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Data Analysis Now that you have collected a significant amount of data it is time to complete the data analysis portion of Step 5: Data Collection & Analysis. In the next section, you will determine what your data mean and draw a conclusion. Below are some sample raw data sets, analysis, and graphs. Your mentor and/or chapter coordinator will help you determine which type of graph is best for your data. If you are inexperienced in Excel or another computer graphing program, ask your mentor for assistance in creating your graphs. Calculating Your Data The mean of your data is the average. To calculate the mean of a set of data, add all the values and divide by the number of data entries. The mode is the value that occurs most frequently in your data set. To compute the mode, count the number of times each value occurs in the data set and then choose the data value with the highest sum. The median is the central value of an ordered distribution. To obtain the median, order the values from the lowest to the highest and select the data value that occurs in the middle of your distribution. If your data set has an even number of entries, the median is the mean of the middle two values. (Almost everyone will need to calculate mean values for their data sets. Calculating the mode and median values may not be useful. If you’re not sure, consult your mentor.) Graphing Your Data: Basic Graph Types Bar Graphs are used to show relationships between groups. The values being compared do not need to affect each other. This type of graph is an easy way to show large differences. Line Graphs are used to show how changes in one variable affect changes in another variable. Most line graphs are created by plotting the independent variable on the x-axis (bottom) and the dependent variable on the y-axis (left). Line graphs can also be used to show how data change over time. Pie Graphs are used to show how part of something relates to the whole. Pie graphs are used to effectively show percentages.


Example 1: Using a bar chart to show the differences in rates of water percolation through different types of soil.

A student set up her experiment by placing a clean piece of filter paper in four different funnels. To three of the funnels, she added 25 mL of sand, clay, and soil, respectively. The fourth funnel had just the filter paper, and served as the control data set. She then poured 25 mL of water through each funnel, and measured the time, in seconds, it took for all the water to percolate through the funnels. She repeated her experiment a total of three times. Her raw data sets, her mean values, and her bar chart are shown below. Notice that she used her mean values to create her bar chart.

Trial 1

Soil type

Trial 2

Trial 3

Mean

Time (seconds)

Sand

40

41

45

42

Clay

55

60

57

57.3

Potting Soil

21

23

27

23.7

Control

8

5

4

5.7

Comparing Water Percolation Through Different Soil Types 70

Percolation Time (sec.)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sand

Clay

Soil Soil Type

Control


Example 2: Using a line chart to show the changes in river flowrate over time. A student measured the flowrate of water in four of his local rivers. Note that in this experiment, there is no control group, the student is comparing the different experimental data sets to each other. The student measured the flowrate three times during the transition from winter to spring with the assistance of his mentor and a park ranger. His raw data sets and his line chart are shown below.

January 1

River

February 1

March 1

Flowrate (cubic feet per second)

Klamath River

375,000

327,000

320,000

Eel River

647,000

542,000

498,000

Trinity River

166,000

161,000

131,000

Mad River

62,000

57,000

38,000

Comparing River Flowrates 7.0E+05

Flowrate (cu. ft/sec)

6.0E+05 5.0E+05 4.0E+05 3.0E+05 2.0E+05 1.0E+05 0.0E+00

1-Jan

1-Feb Klamath

Eel

1-Mar Trinity

Mad


Example 3: Using a pie chart to show the different bird species observed on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

A student counted the number of different types of birds she observed during a two-hour period at a specific beach location. She returned to the same location three days in a row and counted birds during the same two-hour time block. Her raw data sets, her mean values, and her pie chart are shown below. Notice that she used her mean values to create her pie chart.

Day 1

Type of Bird

Day 2

Day 3

Mean

Number of birds

Pelican

10

12

15

12.3/66.8= 18%

Sanderling

20

18

17

18.3/66.8= 27%

Great Egret

15

16

15

15.3/66.8= 23%

Snowy Egret

9

8

11

9.3/66.8= 14%

Other

12

10

13

11.6/66.8= 17%

Birds Observed at Emerald Beach 17%

18%

14%

27%

23%

Pelican Sanderling Great Egret Snowy Egret Other


Study Site Characterization Use Google Maps (http://maps.google.com) or Google Earth (http://earth.google.com) to print out a map of your study site(s) location(s). Cut out the maps and paste them in the space below. Map view:


Study Site Characterization Satellite view:


Raw Experimental Data – Assignment Use the space below and on the next few pages to record your experimental data. It is useful to think about the data you will be collecting and create tables ahead of time. Be sure to record data for all your variables and any changes you need to make to your procedure. If you run out of space, record your data on extra sheets of paper. Use the National Weather Service website (http://www.nws.noaa.gov/) to record the meteorological conditions (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation) each time you visit your study site.

Mentor’s Initials: __________ Chapter Coordinator’s Initials: __________


Raw Experimental Data

Mentor’s Initials: __________ Chapter Coordinator’s Initials: __________


Raw Experimental Data

Mentor’s Initials: __________ Chapter Coordinator’s Initials: __________


Data Analysis – Assignment Using Excel or another computer graphing program, create graphs or charts that display your data in a manner that is easy to interpret. Print two copies of you graphs. Cut out your first copy of graphs and charts and paste them in the space below. Turn in the second copy to your chapter coordinator and/or teacher by uploading it onto the your EnvironMentors Earth Portal page.


Data Analysis

**Post your Data Analysis on your Chapter EnvironMentors Portal for Commenting**

You have completed Step 5 of the Scientific Method: Data Collection & Analysis. In the next section, you will determine what your data mean and draw a conclusion.


MODULE #2 College Essay Writing

Kavya Shank ar Harvard 2014 Varun Pem m araju UC Berk eley 2014


The Daunting Task De a r m e n t e e s , W rit i n g t h os e c o ll e g e a p pl ica t i o n ess a ys is b y fa r t h e mo s t d au n t i n g as p e ct o f t h e c ol l e g e a dm iss i o ns p roc e ss . B ec a us e m o st o f t he o t h e r wo rk i s al re a d y d o n e a n d c a n ’t b e c h a ng e d , su c h a s yo u r g ra d e s , t e st s c o res , a n d e xt ra c u rri c u l a rs , t he e ss a ys e n d u p b e i n g a n a re a i n wh i c h yo u c a n s p en d a l a rg e am o u n t of tim e . I t’s al s o o n e o f t h e m os t im p o rta n t s u bj ec t i ve as p ec ts o f t h e a p pl ic a ti o n , g i vi n g t h e a dm i ss i on s o ffi ce rs a g l im ps e of yo u as a p e rs o n ra t h e r t h a n a s a l i s t o f a wa rd s , p o s i t i o n s , a n d a c c o m p l i sh m e n ts . W e h o p e t h a t t his a d vi c e wi ll g e t yo u t h i nk in g a b o u t yo ur e s s a ys an d p l a n ni n g a h e a d f o r t h em! Rem em b e r t h a t yo u c a n a l wa ys re ach o u t t o yo u r m e n t o rs a b o u t t h e p ro c e s s – we ’ ve a l l b e e n t h ro u g h i t . K a vya & Va ru n


#1: Keep a running document of all the ideas that pop into your head


Kavya I wou ld h ave a d ocu m ent titled “ Ra n d om I d ea s ” a lm ost a lways op en on my d es ktop . W h en ever I com e u p w ith a n id ea , n o m atter h ow stra n ge it is , I sta rt w ritin g u ntil I ca n ’ t w rite a nym ore. I n ever d elete content from th e Ra n d om I d ea s d ocu m ent; rath er, w h en I d ecid e I like a n id ea en ou g h to u s e it for a n es s ay, I cop y p a ste it into a n ew d ocu m ent a n d sta rt w ritin g a n d refin in g . T h e b est p a rt of th e d ocu m ent is s om etim es a top ic th at d oes n ’ t s eem to rea lly fit a nyw h ere ca n b e m old ed into a n ew es s ay for a d ifferent p rom p t.


Varun L ook at you r a p p lication a n d d ecid e w h ich q u a lities you va lu e m ost a b ou t you rs elf th at h aven ’ t com e ou t yet. T h in k of a d j ectives s u ch a s com p a s s ion ate, d eterm in ed , etc. T h en look b a ck at d efin in g events a n d m om ents a n d you r life, a n d s ee if th os e, in a ny way, s h ows you a s th e im a ge you wa nt to p ortray. I t s om etim es m ay h elp to keep a s ort of weekly j ou rn a l of ex p erien ces a n d th ou g hts th at you ca n look b a ck on w h en b ra in storm in g es s ay top ics . For m e at lea st, it wa s ea s ier to com e u p w ith th e top ics of es s ays , a n d th en look forwa rd to a ll th e p rom p ts a n d try to fit th e top ic to th e p rom p t. T h is is p rob a b ly n ot th e ca s e for everyon e th ou g h .


#2: Do not procrastinate. Use time during the summer when you aren’t stressed out about school to start brainstorming


Kavya I sta rted th in kin g a b ou t my es s ays towa rd s th e b eg in n in g of s u m m er a n d b ega n w ritin g th em a s th e id ea s ca m e to m e. T h e g reat th in g a b ou t workin g on you r es s ays d u rin g s u m m er is th at you d on ’ t h ave five m illion oth er com m itm ents g oin g on , s o you ca n s p en d s om e tim e reflectin g . S om e p eop le I kn ow ch os e to force th em s elves to w rite d ow n at lea st on e id ea every n ig ht. S ee if th at works for you ; if n ot, try to s p en d you r m orn in g s d oin g s om e college a p p lication related work s o th at you a re gettin g into th e m in d s et.


Varun C a n ’ t rea lly s ay m u ch b eca u s e I sta rted w ritin g my college a p p s on D ecem b er 1 9 th (2 d ays a fter W inter Form a l) a n d it b eca m e a m a d ru s h to fin is h . I b ra in storm ed b efore, b u t d id n ot s eriou s ly get into th e w ritin g p h a s e, w h ich wa s d efin itely a m ista ke. F rom w h at I rem em b er, 2 a p p s were d u e on N ew Yea r ’s Eve a n d th e rest were d u e on th e n ig ht of Ja n u a ry 1 . I a ls o rem em b er fra ntica lly tryin g to fin is h d u rin g ou r N ew Yea r ’s Pa rty a n d I en d ed u p fin is h in g at 8 : 4 6 P M Pa cific T im e a n d j u st m a s s s u b m ittin g a ll my a p p s . D o you rs elf a favor a n d D O N OT d o w h at I d id . I t ’s n ot th at it ca n ’ t b e d on e - it ’s th at you owe m ore to you rs elf th a n tryin g to cra m you r life story into 1 0 d ays .


#3: Don’t repeat an activity or topic in your essays that is emphasized elsewhere


Kavya I wa s rea lly, rea lly involved w ith F BL A w ith m ost of my a p p lication s h owca s in g my a ccom p lis h m ents in th e orga n ization a n d my recom m en d ation s h ig h lig htin g my p a s s ion for th e a ctiv ity. T h u s , I d id n ’ t w rite a ny of my college a p p lication es s ays on F BL A b eca u s e I kn ew th at th e a d m is s ion s officers a lrea d y kn ew th at it wa s a b ig p a rt of my h ig h s ch ool ca reer.


Varun W h ile a p p lyin g , ta ke a look at you r entire a p p lication a n d a n a lyze w h at ch a ra cter you h ave b u ilt. T h ere is a b s olu tely n o way th at th at p ictu re ca n b e com p lete w ith ou t a n es s ay, a n d th u s you s h ou ld u s e you r es s ay a s a ch a n ce to fill in th e q u a lities a b ou t you th at you r a ctiv ities ca n n ot. I n rega rd s to th e recom m en d ation s , g u id e th e w riter of th e recom m en d ation b y s ayin g w h at kin d s of th in g s you wou ld like th em to focu s on . N ot on ly d oes th is m a ke it ea s ier for th em to b oil you entire life d ow n into a cou p le p a ges , b u t a ls o d oes it m ea n th at you ca n center you r focu s for you r es s ay on oth er a s p ects of you r life.


#4: Focus on subjective components of yourself, because these aren’t as easily captured through your application


Kavya Rath er th a n w ritin g my es s ays a b ou t a n a ctiv ity, cla s s , or ex p erien ce, I ch os e to s h owca s e d ifferent a s p ects of my p ers on a lity th rou g h my es s ays - - q u irky, n erd y, p a s s ion ate, a n d h a rd workin g . T h e a d m is s ion s officers wa nt to lea rn m ore a b ou t th e p ers on you a re b eh in d th e a wa rd s , p os ition s , a n d a ccom p lis h m ents . T h ey wa nt to lea rn th at you a re th e kin d of p ers on w h o w ill ta ke a d va nta ge of a ll th e op p ortu n ities p res ented at college, th e kin d of p ers on w h o is intellectu a lly cu riou s , s elf m otivated , a n d h u n g ry to lea rn m ore.


Varun T h e g oa l of a n es s ay is to s h ow s om eth in g a b ou t you th at ca n n ot b e fou n d a nyw h ere els e, a n d ca n n ot b e conveyed th rou g h fa cts /stats . W h at m ost colleges wa nt w h en th ey s ee you r es s ay is s om eth in g th at m a kes you m u ltid im en s ion a l. T h es e d ays , th ere a re way too m a ny overover q u a lified kid s w ith h ig h G PA s , S ATs , m a ny ex tra cu rricu la rs . Bu t in th e en d , a college wa nts a h u m a n b ein g - n ot a rob ot. S om eon e on ce s a id (M I T A d m is s ion s ? I forget) a n es s ay is p rob a b ly th e b est a p a rt a b ou t a p p lyin g to college b eca u s e you d is cover s o m u ch a b ou t you rs elf d u rin g th e p roces s . W h en I first rea d th is , I th ou g ht it wa s com p letely rid icu lou s ; a fter a ll, everyon e d rea d s th e es s ay. F u n n ily en ou g h th ou g h , I fou n d it to b e tota lly tru e. For th is rea s on , th e on ly th in g you ca n d o w ron g on a n es s ay is n ot b e h on est to you rs elf. P u t a n oth er way, you ’ ll fin d it way ea s ier to w rite p a s s ion atel y a b ou t s om eth in g if it ’s s om eth in g th at you a re tru ly p a s s ion ate a b ou t.


#5: Before you write your essay, think about what purpose or message you are trying to send the admissions officers, and then after writing the essay, check to make sure that you conveyed the message


Kavya I wou ld a lways re- rea d my es s ays from th e p ers p ective of a th ird p ers on p a rty a n d a s k mys elf w h at I lea rn ed a b ou t th e a u th or of th e es s ay. I wou ld a ls o a s k oth er p eop le (frien d s , fa m ily m em b ers ) to rea d my es s ays a n d th en ex p la in to m e w h at th ey lea rn ed a b ou t m e th rou g h it. I t ’s even b est to a s k p eop le w h o d on ’ t kn ow you too well to d o th e s a m e. I n th e en d , it ’s a b ou t tellin g a com p ellin g story. S om eon e told m e th at th os e w h o tell com p ellin g stories , w in , a n d I th in k th at if you rem em b er on ly on e th in g from th is m od u le, it ’s th at.


Varun I a c t u a l l y d i d n ’ t h ave a ny o n e re a d my e s s ay s exc e p t a te a c h e r, a c o a c h , a n d my m o m : ) . I f i g u re d t h e m o re o t h e r p e o p l e c o m m e nte d o n i t a n d t r i e d to c h a n g e t h i n g s , t h e l e s s “ m e ” t h e e s s ay wo u l d b e . A l s o, I ’m a n i n h e re nt l y s t u b b o r n p e rs o n a s we l l a s a p e r fe c t i o n i s t , s o I fe l t l i ke a l o t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m I c o u l d g e n e rate my s e l f i n s te a d o f h av i n g o t h e r p e o p l e d o i t fo r m e . I f y o u d o wa nt to s e l f - e d i t l i ke I d i d , re a l l y s c r u t i n i ze e a c h s e nte n c e a n d wo rd o n e b y o n e . I f y o u t h i n k a b o u t i t , y o u ’re t r y i n g to te l l y o u r l i fe s to r y a n d a u to b i o g ra p hy i n 2 p a g e s o r l e s s , w h i c h s e e m s l i ke a to ta l l y r i d i c u l o u s ta s k ( a n d p ro b a b l y i s ) . T h u s e ve r y wo rd y o u w r i te s h o u l d h ave a re a s o n fo r b e i n g t h e re . A l o t o f p e o p l e s ay t h at i n t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , t h e re i s n o p e r fe c t wo rd fo r e a c h s i t u at i o n ; h o we ve r, I t h i n k t h at w h e n w r i t i n g a c o l l e g e e s s ay, t h e re a c t u a l l y i s . T h i s i s w h at m a ke s c o l l e g e e s s ay w r i t i n g s o s t re s s f u l i n my o p i n i o n , b u t i f y o u j u s t p u t t h at l i tt l e b i t o f wo r k i nto i t ( a n d d o n ’ t p ro c ra s t i n ate ! ) , y o u w i l l e n d u p w i t h a p ro d u c t t h at y o u a re t r u l y h a p p y w i t h a n d p ro u d o f. A fe w u s ef u l to o l s t h at I wo u l d u s e i s Wo rd ’s “ Tra c k C h a n g e s ” fe at u re ( a s k m e a b o u t i f y o u c a n ’ t f i g u re o u t h o w to u s e i t ! ) w h i c h m a d e e d i t i n g a h u n d re d t i m e s e a s i e r fo r m e a n d a T h e s a u r u s . U s i n g a t h e s a u r u s d o e s n ’ t m e a n j u s t t h ro w i n g i n b i g wo rd s fo r t h e s a ke o f l o o k i n g g o o d ( p l e a s e d o n ’ t d o t h i s , y o u c a n a l way s te l l w h e n s o m e o n e i s t r y i n g to o h a rd ) , b u t l i ke I s a i d a b o ve , m e a n s f i n d i n g t h at p e r fe c t wo rd fo r e a c h s i t u at i o n . T h e re i s A LWAYS a way to g e t y o u r e s s ay to b e s h o r te r a n d m o re c o n c i s e ( < - - r i g ht t h e re fo r exa m p l e , re d u n d a n c y ) a n d t h u s m o re p o i g n a nt to re a d . Fo r exa m p l e , o n my S ta n fo rd e s s ay s I t h o u g ht 1 8 0 0 c h a ra c te rs m e a nt w i t h o u t s p a c e s fo r w h ate ve r re a s o n , s o I f i n i s h e d 3 e s s ay s w h i c h e a c h h a d b e t we e n 2 5 0 0 - 3 0 0 0 c h a ra c te rs . I t wa s ex t re m e l y f r u s t rat i n g at f i rs t , a n d I t h o u g ht t h at t h e re wa s n o p o s s i b l e way to re c o ve r t h e e s s ay s w i t h o u t to s s i n g o u t t h e g i s t o f t h e m . I d i d , h o we ve r, m a n a g e to d o i t a f te r j u s t wo r k i n g at i t fo r a fe w d ay s , s o t h e re d ef i n i te l y i s h o p e fo r y o u i f, l i ke m e , y o u j u s t ra m b l e o n a n d o n a b o u t y o u r l i fe .


Get Started! I n c o nc l usi o n , wh i l e i t m a y s e em c om pl ic a t e d a n d sc a ry t o g e t st a rt e d , in t h e e n d , yo u n e e d t o st o p wo rryi n g a n d g et wo rk i n g. T h e m o re t im e yo u s pe n d o n yo u r e s s a ys , t h e m o re t h ou g h t yo u p u t i n t o t h em , and t h e m o re yo u m ak e s u re yo u r m ess a g e is c l ea r, t h e b e t t e r yo u ca n c om m un i c at e wi t h a dm i ss i on s o ff i c e rs . T h a n k yo u a n d g o o d l u c k !


KAVYA SHANKAR HARVARD KSHANKAR.92@GMAIL.COM VARUN PEMMARAJU UC BERKELEY VARUN.PEMMARAJU@BERKELEY.EDU


/Month%207-%20Data%20Analysis_0  

http://environmentors.net/sites/default/files/Month%207-%20Data%20Analysis_0.pdf

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