY NEWS

Investments in transport infrastructure to reinvigorate construction

World first in fatigue research The National Transport Commission (NTC) and the Cooperative Research Centre for Alertness, Safety and Productivity (Alertness CRC) recently released the results of a world-first study into heavy vehicle driver fatigue. The two-year scientific study evaluated alertness monitoring technology and the impacts of work shifts on driver alertness. It analysed shift start time, the number of consecutive shifts, shift length, shift rotation, rest breaks and their likely impact on driver drowsiness and fatigue. Spokesperson and Theme Leader for the Alertness CRC Associate Professor Mark Howard said the research involved a study of more than 300 heavy vehicle driver shifts both in-vehicle and in a laboratory, as well as 150,000 samples of retrospective data. “We found that slow eye and eyelid movements, longer blink duration and prolonged eye closure are reliable predictors of drowsiness and fatigue,” Associate Professor Howard said. The study also confirmed the scientific link between alertness and drowsiness patterns associated with specific work shifts for heavy vehicle driving. NTC Chief Executive Officer Dr Gillian Miles said these findings will inform future fatigue policy as part of the NTC-led review of the Heavy Vehicle National Law (HVNL). “This is critical new evidence that will ultimately help to decrease heavy vehicle fatigue risk at a time when the nation’s freight task is expected to double by 2030,” Dr Miles said. The Alertness CRC conducted the research as part of a wider collaboration including the NTC, the Australian Government, Transport for NSW, Austin Health, Monash University,

4 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

the Institute for Breathing and Sleep and the heavy vehicle industry. Key research findings: • Greatest alertness levels can be achieved under current standard driving hours for shifts starting between 6am – 8am, including all rest breaks. • Greatest risk of an increase in drowsiness occurs: o After 15 hours of day driving when a driver starts a shift before 9am). o After 6–8 hours of night driving (when a driver starts a shift in the afternoon or evening). o After 5 consecutive shifts when driving again for over 13 hours. o When driving an early shift that starts after midnight and before 6am. o During the first 1-2 night shifts a driver undertakes and during long night shift sequences. o When a driver undertakes a backward shift rotation (from an evening, back to afternoon, or an afternoon back to a morning start). o After long shift sequences of more than seven shifts. o During nose-to-tail shifts where a seven-hour break only enables five hours of sleep – a duration previously associated with a three-fold increased risk for motor vehicle accidents. The summary report and an infographic of the key research findings are available on the NTC website at: www.ntc.gov.au/currentprojects/heavy-vehicle-driver-fatigue-data

ABOUT NTC The National Transport Commission (NTC) is a statutory body charged with improving the productivity, safety and environmental performance of Australia’s road, rail and intermodal transport system. For further information, please visit: www.ntc.gov.au

The Australian construction industry, which contracted an estimated 2.8% in real terms in 2018, is expected to regain growth momentum and rise at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 2.73% during the forecast period (2019–2023), supported by the government’s focus on development of transport and commercial infrastructure in the country, says GlobalData, a leading data and analytics company. GlobalData’s report, ‘Construction in Australia - Key Trends and Opportunities by State and Territory to 2023’ reveals that the industry’s output value in real terms is expected to increase from US$166.7bn in 2018 to US$190.7bn in 2023, measured at constant 2017 US dollar exchange rates. Australia’s construction industry declined from US$171.5bn in 2017 to US$166.7bn in 2018 due to a sharp drop in activity in the oil and gas sector as major oil and gas projects, which provided a spurt to the industry’s growth in 2017, were completed or are close to being completed. These included the multi-billion Gorgon project and the Wheatstone and the Ichthys Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) projects. Dhananjay Sharma, Construction Analyst at GlobalData, comments: “Australia’s construction industry is expected to recover and expand over the forecast period, driven by investments in transport infrastructure.” Residential construction was the largest market in the Australian construction industry during the review period, accounting for 35.4% of its total value in 2018. However, the market is currently in decline, owing to an oversupply in major cities. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), the total number of dwelling units approved in the country decreased by 5.6% in 2018. “Uncertainties with regard to monetary and wages policies, as well as political instabilities due to the upcoming federal election in May 2019 are expected to hold back the growth of the residential construction market in the near term,” Sharma added. “However, with the government planning to invest A$75bn (US$58.9bn) to develop the country’s transport infrastructure by 2027–2028, the sector is expected to regain growth momentum. Commercial and industrial projects, and an improvement in consumer and investor confidence, will also provide support to the sector,” he said.


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INDUSTRY NEWS

Making the most of budget funds for additional commuter parking Victorian cyclists want protection from close passes The Amy Gillett Foundation partnered with Monash University to conduct a world-first study of the distances drivers give cyclists when passing on Victorian roads. Research published in the scientific journal Accident Analysis and Prevention during April shows cyclists are frequently passed at close and unsafe distances. In one in every 17 times a driver passes a cyclist, the gap was closer than one metre. Alarmingly, in higher speed zones greater than 60km/h, one in three passing events were too close. The study collected data on 60 cyclists in Melbourne who rode their bicycles with a device installed to quantify the distances that motor vehicles drivers provided them. The cyclists in this study recorded 422 trips including over 18,500 vehicle passing events. “We know that vehicles driving closely to cyclists increases how unsafe people feel when riding bikes and acts as a strong barrier to increasing cycling participation,” said Dr Ben Beck, study lead author, Monash University. The Amy Gillett Foundation has campaigned for Minimum Passing Distance legislation across Australia. Victorian is the only State without Minimum Passing Distance legislation. Already in place nationally, the amendment adds to the current road rule and specifies that when passing a cyclist that drivers allow a minimum of one metre in speed zones up to 60km/h and 1.5 metres in speed zones over 60km/h. Currently, Victorian road rules require drivers to leave a 'sufficient' distance when passing cyclists but fail to provide any guidance on what is ‘sufficient’. “Drivers, cyclists and everyone using Victorian roads will benefit from making the law clearer and bringing Victorian into line with every other Australian state and territory,” said Andy Sheats, Amy Gillett Foundation Chairman. “Passing distance legislation already exists in Victoria. What we are seeking is to clarify the existing laws. We need to educate people about sharing the roads safely. In other parts of Australia, changing the law has been a key

6 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

part in this education,” Mr Sheats said. In 2016, a Victorian bipartisan Parliamentary committee recommended implementation of Minimum Passing Distance legislation in Victoria. However, an education program has been conducted by the TAC in lieu of legislative change. The study also found that marked on-road bicycle lanes and parked cars reduced the distance that motorists provide when passing cyclists. Specifically, passing events that occurred on a road with a bicycle lane and a parked car had an average passing distance that was 40 cm less than a road without a bicycle lane or a parked car. The Amy Gillett Foundation strongly supports the study authors recommendations for greater action to review and update cycling infrastructure to create a safe cycling environment in Australia. “What this research shows is that we need smart, thoughtful and engaged approaches to cycling safety. We need improvements across legislation, education and infrastructure to ensure Victorians feel safe to ride. This isn’t about pitting one group of roads users against another, it’s about understanding that everyone wants to get home safely, and it’s about coming together to find ways to improve our road system so that it works for everyone,” Mr Sheats added. “This study was independently analysed and is the largest of its kind in the world. The Amy Gillett Foundation is proud to support innovative research into cycling safety which provides evidence-based approaches to keep cyclists safe across Australia,” he concluded.

ABOUT THE AMY GILLETT FOUNDATION The Amy Gillett Foundation was born out of tragedy, the death of Amy Gillett, who was hit by a driver while cycling in Germany in 2005. It has evolved to become the leading cycling safety organisation in Australia, driven by a core mission to reduce the incidence of death and injury of cyclists. The Foundation works with all levels of government, road authorities, corporate, motoring,

“We commend the government for investing an additional $3 billion to tackle urban congestion. The additional $500 million for commuter train station parking will certainly be music to commuter's ears who find parking at train stations full by 7 am,” said Mosstyn Howell, CEO and founder of UbiPark - a smart parking technology solution. “However, we need to make sure we target the right stations and areas to ensure we are meeting demand. We can only do this by collecting data on current supply and demand, through things like car parking sensors, parking access technologies, as well as mapping current available parking and utilisation rates. As such, we believe some of the funds must be used to bring our current parking technology into the new digital age.” “Parking technology has changed very little over the last decade, as we take a build, set and forget approach. We still rely on outdated ticket machines, which do not provide much insight into parking use, as well as being expensive to buy, maintain and replace,” Mr Howell added. “If we continue to invest in old parking hardware, rather than taking advantage of smart digital parking technologies, we will see millions of taxpayer funds wasted while still providing a sub-optimal parking experience and limited insight into utilisation to help make smarter decisions.” “We need the Government to take a modern approach to parking. Forwardthinking councils, such as the City of Melbourne, are taking the lead on this approach by not only providing commuters with a digital solution but also insight into live availability. This enables commuters to make better commuting choices and easily


INDUSTRY NEWS

find available parking before they leave the house, improving the experience and reducing congestion,” he said. “There are also privately funded projects that are taking smart initiatives to parking. Multi-modal transport applications, like the arevo app by RACV, give commuters full visibility into their commute options and integrate the Myki card into the solution for easy and convenient payment, whether it be for a train, bus or parking spot. These solutions will again help commuters make smarter decisions and encourage more people off our roads.” “If we do not provide visibility into parking and commuting options, this fund will inevitably bring induced demand, the phenomenon whereby increasing supply sees more of that good consumed. Essentially, with the knowledge more road capacity and parking are available, more cars will take to the road than ever before, quickly nullifying the investment by the Government and bringing us back to square one,” Mr Howell said. “To stymie induced demand, we need to provide transparency around the commute options available in real-time to allow commuters to make better decisions, rather than taking a punt the roads will be clear and parking available. Only by taking a more sophisticated, technology-driven approach to commuting options, will the Government be able to see a return of investment in their funding initiatives. Otherwise, this announcement just becomes a band-aid solution we will have to address again in the not so distant future,” Mr Howell concluded.

IPWEA to release guidance document on impending upgrades for a million street lights Confidently presenting a robust and technically sound business case for street lighting and smart control upgrades will be easier from April, with the release of the Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia’s (IPWEA) Model Business Case for Street Lighting and Smart Controls. Almost one million old street lights are likely to be replaced in Australia in the next three to four years, compelling many councils, road authorities and utilities to consider large-scale lighting upgrades. This is due to the global Minamata Convention on Mercury, which is already restricting the availability of old-mercury vapour lamps for street lighting in Australia. Almost 900,000 remaining mercury vapour street lights are found on Australian roads; without available replacement lamps, complete replacement of these lights in the near-term now appears inevitable. Written with support from the Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) and the Commonwealth Government’s Department of

Environment and Energy, the Model Business Case – due for release shortly – provides guidance for local government, main road agency and utility staff wanting to put forward a compelling and accurate case for making the change to LED street lighting and/or smart controls. It is a template document that can be adapted to suit individual circumstances and contains instructions and prompts to guide the writer through the process. Applicable to both large and small projects in urban and rural applications, the Model Business Case is written in plain English and is available under a Creative Commons licence, making it widely and freely available. The Model Business Case will be the IPWEA Street Lighting and Smart Control (SLSC) Programme’s third guidance document. The first two documents in the suite – model specifications for public LED lighting and lighting controls – aim to assist public lighting buyers, vendors, contractors, funders and advisors to efficiently and economically

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INDUSTRY NEWS

procure LED lighting and smart control systems for public lighting. IPWEA Acting CEO Ben Balov said the Model Business Case has been created to be a user-friendly tool that will accelerate the rollout of LED lighting and smart control projects. “Sitting down to create a business case for a relatively new and complex field can understandably be daunting. We want to remove as many barriers as possible for bestpractice LED and smart control changeovers,” Mr Balov said. “IPWEA modelling shows that if every street light in Australia were converted to LEDs, councils would slash $100 million off their annual street lighting bills and reduce our street lighting’s energy use and greenhouse gas emissions by at least 52%. When you add in smart controls that allow street lights to be dimmed when appropriate, that energy reduction can be as high as 72%. “Like the first two guidance documents in the suite, the Model Business Case will be a living document, updated regularly and as needed to bring certainty to the process of writing a street lighting and smart controls upgrade business case.” The Model Business Case will be available on the SLSC website from late April – if you would like to be notified when it is published, join the SLSC mailing list here at: www.slsc.org.au

ABOUT THE SLSC PROGRAMME The IPWEA SLSC Programme was launched in 2016 to accelerate the efficient adoption of modern street lighting and smart controls technologies and best practices throughout Australia and New Zealand, in support of the government's Energy Productivity and Smart Cities agenda.

ABOUT IPWEA The Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia (IPWEA) is the peak not-for-profit association for public works and engineering professionals across Australia and New Zealand. It provides training, publications and advocacy to support its 4,000-plus members and 20,000-plus community of engineering professionals who provide essential community infrastructure. For more information, please visit: www.ipwea.org

ABOUT THE CEFC The CEFC is responsible for investing $10 billion in clean energy projects on behalf of the Australian Government. The CEFC helps to lower Australia's carbon emissions by investing in renewable energy, energy efficiency and low emissions technologies. It also supports innovative start-up companies through the Clean Energy Innovation Fund. Across its portfolio, the CEFC invests to deliver a positive return for taxpayers. For more information visit: www.cefc.com.au

10 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

World’s Longest Journey in an Electric Vehicle Finishes in Sydney ‘Plug-me-in’ Dutchman completes three-year, 95,000-kilometre electric car journey from Amsterdam to Sydney. Dutchman Wiebe Wakker – who has driven an electric car 95,000 kilometres from Amsterdam to Sydney, crossing through 33 countries in 1,119 days – arrived in Sydney on April 7, completing the world’s longest ever electric car journey. The car, a retrofitted station wagon named The Blue Bandit, has a range of 200km on a single charge. The original non-modified car would have used 6,785 litres of petrol to complete the journey. By contrast The Blue Bandit used 17,000 kilowatt hours of electricity, which would have cost $3,750. The vast majority of Wakker’s electricity was donated by supporters during his journey. Wakker spent only $300 on electricity, mostly in outback Australia. He had only one flat tyre and zero car accidents. When he reached the Sydney Botanic Gardens today Wakker became the first person to drive around the world in an electric car. He was also the first person to cross Turkey, Iran, India, Myanmar, Malaysia and Indonesia in an electric car. Wakker left Amsterdam on 15 March 2016, more than three years ago, without any money but with a goal to prove the viability of electric cars. He asked people to support him by offering a meal, a place to sleep, or electricity

You know you’re a long way from Holland when… Dutchman Wiebe Wakker on the last leg of his recently completed 95,000km world trip.

to charge his car. Thousands signed up on his website and these offers determined the route of the journey, which criss-crossed through 33 countries. His journey took him from Holland to Australia via Western Europe, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, India and South-East Asia. He crossed oceans in container ships. In Australia he travelled from Darwin to Perth, across the Nullabor Plain, north to Alice Springs, east to Rockhampton, then to Newcastle, Broken Hill, Adelaide, Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney. Throughout his journey Wakker has met ministers, MPs, mayors, sheiks and government officials. Wakker says his ‘Plug Me In’ project aims to prove the viability of electric cars. “Electric cars are a way to tackle climate change,” he said. “I wanted to change people’s opinions and inspire people to start driving electric by showing the advantages of sustainable mobility. If one man can drive to the other side of the world in an electric car, then they should definitely be viable for daily use.” Wakker says he will always remember the kindness that strangers showed him during his journey. “Nearly 2,000 people from 45 countries offered to host me and during my journey and I received so much help. Locals helped repair the car when it broke down, people offered me a couch to sleep on, and many helped pay for electricity. I am very grateful for all the help I received and it changed me as a person,” he said. “I am excited to finish in Sydney because it is as far away from Holland on as you can get on Earth.” When he returns to Holland, Wakker wants to write a book about his journey and remain an ambassador for sustainable mobility.


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COVER STORY

TESTED APPROVED RECOMMENDED ™

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TESTED, PASSED AND ELIGIBLE

Scorpion II® TMA (Truck Mounted Attenuator) ASSESSED, APPROVED & RECOMMENDED for ACCEPTANCE throughout Australia by ASBAP 12 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019


Following its successful assessment by ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel) as part of its ‘Transition to MASH’ process – which was established following the recommended move to MASH (Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware) testing in place of NCHRP350 testing outlined in AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 ‘Road safety barrier systems and devices’ - the Scorpion® II TMA (Truck Mounted Attenuator) has been approved and officially RECOMMENDED FOR ACCEPTANCE on Australian Roads. The ASBAP Approval ensures that everything is in place for the Scorpion® II TMA prior to the planned December 2020 transition date.

S

ince their introduction to the market over 18 years ago, Scorpion® TMAs have not only gained an enviable reputation for saving lives and significantly reducing the risk of serious injuries in roadside work zones, but also for reducing ‘whole-of-life’ costs. Introduced to the market in 2018, the Scorpion® II TMA was developed in response to the updated MASH (Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware) testing and assessment guidelines. In fact, the Scorpion® II TMA was the world’s first Truck Mounted Attenuator tested, passed and eligible for MASH, TL-3 (tested at 100kph). Visit the US Federal Highway Administration website: www.safety.fhwa. dot.gov and search ‘Letter CC-132’ for details. Available exclusively throughout Australia from A1 Roadlines Pty Ltd, Scorpion TMA’s have proven their performance in the field in well over 2,000 documented impacts in the USA alone, as well as in numerous impacts across Australia and elsewhere around the world. Scorpion TMA’s have been directly credited with saving lives of motorists and site workers alike, while also reducing the severity of injuries suffered by vehicle occupants during an impact. Speaking about the Austroads Recommendation for Acceptance, Janine Bartholomew, Manager with A1 Roadlines, commented: “With the MASH testing and assessment standards now being referred to in the Australian / New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 in place of the previous NCHRP350 testing, it’s extremely important that newly designed equipment is tested, passed and eligible under the MASH requirements.”

“With the MASH testing and assessment standards now being referred to in the Australian / New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 in place of the previous NCHRP350 testing, it’s extremely important that newly designed equipment is tested, passed and eligible under the MASH requirements.”

“While there can be no doubting the Scorpion TMA’s outstanding performance in MASH testing and, perhaps most importantly, during impacts both in Australia and internationally, obtaining the formal Austroads / ASBAP Recommendation for Acceptance is a critical factor in us being able to supply units for use on Australian roads beyond the proposed December 2020 Transition to MASH deadline,” she said. “The transition to MASH is a complex task involving not only Austroads, but also each of the individual jurisdictions. It’s also a task that has been made significantly more confusing for many due to some inaccurate and often spurious claims being made in relation how the transition to MASH will affect the use of older units that were tested to NCHRP350 rather than MASH.” “With that in mind, we’re extremely pleased to have been able to complete the ASBAP assessment process and have the Scorpion II TMA Recommended for Acceptance well in advance of the proposed changeover date,” Janine added.

NO CUT-OFF DATE FOR OLDER UNITS While the Austroads approval ensures that the Scorpion II meets the MASH testing criteria specified in AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 and allows it to be supplied beyond the planned December 2020 deadline, it DOES NOT by any definition mean that the older non-MASH tested equipment is suddenly obsolete or can no longer be used. “Despite some of the misinformation that has been put out since the transition to MASH was first announced also, the fact that the Scorpion II TMA has been recommended for Acceptance by Austroads DOES NOT render the original Scorpion TMA’s that have been previously approved as tested under NCHRP350 guidelines obsolete or unusable – to suggest otherwise is simply NOT TRUE,” Janine said. “While there is a formal agreement to transition to MASH testing from NCHRP350 testing for new equipment by December 2020, there is NO CUT-OFF DATE for using equipment that has been certified under the NCHRP350 testing while it is operational. That would be akin to telling everyone that they’d have to get rid of their cars or stop using them because the Standards and testing methods have been updated,” she added.


COVER STORY

PERFORMANCE BY DESIGN

The Scorpion II TMA consists of strut and cartridge sections that are linked together on a support frame. This open cartridge design reduces wind resistance and increases fuel efficiency when deployed on the job site and when traveling at highway speeds. Each energy absorbing cushion has an aluminium honeycomb core that is enclosed by an aluminium powder-coated box module that provides maximum durability and longevity. The Scorpion II is equipped with LED brake, directional, signal and running lights to further enhance advanced warnings to drivers. When impacted, the Scorpion's modular design crushes in progressive stages, which reduces the impact forces on the vehicles occupants and results in lower repair costs and easy parts replacement. The curved side rails are made from corrosion resistant aluminium tubes and offer full width impact protection along the entire length of the Scorpion II by safely redirecting the impacting vehicle away from the deadly "coffin corners" at the rear of the truck.

QUICK & EASY TO DEPLOY

The Scorpion II TMA is extremely easy to use and fast to deploy in the field. Available to suit a wide variety of vehicle type and models, the Scorpion II TMA’s compact design and balanced weight distribution minimises the impact on vehicle handling, while its ‘fold-over’ design helps to minimise the total vehicle height while in transit to and from the work zone, without having to compromise on performance in the field.

14 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

AVAILABLE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF HOST VEHICLES

A1 Roadlines are able to supply the Scorpion II TMA on a wide range of cab-chassis models from leading manufacturers including ISUZU, UD, FUSO and HINO to name a few. Trucks are also available in a range of body and wheelbase configurations to suit any application. When fully deployed, the Scorpion II TMA is only 4 m in length, thus giving the Scorpion II the shortest overall length of any MASH Eligible Truck Mounted Attenuator on the market. This shorter length reduces incidental impacts and repair costs while still providing the highest level of safety and reliability. Additionally, the Scorpion II TMA is compatible with the Doctor Air Brake® automatic braking system that instantly locks the brakes of the host vehicle upon impact, further protecting the driver of the TMA truck, occupants of the impacting vehicle, and any bystanders or workers near the crash.


COVER STORY

MODULAR DESIGN DELIVERS PERFORMANCE & SAVINGS

AN IMPORTANT NOTE ON MINIMUM TARE & GVM WEIGHTS

It’s important to note, that despite the fact that the Scorpion II is MASH Tested and Eligible with a minimum host truck tare weight of only 6,804 kg with absolutely no upper weight limit, THE CURRENT MINIMUM PERMITTED HOST VEHICLE TARE WEIGHT stipulated by VicRoads, NSW RMS, QMR, and published in the National Guidelines for the Use of Truck and Trailer Attenuators (developed by the TMA Working Party) is 9,000kg with a minimum GVM of 15,000kg. Furthermore, according the National Guidelines for the Use of Truck and Trailer Attenuators, the current minimum permitted host vehicle weight for a host vehicle towing a trailer-mounted attenuator is 4,536kg.

As well as playing a significant role in its performance during an impact, the Scorpion II TMA’s ‘modular’ design also plays a major role in helping to reduce the cost of repairs (particularly after moderate impacts and/ or in the event of accidental damage) with only the damaged components requiring replacement.

Pictured below (from left): The damaged components being removed following an impact. With the damaged components removed, the remaining sections are checked prior to the new components being fitted. Fitting the new components. The majority of TMA repairs can generally be completed within a one-day turnaround.

With most non-modular units, even minor damage caused by a driver inadvertently reversing into an object or colliding with a stationary object while positioning the vehicle, can have extremely costly consequences. In fact, with some units, even minor impacts can result in having to replace the majority of the TMA unit. Needless to say, with very low speed and minor impacts accounting for around 80% of the total impacts into TMA’s, the cost and inconvenience of having to replace an entire unit or the majority of a unit any time minor damage occurs can be considerable. Importantly, even after most ‘medium severity impacts’, the Scorpion II TMA only generally requires replacement of one or two of the ‘cartridge’ sections and, depending on the angle of impact, a set of aluminium side deflection bars. The Scorpion II TMA units are extremely quick and easy to repair, and with the greater majority of repairs coming in at only a fraction of the cost of a replacement unit, they deliver outstanding ‘whole of life’ value.

For further information, contact:

A1 ROADLINES PTY LTD

P: 1300 217 623 (1300 A1ROAD) E: janine@a1roadlines.com.au www.a1roadlines.com.au


ROAD SAFETY

MASH EXPLAINED

What is MASH Testing? What are the differences between MASH and NCHRP350? With the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) testing and assessment guidelines being referred to as the preferred testing method in the Australian Standard AS/NZS 3845.2:2017 – replacing the previous NCHRP350 testing guidelines - Austroads has implemented a ‘Transition to MASH’ program. The program, which is being conducted by ASBAP (Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel), assesses the suitability of road safety devices including steel and concrete barriers, end terminals, wire rope safety barriers and crash cushions, transitions, temporary barriers and products such as TMA’s for use on Australian roads according to their performance under AASHTO's MASH guidelines. The following extracts, which are republished here courtesy of AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials), provide a brief overview of MASH guidelines, including details of how they differ from the previous NCHRP350 testing guidelines. Additional information, including copies of the full MASH guidelines, can be obtained direct from the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration website: www.safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept

WHAT IS MASH? The AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) presents uniform guidelines for crash testing permanent and temporary highway safety features and recommends evaluation criteria to assess test results. This manual is recommended for highway design engineers, bridge engineers, safety engineers, maintenance engineers, researchers, hardware developers, and others concerned with safety features used in the highway environment. MASH is an update to and supersedes NCHRP Report 350, Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features, for the purposes of evaluating new safety hardware devices. MASH does not supersede any guidelines for the design of roadside safety hardware, which are contained within the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide. An implementation plan for MASH that was adopted jointly by AASHTO and FHWA

16 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

states that all highway safety hardware accepted prior to the adoption of MASH – using criteria contained in NCHRP Report 350 – may remain in place and may continue to be manufactured and installed. In addition, highway safety hardware accepted using NCHRP Report 350 criteria is not required to be retested using MASH criteria. However, new highway safety hardware not previously evaluated must utilize MASH for testing and evaluation. MASH was developed through National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 22-14(02), “Improvement of Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Roadside Features,” and contains revised criteria for impact performance evaluation of virtually all highway safety features, based primarily on changes in the vehicle fleet.

HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM NCHRP350 Some of the major differences between MASH and NCHRP Report 350 assessment include: Changes in Test Matrices • The small car impact angle is increased from 20 to 25 degrees to match the impact angle used with light truck testing

• The impact speed for the single-unit truck test is increased from 80 km/h to 90 km/h to better distinguish the TL-4 test from TL-3 • The impact angle for length-of-need testing of terminals and crash cushions is increased from 20 to 25 degrees to match that for longitudinal barriers • The impact angle for oblique end impacts for gating terminals and crash cushions is reduced from 15 to 5 degrees • A head-on test with the mid-size car is added for staged impact attenuation systems • The barrier mounting height is recommended to be set at the maximum for small car tests and at the minimum for pickup truck tests • The critical impact point for the small car terminal test is defined as the point where the terminal behaviour changes from redirection to gating • Two previously optional TMA tests are now mandatory • Variable message signs and arrow board trailers are added to the TMA crash test matrix • A pickup truck test is added to tests of support structures and work zone traffic control devices


ROAD SAFETY

• Longitudinal channelizers are added as a category and a test matrix is recommended • Event data recorded and airbag deployment data to be collected on test vehicles Changes in Test Vehicles • The size and weight of test vehicles is increased to reflect the increase in vehicle fleet size: o the 820C test vehicle is replaced by the 1100C o the 2000P test vehicle is replaced by the 2270P o the single unit truck mass is increased from 8000 kg to 10,000 kg o the light truck test vehicle must have a minimum centre of gravity height of 28 inches • The option for using passenger car test vehicles older than 6 years is removed • Truck box attachments on test vehicles are required to meet published guidelines

• External vehicle crush must be documented using National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) procedures • A new crushable nose needs to be developed for use on surrogate test vehicles • TMA designers are required to select maximum and minimum support truck weight ratings Changes in Evaluation Criteria • Windshield damage evaluation uses quantitative, instead of qualitative, criteria • Windshield damage criteria is applied to permanent support structures in addition to work zone traffic control devices • The occupant compartment damage evaluation uses quantitative, instead of qualitative, criteria • All evaluation criteria will be pass/fail, eliminating the “marginal pass” • All longitudinal barrier tests are required to meet flail space criteria • Maximum roll and pitch angles are set at 75 degrees

• The subjective criteria for evaluating exit conditions are eliminated; reporting the exit box evaluation criterion is required • Documentation on vehicle rebound in crash cushion tests is required Changes in Test Documentation • CAD drawings of the test device and test installation are required • Additional documentation of the test and evaluation results is required Changes in Performance Evaluation • Language emphasizing the importance of in-service evaluation is added

Factsheet extracts courtesy of AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) For further information and downloads, please visit: www.safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/ countermeasures/reduce_crash_severity/aashto_ guidancecfm.cfm

Apr/May 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 17


ROAD SAFETY

INGAL CIVIL PRODUCTS

ON THE TOOWOOMBA SECOND RANGE CROSSING (TSRC) Toowoomba Second Range Crossing (TSRC) is a 41-kilometre long heavy vehicle bypass route to the north of Toowoomba in Queensland’s Darling Downs region. Stretching from the Warrego Highway at Helidon Spa in the east to the Gore Highway at Athol in the west, the TSRC provides an alternative crossing of the Toowoomba Range for all classes of heavy and super heavy vehicles, improving freight efficiency and driver safety, while at the same time relieving pressure on Toowoomba’s roads, and enhancing liveability across the region. Not surprisingly, maximising safety along this critical road transport link was a major consideration in the design and construction of the TSRC. In contributing to the completion of the crossing, Ingal Civil Products supplied a total of 66 kilometres of Ezy-Guard HC to the project, together with a number of other products Jointly funded by the Australian and Queensland Governments on an 80:20 funding split arrangement and delivered under a Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement, $1.6 billion project is the largest Australian Government commitment to a single road project in Queensland’s history. Construction of the TSRC was started in April 2016 by Nexus Delivery - the Construction Joint Venture of Nexus Infrastructure - and is scheduled for completion in mid-2019. Nexus Delivery consists of Acciona Infrastructure Australia and Ferrovial Agroman.

18 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

The new bypass will deliver significantly improved freight efficiencies between southeast Queensland and the Darling Downs and beyond, providing a safer, less congested route than the existing range crossing. The TSRC is also expected to enhance livability and amenity for residents by removing heavy vehicles from Toowoomba’s CBD. It is also expected to reduce travel time across the Toowoomba Range by up to 40 minutes by eliminating up to 18 sets of traffic lights for heavy commercial vehicles. The Ezy-Guard HC product has been supplied for installation along various sections of the TSRC. Ezy-Guard HC was selected due to its high containment capacity and full compliance with MASH TL4 crash tests, which makes it an ideal system for the TSRC requirements. Able to withstand and yield to a 10,000kg truck travelling at 90km/h and impacting at 15 degrees, Ezy-Guard HC from Ingal Civil Products represents the next generation of safety barrier systems. Its design allows for a controlled ride down of an impacting vehicle which, in turn, helps to reduce the deceleration forces exerted on the impacting vehicle’s occupants. In addition, Ezy-Guard HC’s clever design uses fewer components, providing for rapid installation and repair. 100% locally designed and produced, Ingal Ezy-Guard HC is proving to be the ideal choice for a project of national significance, and will play a critical role in helping to

ensure the safety of the many thousands of vehicles that are expected to use the TSRC each day. For more information on Ezy-Guard HC or any other products in the Ingal Civil Products range, please visit: www.ingalcivil.com.au


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EQUIPMENT FEATURE

GAME CHANGER

NEW HEAVY-DUTY TRAILER RANGE SETS A NEW BENCHMARK IN TOWING PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY It’s a sad fact, that every day across Australia there are literally thousands of unsafe, unroadworthy and, perhaps most alarmingly, extremely overloaded trailers being towed on the nation’s roads. And it’s not just private vehicles that are the culprits! One only has to look at the results of on-road enforcement operations by the nation’s police and road authorities to see just how many noncompliant trailer and towing infringements are issued to businesses and commercial operators large and small. Whether these issues stem from a wish to save money on the purchase price or maintenance costs (figuring that ‘the tyres aren’t too flat so it’s good to go’), a lack of knowledge as to what constitutes a ‘roadworthy trailer’ or, more commonly, a complete lack of understanding as to the safe operating load and braking requirements for trailers, is effectively a moot point. These trailers are being used on the road network and they present a significant danger to all road users. Two of the most concerning (and common) issues with trailer towing, are overloading the trailer, and exceeding the 2-Tonne ATM limit for “over run brakes”. Exceeding this towing limit is not only extremely dangerous, it can also void any insurance claim in the event of an accident. With that in mind, Steve Williams from Queensland-based company Ultimate Trailers has been working with UK-based heavy-duty trailer specialists Indespension developing a range of trailers for the Australian market that offer safe towing behind suitable vehicles up to 3,500kg ATM, without requirement of electric brakes. The first of these remarkable

20 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

trailers are now in Australia, and they’re already garnering a great deal of interest from contractors, councils and equipment hire companies across the country. “Exceeding this 2-Tonne ATM towing capacity is a particularly common issue amongst contractors carrying equipment such as skid-steers, mini excavators, scissor-lifts, etc.,” Steve said. “Between that, overloading and using trailers which are not only ‘not fit for purpose’ but in all reality, would be better off on the scrap heap, a lot of trailers are not only illegal, they’re also incredibly dangerous.” “From the outset, our goal has been to provide a range of purpose-built heavyduty trailers which are not only safe and affordable, but which also help to maximise the legal load for suitable towing vehicles,” he added. “And the new trailers from Indespension have achieved all of those goals.” Designed and built in the UK using high quality, European high tensile steel, the Indespension range of heavyduty trailers has been specifically engineered to maximise towing capacities. Fully compliant and certified for use on Australian roads, the trailers are available in a range of configurations, including: Low Loader Plant, Beavertail, Flat Bed and Tipper in 2.7T and 3.5T ATM capacities.

Importantly, each of these trailers can be safely and legally towed behind any suitably rated vehicle without the need for electric brakes. “Having the right trailer for the job is a critical safety issue. Poor quality components such as bearings and brakes, combined with excessive unbraked loading can spell disaster on the road,” Steve Williams said. “We’re extremely proud to have been granted full volume compliance and be able to bring these trailers to the Australian market,” he added. “They’re incredibly well engineered, purpose-built, high quality units that are built to last, and can stand up to the daily punishment of even the toughest working environments.” “What’s more, we believe they address all of the common safety issues and are a big step forward in trailer technology,” he concluded. For further information, please visit: www.ultimatetrailers.com.au


Ultimate Impact Protection Blade Truck Mounted Attenuator

MASH Crash Tested and Approved The only MASH approved TMA in Australia measured with a Roll Ahead Distance. Austroads recommended for acceptance now and beyond 2020.

The Blade Truck Mounted Attenuator (TMA) is built using the very latest in safety technology and innovation. Uniquely constructed with 12 blades, during impact the modular design will crumple in a specific fashion to bend away parts in safe directions.

»

Vertical transport position No loading space lost on the truck bed as with a fold over attenuator, and the open design creates less wind resistance and vibration while driving.

»

Our INNOV8 Equipment team have travelled to the Netherlands and received Blade TMA product training directly from our manufacturing partner Verdegro.

Innovative and patented design Delivering the highest level of impact protection for both the people ahead of the TMA and the driver of the errant vehicle.

»

Certified Service and Repair Partner

Unlimited Idling Hours The Blade TMA is mounted to the IVECO Eurocargo cab chassis. Users enjoy unlimited IVECO idling hours warranty.

Fast deployment 20 seconds from transport position to full operating mode to maintain optimum efficiency.

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Modular design Lower repair costs and easy parts replacement if a crash occurs.

Email innov8@innov8equipment.com.au for more information.

www.innov8equipment.com.au | 86 Mulgoa Road, Jamisontown, NSW, 2750 P: 1300 071 007 | E: innov8@innov8equipment.com.au ABN: 23 615 674 416


EQUIPMENT FEATURE

A PERFECT PAIRING FOR PRISTINE PAVING

As anyone in the paving game will know, achieving a quality finish relies as much on the screed as it does on the paver itself. From material flow, through to pre-compaction, shaping and matching levels, the paver and screed must work together in perfect unison to deliver a quality finish. And it’s not just about the finish – it’s also about the amount of hand-work required to achieve the required result. Put simply, a poorly performing screed can result in a lot of additional manual work for the paving crew: fixing edges, matching levels, spreading material and removing excess material. With that in mind, the Dynapac FC1600C Asphalt Paver and VF0816C Screed have been specifically designed to work together to deliver highway class results in a commercial class package. Quality built in the USA and powered by a Japanese-built 74 kW (99hp) Cummins QSB 3.3 diesel engine with double pump drive system, the Dynapac FC1600C has plenty of power to push fully loaded trucks, while its extreme grade poly pad tracks, rebuildable wear-resistant conveyor floor plates and segmented high-wear augers ensure that it has the robust reliability to keep it working – even under the harshest operating conditions. The paver features two bottom augers mounted with the screed extensions to provide continuous delivery of material for wide width paving applications. Chris Parkin, National Product Manager – Pavers & Feeders with Australian Dynapac distributor Construction Equipment Australia, explained: “The FC1600C paver has a unique 4 auger feed system, with two of the augers mounted directly to the screed extensions. This allows the augers to follow the extensions when they move, thereby providing a constant and stable flow of material all the way to the outer edge.” “In practical terms, out on the job, this system means less hand work for the operators and more stable level control even at wide working widths,” he added.

22 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

Ultrasonic sensors automatically control auger and conveyor speeds, while the unit's 16-kilowatt generator provides high-precision electric heat to the screed. Weighing in at 2,040kg, the VF0816C screed delivers outstanding pre-compaction and mat quality. “The VF0816C screed not only offers a class-leading screed weight for a high level of pre compaction, it also provides the versatility of electric heating, hydraulic crown adjustment, hydraulic extension slope adjustment and hydraulic extension height adjustment,” Chris Parkin said. “Working together, these functions not only allow for precise overlays and matching of existing surfaces, they also save a significant amount of hand work and excessive material placement – boosting pavement quality and productivity,” he concluded. Building on their success in the international market, the Dynapac FC1600C paver and VF0816C Screed is now available in Australia, with the first unit on show at Construction Equipment Australia’s Sydney sales centre. For more information visit: www.cea.net.au


FROM THIS…

BACK TO THIS….

WITH THIS….

In over 90% of smart cushion impacts world-wide, the only structural components requiring replacement are 2 x ¼” shear bolts (cost < $5).

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EQUIPMENT FEATURE

INTRODUCING THE KRATA SHAKA MK III NEW COMPACT DESIGN ELIMINATES THE NEED FOR AN ADDITIONAL TRAILER Building on the success of the first two trailer-mounted, Krata Shaka material spreaders, the new Krata Shaka Mk III offers all of the benefits of the original tow-behind designs, in a compact, self-contained, skid-mounted unit. Speaking about the new Krata Shaka Mk III, Krata Industries’ Managing Director, Mary Fraser, commented: “While the original trailer-mounted Krata Shaka designs have proven to be extremely popular for their material spreading capabilities, we found that one of the biggest challenges for road crews around the country, was working out how to transport an additional trailer to the various worksites. This was particularly an issue for road repair crews in rural and remote areas, who often already travel with a trailer behind their work truck to transport skid-steers, loaders, mini-excavators, attachments and other equipment.” “With that in mind, we set about designing a self-contained material spreader that could travel between sites on the truck or trailer with the other equipment, and then be attached to a skid-steer, front-loader or similar piece of equipment when needed,” she added. Importantly, the new design was not only about overcoming the logistics of towing an additional trailer. Eliminating the purpose-built heavy-duty trailer component from the Krata Shaka design has also given the Mk III unit a significant cost advantage over its predecessors. “Designing and fabricating a purpose-built, heavy-duty trailer and getting it approved for use on the Australian road network carries a substantial cost,” Mrs Fraser said. “By eliminating the trailer and on-road components from the Mk III design, we’ve been able to produce a unit that delivers all of the OH&S and productivity benefits of the trailer-mounted designs at a fraction of the cost.” As with its predecessors, the Krata Shaka Mk III, eliminates the back-breaking work associated with manually ‘bag-splitting’ and spreading dry binder materials across small to medium-sized road repair jobs. It allows an even cover of binder material (lime, cement, slag, etc.) to be spread over the required area, quickly and easily, and perhaps most importantly, without any of the extremely strenuous manual labour traditionally associated with the task. Designed to be picked up by a skid-steer, front-loader or similar piece of equipment, the Krata Shaka Mk III weighs in at 550kg and can

24 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

hold up to 1-tonne of binder material. The hopper can either be filled prior to transport or at the worksite. Measuring 2100mm wide, 1800mm deep and 1200mm high, the unit features two hydraulically-controlled material gates which allow the binder to be applied at a width of either 1000mm or 2000mm. The gates can be adjusted to control material flow for different binders. The Mk III unit also features integrated scales with a high visibility display, which allows the operator to see exactly how much binder material is in the hopper. At the site, the operator simply picks up the unit with the skid-steer or front-loader, connects the hydraulics and lifts it 100-150mm off the ground. Once the unit has been positioned over the work area, the operator simply activates the hydraulically-powered rotating material exciter in the hopper, opens the material gates and drives forward – depositing the binder material over the work area quickly, evenly and without any of the time-consuming and strenuous manual labour associated with traditional manual spreading. The Krata Shaka Mk III is available direct from Krata Industries, Tel: (02) 6071 0226 or Email: bahfraser@gmail.com


A SOUND INVESTMENT FOR ANY REGION ENVIRONMENTAL QUESTIONS? AMMANN ABA UNIBATCH HAS THE ANSWERS. In today’s market you need a productive, cost-effective asphalt plant. You also need to prove to the community that you comply with or exceed the latest environmental requirements. The Ammann ABA UniBatch Asphalt-Mixing Plant helps you do both. It leverages Ammann’s cutting-edge technology to deliver exceptional output of high quality mixes. It also answers key environmental concerns through standard offerings and options that include: • Multiple noise mitigation systems • Fume extraction systems

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EQUIPMENT FEATURE

AUSTRALIAN INVENTION IMPROVES ROAD CONSTRUCTION SAFETY AND REDUCES COSTS Boral Limited recently unveiled a new road surfacing truck to make the task safer for workers, increase product quality, help to reduce infrastructure costs to road agencies, and further cement the company’s innovation credentials. The new Boral FMAS, a Forward Moving Aggregate Spreader, revolutionises the method of spray seal road construction in Australia. Until now, the process involved road crews working with reversing trucks that applied the aggregate through an elevated tipper body, increasing the safety risks to workers. To improve safety and maximise visibility,

the Boral FMAS disperses aggregate from the front of the truck via a conveyor belt and spreader box. The Boral FMAS design brings value to Boral’s customers and their communities through quicker completion of works, and significantly reduces any potential infrastructure and overhead damage such as contacting power lines, trees and bridges. Stuart Partridge, Boral’s National Asset Manager – Asphalt, said Boral designed and developed a Forward Moving Aggregate Spreader following a call to industry by the Victorian roads authority – VicRoads - after a serious accident involving a VicRoads worker some years ago.

“Surfacing roads has remained one of the most potentially challenging tasks faced by construction crews because of the nature of the material being used and the way that material is applied,” he said. “Rollover accidents, blind spots, and high reversing tippers that can be at risk of interfering with power lines or overhanging trees, are just some of the problems associated with the current range of spreaders. So, the task was to come up with a solution to improve safety for road crews, including drivers, while at the same time making the process quicker, and more efficient with higher quality.” “This invention allows locally manufactured and approved trucks to be substantially

MAKING A GOOD THING EVEN BETTER Building on the success of the revolutionary trailer-mounted Krata Shaka designs, the revolutionary Krata Shaka Mk III has made a good thing even better. Designed and manufactured in Australia, the fully self-contained Krata Shaka Mk III puts an end to the ‘back-breaking’ work of spreading binder materials over small to medium road repair jobs once and for all. Full self-contained, the compact Krata Shaka Mk III can be picked up by a skid-steer, front-loader or similar piece of equipment. The operator than activates the unit, drives forward over the working area and the binder is spread - quickly, efficiently and with a minimum of fuss.

KRATA SHAKA Mk III BINDER SPREADING MADE EASY

26 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

Krata Industries Tel:(02) 6071 0226 Email: bahfraser@gmail.com


EQUIPMENT FEATURE

modified while still meeting regulatory standards, which is why VicRoads has mandated that forward moving aggregate spreaders should be in use on all its projects by 2022 - a move we hope will be followed by other State road authorities nationally,” Stuart Partridge said. Boral Australia Chief Executive Joe Goss said the new Boral FMAS was a demonstration of the company’s commitment to zero harm, placing the safety of all employees and the community in general, at the very centre of the company’s mission. “This invention speaks to the importance Boral places on keeping our workers safe and our commitment to innovation across all of our products and activities,” he said. “I want to congratulate Stuart and his team for coming up with such an important invention – and one that will be embraced by the industry nationally and in our view, internationally also,” he added. “It not only delivers a major improvement in safety standards but will also help to lower the cost of road surfacing because it supports a more efficient and productive process.”

CONPLANT TO DISTRIBUTE WACKER NEUSON On the first of March this year, Conplant became the Australian distributor for an expanded range of Wacker Neuson compaction equipment. In a world first which is unique to Australia, Conplant will distribute a comprehensive range of Wacker Neuson branded rollers, manufactured in Germany by Hamm. The move will see an additional world class compaction equipment brand being distributed by Australia’s largest compaction specialist. Under the agreement with Wacker Neuson, Conplant will also distribute Wacker Neuson’s market leading light compaction equipment, excavators, wheel loaders, dumpers, telehandlers and general equipment

in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and other selected geographies throughout New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia. As part of its multi-brand strategy, Conplant will also expand its new Intelligent Integrated Collision Avoidance System (IICAS) across all of its brands which will become commercially available during 2019. “We’re extremely proud to be in a position to represent such strong brands and highquality manufacturers,” said Conplant’s Managing Director, Ian Coleman. “For our customers, it means a larger range and more choice - from both a technology and price perspective,” he added. For further information please visit the website: www.conplant.com.au

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Apr/May 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 27


GET THE FACTS! on TRUCK MOUNTED ATTENUATORS (TMA’s)

BEWARE OF ‘FAKE NEWS’ With the move from NCHRP350 testing to MASH (Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware) as the preferred testing for Truck Mounted Attenuators (TMA’s) in Australia currently progressing there has been confusion amongst some equipment owners as to what equipment is compliant and, perhaps more importantly, what the status of their equipment will be after Australia moves to MASH as the testing standard.

The move by the Austroads Safety Barrier Assessment Panel (ASBAP) towards MASH testing and certification is a complex process that will take some time to implement. The Panel is transitioning the current suite of accepted road safety barrier systems and devices within the Australasian market to MASH guidelines over an extended timeframe, with Part 2 Products (which includes TMA’s) to be completed by 31 December 2020.

This DOES NOT by any definition mean that non-MASH tested equipment is suddenly obsolete or can no longer be used. It also DOES NOT render TMA’s that have been previously approved as tested under NCHRP350 guidelines obsolete or unusable – to suggest otherwise is simply NOT TRUE.

While there is a formal agreement on the transition to MASH testing from NCHRP350 testing, there is NO CUT-OFF DATE for using equipment that has been certified under the NCHRP350 testing while it is operational – to suggest otherwise is simply NOT TRUE.

Even if a TMA is recommended for acceptance at an Austroads level by ASBAP, it must still be approved for use in individual jurisdictions by the relevant State Authority. The State Authorities are responsible for approving the use of TMA's in their individual jurisdiction.

This situation has no doubt been inflamed by the inaccurate information and spurious claims that have surfaced over the past 12 months – including claims that some units will no longer be permitted to be used after December 31, 2020. With that in mind, the following fact sheet has been developed to provide key FACTS as to the current status of the ‘Transition to MASH Guidelines’.

The transition to MASH guidelines is a lengthy and ongoing process and lists of ‘Austroads Approved Products’ are currently a Work in Progress. If a product does not currently appear on a jurisdiction’s list, or is not currently recommended for acceptance at an Austroads level by ASBAP, it DOES NOT mean that it has not been successfully tested and certified to MASH guidelines, or that it is not acceptable for use in that jurisdiction. It may simply have not yet been assessed by ASBAP.

The Scorpion® II Truck Mounted Attenuator was the first TMA to be fully certified as Tested, Passed and Eligible to MASH 16 by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Safety Eligibility Letter CC-132 for the Scorpion® II TMA can be viewed online at: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/reduce_crash_severity/barriers/ pdf/cc132.cfm

The Scorpion® II Trailer Attenuator is also fully certified as Tested, Passed and Eligible to MASH 16 by the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Safety Eligibility Letter CC-138 for the Scorpion® II Trailer Attenuator can be viewed online at: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/countermeasures/reduce_crash_severity/barriers/ pdf/cc138.cfm

CHECK THE FACTS


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INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

WIN-WIN

TRAMANCO’S CHEK-WAY ELIMINATOR® AND INS-COM® SYSTEMS DELIVER BENEFITS AND SAVINGS FOR HEAVY VEHICLE OPERATORS AND ROAD AUTHORITIES Highly regarded for both its accuracy and robust performance in the field, TRAMANCO’s CHEK-WAY Eliminator® On-Board Mass Management System has played a major role in helping heavy vehicle operators to maximise efficiency by enabling them to load to legal limits and reduce the chance of being prosecuted for overloading, while also allowing them to participate in programs such as the IAP (Intelligent Access Program) and take advantage of HML (Higher Mass Limit) routes. But the benefits don’t stop there. Taking advantage of the CHEK-WAY Eliminator® system’s patented software-based design, the team at TRAMANCO has also been able utilise the collected dynamic mass data to provide an extremely accurate method of monitoring and reporting on the condition of both the vehicle’s suspension and the road surface along the travelled routes. Known as INS-COM®, the system has the potential to deliver significant savings and efficiency gains for heavy vehicle owners/ operators and road authorities alike.

BENEFITS FOR HEAVY VEHICLE OPERATORS Throughout Australia, Performance Based Standards (PBS) and Higher Mass Limit (HML) operations are predicated on the vehicles being fitted with Road Friendly Suspension (RFS). Road-Friendly Suspensions are required to meet the performance standard as published by the National Transport Commission (NTC) as ‘Road-Friendly Suspension – Performance and Component Requirements, and Acceptable Test Methods’. Importantly, as outlined in the Federal Department of Transport and Regional Services Vehicle Standards Bulletin VSB 11, the functionality of RFS must be maintained so it continues to meet the Standard. Traditionally, what that has meant for heavy vehicle operators, is that the RFS on every vehicle must undergo repairs and a full assessment and recertification of the

30 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

RFS as part of its maintenance schedule. Unfortunately, what this generally means in practical terms, is an expensive and sometimes unnecessary procedure that sees the truck and trailers off the road for up to 24 hours. Now, thanks to TRAMANCO’s INSCOM® system, heavy vehicle operators can access extremely accurate data as to the performance of their vehicle’s RFS, allowing for a significant improvement in maintenance scheduling for suspension. TRAMANCO’s Founder and Managing Director, Roger Sack, explained: “In short, for RFS to comply with VSB 11 and the NTC’s Performance Based Standard, the frequency of the sprung mass above the axle or axle group in a free transient vertical oscillation must not be higher than 2.0 Hz; and the mean damping ratio DM must be more than 20% of critical damping (Co) for the suspension in its normal operating condition.” “The dynamic load data collected by the CHEK-WAY Eliminator® whilst the vehicles are operating is utilised by the INS-COM® system to provide an extremely accurate stream of live data as to the actual oscillation and damping of the suspension without the need to remove the suspension from the vehicle, or the vehicle from the road,” he added. “What’s more, depending on the configuration of the system, it can provide this data from the left and right side of the vehicle for up to 8 separate axle groups as a pre-warning of roll-over” “With the average cost of re-bushing the suspension for a B-Double (prime mover with two trailers) currently coming in at around $5,000 – and an average of 24 hours off the road – we believe that the INS-COM® system not only has the potential to significantly improve safety and compliance across the heavy vehicle fleet, but also to deliver significant cost savings to heavy vehicle operators,” he added.

BENEFITS FOR ROAD AUTHORITIES Perhaps not surprisingly, in the same way that this dynamic mass data can be used to monitor the performance of the Road Friendly Suspension when it encounters bumps in the road, it is used in conjunction with the recorded GPS location data to provide a valuable insight into the exact location of severe bumps, and more specifically, the severity of the bumps and how they are deteriorating over time. “Monitoring the condition of the nation’s road network is a massive task, and while traditional asset monitoring and condition reporting techniques may cover section of the network on a bi-annual or annual basis, deterioration can happen at a much faster rate – particularly when it comes to ruts and potholes exposed to heavy vehicle loads at highway speeds,” Roger Sack said. “By combining live load data that accurately measures the dynamic excursions of the mass, with pinpoint GPS location and vehicle speed data, we are able to detect potholes, ruts and other issues such as subsidence in the lead up to bridge abutments etc. with incredible accuracy.” “Furthermore, as vehicles fitted with the CHEK-WAY Eliminator® and utilising the INS-COM® system continue to pass these locations, the data provided enables us to quickly build up a highly accurate profile of how badly the pavement is deteriorating,” he added. “This, in turn, enables road authorities to accurately target road maintenance activities where they’re needed most.”

GOOD BUMPS, BAD BUMPS and GOOSEBUMPS. The following excerpt from a presentation by TRAMANCO’s Founder and Managing Director, Roger Sack, provides a clear and concise explanation of how the data being received via the INS-COM® system can be utilised to provide extremely detailed and highly accurate road condition data:


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS

A GOOD BUMP is one which has a very small excursion coming into the bump then a large excursion in the bump and quite a smooth excursion on exit from the bump. This allows us to accurately determine Damping Ratio and the Bump Frequency of the suspension to determine wear rates and compliance with VSB 11. An example can be seen in Figure 01 which represents 10 seconds of captured data from the vehicle. This data shows it is an isolated bump and the suspension is working well with good damping ratio and frequency both well within the requirements of VSB 11. It has what we call a ‘GOOD BUMP’ with a smooth entry and exit. The INS-COM® system also allows us to pinpoint the exact location of the bump on both a Route Map View (Figure 02) and via a Google Earth satellite image (Figure 03).

Not all BUMPS are created equal, of course. An example of a BAD BUMP can be seen in the 10-seconds of data shown in Figure 04 below. This is a large bump which is generating another large bump within the bump. There is a very rough entry combined with a rough intermediate section and a very, very rough exit and this in clearly indicated in the data being received via the INS-COM® system. Figure 05: GOOSEBUMP – An accident waiting to happen. The collected data shows a section of road in desperate need of repair.

Here are the reasons why:

Figure 04: BAD BUMP - Collected data shows a large bump which is generating another large bump within the bump.

Figure 01: GOOD BUMP - Data captured from the vehicle shows an isolated bump and the suspension is working well.

Figure 02: Data capture points are pin-pointed along the route map. Figure 03: The INS-COM® system can also utilise GPS data to highlight locations using Google Maps.

The entry speed to this bump was 94.4 km/h which is 26.2 m/s. So, if you measure along the horizontal axis you can tell exactly where the bumps are within the bump. The vehicle has travelled 262.2 m during this 10 seconds so the total length of this bump from entry to exit of the bump is also 262.2 metres. This bump will start to develop corrugations in the road surface unless it attended to, as soon as possible. Again, this bump can be easily and accurately located on the Route Map View and via a Google Earth satellite image. The final example is of what I like to refer to as a GOOSEBUMP. I call it a GOOSEBUMP because this is what it would give me if I was driving a truck and knew that this bump was lying in wait for me in the road ahead.

1. First of all, there are bumps on entry which is causing the suspension to become active; 2. Secondly, the data shown in Figure 5 (above) shows that there are four (4) major bumps within the first 1.8 seconds averaging over 110 on the vertical scale which equates to impulsive dynamic excursions of mass or if you prefer, impact loadings of the order of 39,300 KGS which are going back into the road work within the next three (3) seconds; 3. Then there is the major peak at around reading 190 – 200 on the horizontal axis which equates to a single dynamic excursion of mass or, impulsive load of 42,880 KGS being returned to the road work. 4. It doesn't get any better because, from the 200th to the 400th + reading marks on the bottom line of Figure 5 we find that the bump is inducing rollover into the prime mover. It's easy to see because we are getting “overlapping” between the red line of Group 2 (the RH side) and the blue line of Group 1 (the LH side). 5. We can see from the damping ratios that there is significant difference between the left and right-hand side of the vehicle which also points to wear in the suspension. The group 1 and group 2 frequencies are as expected for a suspension with relatively good shock absorbers but with worn bushes and/or other suspension components such as bolts and spring hangers. The important message here is that this GOOSEBUMP needs attention by the respective Road Authority before there is a serious accident caused by any number of factors including induced rollover. For further information on the TRAMANCO CHEK-WAY Eliminator® and INS-COM® systems, please visit: www.tramanco.com.au

Apr/May 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 31


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Tyre Fitting Services... Titan Australia own and operate one of the largest fleets of dedicated tyre handler grab trucks in Australia. Titan are the OTR tyre and rim maintenance service provider of choice to a diverse client base dominated by mining companies, civil contractors, transport & logistics operators and OEM equipment suppliers. All tyre fitting vehicles are maned by experienced CERT 2 Qualified fitters who, in addition to regular day-to-day tyre fitting jobs, are also inducted on a wide range of mining and construction sites.

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TCA NEWS

NEW EXECUTIVE GENERAL MANAGER FOR TCA Transport Certification Australia (TCA) is pleased to announce the appointment of Stuart Ballingall as its new Executive General Manager (EGM), effective 6 May 2019. Mr Ballingall has over 20 years’ experience in the automotive and transport sectors, including executive leadership roles at VicRoads, Austroads and, most recently, Transport for Victoria where he will be leaving his role as director of future vehicles and transport innovation to take up his new EGM role at TCA. He has significant board and governance committee experience, including with the Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) Board, the National Positioning Infrastructure Advisory Board, the national Land Transport Technologies Working Group, and several other national and international committees on vehicle and transport technologies. TCA was acquired in January 2019 by Austroads Ltd, the peak organisation of

Australasian road transport and traffic agencies, led by Chief Executive, Nick Koukoulas. Speaking about the new appointment Mr Koukoulas said, “In a period of national and international transport reform happening now and into the future, we need someone of Stuart's proven experience in delivering complex technical programs, particularly in areas of transport technologies, information systems, policy and regulatory reform.” TCA’s mission is to provide assurance to governments, industry sectors and end-users in the use of telematics and related intelligent technologies. “We trust Stuart will lead TCA in a way that is innovative, drives growth and supports the state and federal governments' current and emerging transport needs,” said Mr Koukoulas. “We are looking to build on TCA’s strong reputation and excellent work through a refresh and revitalisation of the organisation.”

PINPOINT COMMUNICATIONS IS NOW NETSTAR Transport Certification Australia recently announced that certified service provider Pinpoint Communications has changed its name to Netstar Australia Pty Ltd. Australian-based Pinpoint Communications was acquired by Netstar two years ago and is now changing its name to reflect this change. Netstar is a subsidiary of Altron - a group with primary focus on providing innovative technology solutions in various sectors, including health, finance, safety and security - and is one of the largest suppliers of vehicle tracking and stolen vehicle recovery in Southern Africa. Netstar has more than 600,000 vehicles fitted with GPS tracking technology globally. Pinpoint Communications has been a certified provider of telematics applications in the National Telematics Framework since November 2010. The change from Pinpoint Communications to Netstar highlights how global developments are demanding greater assurance in the capability of telematics services. Netstar has confirmed to TCA that there is no change to existing Pinpoint Communications customers, and that it will provide certified telematics applications through the National Telematics Framework, including new applications and features from the Ministerially-approved Business Case. Netstar is identifiable with the TCA Certified logo.

34 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

For more information on the National Telematics Framework, contact TCA on (03) 8601 4600 or by email tca@tca.gov.au, or visit the website: www.tca.gov.au

E-MAX OBTAINS OBM SYSTEM TYPEAPPROVAL Transport Certification Australia recently announced the type-approval of an E-Max Australia On-Board Mass (OBM) system. E-Max has been servicing the auto electrical industry and heavy transport industry for two decades and prides itself on the high quality and standards of its solutions. E-Max Aust Pty Ltd has been granted Category A type-approval for its Air-Weigh LoadMaxx OBM System. There are three categories of typeapproved OBM systems (categories A, B and C) which meet the needs of different stakeholders. Category A OBM systems electronically display mass information to drivers or loaders. All categories of typeapproval are subject to an assessment of the performance-based requirements contained in the OBM System Functional and Technical Specification, of which the E-Max OBM System meet. Type-approved OBM systems are identified by the ‘TCA Type-Approved’ logo (as below).

E-Max Managing Director, Phillip Carthew, said: “We feel a great sense of achievement in gaining TCA type-approval for the Air-Weigh LoadMaxx onboard weighing system.” “TCA’s type-approval of OBM Systems is a world first, showing global leadership in the transport industry, and we are very pleased to be a part of that.” OBM systems are used for a diverse range of use, and type-approval brings reassurance of having met high levels of accuracy, reliability and robustness requirements. It also gives assurance of meeting tamper evidence and security levels relevant to the typeapproval category. “We’ve drawn upon the best resources from around the globe to satisfy TCA’s performance requirements, and to meet the needs of stakeholders,” said Mr Carthew. “Being independently assessed provides a high-level of confidence for our products’ performance both from a software and hardware perspective,” he added. E-Max’s Air-Weigh LoadMaxx weighing technology allows seamless communication between prime movers and trailers.


TCA provides assurance in the use of telematics and related intelligent technologies. How TCA help the transport industry: • We connect both industry and government to telematics and related technologies • We check and approve technology to help transport operators make informed decisions • We provide information and advice on technological developments.

What we do: • Administer programs such as the Intelligent Access Program (IAP) • Type-approve In-Vehicle Units (IVUs) and On-Board Mass (OBM) systems • Data analysis and policy advice • Lead progress in connected / automated vehicles. .

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TCA NEWS

TCA ESTABLISHES INTEROPERABILITY FOR FATIGUE MANAGEMENT DEVICES Transport Certification Australia (TCA) has released an interoperability protocol for fatigue management devices. The protocol establishes – for the first time – a standardised way to transfer information, to ensure interoperability between different fatigue management devices and other connected devices in a vehicle. TCA has worked with telematics providers and suppliers of fatigue management devices to develop the protocol. A working group was established in May 2018 to ensure the

protocol met the functional requirements demanded by technology stakeholders – including telematics device providers and other industry stakeholders – and users of fatigue management devices. Three main objectives guided the development of the protocol: • Enable standardisation and interoperability • Remove barriers to the use of fatigue management devices • Easy adoption across all technology providers.

The protocol responds to the growing use of fatigue management devices and the need for them to talk to connected telematics devices, and vice versa, in a consistent manner. A lack of interoperability reduces the ability for transport operators and drivers to move seamlessly between the use of different devices and services - restricting flexibility and choice. The protocol forms part of the National Telematics Framework, the digital business platform for telematics and related technologies. Importantly, the protocol has been designed to provide interoperability for the use of telematics and fatigue management devices across all users and industry sectors. A copy of the protocol is available to download from the TCA website: www.tca.gov.au/81tca/289-telematics-drowsinessdevice-communications-protocol For more information about the new communications protocol, please contact TCA on: (03) 8601 4600 or email: tca@tca.gov.au

TCA RELEASES FINAL SPECIFICATION FOR INTELLIGENT MASS Transport Certification Australia (TCA) has released the final version of the functional and technical specification for Intelligent Mass. The Intelligent Mass specification defines the performance requirements for technology providers to combine mass data with other telematics data collected from vehicles. Intelligent Mass responds to a diverse range of needs. Road managers, regulators (across different industry sectors), transport operators and other parties along the supply chain, will all benefit from the availability of Intelligent Mass. The specification builds upon the capabilities offered by type-approved On-Board Mass (OBM) Systems, which provide high levels of accuracy, reliability and robustness in the measurement of vehicle mass. Importantly, the specification enables the collection of vehicle mass and configuration data in a standardised and consistent manner through any application of the National Telematics Framework. Forming part of the National Telematics Framework, the specification references common components of the platform including: • Telematics Data Dictionary • Telematics Data Exchange

36 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

• associated Business Rules. Referencing these common components allows the use of Intelligent Mass within applications administered through the government-endorsed digital business platform, with the appropriate level of assurance sought by stakeholders. This includes both existing applications of the National Telematics Framework, as well as new applications – such as Road Infrastructure Management (RIM) and IAP Lite – approved by the Transport and Infrastructure Council (TIC) in November 2018. Using these applications with Intelligent Mass introduces an opportunity to drive the next wave of productivity reforms. The Australian Standard for bridge assessment (AS 5100.7:2017), developed in conjunction with Austroads and released in 2017, highlights how collecting mass and configuration data through telematics applications can change the way bridge loading calculations are performed. Consistent with the Australian Standard, Intelligent Mass can unlock heavy vehicle access constraints – which are often influenced by the outcomes of bridge assessments – by empowering road managers to make improved access decisions based

on the availability of vehicle location, configuration and mass data. TCA wishes to acknowledge the contributions of diverse stakeholders, including road managers, regulators, providers, consumers and peak bodies, during the development and finalisation of the specification. Copies of the Intelligent Mass Functional and Technical Specification, together with details of type-approved OBM Systems, which are referenced in the specification can be downloaded from www.tca.gov.au For more information, and to better understand how Intelligent Mass can work for you, please contact TCA on: (03) 8601 4600 or by email at: tca@tca.gov.au


ITS SPECIAL FEATURE

Intelligent Transport Systems News and Feature Articles


ITS SPECIAL FEATURE

COHDA SELECTED FOR BERLIN TESTFIELD Cohda Wireless will apply its V2X technology to a new urban test-field site in Berlin, Germany. DIGINET-PS, set up along the Strasse des 17. Juni has been developed to test automated and connected driving under real-life conditions in the centre of Berlin and is one of the first sites of its kind in Germany. Funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) DIGINET-PS is an open test environment for connected and automated vehicle technologies for which Cohda Wireless will be supplying its MK5 On-Board Units (OBUs) and Road-Side Units (RSU’s) to empower the initiative to solve the challenges of urban mobility. Technical Lead of the DIGINET-PS project Dr Manzoor Ahmed Khan said that the test-field has been fitted with the world’s most advanced vehicle positioning technology:

Above: Strasse des 17. Juni in Berlin Right: DIGINET-PS utilises a range of technologies including Road-Side Units (RSU’s) to share data with vehicles

“To attain the objectives of L-5 autonomous driving, we need to improve the perception of the vehicles beyond what is created by on-vehicle sensors, in DIGINET-PS, we achieve this by creating perception of road segments through onroad deployed sensors and share it with vehicles,” explained Dr. Khan Prof Paul Alexander, Chief Technical Officer at Cohda Wireless said that there is no substitute for an actual urban environment for testing purposes and that DIGINET-PS also presents Cohda with an opportunity to demonstrate its unique technology solutions. “There is scope for us to demonstrate our V2X-Locate technology, which enables accurate positioning of vehicles in environments where GNSS performs poorly such as urban canyons, tunnels and underground car-parks,” explained Prof Alexander. “The DIGINET-PS site includes

an underground car-park where we can also demonstrate this world-leading positioning solution.” “We are also keen to share our Australian experiences regarding Freight Signal Priority initiatives designed to enhance traffic flow by keeping large vehicles mobile,” added Prof Alexander. Cohda Wireless’s European headquarters are located in Munich, Germany.

ITS (UK) DEVELOPS NEW SCALE TO EXPLAIN CONNECTED VEHICLE MILESTONES The United Kingdom’s Intelligent Transport Society, ITS (UK) has developed a “scale of connections for Co-operation of Connected vehicles”, to mirror the SAE scale for automated ones. Developed by ITS (UK)’s Connected and Automated Vehicles Forum, this scale shows that connection and co-operation between existing and future vehicles and roads is very different from automation. The new scale of connections explains to nontechnical readers what services they might expect from a new vehicle or smartphone and highlight that work is still needed to make roads ready for connectivity, even if vehicles and communications are. It has deliberately not focused on technology. It reflects the “HD ready” approach that was used for digital TV switchover to help users understand what would be possible without needing to understand the detail. The scale uses letters instead of numbers as in the SAE scale. Because this scale is customerfocused, a service only reaches that level when widely available (eg. an app is published) rather than a demo or research project shows it working. Chair of the CAV Forum, Andy Graham, explains, “The SAE level is very simple to understand but has nuances, and so will this

38 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

scale. It also starts in the real world of minimum connectivity with Level A and level B to capture every vehicle today but then looks at short term connectivity and opportunity, rather than long term automation.” “It will be reviewed periodically to take account of the rapidly changing landscape. For example, when V2I and V2V plans mature, level E may be split further but currently there are different views re V2V and V2I timing,” he said. “Currently all vehicles are at Level A, and with a smartphone can get to C. Level D would take the services many of us work on today in research and demonstrations and make them more widely available and used, as the first step “connected roads ready” allied to existing communications and vehicles.” “All new vehicles today with connections to head units would be level D but the roads and communications are not yet at the level. This reflects HD TV rollout when HD TVs became available before HD programmes,” Mr Graham added. “Level E vehicles are not yet available, but maybe soon.” ITS (UK) Secretary General Jennie Martin said: “Having a standard scale to explain vehicle connectivity that is as easily understandable as the SAE automation scale is a brilliant idea that

will really help people understand where we are with connectivity and how much more can be done.” “Our CAV Forum has worked hard on agreeing the scale and it underlines again how ITS (UK) is a real thought leader across the transport technology industry,” Ms Martin said. ITS UNITED KINGDOM, the UK association for the promotion of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), is a not-for-profit public/private sector association with membership of around 150 UK organisations, including Government Departments, Local Authorities, consultants, contractors, manufacturing and service companies, and academic and research institutions.


ITS SPECIAL FEATURE

LUXTURRIM5G ECOSYSTEM EXPANDS WITH NEW CONNECTED ZONE BUS STOPS FROM TELESTE Last year, Teleste built a smart and safe bus stop at the Nokia Campus in Espoo, Finland, as a part of the LuxTurrim5G ecosystem. The innovative bus stop has been designed to improve safety and security for public places through Teleste’s Connected Zone concept that was launched in 2018. Now, after the successful pilot, two additional Connected Zone bus stops have been added to

the ecosystem. With the new bus stops the project also anticipates the pilot of an autonomous bus route that is being planned for the European summer as a part of the LuxTurrim5G test network. “It’s really exciting to be a part of the LuxTurrim5G project and we look forward to our future collaboration,” said Stig Waldemarsson, Director of VSI Scandinavia at Teleste Sweden. “Piloting the smart and safe bus stop at the Nokia Campus has been highly successful and we are pleased to move forward with expanding the use of Connected Zone within the ecosystem,” he said. LuxTurrim5G is a Nokia Bell Labs driven ecosystem project developing and demonstrating fast 5G network based on smart light poles with integrated antennas, base stations, sensors, screens and other devices. This joint project opens new digital services and business opportunities for a real-world ‘smart city’ applications. Utilising video surveillance and high-capacity 5G connectivity, the smart and safe bus stops address one of today’s growing everyday challenges: the lack of security that many people experience in public places or when using public transport. Utilising personal alarms, built-in camera monitoring and dynamic information solutions the

Connected Zone makes it possible to employ bus stops and shelters to create special safe zones for the users of the service who can connect to the zones via their smart phones. Through the high-speed 5G connectivity and digital, smart displays equipped with advanced security features, the concept allows security personnel to communicate with the bus stops in a unique way, making it possible to receive alarms, see what is happening in and around the shelters, and respond to possible security situations in real time. Besides introducing the world’s safest and most secure bus stops, Connected Zone offers new opportunities for sharing information as the smart displays have great potential to become spaces for innovative delivery of traffic and travel information as well as advertisements. The messages can even be made more relevant for receivers by collecting data from various sources and utilising intelligence to better understand the needs of the public transport users and target audiences. The first of the Connected Zone smart and safe bus stops is located at the Nokia Campus in Espoo, Finland, where it is in test use as a part of the Nokia Bell Labs driven LuxTurrim5G ecosystem project. For more information visit: www.teleste.com

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Apr/May 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 39


TMAA’s new hard-hitting Your Speed is Our Safety ad campaign follows the story of a young girl and her traffic controller Dad.

TMAA NEWS

YOUR SPEED IS OUR SAFETY Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Stephen O’Dwyer has announced the much-anticipated launch of the second advertisement in the three-part series, Your Speed is Our Safety. Due to air on television, radio and social media during May 2019, the advertisement follows the story of a young girl and her traffic controller Dad. Mr O’Dwyer said the first advertisement had caused widespread reaction and interest following its launch nearly two years ago. The first advertisement is currently airing in Tasmania and on social media in preparation for the May launch. The first advertisement in the series can also be viewed at the TMAA website: www.tmaa.asn.au “The Your Speed is Our Safety campaign was the brainchild of TMAA members and has piqued the interest of many state road authorities and organisations,” he said. “Our focus is the safety of our traffic controllers and all roadworkers, so an emotive, but sometimes hard-hitting campaign can make the difference in raising awareness and educating the travelling public.” “With the federal budget promising billions in infrastructure, the high-risk industry of traffic management and all roadworkers will be firmly in the spotlight on roads and projects all over the country,” he said. Mr O’Dwyer said sadly there was often the propensity for drivers to speed through

40 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

roadworks, become frustrated with delays and take this out on the traffic controllers, sometimes playing chicken with their lives. “It is important to recognise the traffic controller as someone’s mum or dad, sister or brother,” he said. “Unfortunately, like recent surveys on motorist’s image of cyclists, traffic controllers are often disregarded.” Mr O’Dwyer said the TMAA was also working with groups like SARAH, AAPA, CCF and RIAA to spread the message of safety and speed at roadwork sites, as all these organisations had real people involved in real activities on roads. “Until there is a fatality or serious incident which hits the headlines, our people are largely forgotten and unrecognised,” he said. “The aim of the next Your Speed is Our Safety advertisement is to drive home the message of consequences for not obeying the speed limits at roadwork sites. It is a hardhitting message, and I think it will strike an emotional chord with the public,” he said. The next instalment of Your Speed is Our Safety story airs on 8 May, poignantly during National Road Safety Week. Follow TMAA on Twitter, LinkedIN, and Facebook to see the second advertisement in the story in May. For more information on the campaign, follow TMAA on Social media and visit: www.tmaa.asn.au

Traffic Management Association of Australia (TMAA) President Stephen O’Dwyer

‘The aim of the next Your Speed is Our Safety advertisement is to drive home the message of consequences for not obeying the speed limits at roadwork sites. It is a hard-hitting message, and I think it will strike an emotional chord with the public’


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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

ELECTRIC VEHICLES ENTER PHASE OF FASTEST GROWTH Like most other new products, electric vehicles sell in an S curve of a slow start with over supply. Then comes fastest growth with supply sometimes unable to keep up with demand then comes saturation. Take pure electric buses as an example. Here, China rapidly deployed 400,000, 99% of the total number in the world, then it collapsed subsidies causing a collapse in deliveries and sadly it mainly makes smoking buses again. However, the rest of the world is beginning to compensate. According to the IDTechEx report Electric Buses 2019-2029, Qbuzz in the Netherlands has ordered 159 pure electric buses, Helsingborg Sweden 76, Brussels Airport 30 and London 68 pure electric double deckers. Cities across the UK recently placed a total of 263 orders for zero-emission buses. Warsaw will order 130 pure electric buses for delivery by 2021. Kazakhstan is expecting 700 electric buses and Azerbaijan another 500 over the next three years. However, India has the largest potential, with a government plan for an initial 10,000 pure electric buses replacing some of the 1.6 million registered buses there, all of which must go, says the government, sensitive to the deaths they cause. The Indian state of Uttarakhand has ordered 500 electric buses. Now India is responsible for about 25% of the pure electric bus orders outside China. The Chinese – mainly BYD - are behind much of the supply but by no means all. Tata Motors in India has orders from six cities for a total of 255 pure electric buses. Large subsidies are an essential part of the take-off everywhere, China being at the top of the growth curve and everywhere else at the fast growth part, though China may see another S curve based on free market demands when pure electric has price parity. Battery costs have been a primary impediment. However, in an interesting development, busy bus routes are seeing progress to less or no battery. Eight countries have ten-second charging supercapacitor large buses now and non-stop top-up charging in many forms has arrived from solar bodywork to intermittent catenary, rails, coils in the road. Top-up, including stationary forms with gantries etc at bus stops, typically leads to 80% less battery and this and the reduction in battery prices has led to some projections of the battery being a mere 6% of bus cost in ten years’ time. Researchers at IDTechEx believe that this will hasten the day when

42 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

the up-front price of pure-electric buses is at parity with diesel. The rising cost of diesel powertrains also helps. Considering the extra cost of diesel fume reduction measures such as 48V mild hybridisation and the cost of adding equipment to treat emissions, IDTechEx currently projects price parity around 2030 for large buses but the future can come early.

Pure electric cars also growing at around 70% Like buses outside China, pure electric cars are now near to the fastest-growth phase. With around a 70% increase in numbers sold yearly, subsidies are already less critical in many locations because parity is being approached earlier with small vehicles. Many now agree with IDTechEx that the smaller pure-electric cars will have lower up-front price than internal combustion equivalents around 2023 – the killer blow. This time China is in synch with the rest of the world: it has the largest pure electric car sales but, as a percentage of the number of cars being made, nothing exceptional. China is expected to dominate global manufacturing of pure electric cars just as it has grown to be the biggest global manufacturer of conventional vehicles. For the untold story of the formidable innovation in China in many types of electric vehicle from pure- electric inland ships and large highaltitude solar drones to robot farm tractors see the IDTechEx Research report, Electric Vehicles in China 2019-2029.

Evidence from Norway – the country with the largest percentage of pure electric new cars - suggests that the biggest obstacle to speeding up the electrification of road transport could now be a lack of e-vehicles, with the Kia eNiro on a one-year delivery delay and Tesla 3 still keeping people waiting. Volkswagen even announced that the Passat GTE and Golf GTE have been ‘closed to ordering’, due to the exceptionally long waiting times. It does not help that there is a ready supply of short-range pure-electric cars because you have to be pretty wild-eyed to buy one. The range anxiety is compounded by resale value dropping at twice the rate of the others. For those keen to find out more, IDTechEx is hosting a new event in its Business & Technology Insight Forums series, on Electric Vehicles and Energy Storage. The Forum will be held in Novi, Michigan on 10-12 June 2019. The Business & Technology Insight Forums take place across the world and teach global markets and technology on topics of particular interest to the local industry. Emphasis is on current and future trends including many that are typically ignored or under-represented but becoming vitally important. For more information, including registrations, please visit the website: www.IDTechEx.com/novi


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ELECTRIC VEHICLES

AUSTRALIANS URGED TO PREPARE FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLE PRESENCE Australians have been challenged to reduce the number of fossil fuel-based cars under their ownership, and prepare for an electric vehicle presence which on overseas experience, will arrive “much sooner than later”. Addressing the recent Paydirt 2019 Battery Minerals Conference in Perth, Mr Bert Witkamp - Operating Agent for the IEA’s Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology Collaboration Taskforce CRM4EV (Critical Raw Materials for Electric Vehicles), said nobody believed electric vehicles would be significant but the mood had changed rapidly in just the past three years. This would impact strategies for miners, processors and suppliers of minerals used in EVs. “The perception change has been such that many countries now see EVs as the way forward so it has been an incredible change in attitude in a very short time,” Mr Witkamp said. “Ten years ago for example, the Tesla EV car model did not exist but has emerged last year by mid-year as one of the top selling luxury cars in the US - by far. “In Australia, 8% of households have no car, 36% have one car and at last 37% have two cars. The stats show Australians on average drive their car just 38km per day time – so we would be encouraging them to cut back to at

least one car, and considering car sharing on a much more frequent and larger scale. “Interestingly, the data on 2018 global sales of EVs show that 65% of them were fully electric vehicles – not the electricplug-in hybrid choices, so that too has been a dramatic shift in market sentiment and dictate.” The TaskForce is backed by eight countries and external stakeholders like private companies and metal institutes. The program aims to provide real-time, factual and objective data to governmental policy makers and other stakeholders to in part, also help reduce GHG emissions and global energy consumption. “The electric vehicle market captured 2 million in unit sales in calendar 2018 and there are now five million electric cars on the road,” Mr Witkamp said. “More than half of all new EV sales were in China where that country has a mandated national industrial policy to foster EV against fossil-fuelled cars. “However, EV sales in both the United States and China continue to be constrained by the fact Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) in the automotive sector are ‘holding back’ – in a market which despite this has grown 50% per year since 2008.

“OEMs are seeing the new EV technologies as ‘something they purchase’ rather than something they invest in in terms of their own R&D. “Yet studies clearly show the perception around the mooted transition to EVs has already moved from ‘optimistic’ to now ‘realistic’ in just one year. “While the historic barriers to EV change still exist, they are rapidly changing, particularly around high purchase costs, limited driving range and limited charging infrastructure. “Expect within five years, price parity between EV and fossil fuelled cars, a driving range in excess of 600 kilometres, and fast charge rates of just three minutes delivering a 100km range.” Mr Witkamp said these dynamic changes in the end product meant much greater transparency was needed in market information addressing cobalt, graphite and lithium shortages. “We need much more clarity amid the facts, myths and fiction around battery component materials as there is already considerable research work going on to find alternatives to batteries based on these ingredients.”

ABB FLASH-CHARGING EBUS SOLUTION REACHES A NEW MILESTONE OF HALF A MILLION KM TOSA flash charging technology has been in operation in Geneva for more than a year and will equip the first 24-metre fully electric bus in Nantes. In little more than a year, Geneva has turned greener thanks to the ABB flashcharging eBus solution. Electric buses equipped with this solution have covered record 500,000 kilometers, transporting millions of passengers and reducing carbon emissions by about 1,000 tons. A technological breakthrough developed for sustainable mass transportation, TOSA is the world’s fastest charging technology and onboard traction system for high frequency and high capacity bus routes. Not only is it environmentally friendly, it also ensures that the fleet is not oversized to cover for electric buses on stand-by for charging. With TOSA, less electric buses are needed, and they can be more easily re-deployed to other lines. It takes less than a second to connect to overhead high-power charging contacts,

44 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

and only twenty seconds to charge; allowing passengers to get on and off the bus as batteries are topped up. “This is a complete system to make mobility sustainable for future urban needs and it has been tested in Geneva as the first city in the world,” says Anne HornungSoukup, Chair of the Board of Director of Transports Publics Genevois (tpg), Geneva’s public transport operator in Switzerland. By now an established technology in the Swiss city, ABB’s flash-charging eBus solution has been selected by Nantes Metropole and will be launched in France. The world’s first 24-metre fully electric bus will go into operation in Nantes – the first time such a long bus will run completely on battery energy. “We are excited to be among the pioneers in e-mobility, making the new buses – running on their innovative flash-charging solution – part of the Nantes modern public transportation system,” says Stéphane Bis

Directeur Technique et Maîtrise d'Ouvrage from Semitan, bus operator in France. The new electric buses from manufacturer HESS will run on the Busway Bus Rapid Transit route, connecting the historic centre of Nantes with municipalities on the southern side of river Loire. It will increase passenger capacity by 35 percent, enabling sustainable transportation for up to 5,000 commuters per hour. Free from overhead lines, TOSA will also have minimal aesthetic impact on the cityscape.


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NATIONAL PRECAST FEATURE

PRECAST: PAVES THE WAY FOR CIVIL PRODUCTIVITY AND SUSTAINABILITY Precast concrete already productivity improvements unlike any other building element, hence its widespread use in the civil sector. However, according to National Precast CEO Sarah Bachmann, with labour costs continuing to rise and the skills shortage crisis persisting, the case for continued productivity-enhancing methodology in civil construction is an everincreasing necessity. “Precast already dominates the civil construction space”, Bachmann comments. “Yet, many contractors continue to utilise on-site construction methods as they focus on minimising costs.”

THE SACRIFICE OF ON SITE CONSTRUCTION According to Bachmann, with a focus on lowest price, the sacrifice is often time and quality. She says even the goal of minimising costs can come unstuck as longer construction programmes with lower-than-optimal quality outcomes can ultimately drive costs upwards. “This is a concern and does not bode well for productivity improvement pursuits,” she states.

OFF-SITE PRECAST FOR PRODUCTIVITY & SUSTAINABILITY

Civil construction that focuses on a structure being built from prefabricated components that are manufactured off-site in a factory, has been suggested to improve productivity by up to ten percent. Bachmann says that precast concrete is one of the oldest forms of prefab. “The smart operators realise the productivity improvements it delivers, while producing high quality and sustainable outcomes for communities… an all-round win-win solution.”

46 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

Those who are maximising its possibilities are turning to total precast civil structures. It is being used in many applications including highways, bridges, tunnels, retaining walls and noise walls.

STRUCTURAL AND AESTHETIC SOLUTIONS

Bachmann says that total precast civil structures can combine structural and durable precast concrete elements with aesthetic options that benefit communities for many years. With sustainability centred around benefits to the economy, environment and society, precast not only offers possibilities to improve construction productivity, but to deliver sustainable outcomes as well. “Precast structures are locally manufactured, supporting local employment. They utilise natural resources and waste materials in the manufacturing process. They are robust, longlasting and fire safe. They offer high quality, no waste and aesthetically superior finishes that require minimal maintenance. “The quality and range of finishes that can be achieved in the factory environment are far superior than those produced on site,” she claims. “Additionally, the use of total precast in civil construction combines the benefits of rapid construction with improved on-site safety. It’s no wonder that most major freeway, rail interchange and tunnel projects call upon precast concrete.” Specifying precast concrete from a high quality manufacturer ensures the delivery of a project’s productivity and sustainability improvements. National Precast members have a proven track record, promising efficient and high quality solutions. To find out more, please visit National Precast’s website: www.nationalprecast.com.au.

TORRENS RAIL JUNCTION USES PRECAST EXTENSIVELY National Precast member, PERMAcast, manufactured and delivered several precast concrete elements for the construction of two parts of the South Australian project - the new lowered Bowden Rail Station and the Torrens Junction Bridge. All units were cast in speciallybuilt moulds and comprised both precast and prestressed elements, in the precaster’s Western Australian factory. The components included: • 46 precast bridge barriers, • 30 bridge approach slabs, • 58 platform retaining walls, • 58 platform panels and four end walls • 18 ramp retaining walls, • 142 pad and strip footings, and • four 18-metre prestressed prop beams. PERMAcast’s Managing Director, Alberto Ferraro, says the precast package included a mix of architectural and structural elements. “We manufactured two-tone coloured platform slabs as well as retaining walls with patterns and coloured concrete,” Mr Ferraro details. Precast was specified as the main construction method because of its speedy construction times and offsite manufacture. “The project had extremely aggressive schedule requirements. We needed to build a large number of moulds and set up the project within weeks,” Mr Ferraro explains. “A full precast design meant that there was minimal interference with live train rails.” Installation of the bridge deck demanded a team of almost 400 workers each day for 16 days. Here, they worked to install a 90-metrelong bridge, which included 950m³ of concrete, 68 planks of 12 tonnes each, the excavation of 22,500m3 of soil, and the laying of the rail track.


NATIONAL PRECAST FEATURE

VISIT NATIONAL PRECAST AT DESIGNBUILD Once again, as a Supporting Association Partner, National Precast will be exhibiting at DesignBUILD. Being held from 14th to 16th May at the ICC Sydney, it is the only dedicated trade show that connects the best product and materials suppliers in Australia’s built environment with leading professionals from across the build process. Complete your free registration at www.designbuildexpo.com.au and visit the National Precast stand G10. National Precast members will be there, armed with information and ready to answer your questions. Register now too, for DesignBUILD’s Speaker Series. Design and Build sessions address the big picture issues that are impacting the industry and challenging the working lives of architecture, building, construction and design professionals.

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ACA CORROSION FEATURE

DIGGING IN FOR TUNNEL DURABILITY Tunnels that carry road, rail and utility services are usually built to minimise the cost and time it takes to move people, freight and services around a city or country. Many are built underground or through mountain ranges in order to minimise the cost of going over or around them. The longest road tunnel in the world is currently the 24.51km long Laerdal Tunnel near Bergen in Norway and the longest rail tunnel is the 57km long twin-bore Gotthard Base Tunnel that was bored through the Swiss Alps. New Zealand's longest tunnel is the nine kilometre long Kaimai rail tunnel near Apata. In Australia, both the longest road and rail tunnels are part of high-speed links to airports: rail in Sydney and road in Brisbane. Tunnels, however, are not a modern idea; they have been an important part of public and private infrastructure for millennia. Archaeological digs through Roman ruins have uncovered evidence of tubular brick- and tile-lined hypercausts and aquifers running beneath towns and roads. Tunnels are mostly of two types of construction. The less expensive method is referred to as “cut and cover” where a trench is dug and the road or rail or services are installed. A roof is then placed over the trench and the ground reinstated and landscaped. The alternative is to manually or mechanically dig through rock and soil and then line the inside of the tunnel with concrete for strength and stability. The road, rail or services are built or installed behind the advancing end of the tunnel. A common design for modern tunnels is to use a boring machine to dig through the ground substrate. The development of large, mechanical machines in the mid-20th Century, simplified construction of underground tunnels. Initially, the concrete linings were cast in situ behind the excavating machine head as it worked its way slowly forward. Today, precast reinforced, high-strength concrete panels are delivered to site and mechanically placed around the circumference in an interlocking pattern. Such a method is vastly different to that employed in the construction of London's 'Tube', where many of that

48 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

network's older tunnels are beautiful, hand-built, brick lined constructs. Rob Kilgour, Principal Engineer for Materials Technology at WSP - a leading global engineering consultancy, whose role covers durability planning and material selection for new projects stated that the use of pre-cast concrete panels greatly improved quality assurance as the pieces were prepared under controlled, factory conditions. As a tunnel is dug, a water-resistant lining system is installed to provide structural support and waterproofing. The concrete elements may be either in situ or pre-cast panels. Polymer membranes may be placed prior to installing the concrete lining—typically an approach used for cast in place linings. Where precast segments are used, a rubber gasket is used to prevent water ingress between the segments. The gaskets are made from ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber. Kilgour added that it is not just the physical route that has to be checked. “When we build through brownfield sites it is essential to conduct a thorough analysis of the soil to check for contaminants,” he said. “Hydrocarbons often leak into the ground around and under industrial plants and petrol stations which can damage waterproofing membranes and the rubber seals between concrete segments.” Building under a large modern city - such as Melbourne, Auckland, or Dubai - presents many challenges to the construction company delivering the project. The route must be carefully planned so as to avoid other infrastructure such as pipelines for gas, water and other utilities, building foundations and existing transport tunnels. When the Victorian government approved the underground rail tunnels and stations in Melbourne in the 1970s, planning the route had to take the railway deep enough to avoid much of the infrastructure and around or through the footprint of some the city's tallest buildings. The challenge of avoiding existing transport tunnels was highlighted in the English Crossrail project when the excavating and concrete handling equipment passed just 450mm above the roof of a platform of one of the Tube's largest and busiest stations.


The Road to Relevant Research

Did you know you can access the latest issue of Highway Engineering Australia via Informit? The Informit Engineering Collection is an ever expanding resource covering aspects of highway engineering - planning and development, design, construction, maintenance and management. The database offers an extensive variety of resources including journals, trade publications, reports and conference proceedings. One project Kilgour worked on was the underground metro train system in Dubai. “We carried out a baseline survey of all the buildings in the oldest parts of Dubai to make sure that we could prove that the tunnelling works did not cause any damage to buildings and property adjacent to the route.” The different types of tunnelling systems are very dependent on the nature of the ground conditions. Tunnelling through sand presents different challenges to those encountered when working through mud and rock. “A variety of techniques can be used in terrain that is soft,” Kilgour stated “These include techniques such as ground freezing or emulsification that increase the density of the ground and allow excavation and construction of the tunnel lining to be completed before the ground softens again.”

The Collection guarantees quality through partnerships with peak professional bodies including Engineers Australia and the Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand, as well as Content Providers including EPC Media Group. The Informit Engineering Collection delivers hard to find content designed to complete and complement your highway engineering requirements. Other key titles published by EPC Media include: Construction Engineering Australia Waste + Water Management Australia

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New Zealand’s Waterview tunnel under construction ©WSP

Apr/May 2019 | Highway Engineering Australia 49


ACA CORROSION FEATURE

To this day, one of the greatest tunnel engineering feats is the nearly 2,000 kilometres of sewers that were dug by hand under London almost 160 years ago. Designed by Joseph Bazalgette in the mid-19th Century, the system remains a masterpiece of Victorian engineering. There are approximately 132 kilometres of main sewer where the diameter is large enough for a man to comfortably walk upright in them; while public tours were stopped decades ago, if you know the right people, it is still possible to be taken into the tunnels beneath the busy streets of central London. Today, infrastructure requirements often call for a life expectancy of 100 years, so durability planning is starting to be incorporated into the whole design process. According to New Zealand-based Les Boulton, a Consultant to the Nickel Institute, this was not always the case. “During much of the 20th Century, it was often the case of constructing a project as cheaply as practical and letting others worry about paying for the maintenance.” In the past, little thought was given to materials selection for durability or the potential impact this may have for the asset owners in terms of ongoing maintenance costs. This resulted in a modest construction cost but very expensive continual monitoring. Too often it was a matter of putting up with a repeating cycle of repair and replace after a structure had been built,” Boulton added. “However, engineering graduates are now being taught - and then putting into practice - the concept of lifecycle costing.” Durability planning provides a method for assessing performance requirements specific to the prevailing exposure environment and required design life and controlling material selection so that the appropriate strength and grade of materials are procured and used for construction. “In modern road and rail tunnels there is a large amount of machinery and equipment that the users rarely notice.” This equipment includes large jet fans that circulate the air in the tunnel, fixed and interactive signage, as well as the trays and brackets supporting service ducts and cables. All inaccessible or unmaintainable equipment and attachment points must be designed to last up to 100 years. According to Boulton, designs call for stainless steel to be used for casings and fixings. Pipes for a range of services and utilities as well as servicing tunnels and large stormwater drains are often placed under the road or rail deck, in the space referred to as the “tunnel invert.”

50 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

The completed Waterview tunnel ©WSP

Most tunnels - rail, communication, utility or service - are usually bare concrete because owners don't value aesthetics. “Road tunnels are often painted or tiled to give a pleasing pattern that breaks up the monotony of the view for drivers,” added Boulton. Safety has also contributed to the move away from cheaper project options. A multi vehicle crash deep inside one of the many tunnels through the Swiss countryside in the 1980s resulted in many deaths and a fire that burned for days. The insides were made of steel with a corrosion protection coating. Carbon steel starts to yields at 350 degrees Celsius at which point structures can start to fail under their own weight. “You can't get excellent durability and strength from steel and paint,” Boulton said. “Everyone involved has to sign up to the planning for durability and safety.” In contrast, stainless steel can withstand temperatures of 1,000 degrees Celsius. Specifying corrosion resistant stainless steel is more expensive as a construction cost, but greatly reduces the ongoing maintenance costs. “Specifying durable materials has been slow to be adopted because maintenance traditionally is treated as an expense and is accounted for differently,” said Boulton. To support industry, the Australasian Corrosion Association (ACA) works with private companies, organisations and academia to research all aspects of corrosion such as rubber degradation from hydrocarbons. The ACA provides an extensive knowledge base that supports best practice in corrosion management, thus ensuring all impacts of corrosion are responsibly managed, the environment is protected, public safety enhanced and economies improved.

ABOUT THE AUSTRALASIAN CORROSION ASSOCIATION The Australasian Corrosion Association Incorporated (ACA) is a not-for-profit, membership association, that disseminates information on corrosion and its prevention through the provision of training courses, seminars, conferences, publications and other activities.
 The vision of the ACA is that corrosion is managed sustainably and cost effectively to ensure the health and safety of the community and protection of the environment. For more information visit: www.corrosion.com.au For membership enquiries visit: www.membership. corrosion.com.au


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iMOVE CRC FEATURE

NATIONAL FREIGHT DATA HUB TO INCREASE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY DATA IS BECOMING THE OIL THAT LUBRICATES THE FLOW OF FREIGHT ACROSS THE NATION by Ian Christensen, Managing Director, iMove CRC The importance of data for the smooth flow of goods was highlighted in the report from iMOVE’s Freight Data Requirements Study which was released recently by the Federal government. The study is a comprehensive analysis of the needs for, and availability of freight data in Australia. iMOVE found a highly fragmented environment in which much data is collected but its inconsistency and dispersed storage severely reduces its usefulness. In today’s high paced, highly competitive freight industry, the factor that distinguishes high performers is the intensity of their data usage. Going forward however, it is not just individual freight operators that have to perform well, but the whole system must operate seamlessly. Despite each company’s fierce independence, we now have to work together to coordinate the movement of goods along supply chains. And that is going to require active sharing of information (freight data) amongst the relevant stakeholders. If we deny this need for a modest sharing of basic data we will never know ‘when the box is going to arrive’ and never enjoy the increased productivity. Australia’s success depends on getting this right.

54 Highway Engineering Australia | Apr/May 2019

The importance of freight to all of Australia iMOVE is pleased that the Federal Government has recognised of the importance of the freight sector to the national economy, and the importance of data flow to the efficiency of the transport system. ACIL Allen Consulting recently estimated that a 1% increase in total factor productivity in the logistics industry would yield a $2 billion increase in national GDP. We strongly support the development of the National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy and welcome the release of the Federal Government’s update on its actions to strengthen Australia’s supply chains and lift the performance of Australia’s freight industry.

The Deputy Prime Minister, Nationals’ Leader and Minister for Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Development Michael McCormack said, ‘The Federal Government, together with industry and the State, Territory and Local Governments, is working on developing a National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy to make sure we can meet that growing task and keep freight moving efficiently.’

A National Freight Data Hub The federal government responded to the recommendations in the iMOVE report by committing $8.5 million in the 2019 budget to develop a National Freight Data Hub, and to pilot supply chain data exchange processes. Together, these initiatives will improve the

“iMOVE is pleased that the Federal Government has recognised of the importance of the freight sector to the national economy, and the importance of data flow to the efficiency of the transport system. ACIL Allen Consulting recently estimated that a 1% increase in total factor productivity in the logistics industry would yield a $2 billion increase in national GDP.”


iMOVE CRC FEATURE

flow of data and will help business and governments make better operational and investment decisions. ‘Industry has called for better freight data and we are delivering. We know better data makes better decisions and that means jobs and opportunities can flow, especially in the regions,’ Mr McCormack said.

Report recommendations Amidst all the fact finding, results of interviews and surveys, and close analyses of the industry both nationally and internationally, the report makes a total of twelve recommendations, across three areas, including: • Establishment of a national policy on freight data in Australia o As the lead agency in the formation of the National Freight and Supply Chain Strategy (NFSCS), the Commonwealth should lead the development of a national policy on freight data that seeks to improve the collection, hosting, access to, and analysis of information relating to the movement of freight, and which addresses the interests of all stakeholders in the sector. It is recognised that the NFSCS is being developed in conjunction with all jurisdictions. o Consistent with existing legislative requirements, a mechanism should be established to define and implement nationally a framework of standards for freight data to facilitate aggregation and comparison across diverse data sources. The States, via COAG, would play a key role in facilitating a framework of data collection standards. The Commonwealth would play a coordinating role. o The Commonwealth should act to make its own freight related data available in a manner consistent with open data principles, and encourage other data owners such as asset and fleet managers, regulators, state government agencies, freight operators and freight customers to do likewise. • Freight Data Coordination Office o A Freight Data Coordination Office be established to: a) collect, host, and disseminate freight data at a national level, leaving data analysis to be conducted by relevant stakeholders according to their respective mandates, including at the state and regional level; b) encourage data providers to deliver needed data compliant with established data standards; and

c) initiate processes to procure missing data. o A mechanism be established by which a steering group representative of data users and data collectors can guide the priorities of the Office to build trust in the new organisation and maintain its relevance to stakeholders. o The Commonwealth take a leadership role in the procurement of such ‘commercial’ freight-related data as is needed and which exhibits good value for money. For example, if jurisdictions are separately purchasing vehicle movement data, there may be a benefit in the Commonwealth acting as a monopsony buyer of these datasets. o Secure protocols be established for data collection and handling that support participation and contribution from stakeholders that can supply a wide range of data sources. o Practical and robust arrangements be established for securing access to raw freight data from industry participants including rules related to aggregation and public access to respect commercial sensitivity. • Other initiatives The following initiatives are intended to support progress towards better meeting stakeholders’ requirements for fit-forpurpose and up-to-date data sets. It is recommended that: o A republishing or ‘hosting’ website be established with the mission to republish all freight data on a single site. o A transition be encouraged to move towards low cost, harmonised collection processes for all freight related data from wherever it is generated or held. This includes (but is not limited to): a) the automation of current survey processes; b) the increased adoption of vehicle telemetry and usage of vehicle telematic data; c) the establishment of new automated sensing methods to generate needed data; d) accessing public and private datasets with agreed inquiry tools; and e) changing data analyses to utilise the higher availability of automatically collected data. o Acknowledgement be made of the important contribution to the Australian freight data ecosystem by some existing programs, and that arrangements be made to either

encourage, or directly support (if a Commonwealth program), their continuing operation. We recommend the following programs, among others, be considered for ongoing support: a) TranSIT (CSIRO); b) Supply chain Indicators, Infrastructure Performance Dashboard, Freight Performance Indicators, Developing and Promoting Best Practice Modelling Assumptions (BITRE); c) Customs Freight Data Analysis Project (National Transport Commission (NTC), BITRE); d) Tracking Commonwealth and state open data (Australian Transport Data Action Network (ATDAN), BITRE); e) Supply chain data visibility through the GS1 EPICS standard (Australian Logistics Council (ALC), Nestlè and others); f) Data Sharing Taskforce (NSW Government); and g) Heavy Vehicle Infrastructure Asset Registers (DIRDC, Australian Road Research Board (ARRB)). o The Commonwealth prioritise its investment in assembling ‘missing’ freight data towards the following five freight data needs (identified from a case-by-case assessment conducted by this study of the potential costs and benefits associated with the closure of each gap): o Supply chain visibility: a) Improve the visibility of the containerised supply chain, from port to intermodal hub to final destination; and b) Improve the visibility of the domestic food and manufactured products supply chain, from farm/plant to warehousing and distribution centres to the final destination. o Better coordination of existing freight data (standards, confidentiality, harmonisation, granularity): • Adopt and propagate freight data standards and protocols (where considered beneficial) to align datasets to common standards and levels of granularity and confidentiality, focusing first on network utilisation measures (e.g. volumes) and productivity measures already collected (or potentially easily collected at low cost) by freight operators. o Long-term planning and investment in the network: • Determine the most significant data needs related to the government’s role in planning supply chain network integration and expansion, and long-term

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EQUIPMENT iMOVE CRC FEATURE FEATURE

sustainability and resilience, potentially through dialogue with Infrastructure Australia and relevant state-based infrastructure advisory bodies (such as iNSW and Building Queensland).

â&#x20AC;˘ Give priority to satisfying the network infrastructure data needs of these bodies. I would like to acknowledge information provided by many industry stakeholders, along with assistance provided by the Australian Road Research Board (ARRB), the Research Centre for Integrated Transport, Innovation (rCITI, UNSW), the Australian Institute for Business and Economics (AIBE, University of Queensland), and the Centre for Supply Chain and Logistics (CSCL, Deakin University).

Download the report iMOVE looks forward to working with all stakeholders in the freight community to help them improve the flow of information across the industry to enable operational and investment decisions to be better informed, and for the sector to improve its efficiency and productivity. The study is available for download from: www. imovecrc.com/wp-content/ uploads/2019/04/Freight-DataRequirements-Study-Final-Report.pdf

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ian Christensen is the Managing Director of iMove CRC. He has more than 30 yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience in the manufacturing industry, ranging from automotive, paper, polymers, silicone products, and fine chemicals. His considerable working experience at the interface between industry and research enables him to manage the many stakeholders involved in the transport and mobility space and draw them into the collaborative processes required to address the complex problems and opportunities. Ian is excited by the opportunity presented by the digitisation revolution to address the needs of the transport and mobility sectors, and looks forward to combining his CRC leadership experience with his interests in technology, enthusiasm for national progress, and familiarity with industry.


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Highway Engineering Australia V50.6 April/May 2019  

Australia’s premier roads and transport infrastructure publication.

Highway Engineering Australia V50.6 April/May 2019  

Australia’s premier roads and transport infrastructure publication.