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Jaf

University of Brighton

The Important of Concept of Applied Geology to an Investigation of the Ground for Construction, Hydrogeology, Environmental and Mining Geology By Peshawa Mahmod Introduction Applied geology concerns to find a solution of any geological problem that related and have a contact with human require (Lucier, 1999). The applied geology grow up in late nineteenth and early twentieth century throw expansion of mining excavation and through wide range of its using in the construction (Forster, 2007). The applied geology term was used by Fredrick Leslie in his journal of economic geology in 1905; it was frequently combined and related with mining and engineering geology works. Currently, it application increase in several geological fields and cover wider specialist; it became a key factors to succeed any geological field works. Moreover, it became a first step in all site investigation of any major construction, hydrogeology, environmental geology and mining excavation. Also it might lead to decreasing coast of a projects and some time lead to new exploration and prediction of hazards. This paper explains and argues the important of the applied geology in engineering construction, hydrogeology, environmental and mining geology with some example that related to application of applied geology with these materials.

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University of Brighton

Applied geology and engineering construction Any engineering work always setting on ground surface of different geological materials thus applied geology investigation is the essential key to success in any major construction. The construction should start with the geological investigation and interpretation of area (Knill, 1976) and the investigation must be modified and related to the possible problem of the area (Waltham, 2009) (Legget and Hatheway, 1988). In the past, this significant with the geological investigation before starting a construction haven been neglected in fact it might lead to disaster and some time monetary and life loss (Legget and Hatheway, 1988). In December 1959, because of failure in foundation of Malpasset dam it resulted to several killed and economic loss. Also in 1963, due to landslide of surrounding rock to the main reservoir in Longarone town in Italy caused to death of hundred people with a lot of economic damage (Hoek, 2006). According to (knill, 1976) there are some points that important for geological investigation of any construction, firstly, depth and influence of ground rock to the surface. Secondly, type and thickness of the weathered rock with tack to account the thickness of the soil cover or overburden material and thirdly, the stability of the surrounding topography. Furthermore, the object of geological investigation is differ depending to the purpose of project and construction and usually contain one or additional of these important things. 1- Drift and condition of soil cover, in addition with laboratory soil tests. 2- Ground Rock strata, and did the depth of rock are suitable for construction. 3- Properties and behaviours and strength of bed rock. (Waltham, 2009) There is no much change done in way of collection geological data during past 25 years and there is still the field mapping and core drilling is the acceptable way to investigations 2


Jaf

University of Brighton

(Hoek, 2006). The real applied geology work in every major construction begin with field geological work in collect soil sample and drilling core log to identify ground condition under the construction site with drawing sub-surface geological cross section and also correlation the original data with any previous data that related to this area. According to Waltham (2009) all construction project should contain geological report and it could consist of four parts, accurate data with all geological records, geological interpretation, underground rock condition and type of materials related to the construction project. Every construction needs constant foundation that able to be stable to sufficient strength with smallest amount of deformation (Knill, 1976). One of most important geological condition in the constructional project than any others is foundation of nuclear plant. An example for the role of geology in this kind of project is the major nuclear plant in United Kingdom that built in 1965 called 580-MW to generation of electricity. It is located about 160km from North West of London and one reason for choice this location was this place has a simple geological condition. The geology of the place composed of well-graded compacted sand to a sufficient depth (Legget and Hatheway, 1988). Also it is important in any major construction to take in consideration the structural geology condition and the possibility of presence of any active fault, ground subsidence, sinkhole or cavity and any earthquake hazard and instability of ground displacement. Applied geology could use also as a significant tool in collecting data for tunnel construction and it play an important role to determining the nature and coast of the tunnel. In addition the geometry and structure design of tunnel depend on the geological condition of area, rock and soil strength and amount of discontinuities (joint, fault, fractures) azimuth which is a significant geology application to determine the tunnel line (Knill, 1976). An example of

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University of Brighton

applied geology investigation and decreasing coast of the tunnel construction is the North Downs tunnel in Kent United Kingdom; the tunnel was of two-mile lone through the Chalk rock. The Chalk was of greater strength and solidity in fact it save about ÂŁ5 million and the project completed before two month of the deadline (Glasspool, (2009).

Applied geology and it is application in hydrogeology One of the problems facing human life in this century is the demand of water; applied geology play one of the important role to decrease this demand and needs. Hydrogeology has a great relationship with the applied geology in that both attempt to solve problem that related to earth condition. In two important place hydrogeology are very important, firstly, in investigation of groundwater and second, in reservoir construction. Water is moving and accumulating in the solid permeable media under the ground of earth; type of rock, sorting of the grain and chemical composition of rock determine the accumulated media porosities (Schwartz and Zhang, 2002). About 22% of total fresh water in the earth is located under the ground of earth and located inside the pores and fracture of different type of rock (Fitter, 1994). Investigation for groundwater is a real example of profound of the important of applied geology; this investigation needs to collect all information that related to the place of accumulation of water (aquifer), in fact, applied geology play that position in collection of data for investigation of groundwater. The following points are important in application and investigation of groundwater and it considered as applied geology investigation. 1- Topography of the area, this related to the movement of groundwater from high potential to low potential area and it is recharge area (catchment area) (Watson,1983). 4


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University of Brighton

2- Type of rock and stratigraphy, from collecting information about type of rock it leads to get idea about the aquifer bearing zone. 3- Structural geology of area, it could help investigation for groundwater recording type and azimuth of discontinuities and type of structure in area for example, anticline, syncline and fault. Recording these information in a field is the key point to find the aquifer and then drilling water well; type of drilling method is also choosing depending on the geological report for example, generally, clastic rock are drilling by rotary method with high viscosity drilling fluid while non-clastic sedimentary rock and Igneous rock could drilling faster by down the hole hammer method. In reservoir construction, geological investigation is important to determine location of reservoir and also determine the permeability of rock in controlling water inside reservoir. Furthermore, in stability of reservoir hydrogeology study is significant to determine hydraulic gradient to find direction of groundwater movement from upstream and downstream of reservoir; if there is a large hydraulic gradient between upstream and downstream it could lead to failure of the reservoir spatially in unconsolidated rocks because of pore erosion due to large movement of groundwater between up and downstream (Bennett and Doyle, 1997).

Environmental geology and applied geology investigation Currently, The issue of earth environment has expanded and cover wider rang in study and investigation; in view of geology, environmental geology are concerns to any subject that related to human and his surrounded including water, soil, and natural resource (Salminen et al, 2008). According to Bennett and Doyle (1997) environmental geology not only

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University of Brighton

contains physical element of the earth for example, rock, soil, water and sediment but it also contain elements of surface of the earth for example, landforms and all process that lead to change in the surface of the earth. From these two definitions it is clear that applied geology has a great important role in environmental geology. Also it is play main role in solving or at least decrease the impact caused by different type of pollutant and cause risk or hazards to human life. The source of hazard and pollutant could be naturally and related to the earth materials and rocks for example, Arsenic in groundwater, earthquake, mass movement and floods. Otherwise, it could be as a result of human by-products for example, wastes of toxic metal and radioactive waste (Watson, 1983). Applied geology is directly related to these kinds of hazards and pollutant in both evaluation and investigation of these hazards and mitigation to solve a problem or decrease damages. Any type of geological hazard could mapped for example, seismic hazard map and landslide hazard map (Bell, 1999); geological investigation for data collection is important for this kind of maps, in case of landslide maps it is important in investigation to including type with discontinuities of rock strata, soil cover, elevation and gradient of a slop . Urban planning is one of the important plans that applied geology play one of important role in collecting data from ground and water sample to indicate the situation of ground pollution. One of example of the important of applied geology to investigation of environmental pollution was done by Applied Geology Company in report of ground investigation, by taking groundwater, soil and rock sample. The laboratory test resulted that the area could contaminated with PAHs by effect of gas leach and also the minor aquifer in the area could became the other target to contaminating with this pollutant (Ledger, 2006). According to Jewell et al (1993) these points are important in investigation of contaminated land and all related to applied geology investigation. 6


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University of Brighton

1- Evaluation of regional and local geology of area counting stratigraphy, structure and main lithology rock type with description of weathering characterising of the area. 2- Evaluation of surface and sub-surface water with identification of main groundwater unit (inter-granular aquifer, fracture aquifer). 3- Identification the feature that control subsurface flow in the area for example, discontinuities, structural characteristic. 4- Recording of groundwater table with sampling and analysing groundwater chemistry. 5- Measurement and assessment of groundwater resistivity by using geophysical method. Currently, with increasing and growth of civilization and industrial, demands of waste management also increase. One of the important to the environmental point view to determine the location of waste site is study geological and hydrological situation of the area; theses studies indicate amount of pollution to the environment with amount of reaction could be done between different type of pollutant and the soil, rock and groundwater (Bell, 1999).

Applied geology and it is important to mining geology In each mining excavation and extraction, applied geology remains primary requirement for a min construction that it supply a suitable source of materials (Higginbottom, 1976), furthermore, the geological knowledge amplified during mining exploration of different type of metals and materials (Forster, 2007). According to Jakubec (2004) the successful work in each mining excavation it significant to collect both fundamental and applied geological science to gather. Geological feature of the rocks are effecting on the start operation of

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Jaf

University of Brighton

mining, in measure the direction of joint, amount of opening and also the azimuth of strata (Higginbottom, 1976). In addition, the amount of deformation, weathering and strength of rock mass are one of the important to select mining method (Day 2003, cited in Jacubec, 2004). Method of excavation in min is also determined depending on rock and materials behaviours, high strength rock massive limestone could extracted by blasting method and it is more stable in extraction while low strength material or rock could cause failure. The collapse of Coalbrook Coal mine in South Africa in 1960 which lead to loss of hundred people from neglected this properties and behaviours of rock (Hoek, 2006). (Waltham, 2009) determine deferent type of mine excavation depending on rock properties and type of discontinuities and amount of opening a different type of equipment and blast material are using with different type of rock properties. Another important of applied geology investigation in both open mine and underground mine is hazard that caused due to mine excavations for example, surface subsidence above underground mine spatially in coal mine, rock sliding and failure in open mining and rockbrursts in underground mining that occur due to high stress around underground opening (Hoek, 2006). Jakubec (2004) in his study on Diamond mining was one of the clear state of the important role of applied geology to mining field and he determine some fundamental framework of Diamond mining 1- Regional tectonic with structural geology. 2- Surrounded rock geology 3- Influence of underground water with ground stability. 4- Predicting hazard and rock weathering.

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Jaf

University of Brighton

Conclusion Applied geology considers the most important part of site investigation in all engineering, hydrogeology, environmental and mining geology. In any major construction applied geology guide the first ground investigation by testing the strength of rock-head and soil; these decrease the possibility of ground subsidence in addition, it could cause decreasing of project coast. In case of Hydrogeology, applied geology also play important role in investigation of groundwater and in determination of aquifer properties. In mining excavation, applied geology investigation determines the method and way of material extraction with lowest amount of ground hazard. Environmental concern is one of the more expanded areas in applied geology because of increasing effect of human activities. One of the main applications of the applied geology is urban planning to decrease the impact to the surrounding.

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University of Brighton

Bibliography

-Bell Fred G. (1999), Geological Hazards their Assessment, Avoidance and Mitigation, London E and FN Spon. -Bennett Matthew R. and Peter Doyle (1997), Environmental Geology: Geology and the Human Environment, England, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. -Fetter C.W. (1994), Applied Hydrogeology, 3rd ed., New Jersey, Prentice-Hall. -Forster Alan (2007), Engineering Geology through the Centuries, Yorkshire Geological Society, Cirular 537, pp.1-16. - Glasspool Daid (2009), North down Tunnel. www.kentrail.co.uk/channeltunnel.htm, access in 2/12/2009. -Hoek Evert (2006), Practical Rock Engineering, [online],RocscienceInc, www.rocscience.com /pdf/Partical_Rock_Engineering.pdf, accessed in 10/12/2009.

-Higginbottom I.E. (1976), Construction materials, Royal School of Military eds. Debates in Applied Geology for Engineers, pp.275-297. -Jakubec Jaroslav (2004), Role of geology in diamond project development, Lithos, vol(76), pp. 337-345. -Jewell Christopher, P.J. Hensly, D.A. Barry, Ian Acworth (1993), Site Investigation and Monitoring, Techniques for contaminated sites and potential waste disposal sites, Geotechnical Management of Waste and Contamination, Fell, Phillips and Gerrard (ed.), Rotterdam.

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University of Brighton

-Knill, J.L. (1976), Site Selection and Investigation, Royal School of Military eds. Debates in Applied Geology for Engineers, pp.196-228. -Legget Robert F. and Allen W. Hatheway (1988), Geology and Engineering, 3rd ed, New York, McGraw-Hill. -Lucier Paul (1999), a Plea for Applied Geology. Jounal of History of Science, vol. (3), pp.1-36. -Ledger P. M (2006), Report on Ground Investigation at Craven Road Rugby, Report No: AG 263-06-B74, Report Reference: 18376701-1-1. -Salminen Reijo, Anne Kousa, Rolf Tore Ottesen, Olle Selinus, Eiliv Steinnes, Timo Tarvainen, and Bjรถrn ร–hlander (2008), Environmental Geology, Episodes, Vol. 31, No.1, pp155162. - Schwartz Franklin W. and Hubao Zhang (2003), Fundamentals of Groundwater, New York John Wiley and Sons, INC. -Waltham Tony (2009), Foundation of Engineering Geology, 3rd ed., London and New York, Spon press. -Watson Janet (1983), Geology and Man and introduction to applied earth science, London, Janet Watson.

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The Important of Concept of Applied Geology to an geological Investigation  

Applied geology concerns to find a solution of any geological problem that related and have a contact with human require

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