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Review Issue

In this Issue:

Committees Reviewed Travel Envionment Politics

Official Magazine of the 2012 Leinster Regional Session of EYP Ireland

Contents Pg. 3... Pg. 4... Pg. 8... Pg. 9...

Patrick Lavelle interviews

your Presiden t

Your Jounalists give their final words on the Committees

David Corish examines the new

legislation on internet use

Johanna Fürst has

the facts on piracy

Pg. 10... Rowan Moorkrens O'Reilly has some alternative travel advice Pg. 11... Johanna Fürst views Ireland from the other side Pg. 12... Ciarán Hyland looks at an environmental innovation Pg. 13... Eoin MacLachlann reports on developments in Hungary Pg. 14... Patrick Lavelle gives his views on the state ofthe euro Pg. 15... Kate Žejdlová challeges you to survive Pg. 16... Craig Allen has a very retrospective report 2


- Why we write Dear EYPers ,

We have two hopes for this, the final, farewell Review Issue of InPrint. The first is that these pages might help you, with the Session now over, to reflect on what you have each done with a cold weekend in February. As well as the inspirational final words from your president and an examination of some aspects of what EYP can mean, your Journalists have given their own reflections on your work this weekend. You can all find something in those lines of which to be very proud. Recall therein how you innovatively tackled issues of GM foods, press liberty Belarusian controversy and many more issues to which most people your age have never given any real thought. In short, we hope you find in this final Issue of InPrint the seeds of the recognition your experience over the weekend deserves. However, the Teams of Officials at this Session dare to hope for more, and here we have the second purpose of this magazine. “A mind that is stretched by a new experience can never go back to its old dimensions.” This is what we hope for you. As indicated above, you are each EYPers now; and in that statement there is significance: there is a recognition, and there is a challenge. You have seen what you can accomplish in one weekend. What could you do with a week? So in these pages, among more light-hearted pieces, we also take a look outside, we look at what is happening in the world of which you are a part, which affects you and which you have the power to affect. If one of you googles ‘eco-villages’ after reading this, if one of you feels like disagreeing with Patrick about the Fiscal Compact, then all of this text has been worth it. If you live your life after this Session in some way aware of what you have done, of what you can do, and aware of your importance to society; if, the next time you face some challenge, you remember a weekend in February – if you can take your role as an EYPer out into your everyday interactions, then you truly be proud of what you have done with your EYP experience. Yours, in awe and in anticipation, Eoin O'Leary & Ben Fusco.

To Preside a Session Patrick Lavelle brings you your Expedition Leader,

Mark Sheridan

Why did you get involved in EYP? My brother did it before me and had some great stories about it. It sounded like great fun so I decided to go to a Session. What was your first EYP Session? The 2004 Leinster Regional Session in Templeogue. I arrived and everyone was doing the Zulu dance, the weirdest thing I had ever seen. Then in Committee Teambuilding, the first game we played was the polo game which was also really weird! In the disco we had karaoke. I was incredibly shy and quiet so it was a little bit unnerving. Why have you stay involved? EYP is great fun and really, really exciting. The people who do it are really friendly and smart. I got to discuss a lot of cool things with them. EYP is a place where you can be as silly as you like and no one will judge you for it. Why did you choose the theme of exploration? I was thinking about how I think of EYP as an organisation and an experience. To me EYP is similar to the experience of explorers; it’s something brand new which you have never experienced before. What explorer best represents you? Captain Picard from Star Trek. He is committed to exploration and the protection of the human race. He is smart, dignified and classy.

What was your favourite thing about being a Delegate? My favourite thing was getting to take part in games and in the debates. As an Official you sit back during discussions and can’t contribute to them. In hindsight I can see that getting involved in discussion with other Delegates and really getting absorbed by the topic was a great experience. What has been your aim as President for the Session? I’ve aimed to make sure everyone gets the most from the Session that they can. I want both the Delegates and the Officials to all enjoy themselves. I want them to learn something from the Session, be it about themselves or the topics, if not both. What do you think the Delegates should take home with them from the session? As well as all the fond memories they will have from the Session, I believe they should leave here aware of the importance of the role that they should play in society. Do you have any inspirational words for the Delegates? To quote Albert Einstein “You can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them”.


Committee Reviews

Your Journalists take a look back over what you have achieved this weekend

On Friday evening when I first walked into the room where TRAN had set up camp, I saw nine nervous individuals who knew nothing about one another, aside from the fact that they were going to have to spend the next few days working as a team. This initial awkwardness was quickly eradicated however, as everybody became more comfortable and settled in their new surroundings, leading on to plenty of discussion at Committee Work. With a clear idea of what were the most important issues to be tackled in order to make a clear and coherent policy to cut down on EU carbon dioxide emissions, all the Delegates had a plan for how they were going to achieve their goals; but respect and interest for the thoughts of everyone else was also applied.

One issue that was particularly troubling for the Delegates was the divide between the predominantly states with more developed transport systems, and many of the newer Member States who were still playing catch up in this regard. Unfortunately, with so many other things to cover on this broad topic, TRAN were short for time coming towards the end of their discussions, but they kept their focus and finished their resolution just in time. While the nerves ran high for GA, TRAN once again held their nerve and succeeded in passing their resolution. Anna Nichols

LIBE’s ability to work through their issue quickly while having fun was exemplary. Their tackling of the problem is all the more impressive when one considers how contentious an issue it is namely balancing the rights of the press with the right of an individual to his/her privacy. The Committee recognised the great need to rein in the press, following the shameful revelations last year concerning the News of the World and other publications. What complicates this is the necessity of balancing greater press restrictions with a healthy, free press capable of, among other things, informing the public and revealing corruption.


The Committee balanced these needs well combining the views of different members who acted as proponents of each. They came upon some very contentious issues such as the right to privacy of criminals and the need to monitor such individuals for public safety. The Committee argued that the breaching of the right to privacy must only take place in instances where it is to the benefit of greater society. Clarification of this point was an issue for the Committee, however overall their plans are solid and well thought through. LIBE have sought to provide greater clarity and oversight, while maintaining the ability of the press to function well, as an independent watch dog for all - “if the state regulates the press then the press no longer regulates the state�. Eoin Mac Lachlann

ITRE came together on Friday evening and bonded immediately, this was clearly evident when a traditional game of ‘Blip Blop’ resulted in a water fight in the Committee room. GA got off to a great start on Sunday morning, with ‘Indiana Jones’ presiding over the ITRE’s Resolution. A passionate Defence Speech was followed by two Attack Speeches, both claiming the resolution was conservative. However this was swiftly refuted by ITRE. Nuclear power was a hot topic with lots of focus on the pros and cons. Many Delegates argued for and against. ITRE emphasised their positive

campaign which included tax reductions as incentives rather then increasing taxes as a form of punishment. ITRE acknowledged that nuclear power would only be an intermediate until renewable sources were at sufficient capabilities to support Europe. One of the Finnish Delegates received a standing ovation from ITRE after he refuted some wild accusations concerning nuclear power. Each member of ITRE was constantly communicating with

After meeting for the first time on Friday night, ENVI bonded as a group surprisingly quickly. On Saturday the Committee immersed themselves in their topic. Numerous issues, sometimes quite random were discussed. Having personally known very little about GM crops coming to this Session, their discussion was highly informative. The level of their knowledge upon arrival was commendable. The Committee faced problems with people speaking over each other at times and with drifting off topic at times about issues like the effects of GM crops on diabetics. However for the most part the discussion was very relevant to the topic. ENVI addressed the major challenges in the way of GM crop production in Europe. Discussions were held on the risk of cross pollination and the effect of GM crops on the surrounding environment and solutions were agreed upon. They also dealt with the topics of labelling and with the growing global population, particularly in LDCs. The Committee found it difficult towards the end to finish discussion and begin writing their resolution. However, they have emerged with a strong resolution for General Assembly. Patrick Lavelle

each other and supported each speaker perfectly. The hall seemed divided on the well known topic of nuclear power, but ITRE were hopeful that they proposed their motion successfully. Nerves set in for the votes count with ITRE mumbling their number of votes, but there was no need to fret as ITRE’s resolution was passed. David Corish

CULT developed a strong bond over the weekend. They had a continuous flurry of bright ideas, interesting topics and heated debates. The enthusiastic group succeeded in producing a resolution which, considering the monetary challenges with which they were faced, was unique and encouraging, but most importantly, realistic and economically plausible. Focusing on their ‘public participation’ clause, the Committee has encouraged the public to engage with the arts without the need for monetary investment. Considering that the general intention of the Committee was to ensure fiscal expenditure remained at a minimum, the plan to encourage people to simply invest time in an online voting system is impressive. This provides the deciding body with a wide base of public opinion, directly influencing their decisions. Tackling the economic and culturally significant aspects of their question with one decisive clause proves the Committee’s dedication and brilliance. The Committee didn’t forgo the use of grants to reinforce their resolution however, a European Union Arts Guild would provide financial support for any aspiring creative mind. An internal Arts structure has neither been tried nor tested in a European setting. Original, new, but most importantly, relatively cheap and financially flexible. A strong internal working environment amongst the Delegates ensured a successful resolution, with simple, new and effective ideas. Craig Allen


I hope AFET’s Teambuilding on Friday was as enjoyable to participate in as it was to watch. The manner in which the Delegates of AFET constructed their “Ryanair” sketch was pure genius. The idea of a flamboyant Michael O’Leary singing “come fly with me” together with a very large baby was both very funny and original, and signalled good things to come from the Committee. The Committee on Foreign Affairs discussed the recent developments in Libya. With Muammar Gaddaffi’s demise, Libya was thrown into a momentous period of transition. AFET aimed to discuss policies that would ensure this transition of power was peaceful. On an interesting note, AFET were required to account for respecting Libya as a sovereign country. Admittedly this is a very hard task to fulfil; however I firmly believe AFET did a very good job. The Committee work on Saturday was taxing, but by 7 o’clock the group were typing up their resolution with confidence. Various trademark methods were employed throughout the day in conceptualising the group’s ideas. Ideas were subdivided into problems, solutions and facts – a very productive method. A contentious issue during the discussion regarded policing and the military. Of course Europe has to respect Libya’s sovereignty and with this in mind AFET arrived at a solution. This is how many of the issues were dealt throughout the day. The problems were identified and then addressed within the confines of the topic. Overall I commend AFET on a concise, transparent and productive resolution. Ciarán Hyland

Already during the Teambuilding it was quite clear that the cooperation within ECON was working naturally, indicating that the Committee Work would run smoothly. However, the Delegates did not have an easy problem to tackle. Issues such as which actions to take concerning the eurozone, if we should keep the single currency or whether we should allow some states to withdraw from this project were, using their own words, “a big challenge”. Acknowledging that “foundation of Euro was idealistic, not realistic”, the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs has yet undertaken this challenge very well indeed: leading endless constructive discussions on various possible solutions, constantly brainstorming new ideas and enthusiastically searching for alternative possible resolutions. It is essential to say that the debate, being described as “abstract”, “interesting” or “tiring”, has been successful. The hard-earned result is a quality resolution of which the whole Committee can be proud. Receiving recognition from their chairs as well, ECON truly proves to be, according to Niall’s words, “the most awesome committee ever”. Though there sometimes were contradictions in opinions, the ways of defending their points of view and ability to reach compromises were impressive, as well as the overall knowledge of this difficult topic. To conclude with, let me use Hugh’s one-sentence description of ECON which basically says it all: “Better than the IMF!” Kate Žejdlová


Unfortunately, as is often so with such a contentious Topic, SEDE did not manage to get their resolution passed by the General Assembly. Their task of preventing the spread of violence opened up too many specific fields to attack – fields many Delegatess could relate to very well personally. The focus of SEDE’s work was, in fact, supposed to be a political one, as their prompt had suggested. What turned into a debate on the surveillance of social networks and illegal arms trade was all related to the very specific operative clauses four and six only, and as their responses and Summation Speech showed, the Delegates of the Committee on Security and Defence could have argued their political standpoint a lot better, had they been given the opportunity and time to do so. Besides very impressive speeches of a quality I personally have not seen in any Regional Session before, SEDE’s precise observations of what might be going on in the minds of extremists, the Committee’s insights into the will of extremists to have their voices heard in a violent manner, struck me particularly. Even a good resolution on security and defence is perhaps doomed to be controversial. I wholeheartedly congratulate this Committee on their remarkable work. Johanna Fürst

After a long evening of Teambuilding exercises and getting to know each other, EMPL got down to hard work immediately the next morning on their resolution. The question posed was challenging as it dealt with various issues including unemployment across the EU and education in Member States. At the start there was some fiery debate and a conflict of ideas voiced during discussion, however as the day progressed all the Committee members compromised on what they would write in their resolutions. A decision was made to split EMPL into three smaller groups, or ‘work stations’, which proved crucial to the decision making and resolution writing, as they all tackled separate issues of the question and then combined all the clauses they had gathered as groups in one final resolution. The finalising of the resolution took a bit longer than expected but in the end they produced a strong motion to defend in General Assembly. This morning, the delegates were quick to give their views on other resolutions with well-structured points of debate.

Conservative approaches to the Belarus issue primarily revolve around the EU establishing relationships to benefit the country’s economy and industry, in the hopes that it will bring about socio-political change. However, realistically, without any incentive for an uncompromising Lukashenko, there is no possibility of co-operation with the European Union. AFCO , on the other hand, have dared to tackle the topic head on, deciding to confront Lukashenko directly for his violation of human rights, and will only grant Belarus economic benefits if they conform to ICCPR standards. The Committee’s policies are radical and proactive, considering how an intimidated Lukashenko could cripple Europe’s oil pipelines. The Delegates acknowledged this very early on, showing themselves to be pragmatic and aware of the European political climate. These are some of the most admired qualities of EYP Delegates, and for this reason I have deep veneration for the Committee. Eclipsing this is just how enthusiastic the delegates are. Always eager, and willing to throw themselves into any activity and discussion. And when they do, they are diplomatic, respectful of each other’s input, and always wearing a smile. Vibrant and passionate, and personifying the very ethos of EYP, I have to confess that I was very much honoured to be their Journo, and can see that they are destined for great things. Rowan Moorkens O'Reilly

Anthony McKee


Internet Scaremongering David Corish gives his opinion on internet

censorship and sensitivity.

Recently the whole internet fell foul to Anti-SOPA protests with Wikipedia and Google, among others, taking a stand against the ‘Stop Online Piracy Act’. Thankfully SOPA was postponed by the US Congress and is currently ‘pending review’. However the internet became livid looking for more opportunities to come together and protest against anything that remotely hints at ‘privatising the internet’. Take the recent ridiculous ’Stop SOPA Ireland’ petition as an example; there was uproar when it was revealed that the Irish government were introducing a bill to fix a loophole to allow injunctions be sought against Internet Service Providers (ISPs). This would give record labels, such as EMI, the option to seek injunctions in court against UPC or Eircom and get them to block websites hosting illegal sites offering free music. Now when the public heard the words ‘Block’ and ‘Free Music’; panic ensued. The internet became abuzz with exaggerations. In short, scaremongering ran rampant even in the face of reason. Reality has set in, somewhat, at this point and people have realised that the new Irish bill has no relation to the American SOPA bill. Protests have either died down or been ridiculed into submission. Good.However hysteria is setting in again; all over Europe people have started to hear about ACTA. The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement is a plurilateral agreement for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement. In plain English, it’s a global agreement on piracy and other internet areas.


It involves the European Union, the United States, Japan and Canada as well as a few other countries, whose aim is to enforce copyright and tackle counterfeited goods on the internet. Now, ACTA is not SOPA; however it may yet deserve our attention. Mass media campaigns have already begun circulating with many anti-ACTA web pages surfacing, and they have a point; ACTA has been discussed in secret with very little information being released. A leaked document highlighted some very strict proposals within the drafts, most notably encouraging the use of the ‘three strike’ method.Nevertheless, ACTA is a young agreement and is only in the media spotlight as EU Members recently ‘signed up’ to ACTA, and here is where the mass hysteria is focused. The Members have just agreed to further consider ratifying ACTA, which still has to be ratified by the EU itself and then individually by each Member’s own government. This act has not been set in stone, it has just moved to the next step. ACTA needs to be monitored, yet groups like ‘Anonymous’ are only stoking the fire. Governments should, and will, get the chance to fully debate over ACTA and its proposals. For the time being, we could all benefit from reading some broadsheets rather then Facebook 'likes', and engaging in some objective reflection before falling prey to the ridiculous scaremongering campaigns.

The idea and the reality of


Johanna Fürst looks beyond the peg-leg and bottles of


When we hear the word ‘pirate’, we think gold teeth, wooden legs, bottles of rum, eye-patches and Johnny Depp. We imagine fairytale-like scenarios of ultimate freedom and adventure, of sea monsters and kitsch romance stories. And did I mention parrots yet? Arrr. But in fact, what most of us tend to forget is the actual place in history this phenomenon has, and how pirates still exist in many parts of our world today. While the most current use of the word would include online piracy as well, according to the Oxford Dictionaries, a pirate is defined as “a person who attacks and robs ships at sea”. So let us travel back to what is today considered the Golden Age of Piracy, namely the time between the 1650s and the 1730s in the Caribbean and Eastern Pacific. In fact, this period is where our modern, fictional conception of pirates stems from. European colonies were badly governed, and valuable goods had to be transported via the sea. The colonial powers were in constant conflict with each other, and massive amounts of money were transported on ships. It all started off with so-called privateers, who were authorised by the government to attack foreign ships in the time of war and basically took on a military role. A special sub-group of these were the buccaneers, which is used synonymously with the term pirate today. French

buccaneers started to raid Spanish ships after they had tried to wipe out their resources, and the harbour city Port Royal grew, providing them with a place to sell their loot at a high price. As Port Royal was devastated in an earth quake in 1692 and the collaboration between English Jamaica and French Tortuga broke down, Anglo-American pirates started to make use of the vulnerable position of East India companies’ ships who were transporting high priced silk on the Ocean without having any powerful navy to protect them. When the War of the Spanish Succession ended, many British seamen found themselves unemployed, and would often use their skills to turn to the very profitable profession of pirating. The shipping of goods and slaves between Africa, Europe and the Caribbean was experiencing a boom at this time and it provided a perfect opportunity to make immense amount of moneys and raid ships for goods and “treasures”. Today, the conception of pirates has slightly changed, but basically it still revolves around the same principle. In places like the Somali coast and the Indian Ocean, pirates on motorboats regularly raid commercial ships, of which there are more than we may think, as commercial shipping is still a very important economical factor today. What differentiates them from the pirates from the 17th century is their frequent taking of hostages and sometimes a background of organised crime, which puts them into a similar category to terrorists. Often, they are also very well equipped with speedboats, machine guns and satellite phones. In a modern definition of sea piracy, kidnapping, murder and shipwrecking have hence also been included. As you can see, there is much more to piracy than we might think at first glance. The romantic idea Walt Disney has put into our head does not correspond to the harsh reality actual pirates faced, being regarded as traitors and prosecuted as soon as someone could get hold of them. Unfortunate, isn’t it? Arrr.


discovering Europe

Rowan Moorkrens O'Reilly shows another side to


Sick of seeing boring European landmarks like the Eiffel Tower and the Colosseum? Are London and Berlin not exotic enough for you? Then maybe you should go off and explore some of Europe’s lesser known wonders. What is that I hear you cry? “Europe is boring – why can’t we visit Asia or South America?” I guess you’re right – I mean, there’s nothing more boring than a monastery built entirely of human bodies, is there?


Aside from those bars and pretty towns that the Polish lads down the road keep telling you about, what has Poland got that makes it so great? Well, they have salt mines. Albeit salt mines sculpted into a cathedral and dating back to the 13th century. The Wieliczka Salt Mines has hundreds of statues, a chapel, relief work, a dancing hall and dozens of chandeliers all carved out of rock salt! Popular marvels include a colossal statue of Pope John Paul II - made of salt - and an entire recreation of Da Vinci’s The Last Supper again, made of salt. And somehow, this crazy ancient attraction goes unnoticed, despite being within the Kraków metropolitan area. And yes. You can lick the walls.

Czech Republic

For centuries the abbot in the small Czech town of Sedlec has been the Niagara Falls for dead people, regardless of cause of death. Ever since someone sprinkled soil from the Holy Land on the local cemetery in the 13th century, people from all over Europe started demanding to be buried there and the Sedlec graveyard kept growing until 1870, when the priests decided to finally do something about all those surplus bones lying around. Uh oh. Today, the Sedlec Ossuary is a chapel famous for being decorated with tens of thousands of human bones. The results were macabre mounds of human remains in the four corners of the chapel, a terrifying chandelier built from every bone in the human body, and a massive skull coat of arms adorning the entrance. And they are still playing with human bones as if they were Tim Burton's Lego blocks for almost 140 years now.

84 10


Eisriesenwelt, which translates as “World of the Ice Giants”, is a natural ice cave located deep in Tennengebirge section of the Austrian Alps. The ice formations in the passageways eroded by the Salzach river were formed by thawing snow which drained into the cave and froze during winter. Containing enough stalactites and ice chambers to form a Lara Croft level, the most astonishing of the landforms in this icy paradise is known as Hymir’s Castle, a 40-metre-high dome of ice and crystal, containing ashes of one of Austria’s most famous explorers, Alexander von Mörk.


Think the Burren is cool? No? Then try Torcal de Antequera, a Natural Park Reserve of about 17 square kilometres containing perhaps the most impressive karst landforms in Europe. The karstification process has resulted in the bizarre alien shapes, many of which resemble, and have been named after, everyday objects such as the Jug, the Camel, and the Screw. Walking amongst this strange dreamscape, you feel as if Captain Kirk is going to jump out of nowhere and battle space lizards at any moment. But if extraplanetary terrain isn’t your thing, why don’t you try Desierto de Tabernas? The considerable amount of sand and red rock might be explained through knowing that this is the only desert in Europe.


Considering AFCO’s topic, it feels appropriate that we should delve somewhat into the cultural attractions of Belarus. I mean, sure, there’s the lovely Mir Castle Complex, but all the guides seem to cite the country as being the best place to go should you wish to experience what it is like to live in a communist dictatorship, complete with Stalinist concrete architecture. Unless you’re a huge fan of Soviet aesthetics, chances are Belarus isn’t the place for you, but don’t worry, because I hear there is a delightful Belarussian equivalent to Mt. Rushmore located in the Brest Fortress Built in 1965, it was –

Aaahh! It's looking rght at me! Help me! Save me!

A Close Encounter

- of the Irish Kind

Johanna Fürst examines the differences between her

own country and one the debts of which she is currently paying.

Until this weekend, going to pubs with melodious and proper Irish sounding names in my home town had been my only encounter with that peculiar folk – and, unfortunately, it was usually not even Irish but mostly Americans working there. So arriving at the Dublin airport on what I considered an extremely warm Friday morning in January, my senses were flooded with impressions. I could swear I actually witnessed a few leprechauns hopping by. Even before the airplane touched down, I already started seriously doubting my geographical knowledge of this corner of Europe. When it broke through the clouds and I realised we were still just above the sea, I thought the Ryanair pilot had finally gone crazy. I would never have thought Dublin was actually this close to the sea, and there were many more interesting observations to follow.

driving foreigners mad with their electrical outlets. As I was soon to find out, Irish people love to complain about things in an almost incomprehensible accent; I always get lost in it when trying to understand what is going on. Many of the conversations I have had here revolved around how cold it is and how everyone is freezing to death. Coming here from Berlin with actual -20° and an apparent temperature of -50°, I assure you that you can feel incredibly lucky with these kinds of winters. They make me want to jump around wearing a t-shirt. Though my time here is almost over, I’m sure it has many more particularly Irish revelations to offer, and I have to admit I am looking forward to finding out more. To be honest, the pronunciation of the Session participants’ names and the street signs might remain one of the biggest mysteries of mankind to me. But in the end, they are all called Eoin anyways, so that does make things easier.

In comparison to continental Europe, Ireland seems like a whole different planet. People drive on the wrong side of the road, my watch needed some readjustments, and – unexpectedly – all my electronic devices are gradually dying because I brought the wrong plugs. Right now, one of the sockets in the Press Room is staring at me, and I kid you not, it has an evil face. But there is a lot more to the Irish mentality than the pleasure they take in purposefully


Ciarán Hyland wonders whether being eco-friendly

needs to be complicated.

Considering our deteriorating environment, general consensus is of course that something ought to be done. Great solutions are always proposed. However as evident with the industrial superpowers of China and co. there lacks a universal will to implement change. There is a world wide perception that going green is a concession, one which will damage an economy or affect its output. I do not believe this is a positive attitude to have. I often become distressed wondering why countries cannot just simply reduce carbon emissions and invest in green technology. I know this is naive, and things are just not that simple. But I always ask, why can’t things be that simple? Overcomplicating things is a pet hate of mine, but I’ll restrain from ranting. In Layman’s terms, eco-villages are communities of people who strive towards a sustainable lifestyle. To achieve this in the 21st century, they look to use renewable and green technologies. As well as this, ecovillages often have a self sufficient food production plan. The goal of an eco-village is primarily to benefit the environment while also to facilitate a simple and sustainable lifestyle. The hope is that if many villages follow suit, a major change will be made to the Earth as a whole. I firmly believe that they are worth considering. I must admit, despite my opening paragraph, that my interest in eco-villages is not explicitly fostered by environmental concerns. There are many benefits to eco-villages, one of which is sustainable food production. One interesting model states that fruit or vegetables must be planted in all suitable and organic land in the area. All able citizens of the community must work for 2 hours a week, digging, planting and maintaining the plots. In return for this work, everyone can take what they like when the crops are ready. You might think this is completely unsustainable. However, the Global Eco-Village Network (GEN) clearly shows how people are making a living off this model. The experts also say that within



- the way forward for sustainable living?

a few years, these Eco-Villages will be producing more food than required for the communities own needs. They will either sell or export the surplus. Many criticise this model. They predict that society will exploit the extremely liberal aspects of the plan. However I have hope, all we need to do is consider examples. Sustainable villages have successfully been established around the world in the likes of Australia, Sri Lanka, Bolivia and Scotland. The GEN project is heavily backed by the European Union. Eco- villages are run locally. If more are set up, it will certainly combat the world wide reluctance to act on climate change. Surely the quality of food produce would increase as well. The environment would also benefit hugely. Less fuel would be required to ship food to and from villages and less greenhouse gases would be emitted. As all of the positives accumulate it is becoming clear that it Eco-Villages is an idea not to be shunted. With some more research and careful planning, Eco-villages would play a massive role in a more sustainable, clean and efficient future.

Eoin Mac Lachlann looks to developments on the continent.

Hungary has announced this week that it will be seeking an international credit line of €15 - €20 billion, against the backdrop of increased worry amomng some observers over the direction the country is taking. Prime Minister Viktor Orban recently announced a new constitution, which seems to contravene EU law - such as the comprising of the independence of the central bank and data protection agency. Furthermore, the EU is requesting more information on the overall independence of the judiciary. The European Commission has launched a legal challenge over the constitution due to elements that have been seen as undemocratic. These changes, a compromising of the independence of the judiciary, suggest to some that the government may be returning to the authoritarianism that blighted the country as recently as 1990. Budapest has begun a process of forced retirement for hundreds of judges, which has left many commentators worried over the state of the country. The Prime Minister’s tightening of his grip on the reins of power today stands in direct contrast to his youth, during which he was an activist calling for free elections in Hungary. The irony of the situation is both undeniable and tragic - his former efforts to achieve a sovereign and democratic Hungary are being ruined by his moves against the foundations of a democratic state. These problems are further compounded by the precarious state of the country’s economy. Between November 2011 and January 2012 all three of the major credit rating agencies downgraded Hungarian debt to “junk status.” The value of the forint (their currency) has been falling against the euro and increasing tax rates are causing additional pain to citizens. At times such as these it is not at all unusual for people to seek the protection of a “strong leader,” one who is capable of bringing about stability. As the economy continues to degrade, Hungarians may see Orban as such a leader. While the legal action against the Hungarian state may take a year or more to achieve, European nations now have been given a new tool in seeking changes to the constitution. The multi-billion euro credit line that Hungary is seeking from the EU may come with conditions pertaining to the independence of the central bank and judiciary. This would allow the EU to achieve their aim in a timely fashion, with the least confrontation.

Hungary Rising?

Until then, the world will be watching closely.


Patrick Lavelle wonders if the new European

Fiscal Compact will be enough to save to the single currency. Our headlines in recent weeks have been dominating by the negotiation of a new European economic governance agreement. The summit which marked the beginning of this round of negotiations was hailed as “a last chance� to save the single currency. It follows a long list of summits named the same. Is this, however, the last chance in truth? The 1997 Stability and Growth Pact set out measures which all eurozone members were to follow, including a limit on the level of a debt a country can have and a limit on budget deficits. The new agreement eurozone includes similar conditions. In 2005 an Italian Commissioner wanted to hold France and Germany to account for breaking the limits of the Stability and Growth Pact. The governments of the EU came together and voted against the Commission to prevent this punishment and many other countries soon followed Germany and France in breaking the pact. The new agreement is quite similar to this. Its supporters say that budget deficits and huge debt levels are the cause of the current crisis and that this is the best way to solve that problem. Its opponents believe it is only a long term measure to stop the potential of another crisis like this and will do nothing to solve the current crisis. They also feel the agreement simply does not make economic sense. The EU is currently following a policy of prioritising reducing budget deficits to solve the crisis. It believes that this will help to return countries to a sustainable position as soon as possible. The critics of this policy believe that cuts only serve to drive countries further into recession. They believe cuts and taxes reduce the amount each person spends in the economy and hence has a negative effect. They cite the recent IMF announcements that growth needs to be prioritised as the path Europe should take. Eurobonds have been cited as a potential solution. Supporters believe would end the crisis by allowing all eurozone countries to borrow based on the market’s confidence in the more economically developed states.


To Save the euro Its opponents feel that greater economic integration is needed before a step like this can be made and that fiscal integration would soon follow eurobonds. Many commentators have also suggested the idea of allowing the ECB to print more money. Its supporters feel it would help governments greatly in paying off debt. They point to Iceland, a non EU country that went bust in 2008 and is now growing and has declining unemployment aided by being able to devalue their currency. They feel countries like Ireland simply cannot survive under its debt burden. Its main opponent is Germany who had a bad experience of such actions in the Great Depression era. Germany fears the risk of it becoming uncontrolled. Is this agreement sufficient? Or are more immediate measures are what is needed? What do you think?

Would you Survive? Kate Žejdlová sets out an EYP

exploration sceanario.

Imagine you ended up on a deserted island. It’s just you, an Orga, Chair, Journo and a Session President. Are you going to set off and explore the island? Let’s take this interactive adventure and discover whether you could call yourself a survivor!

You and the officials wake up on a beach. It’s decided that the best solution is to split up into groups. You will... 1a) ...just stay on the beach with the President. 1b) ...set off to explore the inland of the island with the Orga and the Chair. 1c) ...walk along the coast with the Journo.

You might not have survived ending up on an imaginary island with our officials, but I’m more than glad to announce that you officially survived this (for most of you, your very first) EYP Session! We hope you enjoyed the exploration of EYP and we hope what you have learned here will stay with you on your future adventuring.

1a) Our experienced President Mark knows how to act in any situation, so he takes a proper care of you. Building a shelter or lighting a fire is no problem for him. But after few hours, you both get hungry and realise that since there’s no Organiser, the only person who knows how to get food is gone! You... 2a) ...leave Mark and go to the jungle to find out whether there is some food to be found. 2b) ...stay with Mark and see if you can figure something out.

1b) The Chair’s guiding skills and

Orga’s great sense of direction make them just the perfect leaders of this adventurous expedition. After some time you get to a river. Since you can’t go under it, can’t go over it, you’d have to swim through, you... 2a) ...join the Orga who suggests to find an alternative way to get around the river. 2b) ... join the Chair who wants to continue and find out what’s beyond the river believing there’s a possibility of finding some help there.

1c) The excited Journo can’t wait to explore the coast, always ready with his camera. When you get to a bay behind the rocks, you see a huge pirate ship anchoring there! You... 2a) ...decide to try to negotiate with them and ask them for a rescue. 2b) ...are scared of them and start running away.

2a) As you walk further and further you realise you suddenly can’t tell from which direction you came. You don’t find any food either. You didn’t survive... 2b) After an hour of sitting on the beach and talking about your good times in EYP, you see something on the horizon... It’s a ship! You start waving at them and they notice you! You survived!

2a) You keep walking and walking

for hours, but there’s still no possible way across the river. Despite the Orga’s abilities, you find you don’t have the strength to continue You didn’t survive...


2b) You try to swim across the river, but the stream is too strong. You flow down the river until it brings you to shore in a village. The natives don’t understand a word you say, but thanks to the Chair’s gestures and negotiation skills they lend you their only phone and you call other EYPers who come to rescue you! You survived!

2a) You make a deal that in exchange for Journo’s camera they will transport you to safety. Unfortunately, they are treacherous pirates and to your surprise they sell you to slavery instead! You didn’t survive...

2b) The pirates spot you trying to escape and start shooting at you with their pistols! You don’t stand a chance... You didn’t survive...

5 15

EYP Session

on the moon

(Vol . 3, No. 1 , 5t h Februa r y, 1 972) I t has

be e Y o u t h P a n r e ve a l e d t h a t rl r e c e n t U i a me n t w i l l h o w i t h i n t h e n e x t de c a de ld a Ses S l a n di n s ion on gs . T he f o u n de r t t h e mo o n h e E u r o p e a n Ses s ion o f E YP, i s to be bo mo s t ; h o fo w e v e r w i r n Ma r c h 1 9 4 2 . h e a d o r g l l o wi n g t h e t h ma n y de v e l o p a I o f t he w t i s s e e n as a ni s e d by t he a mb i t i o u s o r l d’ s s l e a s t a c me t r o p o l i s o n up th h i e va b l e b . T h e p r e mo o n t h i s p r e r p o w e r s e x p e c y is s een te oj e s e nce o as an e x f t he E u e c t i s s e e n as d t o ce l l e nt s afe and r wa y o f e at o pe an Yo pe ace ful ns uri ng u . l u n a r d i t h P a r l i a me n t p l o ma c y T h e ma i n r e ma i n s obs tacl e ai r on t f a c i n g h e mo o n . t he pro j pos s i bi l e S i t y o f d c i e n t i s t s p r e d c t i s t h e di s t i nc i c t t hat e ath i f t h e mo o n h u ma n s r . Ot he r t h e r e ma t l a c k o f em pr p e r mi s s i y be a o n a n d t o b l e ms i n c l u d e a i n t o l o n g o n h e o b vi o s ource s t he s urf trans por us fact wi t h i n m a t t hat t he at i o n, pare nt a c e o f any t ho u Ses s ion l re are n s a n ds o f has be e n o t he c o nt m r i n u i n g i e c o g n i s e d a s a i l e s . T r a ve l t l o c a l f o o d o a ncr l o we r i n g si f u e l p r i e a s e i n o i l p r gn i f i c a n t p r o b n d f r o m t he not be d l o c e t r i me n t e s , ma n y e x p e r d u c t i o n , c o u p l e m, b u t w i t h e d wi t h t s h a ve al to th s tate d t e Ses s io hat t hi s n T he pro b l e ms h o w wi l l e ve r a r e pos s i bi l it d l a n ds c a p i e s o f n o t o n l w a r f e d b y t h e ad y e xpe ri e , but a e n c i n g s va n t a g e s : t h e l s o part t he De l e uc ak ga T h e vi e w t e s o f t h e S e s i n g i n a r e vo l h a f o r e i g n uti onary s i o n wi l fro m t he l wi l l b e n r e me mb e r mo o n i s c o n s i d c e r t a i n l y b e l e w p r o j e c t . u c ky t o e re d to e d by al mi r a c l e . at b e u n e qu l wh o t a a l l e d a n t e n d. ke t h e t d i me t o w i tne s s s i t T he S e s s u io ch a l o gi s t i c n i s s u r e t o b e i nte re s . Wi t h st su a l u mn i b o d y t o e c h a mo me n t o u s i n g r e g a r d l e s s ns i s s ure o t t o b e h i u r e t h e s u c c e s a s k, t h e E Y P m f t h e u s s tori cal i s re al i s t dr a w of s uch , st o o p p o r t u n i c . T h e p r o j e c mo n u me n t a l , b u a t a s k . T h e S e n i t s s s ion t mo s t i t wi l l p i ty for mp ro th e x t r e me l y di f f e r e y o u t h o f E u r v i de a s i g n i f i o r t a n t l y , i t ca op e nt pe rs ge o gr a p h p e c t i ve , e t o s e e t h e w n t i c a l l y. o rl both pol i ti cal l y d from an - Crai g and Al l e n


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