Example 1: Using a bar chart to show the differences in rates of water percolation through different types of soil.

A student set up her experiment by placing a clean piece of filter paper in four different funnels. To three of the funnels, she added 25 mL of sand, clay, and soil, respectively. The fourth funnel had just the filter paper, and served as the control data set. She then poured 25 mL of water through each funnel, and measured the time, in seconds, it took for all the water to percolate through the funnels. She repeated her experiment a total of three times. Her raw data sets, her mean values, and her bar chart are shown below. Notice that she used her mean values to create her bar chart.

Trial 1

Soil type

Trial 2

Trial 3

Mean

Time (seconds)

Sand

40

41

45

42

Clay

55

60

57

57.3

Potting Soil

21

23

27

23.7

Control

8

5

4

5.7

Comparing Water Percolation Through Different Soil Types 70

Percolation Time (sec.)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sand

Clay

Soil Soil Type

Control

Example 2: Using a line chart to show the changes in river flowrate over time. A student measured the flowrate of water in four of his local rivers. Note that in this experiment, there is no control group, the student is comparing the different experimental data sets to each other. The student measured the flowrate three times during the transition from winter to spring with the assistance of his mentor and a park ranger. His raw data sets and his line chart are shown below.

January 1

River

February 1

March 1

Flowrate (cubic feet per second)

Klamath River

375,000

327,000

320,000

Eel River

647,000

542,000

498,000

Trinity River

166,000

161,000

131,000

62,000

57,000

38,000

Comparing River Flowrates 7.0E+05

Flowrate (cu. ft/sec)

6.0E+05 5.0E+05 4.0E+05 3.0E+05 2.0E+05 1.0E+05 0.0E+00

1-Jan

1-Feb Klamath

Eel

1-Mar Trinity

Example 3: Using a pie chart to show the different bird species observed on the Outer Banks of North Carolina.

A student counted the number of different types of birds she observed during a two-hour period at a specific beach location. She returned to the same location three days in a row and counted birds during the same two-hour time block. Her raw data sets, her mean values, and her pie chart are shown below. Notice that she used her mean values to create her pie chart.

Day 1

Type of Bird

Day 2

Day 3

Mean

Number of birds

Pelican

10

12

15

12.3/66.8= 18%

Sanderling

20

18

17

18.3/66.8= 27%

Great Egret

15

16

15

15.3/66.8= 23%

Snowy Egret

9

8

11

9.3/66.8= 14%

Other

12

10

13

11.6/66.8= 17%

Birds Observed at Emerald Beach 17%

18%

14%

27%

23%

Pelican Sanderling Great Egret Snowy Egret Other

/Mean,%20Median,%20Mode_0

http://environmentors.net/sites/default/files/Mean,%20Median,%20Mode_0.pdf

/Mean,%20Median,%20Mode_0

http://environmentors.net/sites/default/files/Mean,%20Median,%20Mode_0.pdf