EDITOR I was dreading the Olympics, I don't really do sport, especially not the obscure ones that get dragged out and dusted off every four years to showcase the talents of people who have spent their lives dedicated to jumping higher or further than anyone else. I was happily ignorant of the world of hockey, cycling quickly around a track and lifting heavy things. (Although I did enjoy watching the world’s strongest man on Sunday afternoons eating marmite on toast as a kid.) But this time there was something different, this time it was at home, the Olympics here, down the road, in London! Home advantage! Home crowds…. Yes, beforehand we all quietly thought it would be crap, that it would be typically "British". And the press were adamant that it would be a catastrophic failure, the transport system would fail, security was inadequate, Boris would do a speech…. anything and everything would go wrong. But on the day, the day of Danny Boyle's spectacular opening ceremony there was something unexpected happening, something developing and spreading. Something we had seen glimpses of around the country as we huddled on rainy summer streets from Lands’ End to John O’Groats to watch strangers run past carrying a torch. This thing, this feeling, was this National Pride rising across the nation? Danny, in a bizarre way, had tapped into the national consciousness and triggered even me to care about which country could run and swim the fastest, jump the highest and longest, put a ball into or over a net the most times. Now I should say for the record, by spectacular I don’t mean that I thought it was necessarily how the UK, which is so rich in art, culture and architecture, should be represented to the world. An excerpt from a letter to the editor sums this up a little – “….The Olympics spirit is about coming together through the medium of sport it is surely about promoting harmony and equal opportunity. It isn’t about playing the “Dam Busters Match”, it isn’t about armed forces carrying the Olympic flag. If we are going the make reference to atrocities why we didn’t make reference to Kenya, Malaysia, India and to so many more countries and people that experienced and are experiencing the brutal acts carried out by the British Citizens. We also were offered a British historical journey no actual reference to the theft of common lands and that lead to the denial of people’s rights which in turn lead to of actions of the
groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs or what Sardonic Mills actually meant, child labor, poverty, exploitation for the accumulation of wealth and power through exploitation by the minority of the majority.” (Name and address supplied) The difficulty in summing up the achievements of a nation is avoiding the skeletons in the closet; surely after the “arrival of the Windrush” we should have played out an episode of Love Thy Neighbour or an Enoch Powell speech. And although I believe the NHS is a world class service that every one of us should be thankful for, the celebration in the light of the government’s systematic destruction of this great public service seemed a little ironic. But without a doubt the show was spectacular and was a fantastic prelude to what turned out to be the most amazing celebration of sport and sportsmanship we have ever seen. Every chance I had I was riveted to the TV, watching the most enthralling, exciting and emotional moments we have ever had the honour to witness: Jessica Ennism, “the face of the games”, winning gold, Bradley Wiggins possibly the best British cyclist of all time, Ussain Bolt the fastest man on earth, Mo Farrah…. what can you say about Mo Farrah? And Gemma Gibbons emotional silver win in the Judo….. From the minute the first medal was won our national pride developed, and as our Olympians fought to achieve greatness and our medal cache grew, this feeling that we had achieved something great, collectively – the organisers, the volunteers, the sports men and women and the crowds, the viewers, the bloggers and tweeters all made these games “The Best of British!” And the nation is left with an Olympic-sized hole waiting to be filled….. but don’t worry the Paralympics will do just that. What should we take away from this experience? My abiding moment was David Rudisha breaking the world record and afterwards he simply said, “I just decided to go for it”. If that is not a mantra for living life then I don’t know what is.
Alex Stacey Managing Editor
Environment Magazine Limited, 254a Bury New Road, Whitefield, Manchester, M45 8QN
Alex Stacey Tel: 0161 3410158 Fax: 0161 7668997 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Every effort is made to verify all information published, but Environment Industry Magazine cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of Environment Magazine Limited. Environment Industry Magazine welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to Environment Magazine Limited unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality.
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |1|
34 Conservation 36 - 39
The ecological value of brownfield land - Dr Sarah Henshall
40 - 42
Butterfly Business - Dr Martin Warren
4 News News
28 - 29
Tales from the Watercooler
30 - 31
Chris Hines Column
Jason Drew Column
Steve Grant Column
4 - 27
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44 Energy 46 - 47
New Kitemark to recognise best practice Green Deal Advisors – Elaine Munro
48 - 50
Optimising energy output from waste - Peter Jones
51 - 53
Effective Energy Management – Marie-France Crevecoeur
54 - 55
Will the UK solar industry ever hit the mainstream? - Dr Shawn Qu
56 - 57
Energy Event 12
58 - 59
The Renewables Event
60 Food, Agriculture & Packaging 61 - 63
Cutbacks of small fish catches will yield big gains - Ellen K. Pikitch
64 - 65
Fish Management - Callum Roberts
68 - 69
The Ubiquity of Packaging - Keith Barnes
70 - 71
The key to a sustainable future is polythene - David Brimelow
72 Green Building 74 - 79
Retrofit solutions for non-domestic buildings - Chris Jofeh
80 - 82
Retrofitting Buildings Philip Sellwood
83 - 85
What’s the Cloud Got to Do with Better Building Methods? – Will Nicol
88 Labs & Testing 90 - 93
Air Quality Monitoring Networks: Europe leads the way – John Saffell
94 - 97
Air Quality – a key issue for 2013 – Jim Mills
98 Land & Management 100 - 101
102 - 104
Finding a way through the mineral reservations minefield - Stephen Barry
168 - 169
Teaching the value of water - Mark Jankovich
170 - 173
State of the Nation – Phil Mills
174 - 176
UV SYSTEMS - Paul Hennessey
178 - 179
Keeping the UK’s Water Flowing – Bastian Fischer
180 - 184
UV disinfection technology - Gunvinder Bhogal
Environmental benefits of landscaping - Alistair McCapra
106 Timber 108 - 115
Timber Expo 2012
116 - 118
The Evolution Of The Wood Floor – Harvey Booth
120 - 122
Putting LCA at the centre of sustainable design– Rupert Oliver
186 Miscellany 187
188 - 189
190 - 192
They don’t know They don’t know - Simon Evans
Planning environment and sustainability matters - Ian Carter Case Studies
124 Transport 126 - 129
The potential growth of EVs in Britain. –Philip Hargreaves
130 - 132
133 - 135
Heavy Transport With An Environmental Twist – Nigel Hanwell
136 - 137
Duty cycle and whole life cost modelling – Robert Anderson
138 Waste Management 140 - 142
Battery thefts - Michael Green
143 - 146
Plastic, packaging, Recycling - Stuart Foster
148 - 152
153 - 159
RWM 2012 News
Resource Ireland Preview
162 - 164
The Wood Recycling Scene – Clem Spencer
196 - 197
Water quality is top priority at Brighton aquarium
198 - 199
Voltis Home draws the crowds at social housing event
200 - 201
Green wall installed at The Mermaid to help trap harmful pollutants
202 - 203
British design team behind Gardens by The Bay
204 - 205
WASTE NOT, WANT NOT
206 - 207
“Driving Business Efficiencies and Reducing Carbon Footprint”
208 - 209
Gallery paints a greener landscape
210 - 212
Famous Last Words Ecology & Economy – Satish Kumar
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |3|
News 4 - 27
28 - 29
Tales from the Watercooler
30 - 31
Chris Hines Column
Jason Drew Column
Steve Grant Column
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Miscellany |4| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Plymouth Marine Laboratory in winning form in environmental research Research at Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) is amongst the most highly cited in scientific publications across the UK environmental science community, according to a Thomson Reuters performance analysis commissioned by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). Citation is the measure of the quality of articles published in scientific journals, the accepted method of sharing research results in the wider scientific community; the better the science the more times it is quoted (or cited). On an institutional basis, the number of citations divided by the total number of research articles provides the mean citation impact. In the case of PML, the citation impact has doubled during the period of the survey (2003-2010); it is also the second highest of the UK’s environmental research institutes, coming in just behind the National Centre for Atmospheric Sciences (NCAS). A second measure showed that PML also had the lowest number of uncited papers – those which have only been published recently or not yet been deemed of sufficient merit for others to use in their research. Recognition was also given in the study to international collaborations, where PML performed very well. So, on all counts PML (a NERC collaborative centre) comes out on top in what is a very strong field. The total number of scientific articles published across NERC also nearly doubled over the period of the assessment, and figures for NERC centres demonstrate that, as a whole, the NERC family is performing above average when compared to other environmental research organisations in the UK and compared to Europe – something which should be a source of pride for the UK. Professor Stephen de Mora, Chief Executive of PML, was delighted with the survey results: "This is worth a double celebration, not only has PML performed superbly but it has done so against a very strong field. I am not surprised by the calibre of NERC environmental science which can hold its own against other research in the UK and internationally, and I am especially pleased that PML is up at the top of that research. It is a credit to the scientists who work at PML and their colleagues across the many institutes with which we collaborate. NERC environmental science is as good as any in the world."
Albion Ventures Makes First Hydro Investment Albion Ventures has invested £1.3million in partnership with Welsh-based developer Dragon Hydro Limited, to fund the development of a single 300kW hydropower scheme on the Afon Cadair river in the county of Gwynedd in Wales. The site in Wales will benefit from the Feed-in-Tariff regime and is expecting to generate its first electricity in Q3 2013. The installation is forecast to generate an average 1,300MWh of electricity per year, enough to power up to 300 households. This investment is Albion’s seventh investment into renewable energy and continues Albion’s strategy of expanding into this sector. Dragon Hydro will provide funds managed by Albion with an attractive long-term yield as well as the potential for capital growth. MorbenHydro, a specialised hydro engineering firm, is acting as consultant to the project. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |5|
bpi.recycled products helps Keep Wales Tidy bpi.recycled products, one of the Europe’s leading manufacturers of refuse and recycling sacks, has lent its support to Keep Wales Tidy. The business donated a significant quantity of its Green Sack® ultra-green refuse sacks to the environmental charity, which were used to clean up Cardiff’s coastal paths as part of a national campaign in advance of the opening of the Wales Coast Path. Stretching 870 miles, from Chepstow to Queensferry, this path is the world’s first continuous, uninterrupted walking route around a nation’s coast. As part of the campaign, thirty six volunteers, including members from the bpi.recycled products’ team, also braved the elements to clear rubbish from the coastal path area around Tredelerch Park, Cardiff, and the mouth of the River Rhymney. Altogether, the group collected some 520kg of litter comprising 90 Green Sacks of rubbish as well as several crates and gas bottles. Commenting on the donation, Chris Partridge, Tidy Towns funded project officer at Keep Wales Tidy, said: “The coastal path cleanup campaign was designed around one simple goal – to ensure that Welsh coastlines offer a clean, welcoming and safe environment to residents, visitors and wildlife. The generous donation of the Green Sack refuse sacks from bpi. recycled products has played a large part in helping us to achieve this goal and we’re extremely grateful for their support.”
The Dream for Port Sunlight River Park Moves a Step Closer Following the news earlier in the year that money had been secured from the Department of Business Innovation and Skills for the creation of Port Sunlight River Park at Bromborough Dock, the partners are pleased to announce the appointment of Gillespies LLP as Project Managers for the scheme. It is hoped that the 28 hectare site will be opened to the public in 2014 on completion of restoration works which will see the former dock transformed into a 21st century community park and major waterfront visitor attraction. The works will be broken down into phases, the first of which is due to be completed by September this year. The initial phase will be predominantly site investigations including soil analysis and drainage assessments. More excitingly, landscape architects Gillespies will create detailed design and visuals for a programme of community consultation which we anticipate will take place in the autumn. |6| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Unilever and DHL Supply Chain announce a milestone in their partnership with a new agreement to collaboratively grow their business relationship. Both have pledged to work together to provide a global, world class service for Unilever and its customers. A series of collaborative initiatives focused on increased speed to market and efficiency, cost reduction and sustainable practices will help achieve this goal. These initiatives include improving carbon efficiency and reducing waste within global logistics operations, such as developing innovative new technology. The companies also plan to extend the geographical footprint of existing services offered, particularly in developing and emerging markets including Brazil, Russia, India, China and Mexico. Other activities include a ‘design once, deploy everywhere’ methodology to identify, harness, and streamline new and innovative processes across Unilever’s supply chain to deliver optimum performance.
PUBLIC SHARE ISSUE IN UK’S MOST WIDELY-OWNED RENEWABLE ENERGY COMPANY, TRIODOS RENEWABLES Triodos Renewables Plc a leading independent UK renewable energy company, has announced the launch of a new public share issue offering consumers the chance to participate in direct ownership of the UK’s growing community renewable energy infrastructure, one of the country’s fastest growing markets. Proceeds from the offer, opened on 31 July, will be invested directly into building new onshore wind power assets to expand the Company’s portfolio of renewable energy projects in the UK, such as Caton Moor and Dunfermline. The offer represents an investment opportunity in tangible, high value projects with long term revenue streams – an investment in the nuts and bolts of renewable energy generation. The funds will be raised through a targeted placing of around 4m shares at £1.90 per ordinary share, with a minimum investment of £570. The offer is open to both new investors and existing shareholders and the shares will be tradable on the Matched Bargain Market managed by Stocktrade (a trading name of Brewin Dolphin). Existing shareholders in Triodos Renewables have benefited from capital growth since 2005. For 2011, the Company is paying a 4p dividend. Over the past year the share price has increased 10p to £1.90 per share. Those who invested in 2006 have seen capital growth of 50p and total dividends of 16p per share - a 6.8% return. Details of the share issue Timetable Subscription List opens
10am 31 July 2012
Latest time for receipt of Application Forms
3pm 31 August 2012
Subscription List closes
3pm 31 August 2012
Offer statistics (assuming full subscription) Issue Price Number of Offer Shares 4.21m Number of shares in issue immediately following the Offer
Gross proceeds of the Offer to be received by the Company
Dilution of Existing Ordinary Shares following the Offer
Percentage of issued share capital represented by Existing Ordinary Sharesfollowing the Offers
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |7|
DECC SCRAPS UNNECESSARY REGULATIONS AS PART OF THE RED TAPE CHALLENGE
As part of a drive to cut red tape burdens, Minister of State for Energy, Charles Hendry, has announced the scrapping of 86 regulations and a further 48 improved regulatory regimes, whilst keeping protections as strong as ever. Coupled with other reforms, DECC’s overall reform package is estimated to deliver businesses savings worth around £400m over the next 20 years. Minister of State for Energy, Charles Hendry, said: “Energy is vital to the economy and essential to driving growth. It is also the biggest infrastructure sector in the UK. Our reforms aim to stimulate over £100bn of new investment in the electricity sector and could support around 250,000 total jobs in electricity to 2030. It is therefore vital that we have a regulatory regime which promotes fairness and consumer and environmental protection, but does not impose unnecessary costs or barriers to generating the necessary investment, innovation and skills we need to build the low carbon economy. The Red Tape Challenge has provided the opportunity to ensure we continue to meet these objectives. We have listened to our stakeholders as they suggested regulations which add cost or complexity without effectively leading to protections, and I am pleased to announce that DECC will scrap or improve 134 regulations.”
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Supporting the announcement, Terry A'Hearn, Regulation Lead of the Aldersgate Group said: "We welcome the Government's work in cutting back excessive and outdated regulation, whilst ensuring that protection of our environment remains as strong as ever. Smart regulation corrects market failures, drives innovation and provides the foundation for long-term economic growth, jobs and competitiveness and we congratulate DECC's recognition of the importance of prioritising these long-term outcomes." David Porter, Chief Executive of Energy UK, said: “We commend DECC for removing redundant legislation and for modifying a number of overly complex regulations. We are facing a huge challenge in reforming our electricity market, and this is a step in the right direction in creating a market structure that will help to deliver the jobs and investment we need, but this must be part of an on-going process. We would urge DECC to continue to remove unnecessary red tape, and to continue to improve legislation, as getting future energy policy right is more critical than ever.” Together with DECC’s simplifications to the European Emissions Trading Scheme and the Carbon Reduction Commitment regimes, this will help businesses save around £400m over twenty years. Examples of regulations that DECC are scrapping or improving are: • The Offshore Chemicals Regulations 2002 (amended 2011) - which establish a regime for controlling the use and discharge of chemicals from offshore installations - will have requirements streamlined to improve functionality and reduce costs for installation operators whilst maintaining all environmental protections.
• Modernisation of the Electricity (Compulsory Wayleaves) (Hearings Procedure) Rules 1967 (SI 1967/450). These rules are used to resolve disputes between licence holders and landowners for the presence of overhead electric lines on private land. They will be updated to ensure the rights and interests of both sides are appropriately balanced whilst reducing the costs and other burdens on parties. • Improvements to the Public Gas Transporter Pipe-line Works (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 1999, SI 1999/1672 will scrap duplicate requirements for companies in England to seek determination from the Secretary of State as to whether a proposed pipeline would require an environmental statement. Ofgem have also set out how they will reduce regulatory burdens in their Simplification plan, published at the end of June. The plan has taken Red Tape Challenge suggestions into account and includes actions to review information requests to businesses to avoid duplication, publish a schedule of future consultations and convene a roundtable group with industry and consumer representatives to review and improve consumer information on bills.
Celebrity Chef Lorraine Pascale, FareShare and Sainsbury’s join forces to fight food poverty in the UK This October, food charity FareShare is again working with Sainsbury’s on the second annual Million Meal Appeal, and we need your help. FareShare is seeking volunteers to assist with this unique one day food drive at 600 Sainsbury’s stores across the country. On the day volunteers will greet customers and ask them to buy an extra item of food from the Million Meal Appeal shopping list. FareShare will then deliver the donated items to over 700 charities and community projects across the UK, to be eaten by people in need. Chef Lorraine Pascale urged the public to get involved. “The Million Meal Appeal is a wonderful initiative. I encourage everyone to volunteer at their local Sainsbury’s supermarket on the 6th of October and help FareShare fight hunger and food waste in the UK. Your support can make a real difference and together we can provide vulnerable people in your community with good quality, nutritious food,” said Lorraine. Lindsay Boswell, CEO, FareShare said: “Thanks to the generosity of Sainsbury’s customers, donations from last year’s event allowed us to deliver food for over 1.2million meals and this year we are hoping to deliver even more, but we can’t do it without the crucial help of volunteers.” Potential volunteers are encouraged to visit www. fareshare.org.uk with their family and friends to register. Participants will be able to choose their preferred Sainsbury’s store to volunteer at and have the choice of a morning or afternoon shift. Andy White, Community Affairs Manager, Sainsbury’s, said: “We had such an overwhelming response from our customers to last year’s initiative involving 600 stores across the country and we’re excited to be working with FareShare again. The total of 1.2 million meals donated last year would be enough to feed a sold-out London Olympic Park 15 times! We hope from this year’s campaign that we can further raise awareness of food poverty in the UK and support those charities and projects that need our help.” The Million Meal Appeal comes at a crucial time. A recent survey found over 40% of the charities FareShare supports are struggling to meet demand, while 65% said they were cutting their food budgets in an effort to stay afloat. It is estimated that around 5.8million people in the UK live in deep poverty, meaning that they struggle to afford basic things like food. Last year, FareShare rescued a staggering 3,600 tonnes of surplus food which contributed towards more than 8.6million meals, feeding 36,500 people a day. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |9|
REPIC HELPS RESIDENTS RECYCLE WEEE Repic, the UK’s largest not-for-profit producer compliance scheme, collected more than a tonne of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from Peterborough residents during a two-day WEEE amnesty. Repic joined forces with Peterborough City Council, Enterprise Peterborough and leading white goods manufacturer, Indesit Company, to host the event which aimed to encourage people to dispose of their unwanted electrical items in a responsible way. A four-metre T.Rex figure made entirely of recycled WEEE attracted visitors to the amnesty, where they handed in items ranging from kettles and irons to fridges and televisions. A total of 1017kg of WEEE was collected during the two-day event. Dr Philip Morton, CEO of REPIC, commented: “The need for responsible WEEE recycling is an important message to get out to the public so it was encouraging to see such a strong turn out at the Peterborough WEEE amnesty. Not only were people disposing of their old unwanted electrical and electronic goods in the right way, they were getting information on how best to recycle their items and what happens to them after they do. Repic works closely with its local authority partners across the country to provide free services, workshops and advice around WEEE recycling. Part of the problem with WEEE recycling in the UK currently is that there is the potential for several parties to become involved in the recycling chain, and where this happens, and WEEE evidence is transferred or traded, its origin becomes untraceable and the audit trail becomes longer and less clear – which means the risk of leakage and the illegal export of WEEE increases. This risk can be significantly decreased by producer compliance schemes working closely with a local authority partner to shorten the audit trail, making it easier to know where WEEE comes from, where it goes to and who pays for its treatment, consequently closing the gap on illegal WEEE export.” Paul Ellen, Service Finance Manager responsible for WEEE at Indesit Company, commented: “We were really pleased to be involved in the WEEE amnesty. As a responsible producer of electrical and electronic equipment, Indesit Company supports the environmental objectives of the WEEE Directive in diverting waste electrical and electronic appliances from landfill and into recycling.” Those who dropped off an item for recycling were automatically entered into a draw to win a prize, which included a Hotpoint Aqualtis washer-dryer, an Indesit washing machine and a Hotpoint combi fridge freezer, all with free delivery within 15 miles of Peterborough. Other prizes included a Kenwood food mixer, a Kenwood food processor, a De Longhi coffee maker and a De Longhi fan heater. All visitors also received a voucher for 10% off Indesit and Hotpoint products bought from the Indesit Factory Graded Centre, Morley Way, Peterborough, and a 37” smart TV donated by LG was on offer to the visitor who guessed the weight of Tyrone the T.Rex. To find out more about Repic, visit www.repic.co.uk
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CO-OPERATIVE ENERGY ACHIEVES FULL MARKS IN FIRST YEAR FOR RENEWABLES MIX Co-operative Energy has achieved a perfect score for its renewable energy mix. 100% of the electricity provided to its customers in the year ending March 2012 was sourced from renewable generators, such as wind, hydro and biomass. The 100% achievement has been reached in the firm’s first year of operation. In achieving the wholly renewable fuel mix, Co-operative Energy, which launched in May 2011, has exceeded its low carbon target, namely to supply electricity containing less than half the national average of carbon by April 2012. Co-operative Energy currently sources electricity from a range of different types of low renewable energy generators, including two community-owned wind farms at Harlock Hill and Westmill. Harlock Hill was Britain's first co-operatively owned wind power project near Ulverston in Cumbria, on an open stretch of windswept farmland overlooking Morecambe Bay. It is a 2.5MW wind farm and consists of five turbines, each rated at 500kW, producing enough clean electricity each year to meet the average needs of 1,100 typical homes. Westmill wind farm was the first wholly community-owned wind farm to be built in the south east of England. Co-operative Energy customers benefit from clean, cost effective energy generated onsite in Oxfordshire from five 1.3MW wind turbines. The turbines first became operational in 2008 and provide enough green electricity to power more than 2,500 average homes.
The latest technology in landfill gas analysis Part II A of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 sets the minimum standard for contamination when land is redeveloped - as a minimum, sites must not qualify as contaminated land once they have been developed. The utilisation of brownfield sites therefore necessitates environmental investigation work, but Matthew Penfold from Geotechnical and Environmental Assessment Associates (GEA) says “Made ground and Greenfield sites can also reveal surprising levels and types of contamination. For example, site investigation can reveal problems that were not anticipated following a desktop study. Similarly, gas can migrate from an old landfill site and affect nearby development, and if this issue is not identified at an early stage, it can result in substantial extra costs later in the project.” Site investigation is a key aspect of GEA’s work, so the company owns a number of portable gas analysers including PID detectors for the measurement of volatile organic compounds and a landfill gas analyser for a range of common gases. However, the company’s in-house instruments are regularly supplemented by gas analysers rented from Ashtead Technology. Matthew believes that this provides GEA with a high degree of flexibility: “Hiring instruments when we need them means that we can use exactly the right instruments, just for the time we need them and no longer, which saves costs and ensures that we have the best kit for every job.” |12| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Overhead Crane Contributes to Life Saving Marine Helicopter Escape Training An overhead crane that enables trainees to safely practice life-saving escape from a helicopter ditching into the sea is in daily use at the Fleetwood Nautical Campus (FNC) of Blackpool College. The fixed position goal post crane with a lifting capacity of four tonnes was installed by Street Crane Company, Britain’s largest industrial crane maker. The Fleetwood centre is one of the few centres in the UK providing North Sea, military and emergency services personnel with vital marine helicopter escape training. EDM, a company specialising in simulators for aviation training, was the main contractor for the safety systems. They made the helicopter under-water escape trainer HUET, a mock up helicopter cab with realistic seating, seat belts, doors and glazing, just like a real helicopter. The rear of the simulator is open for access by divers who are in the water during the test should any trainee get into difficulty, and the instructor can also auto release all seat belts from the console if needed. “This must be the most unusual application that we have had for one of our cranes,” explained Andrew Pimblett, Street Crane managing director. “The engineering is straightforward; this is a fixed position, four tonne crane with only lateral and horizontal movement. A single beam, supported on A frames, has an underslung hoist to hold the HUET. The unusual item is a dual coil spring that controls the fall and enables the module to be suspended over the water before release at one metre above.” FNC is a dedicated facility with a specially constructed pool where one metre waves, darkness and rain can be simulated. The crane spans the pool and side apron. Up to four trainees, with an instructor, strap themselves in before the simulator is hoisted and moved out to the centre of the pool. From this position the HUET can be lowered onto the water, immersed in the water or immersed and rolled over. Trainees then have to unstrap themselves, put on respirators and make a safe exit.
AMEC awarded United Nations remediation contract in Kuwait AMEC, the international engineering and project management company, announced that it has been awarded a remediation contract funded by the United Nations Compensation Committee (UNCC) with Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) acting as the managing agent and contracting entity. The Project Management Consultancy services contract is for the remediation of KOC oilfield properties damaged during the 1990-1991 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. “We are pleased to expand our relationship with KOC by mobilising our global environmental and project management expertise to support this important project,” said Dr. Hisham Mahmoud, President of AMEC’s Environment & Infrastructure business. “We recognise the significance of this project to Kuwait and the United Nations, and are committed to its success.” “I am delighted that the unique combination of our long term oil and gas presence in the country, alongside our specialist environment and infrastructure expertise has led to this award,” said Ross Gibson, Regional Director for AMEC’s Middle East & North Africa region. “We are thrilled to be able to use our global remediation skills to help our customer and Kuwait.” ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |13|
Coca-Cola’s Olympic Torch Relay recycling initiative reveals ‘Green Great Britain’ Coca-Cola is already carrying out its pledge to help deliver the most sustainable Games possible, after a successful initiative saw spectators of the London 2012 Olympic Torch Relay recycle 30,000 bottles into its ‘Recycle Beat’ vehicle over the Flame’s 70-day journey across the UK. Designed to educate on recycling best practice and encourage behaviour change, the hybrid ‘Recycle Beat’ van formed a prominent part of each city’s evening celebrations, with a dedicated recycling team working to engage local people, and inspire them to make personal recycling pledges. The material collected came from torch spectators recycling their empty bottles and cans into a chute of their choice on the Recycle Beat van, which in turn activated a musical remix of Mark Ronson’s London 2012 anthem, ‘Move to the beat’. As part of the youth-focused initiative, the CocaCola team also spread the word by administering over 30,000 temporary tattoos to spectators. Visitors were able to capture the whole experience with their own photo, taken alongside Recycle Beat whilst making a personal recycling pledge. The recyclate collected by Recycle Beat will be transported to Continuum Recycling – a brand new plastics reprocessing facility developed in partnership between Coca-Cola Enterprises and ECO Plastics. The new facility will allow bottles collected by the Recycle Beat vehicle to return to shop shelves as new bottles in as little as 6 weeks.
Carbon Trust and CRedit360 Partner to Deliver “Game-Changing” Value Chain Carbon Management Software The Carbon Trust and CRedit360 announce a new commercial collaboration that will develop a series of software solutions designed to enable companies to cost effectively manage value chain carbon emissions. For the first time a carbon management system will be available that goes beyond measurement and provides in-built capability to calculate, interpret and make recommendations on carbon reduction activities. Typically carbon footprinting only includes direct and indirect operational emissions, known as Scope 1 and 2 emissions under the Kyoto Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Value chain footprinting also includes Scope 3 emissions, which represent the full lifecycle, from both suppliers and consumers, including all use and end of life emissions. Based on the Carbon Trust’s decade of experience of footprinting thousands of businesses and products there is clear evidence that having a robust carbon management strategy across a corporate value chain can deliver significant rewards. These include improved brand equity, cost reduction, revenue enhancement and risk mitigation. However, accurately measuring value chain emissions presents unique challenges and can be complex and time consuming. Bringing together the Carbon Trust’s extensive footprinting experience with CRedit360’s award-winning sustainability software expertise means these challenges can now be overcome to maximise the business benefits of managing a value chain.
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Orbite Aluminae produces the first North American heavy rare earths from aluminous clay and prepares for commercialization in 2013 Orbite Aluminae Inc has announced that it has successfully extracted the first commercial samples of heavy rare earth oxides, gallium and scandium from its aluminous clay deposit in GrandeVallée, Quebec. With its patented and patent pending, commerciallyproven technology, the Quebec clean tech company is set to become the first commercial North American rare earths, gallium and scandium producer, ahead of its closest competitors. By 2013 it plans to offer heavy rare earth separation services to third parties and to produce its own resources by 2014. Rare earths (dysprosium, erbium, neodymium, praseodymium, etc.) and rare metals (gallium, scandium, yttrium) are products of high commercial value considered scarce and seldom available in high enough concentrations to be profitable. Orbite’s technology allows for the low-cost extraction of rare earths and rare metals using the ecological and environmentally-friendly alumina extraction process. Orbite has evaluated the content of its Grande-Vallée
Rainwater Harvesting Expertise from Alumasc Rainwater and Stormsaver The recent partnership of Alumasc Rainwater and Stormsaver has created a major new force in commercial Rainwater Harvesting. The two industry giants have joined forces to provide the construction industry with a onestop solution for rainwater management and recycling. The partnership, which was launched at Ecobuild 2012, brings together Alumasc’s experience in roofing and rainwater run-off with Stormsaver’s expertise in the collection, filtration and reuse of rainwater. As one of the leading suppliers of metal rainwater goods in the UK, Alumasc has provided roofing and guttering solutions for some of the most prestigious sites in the UK and was keen to associate with an industry heavyweight who could work with them to provide an unrivalled environmental solution to a joint client base. |16| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
aluminous clay deposit at more than 22% (ratio to total rare earths) in heavy rare earths and has noted a strong presence of scandium. To conduct testing for the extraction of individual rare earth and rare metal samples, Orbite retained the services of European companies CMI-UVK and MEAB, which validated extraction rates of more than 87% purity: gallium at 93.86%; scandium at 93.11%; yttrium at 87.47%; neodymium and dysprosium, both at 99.9%; cerium at 99.5%; and gallium oxide at 99.99%. “Our rare earths deposit holds significant commercial potential, and we expect to be the first in North America to offer a heavy rare earth extraction and separation technique as a derivative of our alumina production. Orbite’s entry into the global rare earths market should also help to reduce the economic risks associated with the concentration of separation techniques in China,” affirmed Richard Boudreault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Orbite Aluminae. China is currently home to the majority of the world’s rare earths. The United States and Australia also hold considerable reserves but have been unable to maximize their potential due to the competitiveness of Chinese pricing and the environmental issues surrounding the commercialization of these products.
Work starts on fossil fuel free cargo ship set to transform shipping industry Development is underway to design the modern world’s first 100% fossil fuel free sailing cargo ships. With rising fossil fuel prices and the global challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, this project is set to change the shipping industry by providing efficient and affordable lowcarbon shipping. The project combines proven technology, using the state of the art dyna-rig sail propulsion system with an off-the-shelf Rolls-Royce engine powered by waste derived liquid biomethane (liquid gas). The ships are being developed by B9 Shipping, part of the B9 Energy group of companies, which has started work on a full-scale demonstration vessel validating the engineering and economic assumptions of the initial vessel design. The fundamental testing programme is being conducted at the University of Southampton’s Wolfson Unit for Marine Technology and Industrial Aerodynamics
(WUMTIA), which has provided innovative marine technology and industrial aerodynamics expertise for over 40 years to a world-wide customer base. Diane Gilpin, Director of B9 Shipping, says: “The shipping sector is a highly complex, interconnected system and our task has been to develop relationships with key players across the industry. Having worked previously with WUMTIA, I believe this collaboration will enable a robust, commercially and technically viable solution to be ready for scale once the engineering is proven. We are designing B9 Ships holistically as super-efficient new builds transferring technology from offshore yacht racing combined with the most advanced commercial naval architecture. We’re combining proven technologies in a novel way to develop ‘ready-to-go’ futureproof and 100% fossil fuel free ships. This approach means financial investment and crucially, garnering support and furthering understanding with the shipping sector that there is a need for urgent change and through collaboration we can create viable commercially successful solutions.”
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National Insulation Association establishes new industry group to lead the expansion of the Solid Wall Insulation market The National Insulation Association (NIA) is the lead trade body in Solid Wall Insulation (SWI) representing the manufacturers, system designers and installers of external wall, internal wall and hybrid wall (external and internal wall in the same property) insulation. There are around 7 million uninsulated SWI properties in the UK and under the new Green Deal and Energy Company Obligation (ECO) there needs to be a major increase in SWI insulation volumes to support the achievement of the Government’s climate change targets. The NIA and its members are recognised as having a key role to play in bringing about this market transformation and are committed to doing this in a controlled and sustainable manner, ensuring the highest levels of quality and standards and consumer protection are maintained. To this end the NIA has established a dedicated new SWI Steering Group, the NIA Solid Wall Group, within the association to take forward the industry’s strategy and plans. Neil Marshall, Chief Executive of the NIA, commented: “The Group comprises specialist external and internal wall insulation manufacturers, system designers and contractors and will focus specifically on the development and implementation of the NIA’s SWI market and supply chain development plans.” Marshall added: “The NIA is uniquely placed to shape the SWI market as it covers both external and internal wall insulation, and the NIA Solid Wall Group has the specialist knowledge, experience and technical expertise to engage effectively with Government, external bodies and consumers in developing the market.” David Lawrence, MD of Lawtech Ltd, a national speciailist External Wall Insulation (EWI) contractor has been appointed as Chair of the group, and Lorraine Scott of Sto Ltd an EWI system designer has been appointed as Vice Chair. Commenting on the new NIA Solid Wall Group David Lawrence said: “I am very pleased to have the opportunity to lead the group in taking forward this critical work which will make a major contribution to tackling climate change and addressing fuel poverty by ensuring that the millions of uninsulated solid wall properties are effectively insulated over the coming years.” The group will be focusing on a number of key areas including: - - - - -
Educating consumers and raising awareness of the benefits of SWI Providing support and guidance for specifiers of SWI including Green Deal Providers and Assessors, Energy Suppliers, and Social Housing Providers Industry training Quality and standards of installation Consumer protection
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ESG expands water services with key acquisition ESG acquires Oxfordshire-based water business to boost compliance division Environmental Scientifics Group (ESG), the UK’s leading provider of testing, inspection and compliance services, has acquired Oxfordshire-based Waterwise Technologies Ltd to expand its water services offering to clients. Waterwise Technologies is one of the UK’s leading developers and manufacturers of specialist water treatment equipment and employs 22 people, servicing businesses in south and central England from its base in Thame, Oxfordshire. The acquisition follows ESG’s take-over of Henley Water in 2011 and will bolster the company’s water services to offer a total water solution to clients including the design, build and installation of water systems as well as the servicing and on-going water management and testing. Waterwise currently has more than 200 clients, including J Sainsbury Distribution Ltd, Kodak and the London Borough of Sutton, across a range of different market sectors. The company currently has a turnover of more than £2.5million. The acquisition of Waterwise will allow ESG to bring a new range of water treatment products to the UK market and expand the business’ footprint to cover the whole of the country. The company’s former owners will remain with the business for the foreseeable future.
Call for Entries – closing date 31 October 2012 The Rushlight Awards promote and celebrate the leading energy, resource and environmental technologies and innovations by organizations throughout the UK and Ireland. With 23 separate categories covering renewable energy; clean fuels; energy efficiency; power generation; green manufacturing, products and services; sustainable agriculture, forestry and biodiversity; water; resource and waste; environmental management, metrology and monitoring, these awards will highlight the technologies and innovations that are shaping the energy, transport, environment and industry sectors in the future. If you have developed a technology or innovation that is pertinent to one of these categories, then do not hesitate to enter as you have so much to gain: • There are over £500,000 worth of in-kind prizes to be won.
• The Rushlight Awards have become widely recognized as the leading platform for UK and Irish organizations to promote their clean technology advances and innovation in developing and deploying clean technology solutions. Successful entrants in the past have gone on to even greater business success. • As an RSA accredited event, all group category winners can go forward to represent the UK in the European Business Awards for the Environment. • Obtain attractive discounts on tables and places at the Gala Awards Dinner on 31 January 2013 at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in London and meet and network with key individuals from government and industry. • All entrants are eligible for a significant discount on the price of a stand at the Rushlight Clean Technologies Show on 31 January 2013 at the Royal College of Surgeons of England. To find out more and to enter the awards, go to www.rushlightawards.co.uk or contact Eventure Media at email@example.com or on 020 8870 9345.
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SLR PROVIDES ECOLOGY EXPERT WITNESS ON TEST CASE
SLR’s ecology team, supported by its in-house Air Quality and GIS teams, has been involved in a high profile Public Inquiry in Leeds on behalf of Walshaw Moor Estate, an upland grouse estate. Technical Director, Mike Webb, provided Expert Witness support for Walshaw Moor Estate on land management issues during the five week case. Walshaw Moor Estate, an area of 6,475ha, has been managed primarily for grouse shooting for around 150 years and lies within the South Pennine Moors Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI). The inquiry followed an appeal that was made by the Estate against a Notice of Modification of Consent issued by Natural England, pursuant to section 28E(6), Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. This notice related to the management activities that have taken place on its grouse moor, including prescribed burning of heather and grazing. Walshaw Moor Estate was designated as a SSSI in 1995, predominantly for reasons related to ornithological interest and subsequently (in phases) as a Special Protection Area (SPA) under the Wild Birds Directive and a Special Area of Conservation SAC, under the Habitats Directive, because of its upland habitats including extensive areas of blanket bog. Mike’s role at the Inquiry was to draw together a summary of the evidence set out by a range of experts working for the estate and to undertake a Habitat Regulations Assessment of the estate’s proposed management regime. Shortly following the Public Inquiry Walshaw Moor Estate and Natural England resolved the dispute and have now entered into a new management regime which is considered beneficial to both the environment and biodiversity of the Moor as well as the economic interests of the Estate. SLR continues to assist Walshaw Moor Estate on ecology matters relating to the Habitat Regulations.
Oil and Lubricants Company Rescued from the Administrator by Crown Oil National fuel and lubricants distributor Crown Oil has acquired the key assets of Samuel Cooke, a leading North West fuel supplier. Crown Group managing director Matt Greensmith explained: “The Samuel Cooke name dates from 1845 and is associated with good service so we will continue to trade on this while assuring all existing customers close attention and service. Crown and Cooke are both long established family-owned businesses that have built sound reputations that are so often the hallmark of independent companies.” Following the merger into Crown Oil, Samuel Cooke customers will have access to a wider range of advanced low carbon fuels and speciality lubricants. In line with Crown Oil’s environmental commitment all Sam Cooke’s delivery mileage by road tankers will now be fully carbon offset. Crown Oil general manager, Mark Andrews, noted: “Crown Oil has grown significantly in recent years and this is a perfect opportunity for us to reinforce our position as one of the UK’s largest independent fuel and lubricants suppliers.” A handful of former employees from Samuel Cooke have already joined Crown Oil and the company is hopeful that there will be more employment opportunities as the former Samuel Cooke business is consolidated into the Crown Group. Additional staff will be based at Crown Oil’s administrative headquarters and depot, The Oil Centre adjoining the Bury exit on the M66.
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Lack of energy awareness highlights the importance of smart metering systems in delivering the green deal A recent survey by YouGov has found that 81% of UK adults do not understand their energy bills and are unaware of the real cost of energy, highlighting the role industry must take in educating consumers and driving behaviour change if incentives like the Green Deal are to succeed. Last month, a study from the Energy Saving Trust (EST) found that UK householders are wasting a whopping £1.3bn a year, just by leaving appliances on standby and stand to save around £85 a year through access to better information around their energy use. The findings of both studies have reinforced calls for the government to promote behaviour change to support energy efficiency initiatives and we need only look to a parallel government initiative — the smart meter roll out — to find a scheme that has real potential to increase energy awareness. The smart meter roll out will see smart meters installed in every home and business in the UK by 2019 in an effort to reduce energy consumption and balance demand. As part of the programme the government has had the good sense to require that every smart meter be delivered with some form of in-home display (IHD), to ensure that it leads to meaningful behaviour change. The true value of smart meter systems is realised when the technology is combined with IHDs that show real time information about energy consumption. This helps consumers to take control of their energy use and allows them to make significant savings on household bills. These insights into energy use can be accessed through a variety of media, including customer websites and smart phones. Even paper bills, if improved to properly explain how money is being spent, can drive significant behaviour change. The positive impact of accessible energy data on behaviour change is well documented; in a recent deployment of IHDs to over 80,000 energy users, smart data specialists Onzo revealed an 8% reduction in overall energy use and a further 5% shift away from using energy at peak times. Not only were these changes sustained, they were self-motivated and did not require financial incentives.
IDC’s Inflatable Solar Panel Raises Temperature in Middle East Leading product design company, Industrial Design Consultancy (IDC), is delighted to announce that its inflatable solar panel, the SolarStore, has been selected to help people in Jordan and Palestine benefit from warm domestic water. The SolarStore harnesses the sun’s natural energy to warm domestic water and can heat up to three full tanks of water per day at temperatures close to 80°C. Forty SolarStores have been ordered by Grameen-Jameel, a social business set up to help poor Arab communities improve their standard of living, health and education. The SolarStores will enable these communities to benefit from warm water for the first time. During use the SolarStore is inflated to a size of nearly 2m2 for maximum solar absorption. It is made from a heavy-duty polymer with a robust structure which is anchored down by the weight of 30 litres of water. Each SolarStore works by allowing sunlight to pass through a clear outer layer to a black inner layer which holds the water. By a process of heat transfer the water is heated up. The surrounding air between the clear and black layers then acts as insulation to help keep the heat in. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |21|
Heron sailing boat harvests solar energy with BISOL PV modules During the summer vacation many people enjoy sailing, harvesting energy from the wind and not polluting the environment. Life on such a vessel needs electricity too. One Slovenian couple embarked on a two-year journey and are producing electricity with two BISOL PV modules. The sailing boat Heron left Adriatic shores in Koper last June and Slovenian couple Mr and Mrs Pelko began their adventure. Before departing their homeland, like many boaters, they considered how to produce electricity without polluting the environment. After reviewing the characteristics of different brands of photovoltaic modules and studying references of renowned manufacturers, they opted for a leading European producer of solar solutions BISOL Group and purchased two of their premium quality PV modules with peak powers of 245 watt. Amongst the decisive factors for selection of the PV modules was high efficiency, light weight, strictly positive tolerances and suitable dimensions. As with all products quality and price played an essential role. After more than a year of sailing the owners are very happy with the solar power plant’s yield. During this time they only needed to run the diesel engine a few times to produce electricity when crossing the Atlantic Ocean due to bad weather conditions and a larger crew. In the Caribbean the energy production satisfies all their needs. The owner notes: “I have seen power output of 500 watts many times. We reach over 490 every sunny day around noon. The solar power plant on average generates from 1500 to 1800 watt-hours per day. I am very pleased with this investment as annually it covers almost all of our needs”. The technical description of the Heron sailing boat and the travel journal can be followed on http://heronsailing.blogspot.com/
The market-leading portfolio for the wastewater treatment industry Alfa Laval has acquired Ashbrook Simon-Hartley – a leading manufacturer of liquid/solid separation, process systems, fluid control and aftermarket products and services for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment installations worldwide. Together, the combined portfolio will offer a broader and more extensive range of product, process and service solutions to the wastewater treatment marketplace. Both Alfa Laval and Ashbrook Simon-Hartley have strong presence in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment applications, where Alfa Laval is mainly involved in dewatering, thickening, heating and filtration. Ashbrook Simon-Hartley is also involved in dewatering, thickening and filtration, but adds primary clarification, aeration, secondary clarification and biosolids pasteurization. Founded in 1904, Ashbrook Simon-Hartley’s products include thickening and dewatering equipment, sequencing batch reactors, diffused aeration, ultrafiltration membrane systems, sand filter filtration and cleaning, and standalone treatment plants. They also offer specialty products, as well as retrofits, maintenance, plant operations and contract services. Alfa Laval’s solutions range from decanter centrifuges, to drum thickeners, spiral heat exchangers and membrane filtration solutions. The overall acquisition strategy is to offer customers around the world an even broader array of product and service solutions for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment applications. The corporate press release and additional information can be found at www.alfalaval.com.
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Work Begins on Major Herne Bay Recycling Centre
Construction work has started on a new £1.5m Household Waste Recycling Centre (HWRC) at Herne Bay in Kent. Capita Symonds is designing and project managing the scheme – on behalf of Kent County Council (KCC) – for a site which will play a vital role in improving local recycling rates by separating up to 15,000 tonnes of recyclable and waste materials per year. The new site will be a split-level arrangement – in line with best practice for such sites - which both offers easier access to the bulk material containers for users (without the need for steps), and also keeps operational activities and vehicles separate from users. The new site will be slightly larger than the existing facility (which will be shut during the reconstruction), but will have twice as many bays for bulk recycling that will allow for greater material separation and faster throughput, thus reducing queues.
Waste2Tricity Congratulates Air Products at start of Energy-fromWaste build at Tees Valley Waste2Tricity, the structured solutions provider instrumental in introducing the Tees Valley site, congratulates Air Products on announcing the start of their building programme for the world’s largest renewable energy plant. Waste2Tricity confirms that it was from introducing this project that they received the £1million income announced in March 2012, part of which the company used for the initial payment to acquire exclusive UK deployment rights for AFC Energy alkaline fuel cells. Waste2Tricity continues to work with Air Products in identifying sites for future development and is also actively pursuing smaller scale (circa 12MW/80,000 tonne) Energy-from-Waste (EfW) builds. The use of the Westinghouse plasma gasification, provided by Alter NRG, demonstrates to the market Air Products belief in the maturity of this technology - the only advanced gasification technology fully commercially demonstrated and producing clean syngas for long term use in gas engines, turbines and, in the near future, to be converted to hydrogen for fuel cells. Waste2Tricity is working to integrate AFC Energy’s new generation alkaline fuel cell with Westinghouse plasma gasification for its future projects. The benefits of this unique combination will increase electrical output by 50% for the same feedstock input, for no significant additional Capex per MW than gas engines and with a lower projected Opex. Once this combination of technologies is demonstrated at commercial scale, projected for 2016, this world beating technology will dominate.
Capita Symonds has been working with KCC’s Waste Management team on the project since May 2009. The company’s role commenced with the production of a series of feasibility reports to evaluate the site selection, planning, and transport context for the proposed development. On confirming the viability of the proposed site, a programme and cost estimate for delivering the scheme were produced for the client which continues to be monitored, updated and discussed as the project progresses. This led to a planning application being produced. This set of documents included the outline layout, infrastructure and landscaping designs, and a series of technical reports such as: traffic assessment; flood risk assessment; contaminated land assessment; and air quality / noise assessments – all of which were produced by Capita Symonds’ specialist teams. Detailed design was then undertaken which covered all aspects of the site development, including infrastructure (such as site drainage and other services, pavements and highway junction, and signage), structural concrete (such as retaining walls and ramps), structural steelwork (sheet piling and vehicle retention systems), mechanical & electrical (for on site electrical / communications distribution networks), remediation, and landscaping. Tender documents were produced, based on the detailed design, and structured as an ECC NEC3 contract, following which a tender exercise was undertaken. A contractor has now been appointed, with Capita Symonds producing the contract documents and arranging for the signatures. The existing HWRC site is due to close in early August 2012, with the Construction Period commencing shortly thereafter, with CSL acting as the construction Supervisor and Project Manager under the NEC3. Construction is due to be completed in early 2013. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |23|
The National Trust recruiting for Kids' Council The National Trust has announced it is recruiting a group of advisors made up entirely of children to provide advice on how to get more of the nation's kids outdoors. The idea follows the charity's recent Natural Childhood Report and 50 things to do before you’re 11 ¾ campaign, and shows the Trust stepping up its game in encouraging children to explore the outdoors and get closer to nature. The National Trust is looking to sign up 10 children aged between seven and twelve to the Kids' Council where they will play an important role in developing the charity's outdoor campaigns, and making their properties more fun for younger visitors. The perfect candidate will be brimming with enthusiasm and fun, plus have a natural love for the outdoors and fresh air. Potential applicants are also required to have an adventurous spirit and a wild imagination. A fondness for rolling down hills or jumping in muddy puddles would be considered a bonus. To offer children a chance to try out the National Trust and get inspiration on what they would like to change if they were appointed to the Kids' Council, the Trust will open up its doors to children for free for the whole month of August. Over 200 places will be free of charge to children, giving them the opportunity to explore National Trust places across the country. The successful council applicants will be announced later in the year and will be offered free access to National Trust places for themselves and their family. Canoeing, surfing and camping are among the activities that will be part of the winning prize to ensure kids and their families experience the full National Trust offering. The Kids' Council will meet throughout 2013 and report their findings into the National Trust's Visitor Experience Director, so their suggestions can be put into practise to help make the outdoors more fun for the nation's kids. The application process will close on 7th September 2012. Applications can be downloaded from the website at www.nationaltrust.org.uk/ kidscouncil and sent back via email, post or handed in at National Trust properties |24| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Fly-Tipping, A load of rubbish!! WITH 26,139 FLYTIPPING INCIDENTS LIVERPOOL TOPS THE NORTH-WEST FLYTIPPING LEAGUE AS 118,032 INCIDENTS REPORTED BY 39 COUNCILS IN THE REGION NEW GMB STUDY SHOWS 26,139 Fly tipping incidents were reported by Liverpool council in 2010-2011. In 2009-2010 a total of 27,935 fly tipping incidents were reported by the council. That was a decrease of 1,796 in the number of incidents. Liverpool has by far and away the highest number of fly tipping incidents in the North West region. In 2010/11 Manchester reported 18,300 fly tipping incidents. This made it the second highest in the region. It was followed by Blackpool (5,970 incidents), Wirral (5,457), Lancaster (4,528), Burnley (4,249), Wyre (4,045), Blackburn with Darwen (4,018), Wigan (3,456), Stockport (2,898), Pendle (2,865), Salford (2,791 ), Bolton (2,771), Rochdale (2,701), Sefton (2,633), Preston (2,613), Tameside (2,155) and Knowsley (2,136). The figures for all 39 councils in the region for 2009/10 and 2010/11 are shown in the table below. 118,032 fly tipping incidents were reported by 39 councils in the North West in 2010-2011. In 2009-2010 a total of 125,075 fly tipping incidents were reported by the same 39 councils. That was a decrease of 7,043 in the number of incidents. 819,571 fly tipping incidents were reported in England by councils in 2010-2011. In 2009-2010 a total of 946,906 fly tipping incidents were reported by English councils. That was a decrease of 127,335 in the number of incidents The data for fly tipping incidents reported by local authorities is compiled and published by the Department of Energy, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra). The data below has been analysed by the GMB public services union. It is ranked by councils with the highest number of incidents in 2010/11. ►
FLY TIPPING INCIDENTS REPORTED BY LOCAL AUTHORITES IN THE NORTH WEST: England North West Local council areas 1 Liverpool City Council 2 Manchester City Council 3 Blackpool Borough Council 4 Wirral Metropolitan Borough Council 5 Lancaster City Council 6 Burnley Borough Council 7 Wyre Borough Council 8 Blackburn with Darwen Borough Council 9 Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council 10 Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council 11 Pendle Borough Council 12 Salford City Council 13 Bolton Metropolitan Borough Council 14 Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council 15 Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council 16 Preston City Council 17 Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council 18 Knowsley Metropolitan Borough Council 19 Bury Metropolitan Borough Council 20 Cheshire East 21 Cheshire West and Chester 22 Barrow-in-Furness Borough Council 23 Hyndburn Borough Council 24 Oldham Metropolitan Borough Council 25 Trafford Metropolitan Borough Council 26 West Lancashire District Council 27 Allerdale Borough Council 28 St Helens Metropolitan Borough Council 29 Chorley Borough Council 30 Halton Borough Council 31 Carlisle City Council 32 Rossendale Borough Council 33 South Ribble Borough Council 34 South Lakeland District Council 35 Copeland Borough Council 36 Ribble Valley Borough Council 37 Fylde Borough Council 38 Warrington Borough Council 39 Eden District Council
2009/10 946,906 125,075
2010/11 819,571 118,032
change -127,335 -7,043
27,935 20,294 6,043 6,030 4,226 2,099 4,901 4,098 2,958 2,855 2,170 3,392 2,410 2,379 2,775 3,371 2,453 1,544 2,625 1,882 2,775 1,414 1,466 1,096 1,558 1,177 1,051 880 761 2,461 681 517 661 201 595 435 448 334 124
26,139 18,300 5,970 5,457 4,528 4,249 4,045 4,018 3,456 2,898 2,865 2,791 2,771 2,701 2,633 2,613 2,155 2,136 1,734 1,648 1,543 1,273 1,248 1,243 1,217 1,144 911 864 807 639 618 588 580 481 476 434 409 284 166
-1,796 -1,994 -73 -573 302 2,150 -856 -80 498 43 695 -601 361 322 -142 -758 -298 592 -891 -234 -1,232 -141 -218 147 -341 -33 -140 -16 46 -1,822 -63 71 -81 280 -119 -1 -39 -50 42
Paul McCarthy, GMB Regional Secretary, said “Not only is fly-tipping illegal but it is damaging to the environment and according to the Environment Agency it costs £100-150m per annum to clean up. “Two thirds of fly tipping involves household rubbish and GMB believes it would make good economic sense to invest in more municipal waste and recycling centres to make it easier and cheaper for the public to dispose of waste properly. Some councils like Redbridge have redefined 'Fly-tipping' so that even 5 bin bags left on the street is classified as 'litter' and not fly-tipping. This would explain why some of the figures are well down on the previous stats. However local authorities also need to target fly-tipping to improve their policing of the problem – out of 820,000 incidents last year there were only 2,500 prosecutions throughout England and Wales. Secretary of State Eric Pickles should lead a campaign to clamp down on fly-tipping while allowing councils extra money to invest in better waste facilities.” |26| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Tales from the Watercooler
Global certification trade body IIOC highlights commitment to technical excellence through election of new Chairman Marshall-Tufflex boosts energy management sales force Marshall-Tufflex Energy Management has appointed two new sales professionals to further develop market penetration of its energy management products from sub-metering through to voltage optimisation and management control systems all linked through one dashboard control centre. Kristie Donachie is the company’s new Business Development Manager covering the Eastern Counties, parts of the West Midlands, the South West and London. Based in Peterborough, Jason Pritchard takes on the account manager position for the South East of England.
Solarlec named top solar panel retailer by global manufacturer Lancashire Company Solarlec has been chosen by one of its suppliers to join a prestigious partnership scheme. USA-based solar panel supplier Sunpower has set up the partnership scheme to recognise its most trusted retailers across the world. Solarlec, one of Sunpower's few authorised UK dealers, said it was honoured to accept its position in the scheme. Companies must meet strict requirements in order to gain entry to the partnership scheme, including giving Sunpower access to a number of installations of its products to carry out technical inspections on the level of workmanship displayed. Solarlec, winner of Burnley Small Business of the Year 2011, installs more than 1,200 panels every month across the UK.
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Appointment strengthens the IIOC’s mission to promote the value of high quality accredited certification Mike James, Managing Director of Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance Ltd (LRQA), has been elected Chairman of the Independent International Organisation for Certification (IIOC), with immediate effect. The Chair of IIOC is elected annually by all IIOC members. IIOC is an independent organisation, committed to drawing together the worlds of standardisation, certification and accreditation to benefit the business community.
NEW ENVIRONMENTAL DIRECTOR APPOINTED AT CHURNGOLD WASTE & RECYCLING Avonmouth-based Churngold Group has appointed Emma Keen as Environmental Director of its waste and recycling business. In the newly created role, Keen will sit on the Board and be responsible for overseeing Churngold’s environmental compliance regime as the company looks to grow business in areas such as processing of hazardous soils and recycling materials. Keen has worked for Churngold for the last five years as Environment Manager and holds a master’s degree in Waste and Resource Management from Cranfield University. Prior to Churngold she worked as an Environment Officer at the Environment Agency.
FERNOX APPOINTS NEW EUROPEAN RENEWABLES PRODUCT MANAGER Leading water treatment manufacturer Fernox has appointed Matthieu Giraudon as European Renewables Product Manager. In his new role as European Renewables Product Manager at Fernox, Matthieu will be responsible for driving the Fernox brand image forward in Europe, with a specific emphasis on the renewables market.
Williams Johnson joined LEAD International as Chief Executive Officer with effect from 1st August 2012. Prior to joining LEAD, Johnson was Managing Director at The Great Place to Work Institute UK, where he led a management buy-out before successfully returning the organisation to profit and significantly enhancing its scale. Johnson has a strong record of establishing and delivering results through partnerships, including programmes with the Chartered Management Institute, Business in the Community and the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership. In his previous work Johnson has effectively demonstrated his abilities to develop commercial opportunities, driving growth through the creation of new connections. International sustainability recruitment consultancy Allen & York, promote Paul Gosling to the position of Managing Director, UK & Europe, with Mark Allen, Founder of Allen & York, moving into the position of Global CEO. Paul is one of the most experienced sustainability search consultants currently operating within the environmental, energy and sustainability fields. Paul maintains his strategic input into the A&Y Board, with an active involvement in business critical, sensitive or high profile search projects, across the UK & European portfolio.
Construction industry leader Peter Hansford has been appointed as the Government’s new Chief Construction Adviser Mr Hansford will work with government and industry to ensure Britain's construction sector is equipped with the knowledge, skills and best practice it needs in its transition to a low carbon economy. A former President of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Mr Hansford will succeed Paul Morrell OBE when he stands down from the role at the end of November 2012 after two successful terms in post. Peter Hansford said: “I am delighted to have been selected as the Government’s new Chief Construction Adviser, building on the excellent foundation created by Paul Morrell. I am excited by the challenge of working with industry to deliver the construction agenda, and to progress the transition to a low carbon economy. I look forward to taking up the role in December.” Mr Hansford will report to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills and Cabinet Office Ministers. He will assume the role in December 2012.
Renowned World Scientific author Dr Daniel Hillel has been awarded the 2012 World Food Prize During the recent World Food Prize Laureate Award Ceremony, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton who hosted the Ceremony commended Dr Hillel for conceiving the radical innovation of micro-irrigation, transporting water across arid regions of the world. Dr Hillel’s technology, which involved dripping, trickling and providing a continuous feed-irrigation, became the catalyst for a food production revolution in the Middle East. This approach also resulted in better land management and has impacted the lives of millions in more than 30 countries.
New man at the helm He’s been there before and he is back again for a two year term as President of the Bathroom Manufacturers Association. Steve Lee has taken over the top job from retiring President, Ian Stuart. The new President, Steve Lee, was elected unanimously by the BMA membership. He has over 25 years' senior experience in the bathroom industry, joining Bristan in 1991 and playing a significant role in growing that business. He now heads Methven UK, a leading supplier of showers and taps.
Cefas' Chief Scientist, Dr Mike Waldock, has assumed the role of Interim Chief Executive with the departure of Richard Judge, who was at the helm since February 2007. Mike Waldock has worked at Cefas since 1980 and has held a wide variety of scientific and management roles. His science background is in the study of environmental pollution and he retains an interest in this discipline. His senior management role began when he joined the Cefas Management Board as Science Director in 2000. This role was expanded over time to oversee all aspects of science operations within Cefas. He became Cefas' Chief Scientist in July 2010.
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |29|
This amazing Planet Ocean by Chris Hines
It’s a damn shame we don’t have gills, and bodies better adapted to spending large amounts of time in the water. If we did maybe we would have a better sense of the importance of the oceans and marine environment, and if we had that we would surely be more in tune with the planet. After all seven tenths of it is covered in water… as Arthur C. Clarke (author of 2001 Space Odyssey) said: “How inappropriate to call this planet earth when it is quite clearly Ocean.” A dominant intelligent amphibian species may have been the best bet for our planet! Staying with the space link, we have just landed a rover on Mars. We are on Mars looking for evidence of the possible existence of (at some time) life, whilst at the same time not even having identified or understood all the life and complex systems only a few miles away. What we do know of our seas and marine areas is awe inspiring and this is down to the brilliant work done by scientists and researchers who have the intellectual gills and marine adapted brains our species so desperately need. The oceans have a massive wealth of resources both current and potential. The largest source of protein consumed by humans comes from the seas but this is something that we have |30| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
and continue to take for granted. We have over fished to the point where most fishing grounds are depleted. The madness of throwing away by-catch because of blunt, unintelligent fishing laws is a screaming madness that must be addressed. We can change some of this by supporting campaigns such as Greenpeace’s Fisherman’s Friend campaign http://www.greenpeace. org.uk/be-fishermans-friend-home-page and Hugh Fernley Whitingstall’s Fish Fight http://www. fishfight.net/ There is also a growing interest in the potential of using seaweeds as a food source. Of course we have eaten seaweeds for thousands of years but safe to say we’ve hardly begun to tap into the real resource of ocean plants. The oceans also contain a massive amount of energy and mankind is now exploring the potential to tap into that. The marine renewable industry is set to grow massively in the coming years. Around the world there are companies and research institutions working on this. Scotland is driving forward hard on this with plans to develop the 1.6GW of marine energy off the north Scottish coast, consent granted for the world’s largest (10MW) tidal stream project near Islay (Scottish Power and Renewables-Andritz Hydro Hammerfest). Scotland also has the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC)
Chris Hines COLUMN
which is a combined wave and tidal energy test site. http://www.emec.org.uk/
Centre for Human Health and the Environment. http:// www.bluegym.org.uk/
In Cornwall the Wave Hub has been installed on the ocean bed north of St.Ives. This giant 20MW plug socket on the ocean bed has 4 portals for different technologies to be installed and tested, and the electricity generated fed directly into the grid. http://www.wavehub.co.uk/ Irish company Ocean Energy Ltd are expected to be the first to deploy a 5MW array in the coming months. Add to that the new Marine Building at Plymouth University with its state of the art Coastal Ocean and Sediment Transport laboratory (COAST) wave tank and supporting scientists and technical team, and you can see the aspirations are being supported by hardware and knowledge. www.plymouth.ac.uk/marinebuilding In the UK we have some of the best wind conditions in Europe for generating energy but virtually no wind energy industry. We also have some of the best wave and tidal energy. Hopefully we wonâ€™t miss this boatâ€Ś
If we understand and can quantify the value of our coastal areas then maybe we will have stronger arguments to preserve and protect them from developments and pollution or just restriction of access.
Another benefit we receive from being in and around the sea is health and well being. Although we intrinsically know that being outdoors and around the sea is good for us (why else would we feel drawn and have developed so much of our tourist industry) there is now research being undertaken to quantify these benefits. Loosely bound together under the Blue Gym heading there are several research projects being undertaken at the European
Following on this theme Surfers Against Sewage have just launched the POW (Protect Our Waves) petition http://www.sas.org.uk/campaigns/protect-our-waves/ which is aiming for 100k signatures to be delivered to government in the summer of 2013. They have gained over 10k in the first week. SAS has developed a strong proactive, solution-based campaigning pedigree over the last 22 years and this campaign is the same, arguing that waves are important environmentally, economically, culturally and socially. They also recognise the importance of marine renewable and have published their guidance on marine energy impacts which will help avoid conflict between differing interests. As someone who has campaigned hard for the seas and who enjoys them in many ways it is great to see this issue of Environment Industry Magazine focusing on all things marine. My challenge is that we do that on a daily basis and build ocean and marine awareness into all of our lives and our businesses on a continuous basis. Think like an intelligent amphibian! Think planet Ocean! Copyright Chris Hines August 2012 ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |31|
JASON DREW COLUMN The history of fish and the end of civilization Let's be honest, there is not much civil about civilisation. Every animal on this planet has its place in Nature except of course Humans. Most species are somehow interconnected and interdependent in our beautiful and extraordinary world but none more so than fish and humans. Let me explain. From the earliest dawn of humankind our future has been closely linked to fish. As the first humans migrated out of Africa they followed the coasts and river systems as we began to infect the planet – always staying close to the most accessible source of ‘complete’ protein - fish. We, as mono-gastric animals, like chickens, fish and our pets like cats and dogs, need some ‘complete’ or animal protein in our diet. The cheapest and most readily available animal protein has always been fish. Having emptied our inland and near-land fisheries we then turned to the open seas with more and more technology, aggression and disdain for our eco-systems. From the earliest net fishermen in southern Spain through the first fishing of the grand banks in the1600’s until its eventual collapse, we have been eating our way down the fish food chain. The arctic krill fishermen of today are reaching and exploiting the end of that line. Since we have started to destroy our seas (see last months ‘Let them eat fisheries reports’) we are now beginning to determine nothing less than the future of our civilization. Our so called leaders are fiddling with the controls of a system they simply do not understand and do not care about, beyond whether it will deliver votes and secure their salaries and power. They have promoted un-commercial commercial fishing – where to survive our fishermen have to industrialise and rape the last vestiges of our seas in order to convert the diverse contents of our oceans into human biomass and profit. |32| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
That we subsidise this effrontery to common sense with our taxes is a disgrace – were the law of Ecocide to exist as the fifth UN crime against peace (as tirelessly campaigned for by Polly Higgins) many of our politicians and leaders of NGO’s would end up where they belong - in jail. When the EU’s seas emptied these so-called leaders diverted the EU’s fleet recapitalization fund into purchasing fishing rights off West Africa and proceeded to empty their seas. These same people were then surprised when the displaced fishermen migrate with their families to Europe to live off a system that has ruined their livelihoods and to buy subsidized fish caught in the waters of their home countries. As our seas empty many of the 800 million subsistence fishermen around our global shores will have to migrate to survive and place increasing pressure on our cities and their food structures. Over 75% of our growing population will be urban by 2050 up from 50% just a few years ago. This massive migration in search of a future and food will at least in part be due to the emptying of our seas. The environmental migrations of the next 30 years will dwarf the economic migration of the last 50 years. How we handle this migration will determine the future of our civilization. We have seen states collapse in the environmentally hard hit hardest areas, from the fishermen of the west coast of Africa to the populations of Somalia and Eritrea. As these people migrate to neighbouring under resourced countries state failure may well become contagious. We cannot fix everything at once but we have to start somewhere and where better than the most easily solvable environmental crisis – our seas. We need to abolish the global institutions we currently suffer under – they are the products of post-war industrial revolution thinking. We need new institutions and leadership to manage our future in this, the sustainability revolution. The introduction of a global network of national and open water marine reserves under the stewardship of a new global fisheries body would be a start. We can still manage our seas and provide enough, for all, forever. It’s not too late. Lets get busy repairing our future. Jason Drew Author of The Protein Crunch – Civilization on the brink www.theproteincrunch.com Twitter @proteincrunch Facebook theproteincrunch
Amendment 1313 Alain Cadec Proposal for a regulation Part 3 – article 11 – paragraph 1 – point e Text proposed by the Commission (e) technical measures including measures concerning the elimination of unwanted catches; Amendment (e) technical measures including measures concerning the significant reduction of unwanted catches;
STEVE GRANT COLUMN
Writ large in the book of eternal shame. Like a great many of us, I am somewhat disappointed (or more accurately, bloody furious) about the desperate fudge from the EU on fishing discards. Lots of words, no definite dates, with some of the most vulnerable and most pressurised species such as cod, haddock and plaice having to wait until 2018 or later until a ban is fully in force. And that’s if the Spanish and French über-fleet owners don’t get their way. The powerful lobby of self-interested industrialists have now demonstrated beyond all doubt that they are focussed exclusively on the short term and maximum immediate profitability. When we are talking about the continued existence of entire species in any meaningful numbers, it is my view that such people should be excluded from the debate. Were we discussing the fate of the tiger or the African white rhino, would we consider including in the debate those who say that their hunters would be put out of work unless they are allowed to continue to freely exploit the ‘stocks’ of tiger and rhino? Indeed, would we listen to them earnestly when they stated that the biologists and zoologists were wrong, and not only were there greater stocks of these mammals to be exploited, but that the species in question were far more resilient than they would have us believe? Of course not. Rangers in the Kruger National Park have been at war with poachers for some years, with fatalities on both sides. The government in the state of Maharashtra in India now allows forest rangers to shoot poachers on sight, and injuring or killing someone they suspect to be a poacher will carry no penalty. But I digress. I haven’t read all the amendments to the regulations, but I have read a goodly chunk. They consist of detailed sets of amended wording with some new paragraphs. To give you some idea (my italics)
There are 2,549 of these, and that one’s a pretty good example because it shows how the proposals have been virtually scuppered. The word ‘elimination’ is unambiguous. The term ‘significant reduction’ is a fudge that suits everybody because it means nothing. Our fisheries minister, Richard Benyon, can state accurately that the EU has agreed on ‘significant reductions’ whilst the reality is that the term lets the average Spanish fishing magnate off the hook, or more accurately, out of the net. What’s the point of such a term without defining what is acceptable as ‘significant’? I used the term ‘goodly chunk’ earlier for a purpose. It means very little. Indeed, you could substitute it by a ‘significant number’. To put this into perspective, it was in March last year that it was announced there was a plan to end discarding, supported by several states including the UK, France, Germany and Denmark. It was the general feeling that an end to discarding was in sight, possibly within two years, i.e. 2013. Maria Damanaki – who it must be said has remained resolute – told the summit that "I consider discarding of fish unethical, a waste of natural resources and a waste of fishermen's effort. But I would like to go further – since our stocks are declining, these figures are not justifiable anymore”. Since then, the interested parties went to work and the result is what even the most diplomatic among us could only call ‘a small step in the right direction’. I think it clear that the fudge came about because of the threat of a Joint Declaration that was to be signed by France, Spain, Belgium, Portugal and others; too many to ignore. In the end, it was not tabled but that was never its function. In stark contrast to the 2,549 amendments, it contains only seven points. It is a scurrilous, contradictory and thoroughly dishonourable piece of work; it was a thinly veiled, two-faced declaration of war on Maria Damanaki’s proposals. It has done its job, and the names of those who drafted and later supported it should be writ large in the book of eternal shame. The declaration is short, and can be seen at http://cfp-reformwatch.eu/2012/03/member-states-try-toblock-discard-ban/
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |33|
Conservation 36 - 39
The ecological value of brownfield land - Dr Sarah Henshall
40 - 42
Butterfly Business - Dr Martin Warren
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Miscellany |34| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The ecological value of brownfield land By Dr Sarah Henshall; Brownfield Conservation Officer
If you asked the question ‘what are the UK’s most wildlife rich sites?’ the likely response would be ‘ancient woodlands, lowland heaths or the meadows’. I guarantee an abandoned oil refinery, former power station, brick pit or colliery would not be mentioned. These types of sites are known as brownfields, and it is sites like these that support some the UK’s most rare and endangered invertebrates. Brownfields have become havens for wildlife, as reflected by two of the top five most biodiverse sites in the UK being brownfields. In fact Canvey Wick a former oil refinery in Essex, designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest specifically for its brownfield invertebrate fauna, supports more biodiversity per square foot than any other site in the UK. Despite this wealth of wildlife, brownfield sites have an image problem; their very name is drab, uninspiring and they are viewed by many as messy, abandoned areas often associated with antisocial behaviour, whereas greenfield sites evoke images of lush, healthy wildlife rich habitats. The evidence is clear some brownfields can be more important for wildlife than greenfields, yet they are prioritised for development purely because they are classed as brownfield sites. Many of the UK’s most threatened invertebrate species have a strong association with brownfield habitats, which also support important populations of Great crested newt, Slow worm, Common lizard and Black redstart. An estimated 12-15% of nationally rare and scarce invertebrates have been recorded from Britain’s brownfields, with some found nowhere else. As the value of brownfield land is slowly being recognised, with biodiversity comparable to that of ancient woodlands, they are becoming regarded as ‘the new lowland heaths and flower-rich meadows’. Brownfield sites can provide a mosaic of habitats and abundant wildflowers. They often replicate habitat features found on lowland heath, chalk downland and dune systems. Many wildlife-rich brownfield sites develop as a result of abandonment and periodic disturbance, combined with low nutrient content or contaminated soils and introduced substrates, such as Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA) blast furnace slag or sandy river dredgings, preventing fast growing species from becoming dominant. A rich plant diversity can then develop, particularly where drought-stress occurs. Many invertebrates live or overwinter in plant stems or leaves, making the lack of management in the form of mowing or grazing in brownfield sites crucial to maintaining their populations. Variation across brownfield sites from the removal and addition of substrates, hard surfaces and changes in hydrology, allow even small sites to contain a variety of habitats. Many invertebrate species have complex life-cycles, with different requirements at different stages often requiring two or more habitat types in close proximity i.e. bare ground for nesting and nectar rich flowers to feed on. The habitat mosaic found on good brownfield ► |36| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
sites is essential to the survival of these species, particularly due to modern declines in more natural habitats, such as flower-rich grasslands. The degradation of the wider countryside due to agricultural improvement and development pressures means that brownfield sites are becoming increasingly important within ecological networks, providing refuges and linkages between other more traditional habitats to sustain biodiversity. While brownfield sites can support an incredible diversity of plants and animals, it is not sites in isolation that are important, but a network of sites to allow species to move around the landscape. The importance that brownfield sites can have in supporting biodiversity has been recognised by the Government through its inclusion in the UK Biodiversity Action Plan (UKBAP), under the priority habitat ‘Open Mosaic Habitats on Previously Developed Land’ (OMHPDL). The addition of this new UKBAP habitat in 2007 now means that wildlife-rich areas of brownfield land are regarded as a priority for conservation.
Biodiversity in the Thames Gateway Table 1: UKBAP priority species associated with brownfield sites in the Thames Gateway
Distinguished jumping spider
Brachinus sclopeta Ophonus melletii
Streaked bombardier beetle Mellet’s downy-back beetle
Hornet robber fly
Campsicnemus magius Dorycera graminum
Fancy-legged fly Phoenix fly
Brown-banded carder bee
Bombus ruderarius Bombus sylvarum
Red-shanked carder bee Shrill carder bee
Sea aster mining bee
Hymenoptera Hymenoptera Hymenoptera
Eumenidae Sphecidae Sphecidae
Odynerus melanocephalus Cerceris quadricinta Cerceris quinquefasciata
Black-headed mason wasp Four-banded weevil-wasp Five-banded weevil-wasp
Horehound long-horn moth
The Thames Gateway contains coastal marshes that are known to support a wealth of biodiversity; however, in recent years it has become clear that the region’s brownfield sites are home to communities of nationally important invertebrates, many of which are found nowhere else in the UK. At least 15 UK BAP species are strongly associated with brownfield habitats in the Thames Gateway (Table 1), including the Streaked bombardier beetle (Brachinus sclopeta) and Distinguished jumping spider (Sitticus distinguendus) (Figure 1), whose distributions are entirely restricted to a few Thames Gateway brownfield sites. The region also contains what may well be the most important population of the Shrill carder ►
Figure 1. Distinguished jumping spider (copyright Peter Harvey) ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |37|
Threats to Brownfield land in the Thames Gateway Figure 2. Shrill Carder beeBombus sylvarum
bee (Bombus sylvarum) in the UK (Bumblebee Conservation) (Figure 2), which relies heavily on the wildflower resources of brownfields. In addition, over one hundred Red Data Book species and over 400 Nationally Scarce species have been recorded on brownfield sites in the region. The Thames Gateway has a unique climate that is more continental than the rest of the UK, with low rainfall which regularly causes soil water deficit, higher than average temperatures and sunshine levels in summer, and mild winters. Traditionally, the climate helped to maintain dry, open habitats, allowing a flora and fauna with continental and Mediterranean elements to develop, with many at the northerly limits of their range and unable to survive elsewhere in the UK. Much of the important wildlife in the Thames Gateway can be considered to be fauna of the former Thames Terrace Grassland communities, associated with dry, flower-rich, open grasslands on nutrient-poor sands and gravels. Very few semi-natural Thames Terrace habitats still survive, resulting in characteristic fauna being increasingly dependent on the network of open habitats that develop on brownfields. The habitat mosaics that develop on nutrient poor substrates in pulverised fly-ash (PFA) lagoons, silt lagoons, and abandoned sand and gravel quarries for example, now act as important refugia for plants and animals that once were widespread in the region. Unmanaged flower-rich grasslands with sparsely vegetated areas, developed over many years on poor substrate, are a key part of the extensive mosaic of habitats which supports a range of thermophillic species at the edge of their range in southern England. As a result the East Thames Corridor alone contains a remarkable concentration of rare and scarce invertebrates, including 74% of the national aculeate Hymenoptera fauna. Many sites in the region have now been shown to support invertebrate assemblages of national importance, with all major terrestrial invertebrate groups well represented. |38| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The Thames Gateway is Europe’s largest regeneration area and the UK’s largest economic programme, stretching over 40 miles and aiming to encourage economic growth throughout the Greater South East. Central to the economic policy is the large volume of brownfield land that can be redeveloped for housing and business, with the eventual aim of creating 110,000 new homes and 225,000 new jobs by 2016. Much of this new development is taking place on the derelict industrial areas and wharves which make up the largest area of brownfield land in the south of England. Unfortunately, many of the rare invertebrate species found in the Thames Gateway exist as large metapopulations, relying on a network of suitable, high quality brownfield sites across the landscape. The persistent degradation and fragmentation of habitat could very easily lead to unviable populations and cause localised extinctions of invertebrates. As brownfield sites are lost across the Thames Gateway, as a result of urban regeneration projects, the cumulative impacts of local extinctions could conceivably lead to the loss of some species entirely from the UK’s fauna. Species that are restricted to one or two sites i.e. Streaked bombardier beetle and Distinguished jumping spider are even more vulnerable to the impacts of development as total populations can be wiped out by the loss of a single site. All of a Buzz in the Thames Gateway Between 2005 and 2008, Buglife collaborated with English Nature (now Natural England) for the ‘All of a Buzz in the Thames Gateway’ project. The project was the largest brownfield bioidiversity study to date, and developed a new rapid approach to the identification of brownfield biodiversity. The project was the first to quantify the ecological importance of brownfield land for biodiversity at a landscape scale, mapping over 6,900 hectares of brownfield, before assessing the ecological value of 450 sites. The key finding was that over 40% of brownfield sites in the region were High or Medium potential for invertebrate biodiversity1. Invertebrate species records were also collated, with over 300 records for about 7,500 species from the Thames Gateway. Almost 3,000 of these species were recorded on brownfield sites, of which over a third were identified as species of conservation concern. In 2011 we revisited the dataset to assess how many of these sites still remained. Only 49%, or 98 out of the 198 sites assessed as being of Medium or High potential for invertebrates in the Thames Gateway, are intact and do not have a planning permission granted that would be expected to cause the loss of interest at the site. Regardless of granted planning permissions, over a third of sites have been lost, with 34% of High potential and 39% of Medium potential sites either destroyed or partially destroyed across the region to date. When planning permissions are included and it is assumed that development will progress, the proportion reaches over half of all sites, with only minimal difference between the loss of Medium potential (49%) and High potential (52%) sites. ►
Table 2: Results for the whole Thames Gateway
Total No. of Sites
High Medium Total
107 91 198
52 46 98
21 12 33
15 24 39
Planning Permission Granted 19 9 28
Figure 3: Pie charts showing the proportions of Thames Gateway sites that are intact, destroyed or with a planning permission granted
The Thames Gateway can be split into three regions: London, Essex and Kent. The loss of sites varied between these areas with the London area showing the highest development rates in the Gateway with over half of all sites lost to some extent. At least 60% of Medium potential and 48% of High potential sites have already been destroyed or partially destroyed. When planning permissions that have been granted are considered and assumed to progress, less than a third of sites will remain, with 72% of Medium potential and 65% of High potential sites destroyed or partially destroyed. Should these planning permissions result in the loss of sites, only 22 of the 72 sites assessed as being of Medium or High potential will remain intact.
These results make alarming reading. In spite of the known value of some brownfield sites to support UKBAP habitat species and a wealth of rare and endangered wildlife these sites are still being prioritised for development and being destroyed. The Thames Gateway is not alone, there is huge pressure to develop and regenerate brownfield land in other regions in the UK such as the West Midlands, North East and North West England. If we continue to lose sites at such a rapid rate the resource of wildlife rich brownfield sites in the Thames Gateway could be lost in 5-10 years! This is a serious problem for the wildlife that relies on them and will undoubtedly result in local extinctions and population crashes of rare and endangered invertebrates. The new National Planning Policy Framework (NPPF) encourages the effective use of land by reusing land that has been previously developed (brownfield land), provided that it is not of high environmental value. There is a nod to the potential importance of brownfield, however we will have to wait and see how this is interpreted and implemented. Without a definition of high environmental value we fear that the NPPF does not go far enough to ensure important brownfield sites are protected. Buglife is raising awareness about the potential importance of brownfields, heading campaigns to save threatened sites, and we are working with planners, developers and ecologists to ensure high quality sites are sympathetically developed, and losses of important habitat are mitigated and compensated for. â–
+ For More Information www.buglife.org
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |39|
y fl r e t t BuBusiness By Dr Martin Warren, Chief Executive of the charity Butterfly Conservation
Freedom, beauty, fragility, health, nature, peace, spiritual wellbeing, transformation. These are just a few of the ways that butterflies are used in advertising to sell anything from cars to life insurance. In fact, they are probably the most widely used wildlife symbol in the commercial sector. But their symbolism and value goes far beyond this to tell us about the state of the natural world and the health of the environment we live in. In the UK, we have around 60 species of butterfly, ranging from the diminutive Small Blue with a wingspan of just 2cm to the impressive Swallowtail at 9cm. They have been studied intensively in this country for hundreds of years and, as a result, UK butterflies are probably the best known insect group in the world. Butterflies are now widely used in scientific research to study factors ranging from climate change to the refraction patterns from the intricate layers of scales on their wings. Their status is being monitored closely by the charity Butterfly Conservation, which was formed in 1968 by enthusiasts concerned about the plight of butterflies. The charity has always enjoyed the active support of prominent naturalists including Sir Peter Scott who was our first President and Sir David Attenborough, our current President. Over the last 20 years Butterfly Conservation has gathered over 8 million records from over 10,000 volunteers to assess the status and trends of butterflies. The results are deeply worrying. Five species have become extinct and many species that were once widespread are now restricted to a few small areas. Recent surveys show that three-quarters of species have declined in range or abundance in the last decade and a third of our butterflies are threatened with extinction. Even some very widespread and familiar species, such as the Small Tortoiseshell have declined seriously, in this case by 64% over 10 years. Only a minority of species are doing well, with around 15 species spreading northwards, almost certainly due to climate change. As butterflies are representative of many other insects, which collectively comprise two-thirds of all species globally, this decline indicates a massive loss of biodiversity that may represent the sixth mass extinction event in the earthâ€™s history.
Causes of decline
The main factor driving these declines are man-made changes to the way the landscape is managed, which has led to massive loss of the habitats on which butterflies and other wildlife depend. Butterflies go through an annual life cycle where a tiny egg hatches into a caterpillar which feeds and eventually turns into a chrysalis, which, in turn, becomes the beautiful â–ş |40| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
adult butterfly. Each species has evolved to feed on just a small number of caterpillar food-plants but most are choosy, so they need the right food-plant growing in the right places in order to survive. It is this attribute that makes them such sensitive indicators of changes in the environment. Sadly, the habitats where many species live have become greatly reduced across most parts of the UK. Important habitats for butterflies are flower-rich grasslands and ancient deciduous woodland, which both contain a wide range of food-plants as well as wildflowers which provide nectar sources for adults. These habitats have declined by over 95% and 50% respectively over the last 50 years, leaving many butterflies breeding on small patches of land where they are struggling to survive. Going alongside this loss of habitats has been radical changes in the way land is managed. Most grassland needs the right sort of grazing to maintain the wildflowers and good conditions for caterpillar survival. Woodlands need management to create sunny clearings for butterflies to thrive. In many areas, such habitats have become neglected leading to tall, rank grass and shady woodlands where only a few species can thrive. A third problem is the small size of remaining patches which results in small populations that are vulnerable to extinction.
Bringing back butterflies
Butterfly Conservation is working at a number of levels to reverse these declines and to encourage butterflies to thrive. Our main work is with farmers and landowners of important habitats, where we give practical advice on management and habitat enhancement. We conduct research to underpin this advice, often in conjunction with universities. We also work with the government conservation agencies, such as Natural England, to make sure that environmental stewardship schemes are delivering the best management for both butterflies and farmers. We have our own nature reserves where we conserve threatened species and demonstrate best management practice.
Working in partnership
Another important thread of our work is with companies who use a corporate partnership with Butterfly Conservation in order to help develop and implement their own environmental and biodiversity strategies. We have for example a highly productive partnership with Marks and Spencer as part of their Plan A sustainability strategy and their aim to become the greenest retailer in Britain by 2015. With them we have developed the Big Butterfly Count, a citizen science programme which aims to get people closer to nature by counting butterflies. Last year over 34,000 people were involved including many schools through a parallel scheme run by the National Schools Partnership (see www.bigbutterflycount.org). We have also worked with them to provide information to their many thousands of farm suppliers on how to conserve butterflies and wildlife, as well as advising on wildflower plantings around their offices and supply warehouses. Other company relationships, including those with NFU Mutual, Banrock Station Wines and Naturetrek, help advance our corporate partners green credentials whilst providing income for us to develop landscape projects and conserve our beautiful butterflies for future generations to enjoy. We believe there are huge opportunities for companies to get involved and make a real contribution to improving our environment. â–ş
To overcome the problem of habitat fragmentation, our work often involves conserving butterflies across whole landscapes, working with a wide range of landowners and other wildlife groups such as the county Wildlife Trusts, National Trust and RSPB. Such landscape scale projects are proving highly successful and bringing some of our most endangered species like the High Brown Fritillary and Wood White back from the brink of extinction.
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |41|
The Swallowtail is our largest butterfly with a wingspan of 9cm. Its spectacular shape and colouring have been widely used in art and advertising. (Photo by Peter Eeles)
The High Brown Fritillary is one of our most endangered butterflies. Its range in the UK has declined by over 90% and it is now found on less than 50 sites. Butterfly Conservation has developed several landscape scale projects which are bringing it back from the brink of extinction in Cumbria and Devon. (Photo by Peter Eeles)
The Large Blue is an international conservation success story. It is a globally threatened species that became extinct in Britain in 1976, but has since been successfully re-introduced and is now thriving on over 15 sites. (Photo by Martin Warren)
The Small Tortoiseshell epitomises the decline of widespread species. It was once extremely abundant across the UK but has declined in numbers by 64% in the last decade, and by over 75% in south-east England. (Photo by Martin Warren) â–
+ For More Information www.butterfly-conservation.org |42| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Energy 46 - 47
New Kitemark to recognise best practice Green Deal Advisors â€“ Elaine Munro
48 - 50
Optimising energy output from waste - Peter Jones
51 - 53
Effective Energy Management â€“ Marie-France Crevecoeur
54 - 55
Will the UK solar industry ever hit the mainstream? - Dr Shawn Qu
56 - 57
Energy Event 12
58 - 59
The Renewables Event
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Miscellany |44| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
New Kitemark to recognise best practice Green Deal Advisors; Installers and Product
Elaine Munro, Sector Head, BSI
The Green Deal is a Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) scheme that allows homeowners and commercial property owners to improve the energy efficiency of their homes and buildings by installing energy efficient products for their properties without any upfront charge. The cost of materials, products and the related installation will be applied to energy bills, which over the life of the product will be offset by savings on energy use. The mechanism for retrieving the cost of the products and installation is via the energy bill associated with the property, which will be maintained at a higher level than the actual energy used until such time as the cost of the service supplied is met. The delivery of the Green Deal requires that a certified advisor surveys the property and provides the property owner with a report detailing the benefits of retro fitting energy saving products registered as Green Deal compliant. The property owner can then select a Green Deal |46| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
provider with whom they will contract for the finance arrangements and subsequently select a certified Green Deal Installer to conduct the work. The advisors and the installers could be part of the providers organisation or independent. BSI is accredited by the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS) to certify organisations to the Green Deal certification process. Several organisations are accredited to be certification bodies under this scheme, but only BSI currently has accreditation to certify Green Deal advisors and installers for all 26 installation measures under the scheme. A measure is a product or system, when installed providing improved energy saving characteristics. In addition to being an accredited body to provide Green Deal Certification, BSI is piloting a new Kitemark for Energy Efficient Buildings (EEB) which is a framework scheme that encompasses the Department
of Energy and Climate Change Green Deal requirements. The EEB Kitemark will be an enhanced process against which BSI can certify Green Deal products, advisors and installers to confirm their compliance with the Green Deal requirements, plus additional elements which will provide a higher level of customer confidence and third party monitoring of the process in support of the Government initiative. BSI’s new Kitemark for Energy Efficient Buildings will be applicable to all products, Green Deal Advice reports and installations covered under the Green Deal. The EEB Kitemark can be characterised as the Green Deal Certification “Plus”. The Green Deal Certification will provide adequate oversight for assuring the Green Deal advice provided is acceptable and that the installers are competent. However the DECC, requirements for Green Deal Advisors and PAS 2030, requirements for Green Deal installers, against which they are assessed, do ►
not include many customer service requirements. PAS 2030 was written by BSI in conjunction with all relevant stakeholders on behalf of DECC. The Energy Efficient Buildings Kitemark provides this integrated certification process which is intended to enhance consumer understanding and trust of the initiative, reassure homeowners and commercial landlords about the quality of the various Green Deal suppliers and products and give people the confidence to take part in the scheme. The launch of the new Kitemark for Energy Efficient Buildings will provide confidence and security for property owners, whilst also providing a mechanism for premier product and service suppliers the opportunity to differentiate their businesses in the market place by being awarded the Kitemark, after a rigorous independent assessment by BSI. BSI recently commissioned a survey on consumer perceptions of the Green Deal which revealed that only one in five homeowners is set to participate in the scheme with the majority admitting they do not know enough about it to enable them to have confidence in the delivery process and the resulting benefits.
More than 1,200 respondents have contributed to the research, commissioned by BSI, which has monitored perceptions of the Green Deal throughout the first half of 2012. 89% stated that they require more information from independent third parties about the initiative before purchasing Green Deal accredited products and services. BSI, the originator of the Kitemark, also found that nearly 70% of those surveyed were aware of the Kitemark as a trusted source of environmental guidance. More than half of those surveyed also said that they were likely to use Kitemark accredited products and services as it symbolises independent certification, integrity and trust.
with its clients to highlight the benefits of the programme in support of the scheme. In doing so, the aim is for retailers to reassure customers and encourage their participation in the scheme to make it a success, whilst at the same time visibly placing themselves as a premium supplier of Green Deal services to property owners.
These latest insights reinforce the view that by applying the Kitemark to their offering, retailers can increase sales by helping consumers identify products and services that comply with requirements. They also importantly provide the added benefits of a highly recognised and trusted third party to endorse their processes and products in the market place.
“Retailers will be crucial to making the scheme a success and providing consumers with the education and certified products they need. We will work in partnership with our clients, to support them as they rollout their Kitemark range, ultimately helping the Government meet its 2020 sustainability objectives.”
Following successful completion of the pilot, planned for the end of September 2012, BSI will formally launch the scheme to the market place and will be working closely
Maureen Sumner Smith, Global Marketing Director, said: “There is a strong appetite for green initiatives among UK consumers, but our survey demonstrates the need for support and guidance surrounding the Green Deal to enable property owners to make informed decisions with a high level of confidence.
Kitemark is the UK’s premier certification mark with the majority of respondents in BSI’s Green Deal research confirming that they would be more likely to use Kitemark certified products, advisors and installers. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |47|
imising energy outp ptimising energy outpu Optimising energy output Optimising energy output from waste
Peter Jones, chairman of Waste2Tricity and special advisor on waste
There has been a drive to find a technology that will efficiently extract energy from waste. As the market has developed, there has certainly been a lot of government interest in promoting advanced conversion technologies. The UK government has been focused on Advanced Conversion Technology – pyrolysis, gasification and anaerobic digestion. Waste2Tricity has focused on gasification. Current techniques of high temperature air enriched thermal processes need around 2030,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) every year for each 1MW of electrical generating capacity. However, Waste2Tricity (W2T) believes it's well on its way to generating the same amount of power from as little as 7-10,000 tonnes. Peter Jones, Chairman of Waste2Tricity, explains how this can be achieved.
to the Mayor of London’s
electricity. By forming consortia, identifying exit markets and reducing carbon footprints we will increase the rate of energy conversion and enable the sale of the end product for a higher value per gigajoule of energy. As the UK consents more waste facilities there will be a potential surplus of capacity compared to the tonnage in the waste stream. So determining the right technological solution will revolve around three key critical elements: generating maximum energetic conversion efficiency from the waste; selling that energy at a higher price than anyone else, and doing so with the lowest carbon footprint in the process (thus obviating future threats from Carbon tax exposure). Meeting those three criteria more successfully than others will produce a strong competitive advantage in reducing feedstock gate fees to maintain operational effectiveness. W2T works with partners and clients who want to utilise proven plasmagasification technology at the front-end and proven ICEs or gas turbines (GTs) at the back-end of their operations. In this process waste enters a plasma gasification chamber and is turned into syngas by the application of very high temperatures in a controlled oxygen environment. The syngas is cleaned and fed into an ICE or GT to generate electrical power and finally it goes through a transformer before distribution. At both front and back ends this configuration has significant advantages over the prevailing thermal EfW industry standard – mass burn technology. ►
" to apply the most efficient and economic technologies to achieve the effective conversion of scrap carbon to energy "
In 2009 W2T was established as a ‘structured solutions provider’ to the energy-from-waste (EfW) sector. It is a company that intends to take carbon-based waste – either MSW or waste from business and industry – and convert it into clean electricity, creating the potential for a new technology to change the face of the EfW industry. The company’s business plan is based on a simple premise – to apply the most efficient and economic technologies to achieve the effective conversion of scrap carbon to energy.
In our process we will convert our waste into a syngas in an air starved chamber, which is then either fed into an internal combustion engine (ICE) or converted to hydrogen for a fuel cell, to produce |48| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
W2T has also secured exclusive UK rights for waste-derived hydrogen applications for AFC Energy’s low cost alkaline fuel cells, having identified this technology as offering the highest possible conversion rate of hydrogen to electricity at the lowest possible cost. In terms of this process, the syngas from the gasifier will be cleaned, processed and then all of the energy gases will be converted into hydrogen, leaving all the CO2 in a captured state. The hydrogen will then be fed into new generation AFC Energy alkaline fuel cells, in place of ICEs or GT’s. This will result in a substantial increase in the gross generated electricity from the same feedstock input, in the region of 50% additional power output. In the case of the Teesside project deploying fuel cells would increase total output over the projected combined cycle power island from 49 to over 70MW and in the W2T project 80,000 tons of MSW/C+I waste would produce approx 17MW. As a ‘structured solutions provider’ to the energy from waste sector, W2T has dual commitments to deliver technology that is future-proofed and to develop programmes that will be proven, profitable and progressive. Currently we are involved in two main deployment projects and a development programme which we believe will define the EfW market for the foreseeable future. The first deployment project for the fuel cells is being investigated with global gas supplier Air Products. Air Products has secured planning consent to develop a 49MW (330,000 tonne) gasification EfW facility, deploying gas turbines, near Billingham, Teesside, and this project will in addition demonstrate fuel cells on hydrogen slipstreamed from the syngas stream. W2T identified the Teesside site for Air Products and this facility will produce around 49MW of electricity, enough to power 50,000 homes in the region - but it is not just homes that this type of systems could benefit. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |49|
The benefits of future projects are about delivering energy security for big employers at locations such as docks, industrial estates, warehouses and hospitals, places with half hourly interruptible power supplies. The aim is to deliver these waste technology plants into a framework to underpin supply to their local employers via private wires. It’s not just about waste any more, it’s about industry’s energy supply and reducing carbon footprint at a time when energy prices are rising. It’s the energy load at the point of demand that will drive the technology, so you won’t employ anaerobic digestion if you need combined heat and power; and you wouldn’t necessarily put a gasifier in if you were right next to a plastics recycling plant. The right technology depends on where, and what, the demand for substitution of fossil energy is. For every tonne of waste these new technologies can make more money and so allow the operators to outbid others when more waste feedstock becomes available, which is vital as we move away from being an industry that simply solves the problem of waste and makes money from gate fees, to one that makes money from backend processes: converting our feedstock – waste – into products, selling gas, electricity, recyclate or whatever. With carbon taxation on its way, making a profit from a process with a lower carbon footprint will be vital. The second deployment project is part of a consortium to develop smaller scale (circa 12MW/80,000 tonne) plasma gasification EfW facilities deploying ICEs. The development of smaller scale facilities affords a growth opportunity in a market that the proposed Air Products’ Teesside investment makes a commercially viable and investable reality.
W2T is developing relationships with key partners that will help it identify sites and we see other large players – resource management companies with large balance sheets, land owners and civil engineers – entering the market and forming consortiums. As the founding consortium member, W2T is currently spearheading talks with industry specialists about a proposal to structure the investment opportunity and co-ordinate the consortium’s activities. The project lifecycle is projected to be about five years and preliminary studies indicate costs in the region of £60m. So, with end markets identified, partners to help with finding locations already in place and the Tees Valley Renewable Energy Facility set to showcase the technologies, are we set to see the “revolution” any time soon? The fuel cell technology is developmental, although the ICE system is established now, but it will take three or four years to percolate through the industry. There has been plenty of revolution, but we acknowledge there is no one solution, no silver bullet. Finance is also an issue as there is a hiatus on investment at present and those that are looking to invest are technology-centric. There is also some suspicion over new technologies.
" There has been plenty of revolution, but we acknowledge there is no one solution, no silver bullet. " |50| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
To maximise the investment case, at W2T we identify the exit markets for the product and work backwards, looking at supplying renewable energy in situ. Because putting the energy into the Grid is a large component of the supply chain cost, smaller scale local distribution solutions are where the “revolution” looks set to start. ■
Marie-France Crevecoeur, Global Launch Manager from Honeywell Building Solutions explains the need for managing buildings efficiently to reduce the operating expenses of running a building. Those with responsibility for the efficient and effective management of a building find themselves in a challenging situation. The unremitting financial pressure on organisations of all kinds is reflected in the on-going drive to reduce costs. But the ability to achieve savings is often hamstrung by a reluctance to invest the capital required â€“ none the more so than in energy management. Despite common perceptions the value of improved energy management is not restricted to carbon reduction and cost savings. A holistic view of its impact on a facility and on what happens in that facility could include improvements to working conditions, improved productivity and staff motivation, and improved billing or cost allocations. What the organisation can actually do is wideranging. The energy market is still relatively immature. Energy managers are faced with a disparate array of organisations offering a choice of technology options, which all effectively promise the same thing â€“ optimised energy consumption and reduced costs. â–ş
Effective energy management Marie-France Crevecoeur, Global Launch Manager, Honeywell
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So, how do energy managers ensure that they are committing to a course of action that will help them to achieve objectives that have probably been set elsewhere in the business? The keys are knowledge and context, plus the ability to benchmark, measure, plan and then verify the actions taken and the investments made – thus ensuring that promises made are actually delivered. However, before any major investment decision is made or even considered, there are actions every organisation can and should implement. These will enable the energy manager and the organisation to base any prospective investment decisions on a solid platform of facts and data. By extracting data from building systems and equipment, organisations can pick and utilise the data that are key to their businesses outcomes to base their investment decision on. Modern low impact solutions should be able to align with the existing systems and collect data from them in order to recognise trends, highlight issues, analyse faults and recommend actions – and, where appropriate, implement corrective actions in real time. In order to make matters easier, Honeywell has launched the AttuneTM Advisory Services - a suite of software and minimal hardware which utilises cloud computing technology to monitor, analyse and manage buildings, reducing utility bills and operating expenses by up to 20%. It is expected to help building owners and energy managers, looking to improve operational efficiency or reduce energy and supports, to gain baseline awareness of building performance, make improvements to the facility and define an on-going strategy to manage and optimise a facility.
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Major savings; minor costs Historically, improving energy management has meant changing current hardware to better hardware. In many instances, this is still the case. One sector keenly looking to bring down energy costs where possible is publically funded buildings and services. A report produced by the NHS’ Sustainable Development Unit in February 2010 looked at potential energy savings that could be achieved in hospital facilities by 2015. While the report called for the installation of high impact measures like Combined Heat and Power systems it also highlighted how running a building efficiently can drastically increase the efficiency of the plant, insulation or energy supplies. These complementary, low capital ‘control and awareness’ measures reduce energy and would account for over 28% of the potential CO2 savings (more than CHP or renewable) and over 37% of the potential net annualised savings. Implementing these lower capital cost energy improvement measures (which include lighting and heating controls, building management improvements and awareness campaigns to deliver behavioural change) are therefore said to be able to achieve savings on a par with those that could be achieved through the implementation of a major capital investment project. ►
Holistic Solution Whether an organisation’s energy policy is driven by its desire to cut costs, contribute to saving the environment or to help achieve specific operational goals, the actual process of deciding what to do and when to do it has to be based on a holistic view of its building control strategy and hard facts and data, if it is to be successful. By combining powerful cloud-based tools and analytics with insight, building performance data can be converted into an action plan that pinpoints potential upgrades and their expected return on investment. Facility managers can optimise their budgets, personnel and systems by seeking advice from consultants and skilled onsite technicians.
Facility managers can optimise their budgets, personnel and systems by seeking advice from consultants and skilled onsite technicians.
Knowing if the current strategy is the right one requires a building manager to ask themselves three simple questions: • Do I know what’s going on in my building from an energy perspective? • Am I in control of my building’s energy use? • Am I doing everything I can to encourage occupants to minimise energy use? If the answer to any of the above is negative, then action has to be taken. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |53|
Will the UK solar industry ever hit the mainstream?
By Dr Shawn Qu, CEO and Founder, Canadian Solar
Introduction Protecting the environment has often been regarded as an unwarranted expense and something of an obstacle to regional economic growth. Yet, the regional value produced from locally generated renewable energy has gone a long way to disprove this theory, showing sources like solar to be a highly viable way to reduce communities energy costs whilst at the same time moving the UK closer to its goal of cutting carbon dioxide emissions by at least 80 per cent by 2050. Set out in the 2008 Climate Change Act, this goal is to be achieved through investment in energy efficiency and clean energy technologies such as renewables, nuclear, carbon capture and storage. It is an ambitious plan and one that requires buy-in from a wide spectrum of third parties, especially local communities. |54| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The solar industry is maturing, but if it ever wants to become truly mainstream, it must first win over these local communities. I believe this is eminently possible, but we have a long road ahead before reaching that goal. The case for solar energy Up until now the fear of potentially high costs has deterred many local decision-makers from considering alternative energy sources. Whilst investing in solar does require an initial outlay, the good news for those starting the installation process is that solar has never been better value for money. The price per kilowatt has already decreased considerably thanks to the ongoing innovation and increased economies of scale, whilst quality and efficiency of the models are continually on the rise.
The benefits too have never been greater - offering to boost the local balance sheet, support those in greatest need of affordable energy and demonstrate that all important commitment to the environment so vital as the environment moves increasingly up the political agenda. Aside from anything else, the use of renewable energy sources gives local authorities the possibility to make themselves independent from expensive energy imports â€“ easing the financial burden on the council purse. A solar PV installation of 550 kW on a council-run building for example, could save the council ÂŁ60,000 per year on their energy bill. Switching to a renewable energy source like solar also allows local authorities to help the most vulnerable within the community to access the energy they need. At a time when fuel prices seem â–ş
to be continuously on the up, energy poverty has become a real concern for many. The only current way people can think to stave off eye-watering bills is to reduce the amount of energy they use. Indeed recent statistics show that as the price of energy has risen by 16.2 per cent, people are now using 11 per cent less energy when comparing 2010 and 2011 figures. By installing a solar energy solution, especially for state housing, councils can help alleviate the suffering of society’s most vulnerable by providing them with a means to produce energy for free and cut their bills accordingly. For every 1.5 kW installation a household can save £331 a year on their energy bills – not a figure to be ignored. Aside from a greater independence for themselves and their constituents, there are a number of other economic advantages of alternative energy supplies. As our CEO put it during the opening of the world’s largest solar park in Senftenberg, Germany: ‘Cities and communities benefit from a cleaner environment, and, for good measure, they aggregate capital through the collection of local business tax for the solar parks. Furthermore, projects as the above have a positive impact on the local economy; most construction and operational management contracts are assigned locally.’ Sources of support Should a local authority decide to go down the renewable energy route then they will be encouraged to know that the support for their decision will stem from multiple parties.
The UK Government, for example, has a number of schemes set up to support those who wish to make their communities greener. As outlined in the 2008 UK Low Carbon Transition Plan, the Government is committed to encouraging and empowering local authorities to take additional action in tackling climate change where they wish to do so. It also believes that people should be able to look to their local authority to coordinate, tailor and drive the development of a low carbon economy in their area, in a way that suits their preferences. One such way it is offering support is through the Community Energy Saving Programme (CESP), an initiative set up as part of the Government’s Home Energy Saving Programme. It's aimed at using funding to target households across Britain (particularly those with low incomes) to improve energy efficiency standards and reduce fuel bills. This will be delivered through the development of community-based partnerships involving local authorities and certain CESP obligated energy suppliers. The programme is open for applications until December 2012. Another important source of support stems from the public themselves. According to a survey carried out this month by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), the UK population are firm supporters of renewable energy generation as part of a diverse energy generation mix. The survey also revealed that the overwhelming majority (83 per cent) supported the implementation of solar in particular, with offshore wind (76 per cent) and wave and tidal (75 per cent) coming some way behind. Times are a-changing So far, so positive, but surely this year’s cuts to the Feed in Tariff have reduced the attractiveness of solar as a renewable energy source in the UK and therefore stopping it hitting the mainstream? The truth is over the past couple of years, the solar industry has experienced a phenomenal rate of growth and its popularity can clearly be seen in the uproar generated by the tariff cuts. However, this type of growth was never going to be sustainable and some contraction of the market was to be expected. We are seeing a lot of retraction in the residential market but remain confident that the case still stands for council installations. Many local councils have already invested in solar technology or have plans in place to install the technology over the course of this year, recognising the clear value it will bring. Aside from the economic payback, the installation of solar PV panels to public buildings provides a visible statement to the public of the promotion of reliable energy generation, reduction of energy bills and an effective way to address CO2 targets. Here’s to a future of solar! ■
+ For More Information www.energysavingtrust.org.uk www.decc.gov.uk
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Energy event to raise the bar in professional development
Energy efficiency and savings will headline in each of the four theatres at The Energy Event this year as it provides access to some of the industry’s finest minds and most experienced organisations. All poised to offer the very latest thinking and a range of solutions from energy management, efficiency, procurement and knowledge through to products and services, it will keep visitors updated with the latest legislation, policies and standards in the energy sector. The comprehensive conference programme has been carefully crafted in association with august industry associations such as The Energy Institute, ESTA, Major Energy Users’ Council, Waterwise, GAMBICA, BCAS and the BCIA. It is sponsored by BIU, Dong Energy, Haven Power, M&C Energy Group, all of which are keen to ensure a steady flow of innovation and inspiration for anyone involved in energy management, procurement and efficiency. This free to attend event has already exceeded last year’s visitor registration levels, and has increased its exhibitor pool significantly. It will sit alongside two other market leading events: The Renewables Event - the new event for renewable energy technologies - and RWM in partnership with CIWM. These will, between them, cater to the needs of 20,000 energy and environment professionals and end users.
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Exhibitors such as the energyTEAM, Mitsubishi Electrical, Opus Energy and Trend Control Systems have successfully helped their clients to achieve enhanced energy savings through their innovative energy management products and solutions. energyTEAM’s unique Carbon Ladder provides its customers with a subsidised carbon reduction programme while tailoring clients’ requirements and covering areas such as energy surveys, energy awareness training, strategy planning and compliance with the CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme. Another success story comes from Trelleborg, with its flagship Industrial Anti-Vibration Mounts plant in Leicester. Trelleborg adopted a Mitsubishi Electric SCADA solution with integrated MX4 Energy software to monitor and control the plant's energy use and this resulted in an immediate six per cent decrease in energy consumption. Gambica - the Trade Association for Instrumentation, Control, Automation and Laboratory Technology in the UK - is a partner of the show, and will be demonstrating how better motor control can reduce the energy consumption on many applications in a relatively short period. Opus Energy, on the other hand, helps organisations to monitor energy usage with its free smart meters, and also to work closely with its
The ESTA Theatre is curated by the Energy Services and Technology Association (ESTA) whose seminars are designed with energy managers in mind to offer a basic understanding of principles, awareness of policy issues and effective implementation to produce savings. It also focuses on maintenance and management costs, which will help manufacturers to understand how to bring energy costs down.
Professor Brian Cox
partners to install the meters as quickly as possible, enabling its users to budget for energy usage using accurate monthly meter readings. The full conference programme for this year’s show boasts more sessions than last year with more industry thought leaders, more interaction, more case studies and more essential debate across the four theatres: The Energy Information Theatre is packed with case studies from energy users such as Wales and West Utilities, which secured savings of more than £2million and accurate monitoring systems through an integrated energy management approach. Visitors will have an opportunity to find out about ISO 50001 to understand the requirements for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving energy management systems. Phil Owen, director general of International Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, DECC, will be presenting the economics behind carbon reduction. Trevor Hutchings from DECC will be explaining to visitors how energy efficiency should fit into a strategy towards zero carbon while making energy efficiency a priority. The keynote speakers will offer some compelling guidance on current thinking and some frank views: James Woudhuysen, Professor of Forecasting and Innovation at De Montford University, will explain why he predicts that power cuts are coming and why subsidies don’t work. This theatre is not one to miss!
The Energy Insight Conference will cover debate around the issues that are crucial to professionals who are responsible for energy purchasing, carbon reduction policies and practices within their organisations. It will be chaired on the first day by Daisy McAndrew, ITV News Special Correspondent. There will be a compelling panel discussion on how the UK is set to cope with demand, and current thinking on low carbon energy sources with Bob Sorrell, Vice President of Public Partnerships, BP; Chris Train, Network Operations Director, National Grid; Mike Hogg , Managing Director, DONG Energy Sales; George Day, Strategy Director - Economics, ETI; Peter Bennell, CEO, Haven Power. Visitors also have the chance to hear from Professor Brian Cox and Alastair Campbell – both there to answer the fundamental or most challenging questions about the universe and politics, spin, and communications strategy. The afternoon sessions are curated by the Major Energy Users’ Council and will include discussions about Britain’s decarbonisation and the role and effect of bureaucracy on energy efficiency. The Hosted Content Theatre will feature presentations hosted by a mixture of exhibitors including Waterwise and npower. The seminars will cover water efficiency, energy procurement and a live energy debate. To register for your free place or for more information about the show, please visit www.theenergyevent.com/ pr and use priority code EPR15.
Exhibitors: EnergyTEAM UK Ltd, Opus Energy Limited, Mitsubishi
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Seize the opportunity to adopt low carbon energy at The Renewables Event
Organisations looking to hedge their energy requirements and consider renewable options as prices continue to rise will have a unique opportunity to get first-hand, up to the minute information about the latest technologies and viable investments at The Renewables Event on 11-12 September at the NEC, Birmingham. The Renewables Event, a unique show focussed entirely on onsite renewable energy, will welcome professionals from the industrial, commercial and public sectors looking to make an investment or simply find out more about how to make the business case for renewables. Some of the UKâ€™s leading companies in the renewables sector will be showcasing their innovative renewable energy products and solutions including: Andritz; Alumet Systems; Biomass Heating Solutions Limited (BHSL); Dulas Limited; Ecofirst; Econergy; Environmental Energies; Forever Fuels; juwi Renewable Energies; KMH Systems Ltd; MT Energie; Newform Energy; NNFCC Save Energy Group and Solar Frontier. The event is also host to an exceptional conference programme featuring informative end user case studies and panel discussions which directly address the challenges faced by organisations considering an onsite renewable energy strategy. There will also be an opportunity to study a projection of what the fast moving UK renewables industry will look like in five yearsâ€™ time and how to make renewables part of a sustainable carbon reduction strategy. The sessions are completely free to attend and CPD certified, making it a cost effective way to continue professional development. The conference and seminar programme, chaired by leading eco-design consultant Professor Rob Holdway from Giraffe Innovation, will include presentations from some highlevel innovators and influencers. Rhian Kelly, Head of Climate Change, CBI, will discuss: The business case for on-site renewable energy and how energy prices and the use of renewable technologies change the competitive positioning of UK plc. There will also be an enlightening case study from Alistair Watters, Director of Property, BSkyB, who will showcase: Creation of the most sustainable broadcasting facility in Europe using sustainable energy.
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The Renewables Event, a unique show focussed entirely on onsite renewable energy, will welcome professionals from the industrial, commercial and public sectors looking to make an investment or simply find out more about how to make the business case for re-newables.
Seminars will cover: renewable energy technologies; solar PV; biomass & anaerobic digestion; carbon reduction; sustainability; and also feature a number of practical case studies and advice on the hot topics and issues relating to the renewable energy technology sector today.
projects to social housing - from finding finance to educating occupiers. The panel session by Gary Burgess from Environmental Energies will be focussing on technologies that deliver consistent generation, generate ROI, and offer the best long term opportunities - not to be missed!
Organisations that are considering adopting renewable energy technologies but are unaware of recent developments in the renewable energy sector will benefit greatly from an in-depth industry overview on the right time to invest in onsite renewables by the Chief Executive of the Renewable Energy Association, Gaynor Hartnell. Answering questions about securing finance for renewables projects, Jemma Benson from CO2Sense will also give invaluable insight and live examples on the potential sources and structures of finance.
The show’s co-location with two other leading shows - The Energy Event and RWM in partnership with CIWM - means that, between them, the trio will showcase more than 850 exhibitors, 220 industry speakers, 20 case studies and welcome more than 20,000 energy, sustainability and environment professionals from some of the most influential organisations across the business spectrum.
Other successfully completed end-user case studies include: Selecting an appropriate solution, understanding the output and the financial model for returns, presented by Thomas Buss from E-ON; the National Trust’s end user case study on Site-appropriate renewable energy technologies which will be looking at successfully running biomass and solar PV installations, presented by Mike Clay from Dulas; South Tyneside Homes will present their story of Introducing renewables
The Renewables Event is working closely with key industry associations: Energy Services and Technology Association (ESTA); Major Energy Users’ Council (MEUC); British Photovoltaic Association (BPVA); and Renewable Energy Association (REA), to ensure its conference programme and exhibitor activity is innovative, inspirational and essential for professionals looking for the most up-to-date insight about onsite renewable energy. To register for your free place or for more information about the show, please visit www.theenergyevent.com and use priority code EPR6. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |59|
Food, Agriculture & Packaging 61 - 63
Cutbacks of small fish catches will yield big gains - Ellen K. Pikitch
64 - 65
Fish Management - Callum Roberts
68 - 69
The Ubiquity of Packaging - Keith Barnes
70 - 71
The key to a sustainable future is polythene - David Brimelow
Labs & Testing
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Cutbacks of small fish catches will yield big gains
Ellen K. Pikitch, Ph.D,
Lenfest Forage Fish Taskforce
A recent report authored by 13 preeminent scientists from around the globe shows that some of the smallest fish swimming in the seas play a disproportionately large role in ocean food webs. Often referred to as “bait fish,” these small, schooling fish, which include anchovies, herring, menhaden and sardines, are also called forage fish because so much ocean life depends upon them for food. More than half the diet of many types of seabirds, marine mammals and larger fish such as tuna, cod and salmon, consists of forage fish. These and other species that depend heavily on forage fish as prey occur commonly throughout the world’s oceans. ►
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The report also reveals that the value of forage fish left in the ocean to support production of larger, commercially important species is twice their value in a net. Overall, forage fish provide nearly $US17billion per year to commercial fisheries production. Yet alarmingly, in many places, these fish and the services they provide are in jeopardy because they are being pulled from the ocean at an unsustainably high rate. Forage fish now make up more than one-third of the world’s marine fish catch. With price and demand skyrocketing, it’s time to hit the brakes, and implement smarter management policies to avert further damage. Despite their vital role in maintaining healthy oceans and their high economic value, only in recent years have these small fish begun to garner the attention they deserve. Part of the reason for this is that our encounters with forage fish are most often indirect and inconspicuous. Only 10 percent of the forage fish catch is directly consumed by people, while the majority of the catch is processed into fishmeal and fish oil, and used in agriculture and aquaculture. Some of the oil, valued for its rich supply of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, is used in nutritional supplements. Unsustainable exploitation of forage fish would negatively affect not only the animal species but also the industries that depend on them. However, prior to the formation of the Lenfest Forage Fish Task Force, specific scientific guidance for managing forage fish in a holistic manner that recognizes their vital ecological roles was generally lacking. Following three years of intensive work involving both synthesis of existing information and development of new science, the task force recommended specific goals, targets and thresholds for forage fish management that are designed to sustain both forage fish and their predators.
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In developing its advice, the task force drew upon lessons learned from past examples of forage fish management. The consequences of ignoring interdependencies in marine ecosystems are illustrated in the case of the Barents Sea where collapses of the forage fish, capelin, due to fishing and other causes, resulted in nutritional stress and cannibalism in cod, a predator fish, with consequent economic losses to the cod fishery. Additionally, starving mammals and sea birds died or left the area. However, this situation was addressed, and the “capelin rule” was put into place, which prohibits fishing of capelin if the biomass of the population falls below a certain level. Since this rule has been implemented, there have been no additional collapses of the capelin fishery, and the cod population in the Barents Sea is the healthiest in the world. ►
After comparing conventional and precautionary management strategies, the task force found that only precautionary management protects both the fish and the predator species that depend on them. The task force determined that the amount of information available about the ecosystem and the forage fishery should establish, in part, the level of precaution managers should apply. In circumstances where basic information is lacking, the task force advises that no new forage fish fisheries should be initiated. Conversely, where there is abundant clear, and reliable information about the consequences of forage fish fishing, higher exploitation rates may be applied. Most fisheries now considered well-managed from a conventional, singlespecies perspective will likely fall within the “intermediate” information tier defined by the task force. For intermediate tier fisheries, it is recommended that catches be halved, and the amount of forage fish left in the ocean should be doubled, compared with conventional management.
+ For More Information http://www.oceanconservationscience.org/foragefish/ www.lenfestocean.org/foragefish.
The cutbacks in fishing recommended by the task force could significantly reduce catches for some ongoing forage fisheries. However, the benefits of implementing the task force’s advice should far outweigh these short-term costs. The expected benefits include more robust forage fish fisheries less subject to boom and bust cycles, healthy oceans with a full complement of marine life and an increase in the economic value of global commercial fisheries. Overall, these are mighty hefty gains to be achieved from more conservative management of some very small fish. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |63|
The Ubiquity of
Pac k ag i n g Keith Barnes, Chairman The Packaging Society
As Chairman of The Packaging Society you may well expect me to have an active interest in all areas connected with the subject which most definitely includes the environment. More than being interested I am fanatical about the subject and pass on my views at every opportunity. Of necessity Packaging surrounds us, and is essential for the smooth running and protection of all products in our modern global economy. With more sensible thinking the World has realised that the environment needs to be protected in every way for future generations, and packaging is very much a part of this philosophy. My first brush with the ‘environment’ was many years ago when packaging was wrongly accused of cutting down forests to fuel the thirst for paper and board. This, as I hope we all now know, is untrue as the paper industry has as a part of a mill infrastructure vast nursery areas for the cultivation of new trees. These will be planted and provide more forests in the future than we had previously. In the UK we now have more trees than we had in mediaeval times when the wood was used to build houses and ships. At that time there was no media to warn society of pending problems. The second area where packaging is given bad press is waste and here again we have been labelled the ‘bad guys’. Packaging has a primary function of getting the product to the consumer in perfect condition and I suggest that in most instances this is achieved. At that stage packaging usually becomes redundant and is ‘waste’ to be recycled in most cases, re-used or recovered and I will go into this in more detail. There are four main starting points for packaging – paper & board, glass, metal and plastics. In the case of paper & board this has always been partially recycled but is now virtually all recovered with some mills taking waste in at one end, converting it, and reloading the same transport at the other end with freshly produced reels of paper. It is a fact that recycled material can never match the quality of virgin material as the integral fibres are broken down in the pulping process and will ►
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be shorter. However, much research has been undertaken over the years and by separating and then re-mixing varying length fibres a reasonable compromise has been reached. To achieve the recycling target at the mill, material has to be collected and, whilst commercial waste is well controlled, our public waste through the many local authorities does on occasions show up inadequacies in the system. Glass, likewise, has been recycled for a long time and indeed ‘waste’ glass or cullet as it is called in the industry is needed in the production process. The use of cullet in the mix reduces the temperature needed to provide molten glass and as such reduces energy costs and keeps the product price down. The largest problem is coloured glass and this is why most collection banks have separate containers for various colours. Plain clear glass is the most widely used and this is difficult to obtain due to contamination at collection level. Much R&D is being undertaken to overcome this problem. Metals, mainly tinplate or aluminium, are also easy to recycle and as the saying goes: “your Coke can could be part of a Ford car side panel next week”. Local authority collection decisions vary but both metals can be easily sorted from bulk waste. In this context the UK does need to provide more separation sites with the technology to readily separate the streams of recyclate. Now we come to the black sheep of the family – plastics. In terms of packaging plastics is the most dynamic and versatile in creating solutions and forging ahead with better packaging. If we had no PET there would be vast quantities of glass bottles to house our fizzy drinks. Seriously though we in packaging do appreciate the problems as well as the benefits of this wide ranging family. In the long term it comes down to compromise with the Brand owners. Also let us not forget that packaging is now second rung on the
ladder of waste to food. Here plastics comes into its own with hybrids and additives that can provide better packaging for food. This can extend the shelf life, combat bacterial contamination and even tell when certain products are ripe for eating. This does often result in packaging that cannot be easily recycled and currently will go to landfill which none of us want. There is one logical solution, and the UK are slow to grasp it, and that is energy from waste (EFW) through incineration. Here we have a solution to two problems – a decrease in landfill and a contribution, via the National Grid, to the projected electricity shortfall. Many may voice that such installations are unsafe, but such are the rules and regulations from the EU that the smoke emitted is cleaner than many commercial chimneys around the country. Also if a new build is so designed the energy can be channelled to the local area and decreases the reliance on the National Grid. As an example a study of the Sheffield plant shows how effective this can be. I have explained much of the input that packaging has on the Environment but let me go a little further. Over the years there has always been debate about the use of trees to produce paper and board, and of course virtually any organic material can form the basis of usable pulp such as cotton, sisal, and even banana leaves. Much work is now being undertaken with plants that could be grown in harsh climates and then harvested for pulp production. If this can be commercially achieved it opens wide the possible use of deserts and poor areas of Africa where such activities could bring wealth and a better life for the poorer people in the world. In The Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, of which The Packaging Society is a Division, we are in the process of creating a new division for Natural Materials. So you can see that packaging really can help us all enjoy a better world as well as getting your product to you safely and in prime condition. ■
+ For More Information firstname.lastname@example.org
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The key to a sustainable future David Brimelow, Managing Director, Duo Plastics UK
Despite being the most reused material in the world, polythene gets bad press from environmentalists. Whether it is shops charging for polythene bags, Governments introducing bag taxes or seeking to ban them completely – polythene packaging gets a raw deal when it comes to public opinion. David Brimelow, managing director of Duo UK, puts the case for polythene and argues that it is time to take a more enlightened view. The sustainable and future-proof plan to reduce polythene in landfill is available now. The answer is to re-use it, recycle it, and produce something new, which is also capable of being recycled. Dumping it in landfill is not environmentally friendly, nor is it cost effective and it is definitely not sustainable. The UK uses over five million tonnes of plastics each year, of which an estimated 24% is recycled. From bottles, to mailing bags – plastic is a valuable and finite resource. It’s a recyclable material and, after first use, it should be recycled - preferably into a product that can then be recycled again and again. Given the current high price for oil, the economic value of used polythene is increasing, and this is a strong driver for increased recycling. Not only are polythene bags lighter than their cardboard or paper packaging alternatives – they’re also more durable, they have a longer life, and they take up less space in transit. Furthermore, the cardboard and paper alternatives are themselves organic products whose recent high prices reflect the supply constraints and increasing sustainability costs. These important, but often ignored, external factors unfairly influence the perception of polythene compared to other packaging materials.
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Bio-degradable or compostable polythene has received a lot of media attention but the bottom line is that it still involves burying a valuable re-usable resource in the ground. The reality is that the supposed “eco-friendly” option isn’t actually that green a solution, given the need to continue extracting oil from the ground to make the compostable polythene. Furthermore, the Bio-degradable bags currently on the market will only degrade when exposed to specific environmental conditions, such as exposure to UV, or pressure or dampness. They do not just disintegrate automatically in landfill. That said, there is a place in the market for biodegradable additives, but the addition of the additives that provide the compostability actually contaminates the product and prevents the polythene from being recycled. This is already having a negative effect on the volume of recyclable polythene available in the marketplace and increases the cost and availability of recycled pellet to meet the ever increasing demand for recycled content products. Some packaging buyers are leading the way in the drive for more recycling and, as part of their corporate social responsibility initiatives, they are making a conscious effort to save their packaging waste from a destiny in landfill and at the same time reduce their carbon footprint. E-tailers such as JD Williams’ run in-house schemes to segregate packaging waste (polythene, paper, and card) in their fulfillment sites. Duo, which manufactures polythene packaging for the firm, then collects the polythene waste when they deliver new products, and recycle it in their own reprocessing plant. This is known as a closed loop recycling process. This is mixed with scrap material produced during the manufacturing process, which is set aside to be used in the production of new JD Williams’ mailing bags, via the closed loop recycling process.
is polythene… Therefore, all JD Williams’ mailing bags each include a percentage of recycled content that would have previously been destined for landfill. This complies with their desire to achieve their CSR targets and reduces the company’s carbon footprint. From a supply chain perspective, recycling plastics, as part of a closed loop recycling programme, wins hands down over producing virgin product. From public image preservation, to ensuring consumer and government demands are met, manufacturers need to be savvy about plastics and embrace the benefits of re-using it, rather than swapping to an alternative material which is perhaps mistakenly perceived to be more ‘eco-friendly’, such as paper or bio-degradable material. The European Union Packaging Waste Directive recently called for the recovery of 50-65% of total packaging waste from any source. The simplest way to reduce the amount of plastic used is to educate businesses and householders on more sustainable methods, such as the closed loop recycling, to reduce the amount of waste created by different materials. Consumers using jute bags are not necessarily being as eco-friendly as they may think. An important fact quoted by a scientist on a recent BBC radio programme highlighted that a natural fibre shopping bag needs to be used 130 times to compensate for the extra energy required to manufacture it compared to a single use carrier bag. If you reuse your plastic carrier 10 times you would have to use an equivalent jute bag 1,300 times. For a business it is just as simple: segregate waste to achieve optimum value for your scrap, which enables the waste to be easily recycled in closed loop recycling. Then promote your active green approach to waste management to your customers.
Bio-degradable packaging products are required to go to landfill and exposed to specific environments to start the decomposition process. With landfill at a premium in the UK, many tonnes of polythene and other plastic materials are shipped abroad. It has got to make sense to move away from the compostable option and move towards recycling more UK waste in the UK. If polythene bags are recycled after use back to pellet form this material can be used to manufacture new packaging products and reduce greatly the volume of waste going to landfill in the first place. The versatility and value of scrap polythene offers manufacturers the opportunity to implement “buy back” schemes, which allow business to dispose of their waste responsibly and recoup costs. The manufacturer will then produce products with the inclusion of recycled material, which can also be recycled after use too. In summary, polythene does not deserve the negative publicity it unjustly receives; what is needed is simply education about this lightweight and highly versatile material. Managed correctly, polythene can work in harmony with the environment, easily becoming sustainable and future-proof, reducing the demand on landfill, finite oil resources and also heavy investment in ‘so called’ environmentally friendly alternatives. The answer to a more sustainable future is simple, closed loop recycling – with the plastic we have already manufactured, re-use it, recycle and produce something new which can itself be recycled. It is a process readily available which is both socially responsible and cost effective.
+ For More Information www.duo-uk.co.uk
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Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Green Building 74 - 79
Retrofit solutions for non-domestic buildings - Chris Jofeh
80 - 82
Retrofitting Buildings - Philip Sellwood
83 - 85
What’s the Cloud Got to Do with Better Building Methods? – Will Nicol
Labs & Testing
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gs u n l i sobuild
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Ar er, ead
The problem "The past is a foreign country: they do things differently there." (Hartley, 1953). It is commonplace to say that the world is changing. It is only a slight exaggeration to say that all new buildings are obsolete on the day that they open. They were planned and designed to briefs that were set, and in accordance with regulations that were framed, years before the buildings were first occupied. Most were designed and built years before climate change was identified as a real and present danger. We know we must reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all of our buildings, but we don’t know how best to go about it. The clock is ticking. In the UK we have about 25 million dwellings and about 2 million non-domestic buildings. The latter include buildings owned or occupied by central and local government, education authorities, healthcare, industry, agriculture, retail, hotels and leisure, and business. Between them these buildings are responsible for a large proportion of the UK’s GHG emissions. Why the problem is important How to reduce the emissions from our buildings is an important problem for several reasons. 1. The government published the first UK Climate Change Risk Assessment in January 2012. This identified 100 main climate change risks across 11 key sectors, including |74| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
the built environment, and analysed their likelihood, scale of consequence and urgency of action required. It anticipates hotter, dryer summers and warmer, wetter winters. Biodiversity and the health of our ecosystems will be affected and we can expect to see increases in diseases that hitherto have rarely been found in the UK. Overheating in schools, hospitals and retail, with their large workforces, will lead to poorer learning, slower recovery, and reduced productivity. 2. The UK has committed itself to reducing its emissions of GHG emissions by 80% by 2050, and this is embedded in the Climate Change Act of 2008. Work by the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC, 2012) suggests that to meet our goal of an 80% reduction in GHG emissions will require a halving of our demand for energy. 3. The 2011 Energy Act will in 2018 outlaw leases and extensions to leases to buildings whose energy efficiency is below a level to be set by the government. This is intended to force landlords to improve the thermal standards of their properties, and drive down energy consumption and GHG emissions. The Arup approach to the problem To reduce emissions from the non-domestic sector requires some joined-up thinking that extends beyond a narrow focus on energy consumption. The goal of this article is to outline an approach, developed by Arup, that aims to deliver “Value beyond cost savings” (Muldavin, 2010). ►
Figure 1. The steps in the Arup approach
The Arup approach is a staged process that keeps the client in control and limits his/her financial exposure. It is based on asking the key question, “How can my buildings work harder to support my business?” Identify the organizational drivers and goals The first step is to identify the drivers and goals of the organization that owns and/or occupies the building(s) in question. Some of these are listed in Table 1.
Table 1. Potential organizational drivers and goals Balance sheet – building value Brand, image and reputation Carbon reduction and taxation Cash flow Certification – BREEAM, EPC, etc Climate change resilience Customer experience Development costs and risks Disposals and acquisitions
Energy and water consumption Energy security Future legislation risks Innovation Legislative compliance Litigation/insurance Maintenance backlog Operating costs Productivity
Profitability Public value Rental value Shareholder value Staff/tenant attraction and retention Tax Tenant/Customer demand Visibility
Look for opportunities for the buildings to be physically altered The next step is to look for opportunities for the buildings to be physically altered.
1994). Occupiers now look for buildings that allow a flexible and efficient layout of work settings. Fewer internal obstructions, adaptable building services, and appropriate ICT infrastructure allow for multiple internal configurations and possibilities. Flexible buildings can accommodate expansion or contraction of the workforce, reducing the need for tenants to relocate. However, increased flexibility can lead to higher facilities management costs. Older buildings are often perceived as less flexible because they do not necessarily meet modern space planning criteria, but they can have other virtues with long term benefits, such as high thermal mass which offsets external temperature swings or can be used very successfully in other ways. Where these benefits exist, they should be maximised. First understand the building, then respond to its natural attributes and address its short comings.
“…more than any other human artefact, buildings excel at improving with time, if they are given the chance” (Brand,
The three tables below list some of the issues and factors to be considered.
Identify the opportunities that exist for the buildings to support the business or organization better Each of the items in the list of possible client drivers and goals could present an opportunity for the building(s) to support the business or organization better. For example, in healthcare, can changes to a building or to the estate reduce operating costs or enable new services to be offered which would generate a higher income? Can the buildings be altered to provide a better environment for staff (attraction and retention) or patients (better healthcare outcomes)?
Table 2. A key consideration is adaptability within the building envelope Ability to carry increased floor loads Adaptable location of openings: windows and doors Adequate storey heights Appropriate column spacing and structural grid
Continuity of building form The location of ‘soft’ areas next to ‘hard’ areas Well located services plant Well located vertical shafts: lifts, staircases, service ducts ►
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Table 3. A building’s condition and fitness for purpose will drive the cost of improvements Acoustic privacy Age of structure / fit-out / services Comfort and control of comfort Energy, water & waste performance Energy security Fire safety Interior appearance
Internal and external views Internal planning/layouts IT systems resilience Occupant access to outdoors Security Staff facilities for work & relaxation Toilets, changing rooms, showers
Table 4. Particularly on estates, consider each building’s potential to extend/grow Add an extra storey Additional means of escape from fire Adjacencies Expansion face unobstructed by fixed elements Horizontal communications system
Low-rise, open-ended building pattern Organisation can grow both as a whole or department by department Repetitive (or modular) building pattern Site space clear of obstructions Vehicular access & public transport
It is now possible to begin to categorise the buildings, as shown in Figure 2. Quick wins are often characterised by tenant/occupier engagement/education, and interventions with short term payback (e.g. retro-commissioning) that extend the life of current systems, reduce their operating costs, and improve occupant satisfaction. There may be modest CapEx in improved controls, metering and monitoring, variable speed drives, high efficiency filters, re-branding and decoration. Risks are generally low. Market refurbishment seeks to bring a building back up to a good average market performance, which Runde and Thoyre (2010) refer to as eliminating the ‘brown discount’. There will be medium CapEx, and interventions will generally have a short to medium term payback in their own terms. Typical office building interventions will be to upgrade reception and lifts, renew on-floor finishes, replace HVAC terminals, renew lighting and carry out limited upgrades to central plant. Asset value may be enhanced if rents and yields are improved. The goal of exemplar refurbishment is to achieve what Runde and Thoyre (2010) call a ‘green premium’. The interventions may have high costs. The goal here is to reposition the building as a high-performing, high value asset. Typical interventions will include upgrading reception, lifts, and floor finishes; upgrading or replacing facades; upgrading main plant and introducing a new HVAC system; if appropriate, there may also be mixed mode ventilation, renewables and water recycling. ► |76| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Figure 2. Building categorization
Defer may be because a building cannot affordably be improved, because it is already delivering exemplary support to the organization, or because of holding strategy or tenant/occupant factors. This categorization serves two purposes. It enables subsequent analyses to be undertaken in an organized manner, with the minimum of wasted effort, and it prepares the ground for consideration of two quite different approaches to a portfolio. The first is to seek to optimize each building, whereas the second looks for interventions which may be carried out across the portfolio in a way that lifts its collective performance most costeffectively. Confirm & develop opportunities An owner may have only one building, or an estate/portfolio owner/investor may have identified some buildings that appear to be good candidates for retrofit. For these owners, the second question answered by the Arup approach is “Is this building really a good candidate for retrofit, and if so approximately what should be done at what cost?” Our approach is to work with the client, his/her chosen property advisers, an architect and a cost consultant or contractor to consider a range of options for the building, a commercial office example of which is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Typical office building retrofit options
The interventions that are ‘bundled’ into each option are chosen with the owner’s and/or occupier’s drivers and goals in mind. We quickly estimate ‘hard indicators’, i.e. capital costs and operational savings in energy, carbon and water and utility costs, the building’s sustainability or energy efficiency rating, all measured against business as usual, which includes baseline consumption and expenditure, planned maintenance and CapEx. At this stage accuracy is around ± 20% and the value of the calculated numbers is comparative rather than absolute. Equally important are the non-quantifiable benefits, which are referred to as ‘soft indicators’. We discuss and agree with our clients which soft indicators are most important to them; these may include building appearance & feel, brand/reputation, occupant health, productivity & satisfaction, and community engagement/public value. We assess these with the architect. All the indicators are presented on dashboards, as shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6. ►
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Figure 4. Typical ‘hard’ indicators
Figure 5. Typical ‘soft;’ indicators
Figure 6. Typical development appraisal ►
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The appraisal summary is presented in whichever format the client prefers to use, and integrates where appropriate inputs from the client and his property advisers (e.g. discount rates, yields, voids, energy cost escalators, potential rents, and so on). These dashboards are ‘live’ documents, and it is easy to test the sensitivity of the output to variations in key inputs. This process, accompanied by architect’s renderings of the different options, allows the client to select the strategic direction for the building’s upgrade in a very few weeks at low cost and risk. He/she may of course decide, on the basis of this exercise, to proceed no further with the upgrade, or to defer it until other, quicker and cheaper, upgrades to the portfolio have first been carried out. Or it may inform a decision about common interventions to be undertaken across the portfolio. Refine retrofit strategy The third and final question answered by the Arup approach is “For each building whose upgrade strategy was confirmed at the previous stage, precisely what should be done to the building, and what will it cost?”
Design and delivery At this point the client will decide if to proceed further. That may be by continuing with the current team, which may include a contractor who has provided advice on costs and buildability. A guaranteed price and completion date can be negotiated in confidence, because the contractor’s involvement means he understands well and has helped to de-risk the preferred scheme. Alternatively the client may choose to tender the work to a design and build contractor. The work carried out to date by the design team allows the work that is required to be defined very precisely in the tender documents, and the cost consultant’s costings should accurately anticipate the tender prices that will be returned. If possible, the design and delivery team should stay with the building after handover, to provide ‘soft landings’ for its occupants and to monitor and tune its performance. ■
This time the analyses are more detailed and thorough, and the options considered are variations on the interventions which formed the option selected during the previous stage. For example, the previous stage may have identified that the preferred upgrade strategy involves fan coils; this will be revisited, and a detailed comparison made between fan-coils, chilled beams, and VRF. Hard indicators will once again include sustainability or energy efficiency rating, energy usage, and greenhouse gas emissions. Soft indicators for the HVAC system will include speed of response, thermal comfort, acoustic quality, ability to expose services, ease of churn, and risk that occupant behaviour will impact the predicted performance. The final aspect of the comparison will be the financial perfomance of the systems, in terms of CapEx, annual utility costs, annual maintenance costs, and incremental lifecycle replacement. These and other financial indicators can then be combined to allow the client to understand the likely financial performance of his/her investment.
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Retrofitting Buildings Philip Sellwood, Chief Executive, Energy Saving Trust
In these days of austerity measures, it would be easy to let the sustainability debate get side-tracked by economic worries. However, there are, in fact, numerous economic and environmental benefits which will come from giving UK homes the green refurbishments they desperately need. If the UK is to become more energy efficient then retrofitting will be of huge importance. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way to move towards meeting our carbon reduction targets for 2050 – targets that we are legally signed up to. Retrofitting makes economic sense both to industry and, more importantly, the consumer. If we commit to widespread retrofitting across the UK and a shift towards green industry, then we could stand to gain £6.6 billion. So what stops people from retrofitting their homes? According to an Energy Saving Trust report, hassle and lack of knowledge are key reasons which prevent six in ten of us from retrofitting our homes. This is despite a survey last year showing that 74% of people are looking for ways to reduce their energy bills and be more energy efficient. Two-thirds even going as far to state that now times are harder economically they are more interested than ever in how to save energy. The key for industry in challenging the reasons for not retrofitting their homes is to identify home improvement energy saving “trigger points.” These are the times |80| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Energy-efficiency is the most cost-effective way to move towards meeting our carbon reduction targets for 2050 when householders are most interested in installing insulation and other energy saving measures because they are already planning refurbishment work on their home. Seven out of ten householders upgrading a room were interested in implementing energy saving measures as part of their work, while nearly 90% admitted they would be willing to increase their budget, by an average of 10%, to incorporate some form of energy-saving into any works. This equates to £527 on smaller projects and £1,027 on larger projects. Ultimately this is a win-win all round, as businesses are getting paid more to implement these measures and the consumer is making tangible financial and carbon savings to their domestic energy use. At the Energy Saving Trust we see a massive opportunity to tap the potential of step-by-step energy efficiency changes alongside retrofitting. It is now becoming essential for industry to take on board ►
businesses and households to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. However, greater urgency is needed if the UK is to achieve an 80 per cent cut in emissions by 2050.
Our research with the Centre for Low Carbon Futures revealed that one building will have to be given a green makeover each minute from now until 2050 if the UK is to meet its emissions targets.
“trigger points” and make sure we target the right people in the right way with the right measures and give them great after-sales advice. Tradespeople need to provide reassurance to householders that the retrofit product is right for them, while giving the added value of endorsed advice on energy efficiency. Endorsed advice works for both consumers and businesses. From a businesses perspective, having employees that are up-skilled with endorsed advice gives them the knowledge, skills and ability to deliver high quality energy saving advice. This then gives consumers further trust, reassurance and confidence in the service that is being sold to them. All of this can take away the consumer fear that comes from making that big initial financial investment. Along with the challenge of targeting the relevant consumers and reassuring them that retrofitting is right for their homes, another challenge comes from actually retrofitting the homes. Our research with the Centre for Low Carbon Futures revealed that one building will have to be given a green makeover each minute from now until 2050 if the UK is to meet its emissions targets, illustrating the enormity of the renovation challenge facing this country. Government policies such as the Green Deal, Renewable Heat Incentive, and Carbon Reduction Commitment have helped us face this challenge by encouraging
Unfortunately for the UK, the diversity of buildings across the country and lack of understanding of energy performance mean that extensive retrofit programmes cannot be "one size fits all”. Therefore, the likely expense and rapidly shortening timeframe need to be properly researched and understood in order to "get it right first time". In our Home Economics report we aimed to provide a clear picture of what the UK housing stock looks like and what still needs to be done to bring it up to a standard of energy efficiency. This provided a realistic picture of what can be done to achieve these ambitious energy efficiency targets, along with the most cost-effective energy efficiency measures that are available now and suitable for the UK’s housing stock. If we get retrofitting right in the UK, then the financial and carbon savings will be there for all to see. The research also presented two clear opportunities for retrofitting. The first is to stimulate a robust business case for city-scale energy efficiency at the household, industry and transport levels by the removal of investment uncertainties. The second was a social case with the necessary behavioural, training and capacity strengthening. By assessing energy efficiency at the city-scale, we can make the necessary step changes. But, at the same time, there needs to be fundamental changes to the building industry, including better training at all levels, as well as improved dissemination of knowledge and best practice. We need up-skilling in the trades and a commitment to integrating low-carbon technologies. Most of all, tackling our housing ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |81|
stock has to be viewed collaboratively – a joining of knowledge, data and the on-theground hard work, and sharing of what succeeds, so it can be replicated for the biggest possible benefit. At the Energy Saving Trust we are trying our best to tackle these issues with our Retrofit for the Future programme, the first of its kind in the UK. As part of this programme we studied 150 homes to understand what retrofit technologies are most effective in the different homes. This is helping to shape our understanding of the best possible route forward for retrofitting in the UK. Research like this, along with technical know-how is absolutely key for retrofitting, and also understanding it might work at a local and regional level. In the South West we have recently rolled-out the Ready to Retrofit. This aims to drive a regional green economy in the South West worth £2.75b in sales and 2,000 jobs by 2020. We plan to do this by helping local businesses prepare for the ecorefurbishment of tens of thousands of homes by 2020, while helping local businesses take advantage of the opportunities presented by Government initiatives including the Green Deal, Feedin Tariff, Renewable Heat Incentive and Energy Company Obligation. |82| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The aim of this work is to review the characteristics of the various approaches to large scale retrofit finance that are currently being developed and deployed, and to draw up a features and benefits matrix, such that any local authority can understand which model may be most appropriate for their own circumstances. More importantly, there will be opportunities for staff development, bringing new goods and services to market, added technical know-how and targeted marketing. The scheme will also help local trades people to improve their energy-efficiency knowledge so they can identify energy savings for their customers. Cutting our emissions by 80% is a big challenge, but retrofitting can play a hugely important role in meeting this challenge. At Energy Saving Trust we are undertaking research and programmes to help the industry reach important targets for energy efficiency, but there are still plenty of conversations to be had which will enable more people to understand the long term economic and environmental benefits of retrofitting. Making a real difference is not only possible – even in today’s economic climate – but it also stands to bring real benefit to householders, the environment and industry. ■
It’s making building information modelling more available and accessible says Will Nicol of Autodesk
What’s the Cloud Got to Do with Better Building Methods?
According to the organisation WRAP, the UK construction industry is responsible for over 100 million tonnes of construction, demolition and excavation waste every year – around one third of all waste in the UK. In England alone, almost 13 million of this waste ends up in landfill without any form of recovery or re-use. Aside from the environmental impact of unusable or unrecyclable waste, the huge hike in the cost of landfill – for certain materials from £2.50 to £64 a tonne – should certainly galvanise building firms into action as waste disposal experts pass on the costs. But is waste really the fault of builders alone – and can something be done before the construction site to alleviate the situation? Construction waste can be the result of late design changes, human error, poor communications and co-ordination or a lack of the right information at the required time leading to over-ordering and overengineering. But there are also many less tangible types of waste which can impact the costs of constructing a building, as well as its total cost of ownership. These include the time spent waiting for replies to requests for information (RFIs) and the results of inefficient planning, scheduling and sequencing during the building process. This is only the start. Once a building is functioning, performance and maintenance costs can spiral if the design has not optimised energy use, for example, or if owners or facilities managers do not have the right information about assets. The growing mainstream take-up of building information modelling (BIM) by design professionals is already going a long way to address this major challenge for the industry. However, recent developments in cloud computing look set to propel the BIM process into a
new stage of its development, opening up its potential to an even larger group of design professionals. BIM is an intelligent model-based workflow which is now evolving to include a comprehensive project lifecycle process. It provides insight through visualisation, simulation and analysis of 3D digital models for creating and managing building and infrastructure projects faster, more economically and with less environmental impact. Return on investment in the technologies, process changes and training required to successfully implement and use BIM is already proven. However, still some smaller firms in particular have felt unable to make the upfront investments needed. Talking about the cloud may seem a long way from discussing the issues of construction waste and inefficiencies. However, it looks likely that the availability of almost infinite computing power as a service (rather than needing significant capital investment) will further accelerate the use of BIM. In turn, this will bring improved collaboration and communication across an entire project lifecycle. Large architecture practices have, for a long time, been able to create photo-realistic, on-screen visualisations of a building project to enable stakeholders to assess its impact on the surrounding area. Traditionally, this level of visualisation would require high-end computing hardware and be time-consuming to complete. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |83|
The cloud provides a place where all project team members can combine their design without the problems of exchanging large, data-rich models.
However, now work needing intensive computing power can be completed in the cloud, sidestepping the need for expensive new IT infrastructure and enabling smaller firms to compete with their larger competitors on more equal terms. They pay for access to this power only as they need it and as they would any other project service. The more that different stakeholders and the public can actually see the impact of a building on the environment and the more influence and input they can have at an early stage in the design, the far less the chance of major changes later on which are bound to incur waste and costs. Likewise, if all the different disciplines can view each otherâ€™s designs at an early stage then any clashes can be caught way before the construction site avoiding the need for more RFIs and skilled workers waiting around doing nothing at the expense of the project. The cloud also means that information and functionality can be accessed at any time and from any location, whether from the design office or onsite via PC, laptop, tablet or smartphone. As a result, this overcomes many of the practical barriers to processes connected with BIM. The cloud provides a place where all project team members can combine their design without the problems of exchanging large, data-rich models.
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Of course, itâ€™s not just visualisation tasks that demand heavyweight computing power. As use of BIM matures, intelligent 3D models are being used for far more than just spatial co-ordination, particularly during the structural and engineering project stages. Increasingly they are becoming platforms for analysis too. But, using BIM to the maximum by optimising designs and analysing models over multiple dimensions such as cost, schedule, carbon and energy performance and so on can also stretch available bandwidth and lead to delays. Doing the same task in the cloud may take only minutes. In other words, it can help deliver more analysis, faster visualisation tasks and therefore quicker, better and greener decisions. Software which aggregates all project information can also be used to simulate scheduling, enabling more efficient construction planning and management.
The result will be less waste and ultimately, better, smarter buildings and infrastructure.
This means that many of the problems that previously led to mounting costs and wasted materials and resources have been sorted out on screen before a project ever reaches the construction site. Accurate, integrated and co-ordinated information behind the building model provides automatic quantity take-offs to prevent the need for over-estimates and can be fed into the supply chain to ensure timely delivery. Likewise, off-site fabricators can be provided with reliable data in good time to avoid delays. The ability to quickly create multiple iterations of a design enables architects and engineers to reach the best and most environmentally-responsible result possible within the project time-frame. For example, they could analyse the impact and viability of replacing a traditional but non-renewable material for a more sustainable alternative. When the time comes, the building model, populated with constantly updated and precise information about dimensions, performance and assets can be made available to the owner or facilities manager to enable more efficient management of the building. BIM has always brought these benefits. However, the option of taking BIM models to the cloud enables large, early adopters to explore its full potential, pushing the boundaries of their technology and smaller firms to take advantage too. The result will be less waste and ultimately, better, smarter buildings and infrastructure. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |85|
150+ Exhibitors 80+ Seminars 20+ Live Demos BUILDING BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES
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Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing 90 - 93
Air Quality Monitoring Networks: Europe leads the way – John Saffell
94 - 97
Air Quality – a key issue for 2013 – Jim Mills
Miscellany |88| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Sensors The three types of measurements needed in an air quality network are: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), inorganic gases (eg CO, NO, NO2, O3) and particulates/aerosols (classified as PM2.5 and PM10). Of course temperature, humidity, windspeed and direction, and barometric pressure can be measured, but these do not present a challenge when designing air quality networks. • The only regulated VOCs are PAH’s and BTEX/benzene. These can be measured using photoionisation detectors (PIDs) and cost typically £300, but are reliable. • Particulates/aerosols can be measured using either optical particle counters (OPCs) or Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM). Both can be produced and normally divide particlulates into those less than 10μm diameter (PM10) or less than 2.5μm (PM2.5). This has been achieved reliably but now with the emphasis on low maintenance, low cost and low power requirement. • Sensors for inorganic gases have several difficult requirements: low cost, low power, ppb sensitivity, good and repeatable selectivity and long term stability. The two main competing technologies are electrochemical cells and metal oxide chemresistors. Recent work has shown that amperometric electrochemical cells can achieve the required low cost, are low power and can resolve to 2 ppb, with the required selectivity when used with good data analysis. Metal oxides are lowest cost, have ppb sensitivity and medium power but suffer from poor selectivity. Data analysis An area of critical work is data analysis. A network of 50 wireless motes in 2010 was set up in Cambridge UK by the Cambridge Chemistry Department and Alphasense, and collected 2.5 million readings in three
months; the Applied Mathematics Department (DAMTP) spent months analysing the data and determining various ways to present the data. They worked with the chemistry atmospheric chemists to establish the best ways to correlate the data and establish baselines, using self-calibrating algorithms - this work continues today in the chemistry department. This alternative method of data presentation along with understanding of the underlying atmospheric chemistry differs from well-used data correlation methods such as Principle Component Analysis (PCA) which treat the data as purely a set of numbers without consideration of the underlying chemistry/ physics. Let us now consider recent efforts by governments, universities and research centres and industry to develop wireless air quality networks in Europe. Legislation and regulations The EU has established standards for urban air quality under the Framework Directive on Ambient Air Quality (Council Directive 96/62/ EC) and its daughter directives. In June 2008 the European Directive 2008/50/EC: Ambient Air Quality came into force, replacing 96/62/EC. This directive set the Alert Thresholds and Limit Values for the protection of human health and critical levels for the protection of vegetation. The frequency of exceedance and the methods of determining exceedance are also defined in this directive but the method of measuring is specified in the EN standard listed below. The USA specifies performance of any equipment to measure air quality through a set of standards, titled U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 53 (40 CFR 53). Any manufacturer wishing to measure air quality must send a sample of the analyser to the EPA for testing. EPA acceptable limits are also listed below. ►
Table 1. Comparison of EU and USA air quality requirements. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |91|
EU Government action Both the EU and separate European governments are investing in air quality research and encouraging innovation through university/industry partnerships. A current EU effort to improve air quality networks is a COST initiative, titled European Network on New Sensing Technologies for Air-Pollution Control and Environmental Sustainability - EuNetAir (reference TD1105). Started in May 2012 and finishing in 2016, 96 organisations from 26 countries are participating. COST initiatives do not support research, so this initiative’s goals are to encourage multidisciplinary R&D platforms and research teams, test and validate new sensor technologies and their long term performance, review the EU directive and EN standards and disseminate this new knowledge. The initiative’s topics are urban air quality and odour detection networks. A new EU Common Infrastructure is titled GEOSS and includes an FP7 Cluster of several air and water quality projects under the heading of FP7-ENV-2012. These projects will start later this year. Previous FP6 and FP7 funded projects include field and laboratory testing of available ozone sensor systems.
Figure 1. Comparison of electrochemical NO2 and CO sensors with adjacent AQM trailer in 2008.
UK Government university/research centre projects The UK government has funded work on air quality networks through the UK Research Councils: MESSAGE was a project in 2007-2008 to test the viability of mobile and fixed air quality networks. The consortium, led by Professor Polak at Imperial College included Bristol, Cambridge, Leeds and Newcastle Universities. This proved that electrochemical sensors could measure in low ppb concentrations and generated two spin-out companies: DUVAS in London and Envirowatch in Newcastle. An example of the Newcastle CO + NO2 mote, from work in 2008, compared with an adjacent AQM shows excellent correlation between a £60 sensor and a £5,000 system. ►
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Following the successful 50-fixed mote project in Cambridge in 2010 (Cambridge University and Alphasense Ltd), a new project has begun, led by Professor Jones at Cambridge Chemistry. The consortium includes Universities of Hertfordshire and Manchester, Imperial College, NPL, CERC and BA/BAA. It has started collecting data from Heathrow airport with 50 low cost wireless motes recording NO2, NO, CO, SO2, O3, VOCs, CO2, temperature, humidity and windspeed/ direction every 10-30 seconds for the next year. Initial data is very exciting. Manufacturing innovation Several European companies are now developing or manufacturing wireless air quality networks, mostly in Germany, Italy and UK. Some units such as the Envirowatch system use low power motes with bluetooth links to a gateway, which then transmits to the main data base periodically. Alternatively, the Geotech unit, offered also through Air Monitors, uses GPS and GSM to take advantage of installed mobile phone systems. The first is lower maintenance but cannot use higher power sensors while the second system can offer greater distances between the motes but needs periodic battery recharging. Alphasense has been developing amperometric electrochemical gas sensors for ppb gas detection use since their work on the MESSAGE project in 2007. Working with Cambridge Chemistry department, they have improved these low cost sensors to a point where their performance meets air quality requirements. SenseAir in Sweden has developed improved CO2 NDIR modules which are also proving to be reliable and sensitive. Companies are now reviewing PM 10, PM 2.5 and Ultrafines detection at lower cost and there will be product releases soon from some EU manufacturers. Asian and USA gas analyser/detector companies are not waiting: there will be air quality networks available soon from both North American and Asian companies in the near future. Conclusion Wireless air quality networks are here. Recent tests have shown impressive results at an affordable cost. The combination of low cost electronics, low cost and sensitive gas sensors and advanced data algorithms, specific to this requirement, together will provide continuous, mapping of air quality monitoring in many cities in the near future. â– ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |93|
Air Quality a key issue for 2013
As many countries fail to meet air quality targets and large numbers of premature deaths still result from air pollution, Jim Mills, a particulate monitoring specialist and Managing Director of Air Monitors, explains why 2013 should be a pivotal year.
As many countries fail to meet air quality targets and large numbers of premature deaths still result from air pollution, Jim Mills, a particulate monitoring specialist and Managing Director of Air Monitors, explains why 2013 should be a pivotal year. In November 2011 Janez Potočnik, European Commissioner for the Environment, expressed his determination to make 2013 the ‘Year of Air’. He acknowledged that there has been substantial improvement in air quality in recent decades but in the light of the environmental/ climate issues surrounding air quality and the large number of premature deaths resulting from air pollution, he says: “The challenge for all of us is to address the shortcomings of existing regulations in a decisive and coordinated way. This will require the goodwill of policy-makers at all levels – European, national, regional and local – as well as other stakeholders such as the automotive and oil industries.” The European Environment Agency’s 2011 report on air quality reflects air quality improvements for a number of key parameters, with concentrations of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide falling by about half in the decade ending in 2009. However, the report also shows that in 2008, levels of nitrogen oxide, ozone and particulate matter have risen, |94| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
fuelling concerns about overall air quality, especially in urban areas. According to the Commission, some 500,000 people die prematurely in the EU 27, mainly due to exposure to high levels of fine particulate matter (atmospheric microparticles or ‘dust’ of a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres), which originates from residential heating, transport (diesel cars and trucks, ships and planes), agriculture, industrial processes and power production. Particulates Particulate pollution continues to be a major problem, despite the considerable progress that has been made in the reduction of larger particulates such as PM10. This is due, in no small part, to the standard monitoring methodologies that have been adopted because particulates are generally monitored as the PM10 or PM2.5 fraction, whereas it is widely acknowledged that the finer particles (< 1 micron), are able to penetrate deeper into the lungs, and are responsible for the most severe health effects. Black Carbon A further problem associated with tiny particles is their ability to act as “sponges” carrying small amounts of toxic species such as PAH’s and Dioxins which are adsorbed onto ►
Black Carbon particles and transported deep into the body. PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring measurements provide a total figure for everything with mass in the sample and thereby assume that all particles are of equal significance. In reality this is not the case because some of the particles are benign from a human health perspective or are not anthropogenic so are of less interest from an air quality management perspective. It is fortunate that the fine particles (from the combustion of fossil fuels) that are of most interest are Black Carbon and can be measured with an Aethalometer, which employs an optical method to only measure those fine particles which are black. Importantly, an Aethalometer can provide a real-time readout of the mass concentration of 'Black' or 'Elemental' carbon aerosol particles in the air which means that live data can be used to manage the main contributor of urban Black Carbon: road traffic. However, while the importance of Black Carbon is becoming widely acknowledged, air quality monitoring standards need to be adapted so that Black Carbon monitoring is included in all national ambient monitoring stations. A further consideration with Black Carbon is its role in climate change because, after carbon dioxide, it is believed to be the second largest contributor to current global warming. Black Carbon increases global warming by absorbing sunlight, darkening snow and influencing the formation of clouds; its effects are most noticeable at the poles, on glaciers and in mountainous regions â€“ all of which are exhibiting the greatest effects of climate change. Black Carbon stays in the atmosphere for a relatively short period of time, from days to weeks, before falling to ground as a result of dry deposition or precipitation. This is an important consideration in global strategy to combat climate change because CO2 stays in the atmosphere for many decades, so emissions reductions will take a long time to have an effect, whereas efforts to reduce Black Carbon could have a much faster beneficial impact on global warming. â–ş
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |95|
In June 2011, a UN Environment Programme (UNEP) study estimated that ‘near-term’ global warming could be quickly reduced by 0.5°C by a reduction in Black Carbon emissions and that this would have an even greater benefit in the Arctic where it could reduce warming by 0.7°C. Global action The importance of short-lived pollutants was recognised by the eight richest industrialised nations which agreed to take emissions reduction measures for short-lived climate pollutants, including Black Carbon, methane, ground-level ozone and hydro fluorocarbons at the recent G8 meeting in Maryland USA. The Camp David Declaration of May 2012 included the following: ‘Recognizing the impact of short-lived climate pollutants on near-term climate change, agricultural productivity, and human health, we support, as a means of promoting increased ambition and complementary to other CO2 and GHG emission reduction efforts, comprehensive actions to reduce these pollutants, which, according to UNEP and others, account for over thirty percent of near-term global warming as well as 2 million premature deaths a year. Therefore, we agree to join the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-lived Climate Pollutants.’ UK air quality In common with most of Europe, the air quality improvements of recent decades have stalled and the UK is failing to meet many domestic and European air quality targets. The main parameters of concern are Nitrogen Oxides (from vehicles and electricity generation), Ozone (formed by a reaction between nitrogen oxides and organic gases) and Particulates (from combustion sources). In 1952 over 4,000 Londoners (above the ‘normal’ mortality rate) are believed to have died as a result of the Great Smog, and this led to the introduction of the Clean Air Act of 1956. However, in 1992, the Department of Health set up a Committee on the Medical Effects of |96| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Air Pollutants (COMEAP) which concluded that up to 24,000 deaths were still being ‘brought forward’ in the UK in 1995/1996 due to the effects of air pollution. More recently, the UK Parliament’s Environment Audit Committee published a report which highlights the UK’s poor performance on air quality, but Defra disagreed with many of the report’s recommendations. In February the Committee’s Chair, Joan Walley MP wrote to Rt Hon Caroline Spelman MP Secretary of State at Defra saying “It is particularly disappointing to note that Defra will not be undertaking any significant work to engage with the public about the risks to health from air pollution and action that people can take to reduce these.” In Mrs Spelman’s reply she said: “The Public Health Outcomes Framework announced in January provides an important opportunity for this and we are working with Department of Health colleagues to embed air quality as a priority for Directors of Public Health and to promote awareness and engagement on air quality locally. Moreover as was stated in the response, Government already provides significant funding to local authorities to engage with business and the public to promote air quality in innovative ways. This approach presents a sustainable route to better understanding of air quality and of the action needed to reduce exposure.” Public awareness Local Authorities monitor ambient air quality and publish data for the benefit of the public. However, as a result of public sector cutbacks environmental health professionals are focused on maintaining performance whilst implementing cost savings. Nevertheless, there are a number of opportunities for improvement; air quality needs to be higher on the political agenda and this can only be achieved if more people are aware of the problems, so we have to find ways to make it simpler for people to access easy to understand data. Happily, technology has advanced considerably and it will soon be possible to install ambient monitoring stations ►
that are much smaller, several times lower in cost and yet still able to provide accurate parts per billion ambient air quality data. Because it is so small, and can be bolted to a lamp post, this new technology, known as ‘AQMesh’, allows air quality to be monitored in the locations that need to be monitored rather than where equipment can be conveniently positioned. The AQMesh 'pods' are completely wireless, using battery power and GPRS communications to transmit data for the main air polluting gases to 'the cloud' where sophisticated data management will generate highly accurate readings as well as monitor hardware performance. Traditional ambient monitoring stations have often been criticised because their physical location may limit their ability to provide representative data, so the ability to site low cost AQMesh pods in multiple locations, close to vehicles, passengers and pedestrians, will be a tremendous advantage. ‘What gets monitored, gets managed’ Marcus Pattison, one of the organisers of AQE 2013 (the air quality and emissions monitoring event) is a firm believer in the critical importance of monitoring for driving improvements. He says “The air quality progress that we have seen in recent decades has largely resulted from our ability to set targets and monitor our performance against them and this is why the Environment Agency, local authorities and the Source Testing Association are the driving forces behind events such as AQE 2013.” AQE 2013 ( www.AQEshow.com ) will be the world’s largest event to focus specifically on air quality monitoring and 2013 will be the seventh in this series of specialist air monitoring events. Taking place at the International Centre in Telford UK, on 13th and 14th March, the event will be comprised of: a Conference providing updates on legislation, monitoring standards and technologies; Workshops providing practical advice and case studies, and an Exhibition featuring almost all
of the world’s leading providers of monitoring equipment and services. AQE 2013 will focus on industrial emissions and stack monitoring of regulated processes including the emissions to air of smaller processes which are controlled by local authorities, in addition to several new aspects of air quality protection. Marcus Pattison is obviously delighted that Janez Potočnik has designated 2013 as the ‘Year of Air’ because “It creates a ‘perfect storm’ of activity in air quality; the new Industrial Emissions Directive is now in place, public awareness of air quality issues is growing and the Commissioner’s work will help to ensure progress, so I believe that AQE 2013 will be a timely event, making a powerful contribution to 2013 becoming the Year of Air.” ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |97|
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Land Management 100 - 101
Finding a way through the mineral reservations minefield - Stephen Barry
102 - 104
Environmental benefits of landscaping - Alistair McCapra
Miscellany |98| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
F i n di ng
mineral minefield a way through
the mineral reservations minefield
By Stephen Barry, Wardell Armstrong technical director and Chartered Mineral Surveyor What exactly is a mineral? That might sound like a daft question. But the perplexing answer is that it’s quite possibly not what we think it is, and almost certainly not what we mean in everyday language. After all, we think of coal as a mineral whereas it is in fact compressed peat. The precise meaning of a mineral reservation can therefore be equally unclear, especially since it depends on a large body of case law which mostly dates back to the nineteenth century. And resolving disputes – or simply removing ambiguity – often takes quite a rare combination of expertise in geology, law and mineral extraction. So it’s not surprising that many people worry when they see “mineral rights excepted” or something similar on the title deeds of a property. Solicitors are understandably cautious about the risks that might be involved. And although there’s probably nothing to worry about in the majority of cases, the legal costs of those that do end up in court can be very high. What does all this mean for developers? Unfortunately there’s no simple answer because every site and every situation is different. Freehold |100| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
mineral reservations are quite common in the UK, and the commercial questions and issues can be pressing and real. When you buy land, what are you actually buying? Just the surface, or what lies beneath? If there is a mineral reservation, will the banks be prepared to offer a mortgage? Will the foundations trespass on the reserved minerals? Will there be a stigma on the properties when you come to sell? And how much should you pay to buy the residual interests to make sure that your title is clean? There’s no single formula for interpreting a mineral reservation. Nor is this a definite term. It’s one that’s been described in legal cases as “capable of bearing a variety of meanings”. A series of tests or pointers are therefore often applied to point to a conclusion. But even before getting to this stage, there’s still the basic question of whether what might be in the ground is actually a mineral at all. It might be hard to believe, but most types of "mineral" (including flints, granite, sand, limestone, clay and many other types of geological strata) have all ►
been held by the courts in various instances either to be included in a mineral reservation or to be excluded from it. Much depends on the wording of the individual reservation, and its meaning is ultimately a matter for the courts to decide. “Exceptionality” is the first of the tests that are commonly applied, and this one often carries much more weight than any of the others. Is the material in question exceptional in use, value and character? For all practical purposes, the strata that make up the surface of the land are unlikely to be included in a general reservation of “all mines and minerals” unless it’s identified by name or is “special” or “exceptional” in character. So china clay forming the surface of the land is likely to be included because it is exceptional, while “common clay” forming the surface is unlikely to be included unless it’s specifically included by name. So far so good. But of course a mineral that’s “exceptional” in one location might be nothing out of the ordinary in another. By definition it will be common where it occurs. “Common soil” is the second test. Is the material in question the common rock of the district, so that if it were worked it would practically swallow up the grant of the land? Generally, the common soil of a district is not classed as a mineral. So aggregates such as sand and gravel for example which are not specified by name might well not be included within a general reservation of mines and minerals because they’re the common soil of the district. On the other hand, there are legal cases where they have been. Then there’s the “vernacular” test. Is the material encompassed within the vernacular meaning of “minerals” within the mining, commercial and landowners’ worlds at the time the exception was made? Although this might seem to be the weakest pointer, some judgements have said that it’s the fundamental starting point. For example, just because we regard sand and gravel as minerals today, it doesn’t necessarily follow that they were regarded that way a hundred years ago. Nor should we assume that they will be regarded as being included in a reservation of “all mines and minerals” that’s made today but which might be litigated in a hundred years’ time. Another test is working rights. Do they give an indication as to what was excepted from the grant? For example, if the working rights are “by underground means only”, then the reservation is likely in the eyes of the court to include only minerals which were habitually worked by underground means at the time the exception was made, unless surface minerals are specifically
named. This can happen where the vendor intended to maximise the surface sale value while retaining a portion of the potential future value of surface minerals. Few present day purchasers of land would accept a mineral reservation which included surface working powers, so this form of reservation is not uncommon. The phrase “to let down the surface” is also a pointer to working rights being by underground means only, rather than digging up the surface, although it is not conclusive. The “state of knowledge” test asks what the state of geological knowledge was at the time. It doesn’t seem to be a very strong pointer or to feature much in precedent. But it might nonetheless throw some light on what an exceptor intended to include in the reservation, based for example on what it might then have been reasonable for them to believe to be present at depth. Finally there’s “context” – the circumstances in which the exception was made, especially in relation to the state of the law as it was at the time. If for example there was a nearby working quarry and the exceptor wanted to except minerals from a conveyance in order to retain royalty income in future, and had made clear provision to compensate the new surface owner for land taken when exercising the reservation, this would be a fairly strong pointer. But the other aspect of “context” is the assumption that anyone drafting a mineral reservation in the past would have known the current state of the law, including the precedents of legal cases. This assumption still stands today, even though in many cases the draftsman may well not have had that knowledge. If all this leaves you feeling pretty confused, that’s hardly surprising. Because of past ambiguity, widely varying interpretation and heavy dependence on case law, mineral reservations often can present a confused picture. Involving the right specialist may therefore often be the key to understanding your position and knowing how best to protect your interests. But the critical word here is “right.” And here the definition is easier. It means someone who can genuinely combine geological knowledge and minerals expertise with complementary skills in valuation and negotiation - someone who can balance the strength of the minerals reservation and know when to cut a deal and when to take the risk of going to court. These days this combination is an increasingly rare commodity. But when you’re finding your way through a minefield, it does pay to have the right people by your side. ■
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Case study 1: Flood peril spearheads Cornish village restoration
Two rivers meet in the steep valley sheltering Boscastle, making it one of the most picturesque destinations on the coast of North Cornwall. In 2004 however that confluence caused a flash-flood powerful enough to wash away buildings. After this the village needed new flood protection, without sacrificing its charm. Nicholas Pearson Associates was to provide a sensitive design response to landscape and heritage, balanced with the engineering requirements. They worked with stakeholders to assess the impacts of the proposals, and undertook detailed design of paving and walling to match the local characteristics. They also prepared high-quality visualisations for public consultation, to reassure concerned business owners and residents. Boscastle now has a new linear river park with enhanced access, including an elegant contemporary bridge, restored natural walls along the widened river channel, and an enhanced car park, well integrated with the landscape with sustainable urban drainage. The award-winning scheme has succeeded in enhancing the charm of the village and supported its economic recovery.
Case study 2: Sustainable Drainage guidelines for Northamptonshire
Sustainable drainage systems should be an essential prerequisite for water management in all new development. Illman Young Landscape Design was commissioned by West Northamptonshire Development Corporation to produce some guidelines for developers and planners using sustainable technologies at a neighbourhood scale. The guidelines enable informed decision-making on integrating water, waste and energy infrastructure at a site-wide level. They explain legislation and regulations, the capital costs, and the phasing of neighbourhood provision and its contribution to sustainable communities. The case studies demonstrate the potential at different scales. One integrates a single-phase development of 50 units into a neighbouring site, and the other shows five phased 50-unit developments as extensions to an existing larger community, with each phase delivered by an independent developer.
The impact of new infrastructure development
New infrastructure for wind- or solar-powered energy in particular is often located in rural areas which can be within or adjacent to designated landscapes. Similar challenges are faced by extractive industries, waste management, forestry and agriculture. The landscape profession is expert in assessing environmental impacts for all of these, and in proposing the necessary mitigation through design, delivery, management and restoration.
Case study 3: The low-carbon revolution in Wales
The Welsh Government wants to be at the forefront of the transition to low-carbon energy as part of global efforts against climate change. By 2025 it aims to have doubled the amount of electricity which is generated from renewable sources, and has designated seven Strategic Search Areas – high, remote and open areas of land where large-scale wind energy projects might be developed. The associated environmental implications of development in those areas need to be carefully assessed, with views and landscape character being taken into account, as well as how individual developments might influence one another. When Vattenfall UK proposed to build the Hirddywel Wind Farm in Powys, it had another proposed wind farm to its east and an existing development nearby due to be ‘repowered’ with fewer but taller turbines. AMEC Environment and Infrastructure UK was commissioned by the developer to conduct the landscape and visual assessment. Through photomontages and 3D visualisations, the consultancy was able to explore and evaluate the potential cumulative impacts of the development. ►
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Case study 4: Power from waste in Oxfordshire
While the amount of energy generated from waste is set to rise steeply in the UK, many new plants can expect to face considerable local opposition. In Oxfordshire, SLR Consulting has helped Viridor to secure time-limited planning permission for a 300,000 tonne-a-year Energy from Waste (EfW) plant. It is expected that 95 per cent of the residual waste processed at the Ardley facility will be diverted from landfill, while producing enough lowcarbon energy to power 22,000 homes. The practice managed a multi-disciplinary team which carried out all the planning application and environmental impact assessment work for the Ardley development and provided expert witness support at the public inquiry. It looked at how the design would fit into the surrounding landscape and reviewed alternative sites. SLR Consulting’s architectural specialists and landscape team worked together to define the position, form and detailed design of the building and stack, as well as the external lighting. The landscape team was also tasked with the redesign of the adjacent landfill landform to accommodate the EfW development and the integration of surface water attenuation features. This integrated approach to design minimised the adverse effects on the surrounding landscape. There are no more important issues for us to address than the perils of flooding, the creation of a low-carbon future and the safe management of waste. Landscape architects are leading the debate in offering radical solutions to some of our most pressing concerns. Alastair McCapra is CEO of the Landscape Institute, the professional body for landscape architects
+ For More Information @talklandscape landscapeinstitute.org
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The Landscape Institute
The Landscape Institute (LI) is the royal chartered body for landscape architects. It represents professionals in the UK working across planning, design and the management of urban and rural landscape. The Institute campaigns to protect, conserve and enhance the natural and built environment for public benefit and is part of the government’s Green Infrastructure Partnership.
Landscape Architecture – A guide for clients
Earlier this year the LI published Landscape Architecture – A guide for clients. The guide, which highlights 38 exemplar projects across housing, regeneration, culture, infrastructure, energy and health, demonstrates the role a landscape architect plays when it comes to regenerating communities, strengthening social cohesion and creating places of beauty.
+ For More Information www.landscapeinstitute.org/registeredpractices
Landscape Institute Case Studies Library
A case studies library is available on the Landscape Institute website showcasing recent work by LI registered practices, and others - from city masterplans to community gardens, from historic parks to brownfield industrial sites. The diversity of projects shows the wide range of skills and breadth of imagination that landscape architects bring to landscape design, planning and management. ■
+ For More Information www.landscapeinstitute.org/casestudies
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Timber 108 - 115
Timber Expo 2012
116 - 118
The Evolution Of The Wood Floor – Harvey Booth
120 - 122
Putting LCA at the centre of sustainable design– Rupert Oliver
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Connect, Collaborate, Construct. Timber Expo 2012 For two full days in September, Timber Expo will be the hub of the UK timber industry. Where will you be? Timber Expo 2012 will take place again at the Ricoh Arena in Coventry on the 25 & 26 September 2012 with added floor space and an exciting programme of timber-related activity – including seminars, networking, technical tours and demonstrations all taking place within the main exhibition area. With more than 5,000 visitors expected, including architects, specifiers, engineers and contractors plus central government departments and local authorities, all four corners of the timber sector will be represented for all attendees to promote, learn and experience why timber is the number one commercially available low carbon construction material. Timber Expo will reveal the widest and most comprehensive display of applications for timber within the built environment – new technologies, new products and new businesses. All alongside the accompanying Timber Talks seminar programme that will include some of the leading industry thought leaders discussing issues pressing this dynamic sector. Timber Expo has radically overhauled its programme of seminars for 2012, to make learning an even more central component of the exhibition. In 2012 all the seminars will be free and focused in three theatres in the main exhibition area. And the theatres themselves will also be part of the communication and education process, comprising a UKSIPS theatre, a timber frame design from Frame Wise and a third from Deeside Timberframe in partnership with James Jones & Sons. ► |108| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Seminar Theatre 1 - UKSIPS The UKSIPS Helix Theatre will be hard to miss. Its creative structure will be one of the highlights of the show and the name comes from the view from above. The sculpted roof panels form the shape of a helix and, although it is purely an aesthetic aspect of the structure, it is designed to demonstrate that intricate shapes and overhangs can be achieved using SIPS technology. The 60m2 footprint has only one structural beam – the ridge beam that runs down the centreline of the roof structure. The Helix structure will be constructed using standard dimension SIP wall panels but the roof uses a ‘jumbo’ SIP that spans 4.8m unsupported from ridge to eaves. A range of insulation core thicknesses will be used to demonstrate how a SIP panel can be readily increased in thickness to achieve both structural and thermal requirements. Seminar Theatre 2 – Frame Wise You will see a full range of panel systems including the new ‘Wise Wall’ series that was developed last autumn. There will also be glulam framework on the ground floor, cross laminated timber (CLT) for partitions, raised tie roof trusses, plus various types of non-combustible wall panels. This will demonstrate how well the industry can work together and come up with ‘Smart Timber Solutions’. TV screens on one of the external walls will run a time-lapse film of the seminar theatre structure being erected from blank exhibition floor to finished completed building. Seminar Theatre 3 – Deeside Timberframe & James Jones & Sons The structure is mainly single storey but does incorporate the James Jones IntelliRoof system over one end of the theatre. The roof system will include a Velux Cabrio balcony window and there will be a JJI-Joist cassette floor panel to complete the room in the roof design. The wall panels will be made up of JJI, metal web and space studs (220mm deep) ranging in height from 2.4 up to 3.6m high clad with 9mm OSB sheathing, with the walls sloping up from the main entrance towards the room in the roof section. The curved roof over the main entrance area will be formed in loose engineered joist rafters supported on 2 curved glulam beams, 300mm deep, which are in turn supported by glulam support posts. Timber Talks Running across both days of the event on 25 and 26 September, the seminar programme will include nearly 100 sessions and will be one of the most comprehensive, stimulating and thought provoking programmes dealing with timber. Designed and delivered by a wide range of industry experts, the programme has been geared to deal with real issues pressing the timber sector, including case study examples of successful projects, advice on new legislation and practical lessons on the latest technical developments. ►
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Issue-based seminars will cover a range of topics, including the government's flagship Green Deal, Part L amendments, the EU Timber Regulation, building information modelling (BIM), designing to Passivhaus and Fabric First principles, environmental product declarations (EPDs), CE marking and the EU Construction Products Regulation. Similarly wide-ranging will be the building product presentations including timber connections, SIPs, modified wood, decking and cladding, fixtures, adhesives and sealants. The sessions will be delivered from a diverse range of individuals and organisations ranging from TRADA, UKTFA and BWF to Arup, Kingspan, Ramboll, Whitbread Hotels and Restaurants and the Olympic Delivery Authority. Those entries shortlisted for the 2012 Wood Awards will also be delivering key seminars on their flagship projects and products. Plus you will also be able to hear more from the deserving winners of the Timber Expo and TRADA-sponsored TTJ Innovation Award, who will be revealing the secrets of their success. “When we launched Timber Expo last year, we had no doubt that the time was right to seize the day and to give the timber industry its own show in the UK,” says Event Director, Loretta Sales. “This year the show is going to be a really vibrant and buzzing place to be. We are now 85% booked-up on a show that will be 50% bigger than last year. I think exhibitors and visitors are going to see a huge difference this year compared to last.” ProTimber2012 On the afternoon prior to Timber Expo (24 September) a new dimension has been added to the show with the launch of ProTimber 2012. This will be the first of an annual gathering of timber industry leaders on the eve of the exhibition halls opening for business. This special half day event is designed to bring together a cross-section of individuals from all corners of the timber industry to discuss current trends in the sector and inspire everyone on a future path ahead for the timber and wood products sector. ProTimber is expected to host 250 attendees to discuss five key topics alongside a presentation of the results of two studies into current trends in the UK construction industry that is being commissioned by TRADA and Timber Expo. This research will include an insight into the construction sector and activities of other sectors, including steel and concrete and how timber is stacking up in comparison. “We hope the summit will provide some thought-provoking discussion in a serious and informed manner. It will add an important dimension to the show,” says TRADA Marketing & Membership Manager, Rupert Scott. “Getting the UK timber industry’s growth strategy right is very appropriate alongside its leading exhibition.”
This special half day event is designed to bring together a crosssection of individuals from all corners of the timber industry
Chaired by a professional facilitator, this invitation only forum will represent different parts of the timber supply chain. The aim is to have a lively informed debate in a structured manner. This will be an arena to flush out individual and company opinions, tease out detail from the research and also air any legitimate objections. All areas of the industry are expected to participate from clients and contractors to project managers, quantity surveyors, merchants and product developers. “With the industry coming together at Timber Expo we have a great opportunity to discuss and shape the future direction of our whole supply chain,” says John White, Chief Executive, Timber Trade Federation. “With industry bodies now working ever closer together, meaningful ‘at the coalface’ input from senior business people will augment and refine the positive steps, such as the Wood First campaign, that are being taken to grow the use of wood.” ►
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Timber Buyers Forum will return in 2012 in a larger, fresh format to provide a simple, structured and highly effective way for buyers to meet with new and existing suppliers.
+ For More Information www.timber-buyers.co.uk email@example.com
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Timber Buyers Forum After a highly successful first year, the Timber Buyers Forum will return in 2012 in a larger fresh format to provide a simple, structured and highly effective way for buyers to meet with new and existing suppliers. This year the Timber Buyers Forum will be located at the heart of Timber Expo in the main exhibition space and is designed to be one of the truly exclusive parts of the show. The Forum team will organise a bespoke programme of handpicked supplier meetings, relevant seminars and networking events to help fulfil your immediate to longer term project needs. With time a critical element you can be more efficient in what you do with your valuable time across the two days, and maximise the potential for creating and exploiting the best of business from Timber Expo. This focused approach has proved to be highly successful in creating new business relationships and facilitating meetings that allow you to get the most out of your time at Timber Expo. All participants in the Forum have a strong desire to engage at the highest level possible with decision makers and individuals with direct influence. All of the Forum activities and meetings are matched to your needs, organised on your behalf and completely free of charge â€“ all we ask for is that you give us a little of your time in return. â–ş
We are expecting over 5,000 UK and International visitors Careers in Timber New features for 2012 also include the Careers in Timber area. Responding to the skills shortage across the timber sector and construction industry generally, recruitment specialists ARV Solutions will be delivering and facilitating Careers in Timber. The area is designed to be the central meeting place for all those wanting to explore new roles, responsibilities and career opportunities in the timber, offsite sector and wider construction industry. Along with the expert knowledge, in excess of 60 years of combined experience and specialised advice on offer, there will be plenty of visual elements for visitors to see as well. A variety of large scale boards will show graphical statistics, facts and figures and job information, revealing the many layers of the timber industry and what roles and positions could be available to you. Importantly it will show where the connectivity is for those wishing to move across disciplines. You will also be able to see postings of new career opportunities that are available plus salary tables to give you an idea of where you are and where you can be on the all important money scale. There will also be additional help on finding and choosing the best training schemes and courses. Careers in Timber will be one of the ‘must visit’ parts of Timber Expo and a key place to be for those wishing to enter the industry, move within it or track down the best new recruit. All of the above is in addition to the huge range of products on show that will include timber frame, SIPs, Glulam, LVL, cross-laminated, timber protection products, flooring, cladding, decking and mouldings, doors and windows. The exhibitor list includes Platinum Sponsors, International Timber/Pasquill Timber Engineering, alongside major sponsors and industry experts including Accsys Technologies, Balcas Timber Crown Timber, Coillte, Glulam Solutions, ECC Timber, Lonza, James Latham, Frame Wise, Norbord, Osmose, PEFC, Senior Architectural Systems, Woodbridge Timber, Wiehag plus many others. We are expecting over 5,000 UK and International visitors to attend the show, so it is crucial that you pre-register yourself and colleagues prior to your arrival, to make your entry and overall visit as smooth and stress-free as possible. ■
+ For More Information www.timber-expo.co.uk
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The evolution of the wood floor By Harvey Booth, UK Sales & Marketing Director |116| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Over recent years, the wood floor has evolved. Once rarely seen outside of the contemporary or historic home environment, it is now widely specified. Both trade and consumer customers recognise its numerous benefits and, as products go, there are a lot. Quality wood floors not only provide a wealth of options in terms of style; they also score in terms of sound eco-choice, performance and they provide a raft of healthy living benefits. This increase in popularity has seen the humble wooden floor transform from an almost structural component, to a key design element, - and leading manufacturers have responded by developing a new breed of designer products to fulfil customer demand. But, rather than setting out to re-invent the wheel, the new wood floors use cutting-edge techniques to reinforce their natural look and to create a designer edge without compromising beauty. New stained lacquers and oils, in a spectrum of shades, are being used to emphasize the grain and texture of a real wood floor, – and traditional solvent-based varnishes have been replaced by more eco-friendly treatments. And even locking joints are playing their part, as most manufacturers turn to glueless joints, rather than traditional tongue and grooves which were joined using adhesive.
Beyond the myriad of product designs and finishes, the modern multi-layered or engineered construction has also played a huge part in the wood floor’s evolution. Unlike a solid wood floor, which is made from one solid piece of timber, a multilayered construction comprises layers of timber, laid at right angles to each other. There are many advantages to this method: as sustainable hardwood is only used in the surface layer, five times the amount of flooring can be produced with the same hardwood yield, whilst fast growing pine or spruce is used in the core layers.
New stained lacquers and oils, in a spectrum of shades, are being used to emphasize the grain and texture of a real wood floor
The construction also makes the floor more stable. All wood species swell in a warm, humid environment and shrink when it’s cool and dry. In a solid construction, this natural movement can cause gaps to occur between boards or for flooring boards to become concave or convex. With a quality engineered board, that’s constructed in layers, the floor expands and contracts as a complete surface, making it up to 75% more stable. Combined with a quality joint, this eliminates the risk of any gaps or problems associated with humidity from occurring, – and makes it an ideal partner to underfloor heating. Floors can also be refurbished, the same as a solid product – i.e., down to the joint – so they offer comparable benefits in terms of longevity too. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |117|
In today’s competitive market, producers are also working in more imaginative ways to specifically fulfil the demands of eco-savvy customers. These include using green alternatives to tropical species, to create sustainable floors that have a dark, tropical finish, as seen in Kährs World Collection. The Swedish manufacturer has also taken this one step further, by developing a range of sustainable tropical floors. Produced as part of the first FSC® and Fairtrade certified timber smallscale forestry project, in Chile’s Curacautin Valley, the new floors are made using a combination of sustainable native Rauli and Roble hardwood timber. The hardwood is used in the surface layer only, whilst FSC Mix certified wood is used for the core layers, combining eco and performance benefits once again. The new range supports not only the restoration of biodiversity in the forest, but also reduction of poverty and restoration of forest rights to the indigenous Mapuche |118| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
and descendants of pioneer family foresters. As well as offering sustainable species and certified products, many manufacturers are making huge strides behind the scenes, in terms of ensuring their whole production is more eco-friendly. For example, local timber sourcing is cutting down on transportation, and wood waste is being converted to provide a variety of products - from biofuel energy to rich ash-based forest fertiliser. Today’s new breed of wood floors certainly have a lot to offer, in terms of design, performance and eco credentials. It’s a product that’s been loved by builders for centuries. It’s proved that it can evolve, whilst still retaining its original charm and benefits. And, with leading manufacturers switched on to both trade and consumer needs, it looks like the enduring popularity of wood is set to grow still further. ■
+ For More Information www.kahrs.co.uk
Putting LCA at the centre of sustainable design: An American hardwood case study Rupert Oliver, American Hardwood export council
The American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC) has published a comprehensive report on the environmental life cycle of delivering U.S. hardwood lumber into overseas markets. Fully ISO conformant and receiving high praise from independent LCA experts, the report is being used as the basis for innovative tools to integrate sustainability into product design. If sustainability is ever to become more than a mere aspiration in design, manufacturing and construction, decisions need to be made based on hard facts. New tools are needed which bring in data from numerous sources covering a huge range of environmental impacts. These tools must be flexible enough to accommodate widely different materials and contexts, and yet accessible so that environmental information can be readily integrated into the design process without adding excess cost. That’s a very tall order – but a widening range of scientists, industry groups, specifiers, government and consumer interests have been chipping away at the problem now for several years. Their efforts are beginning to show results. |120| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Central to this process has been the development of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a scientific method involving collection and evaluation of quantitative data on all the inputs and outputs of material, energy and waste flows associated with a product over its entire life cycle so that the environmental impacts can be determined. The LCA process is now covered by international standards, the ISO14040 series, to ensure results are scientifically rigorous and not subject to manipulation by different industrial sectors. The standards require, for example, that data collection and analysis is undertaken by independent third parties and subject to critical review by a panel of independent experts. AHEC, which represents the interests of exporters of hardwood lumber and veneer from the United States, is actively promoting an LCA based approach to sustainable material use and design to help overcome widespread misconceptions about the environmental credentials of hardwood products. It is often assumed, for example, that because hardwoods are usually derived from managed ►
natural forests and “slow to grow”, their use contributes to forest degradation or deforestation. Another common assumption in Europe is that because American hardwoods have to be transported across the Atlantic, they must have a higher carbon footprint than locally produced materials. This led AHEC to embark on a comprehensive LCA project with two major objectives: first to ensure full conformance to ISO14040 to ensure the credibility of the data; and second to ensure that the LCA data is made available in such a form that it is useful to decision-makers in material specification and product design. PE International, an independent company, was engaged to undertake the work due to its experience of LCA in a wide range of business sectors and ability to offer innovative LCA tools. These include PE’s proprietary Gabi software, which facilitates collection and analysis of LCA data, and an “i-report” system to make this data accessible and useable by designers and manufacturers. PE has also been heavily engaged in efforts to develop a global standardised framework for reporting of LCA data in Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the start of the process, AHEC and PE International assembled a high-powered Critical Review Panel chaired by Dr Matthias Finkbeiner, a professor at Berlin University who also chairs the ISO committee developing international LCA standards. By involving the Panel in the project early on, rather than simply seeking their endorsement at the end, methodological issues could be dealt with as they arose. When the final LCA report was published in July 2012, the Panel not only confirmed its compliance to the ISO standard, but also “found the overall quality of the methodology and its execution to be excellent”. The report provides a comprehensive analysis of U.S. hardwood lumber’s profile across a wide range of environmental impacts. In technical terms it is a “Cradle-togate plus transport” study, covering all impacts associated with extracting the wood in the forest, transporting, sawing and kiln-drying the material in the United States, and then delivering the lumber to the importers yard in major overseas markets. Benefitting the forest environment The report includes a qualitative assessment of land use and land use change, biodiversity, water resource and toxicity impacts associated with the supply of U.S. hardwood lumber, indicating very low environmental impact across all these categories. On land-use change, it observes "in the system under investigation the main material – wood – comes from naturally re-grown forests. The harvested areas had undergone several iterations of harvesting and re-growth. After harvesting, the land is returned to forest so there is no direct land use change to account for in the timeline of a few hundred years".
On biodiversity impacts, the study concludes that: "Conversion of any other commercial land into the hardwood forest would most probably be a positive impact on the land quality including biodiversity and associated ecosystem services". On toxicity it notes that: "In the production of hardwood lumber there are no fertilisers or wood treatment chemicals or any other known substances of particular toxicity concern". On water resources it comments: "hardwood lumber is expected to have very low impacts”. While some impacts are treated qualitatively in the LCA report, others are dealt with quantitatively. The report provides numerical data on Global Warming Potential (GWP – better known as carbon footprint), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication Potential (EP), Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential (POCP), and Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP). It also identifies which processes along the supply chain (forestry, sawing, kilning, transport) are most important in determining each of these impacts. It includes a sensitivity analysis to show how environmental impacts vary according to key factors such as species, lumber thickness, and transport distance and mode. Wide variation between U.S. hardwood species A key conclusion from this number crunching is that variation in environmental profile is at least as dependent on species and thickness as it is on transport factors. Providing average results for “sawn hardwood lumber” can be very misleading and data needs to be reported separately for each individual hardwood species and board thickness. This is mainly because the kiln drying process consumes a surprisingly large share of the energy needed to produce and deliver hardwood lumber. The time lumber spends in the kiln also varies widely between species and by thickness. For example, for 1” lumber, oak typically needs to be kilned at least three times longer than tulipwood. And 3” lumber requires more than 4 times as long in the kiln as 1” lumber. While kiln drying has more of an impact than might be expected, the global warming impact of transport is less. Even very large changes in transport distance result in relatively minor changes in carbon dioxide emissions. For example, for 1” white oak lumber, the carbon footprint of delivering into London (shipping distance 720 km by road and 6300 km by sea) is little different from that of delivering into central Poland (1265 km by road, 7735 km by sea). Even transporting lumber all the way from the Eastern United States to Australia, via Suez and Singapore (2205 km by road, 25000 km by sea), results in a carbon footprint no more than 50% greater than that of delivery into the UK. What about wood’s carbon storage? Like all wood products, close to 50% of the dry mass of U.S. hardwood lumber comprises carbon which has been absorbed as the tree grows through photosynthesis. In fact, the data gathered by PE shows that the amount of carbon stored in U.S. hardwood lumber almost always exceeds the emissions required to extract, process and transport ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |121|
that lumber into any export market worldwide. However, all the above observations about carbon footprint ignore this storage benefit of the lumber. That’s because the scope of this particular LCA report is restricted in that it ends at the point of delivery - unavoidable since it’s not possible for producers to know how their material will be used. Treatments, fixings, further processing, life-span and method of disposal all have an influence on carbon storage. These need to be fully accounted for in future ‘cradle-to-grave’ studies of manufactured products containing U.S. hardwood – before it is appropriate to make far-reaching claims about the “carbon neutrality” of the raw material. The AHEC study facilitates this next step by providing conservative estimates of the amount of carbon stored in U.S. hardwood lumber products. This treatment of the carbon properties of wood products, which aligns with international best practice, was singled out for particular praise by the Critical Review Panel: “Another commendable aspect of the study is the conservative approach taken with regard to modelling biogenic carbon removals from the atmosphere. The study quantifies the biogenic carbon uptake in forestry, and reports this separately from the cradle-to-gate result. This transparent and unbiased treatment of the biogenic carbon issue supports proper use of the data for future assessments of the complete life cycle of American hardwood based products”. The data provided on carbon storage in U.S. hardwoods again highlights that there are significant variations between U.S. species that need to be taken into account during the
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design process. Denser species like oak and hickory store more carbon for each cubic meter than less dense species like tulipwood and willow. Bringing LCA into design with U.S. hardwoods The next stage of the project, and the most challenging, aims to integrate life cycle thinking into all stages in the design, manufacturing and delivery of products containing U.S. hardwoods. As a first step, the LCA data for U.S. hardwood lumber is being made available to suppliers and specifiers by way of PE’s on-line ‘i-report’ tool – this enables specific data to be generated for individual species, lumber thickness, processing parameters (such as kiln efficiency and energy sources), transport distances and modes (truck, ship, rail). AHEC is also commissioning preparation of formal Environmental Product Declarations in line with various national EPD programmes including BRE’s Environmental Profiles. The LCA data will soon be introduced into AHEC’s existing technical species guides and project case studies, which have long provided guidance and inspiration for use of American hardwoods in construction, interiors and furniture manufacturing. However, perhaps the most innovative of AHEC’s initiatives is a joint project currently on-going with PE and the Royal College of Art in London to develop an ‘i-report’ system for furniture designers. For the first time, this project will allow furniture designers to develop genuine understanding of the real and very direct environmental impact of their decisions when using U.S. hardwoods. ■
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Transport 126 - 129
The potential growth of EVs in Britain. –Philip Hargreaves
130 - 132
133 - 135
Heavy Transport With An Environmental Twist – Nigel Hanwell
136 - 137
Duty cycle and whole life cost modelling – Robert Anderson
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Philip Hargreaves, Chairman of sustainability partner, Inteb, and Project Director for electric vehicles, comments on the potential growth of EVs in Britain.
The potential growth of EVs in Britain Are we about to see the charge of the ‘motoring light’ brigade on our roads, or have experts got their figures wrong when it comes to the anticipated sales of electric vehicles (EVs), with their reduced environmental impacts? It’s really hard to say, given the way that computers suddenly took off when most commentators had written them off as the technology of the future! Car manufacturers have set a target of 50,000 EVs on this country’s roads by 2015 and the Government has created subsidies of up to £5000 and £8000 for buyers of certain specified electric cars and electric-powered vans respectively through the Plug-In Car Grant and the Plug-In Van Grant. Despite the domestic subsidy having been in place last year, 2011’s claims for this subsidy totalled just 1052 and right now we only have around 2,000 EVs on our roads. With this in mind, the Committee on Climate Change’s view that we need to see 1.7 million electric cars on the roads by 2020 seems like a tough task. So what’s standing in the way? The first issue has to be the cost of an electric vehicle, which is likely to set you back around £26,000 upwards for a car – probably 10-20% too expensive to make it |126| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
It’s really hard to say, given the way that computers suddenly took off when most commentators had written them off as the technology of the future! a realistic purchase for even the greenest of motorists. However, the Government subsidies are geared at making the cost of an EV more comparable with that of a petrol or diesel-powered motor and running costs are substantially lower. It would cost £100 less in fuel for every 1000 miles knocked up by a diesel van’s mileometer, while a fuel saving of around 88% can be achieved by driving 110 miles in an electric car, rather than a petrol driven one, even when charging costs are put into the calculation. A petrol car travelling 110 miles and filling up with petrol at a price of £1.37 per litre, would make the trip, if travelling at around 40mph, at a cost of £17.16. Electricity is priced, on average per kW, at £0.09. An EV with a range of 110 miles with a 24kW battery would cost the driver £2.16. There are advantages too, such as not having to pay the London congestion tax and road tax (VED), paying zero-rate company car tax and, of course, helping ►
the environment by lowering carbon emissions. But purchasers are currently extremely mindful of the fact that battery replacement, after say seven years, could cost them thousands of pounds – a factor so significant for many that it has made Renault look at battery hire as an option in its EVs, so that the purchaser does not have to shoulder this financial burden. Even if these objections to purchase are overcome, there is still the other crunch factor relating to the charging network. Drivers are fearful of running out of charge and also of having to change behaviours in order to build charging time into their already busy, if not frenetic, lives. The UK is not alone in being slow in building its charging network. China aims to get 500,000 combined hybrid and electric EVs on its roads by 2015 and 5 million by 2020. It is already falling back from its target of 400,000 charge points ready for use by 2015 and is now only fifth in the table for overall EV readiness, behind Japan, the US, France and Germany. If the number of electric vehicles predicted to sell this year is accurate, big changes need to be made to the UK’s charging infrastructure, and quickly, in order to meet demand. The domestic subsidy will cover around 8,400 cars, but the charging infrastructure may not currently cope with this demand, let alone that of more cars that may be purchased without subsidies. New owners will be based around not just urban conurbations, but in rural areas too and in holidaying destinations to which urban EV owners may wish to journey. A 93 or 110-mile charge is not going to be
sufficient for most staycationers to even reach their destination, let alone explore it or get back home again! Charging systems need to be provided in areas convenient for everyone, such as shopping centres, company car parks and at the roadside, as well as in other key strategic locations ideal for fast charging, such as motorway services. Welcome Break has recognised the need and installed both 3-pin (13A) and 7-pin (32A) supply charging points at its services. Channel-hopping EV drivers from those countries that are more EV ready than Britain, will expect to find a charging network in place on arrival in this country. If the charging network falls short of their expectations, it could prove another issue for UK tourism. Despite the need to keep up with targets and match what our Continental cousins are doing with their EV car strategies, many experts feel that electric van purchase makes more sense than electric car outlay at present, when charge times and usage patterns are considered. Many fleet vehicles operate in and around fairly tight urban centres by day, covering predictable routes and distances and making frequent stops, and then remain at depots overnight, where they could realistically be charged and made ready for the next day. Domestic car drivers may find this more of a struggle, with many lacking the luxury of off-street parking and thus access to a charging point once their initial charge is spent. Realistically, however, most will want to charge at home and the arrival of low cost domestic ‘Mode 3’ EV chargers should assist this, as a full charge can be ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |127|
achieved in 4-8 hours. In comparison, a manufacturer supplied ‘Mode 2’ charging cable can take up to 16 hours and the charging rate is limited for safety reasons. To meet the domestic EV driver’s needs, a whole public access charging infrastructure needs to spring up for those times when they journey off their home patch. Drivers will have to get into the habit of planning trips that will enable them to charge when they are stopping for other lifestyle purposes, rather than stopping to charge, as they would do at their local petrol station. On the plus side, charging times are down from the 10-12 hours it took to charge a vehicle last year and, with higher current 32A supply points now available, a top-up can take just 20 minutes and a full charge just an hour. Doing the weekly shop while you charge up is now an option, if you can find a suitable charging point. The ‘Mode 3’ operation – a fixed, dedicated circuit – is widely accepted as the best and safest method of charging. It not only offers the faster charging times (4-8 hours) but is also Smart Grid ready. Fast charging is a must if we are to achieve EV growth. The reassurance it provides to drivers cannot be underestimated and Japanese trials show that, even if they do not use these chargers, they increase the distances that they travel, just because they know the chargers are available. At Inteb, we recommend using this type of purpose-built residential or commercial charger, which is professionally installed, with everything that means in terms of electrical fitting, sheathing and electrical connections installed and checked by certified professionals. There is a wide range of charging rate available, from 3 to 22 kW, depending on the site and requirement, but the quicker the charge, the more expensive the charging equipment.
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13A charge points, on the other hand, do raise safety concerns. A recent Nissan statement has suggested that a 13A charger should only be considered a back up, ‘occasional’ solution. EV systems should include fully shuttered type 3 connectors and sockets, to comply with all UK domestic wiring safety regulations and also have lightning protection, to protect the EV and electrical equipment. It sounds obvious, but a number of cheaper solutions coming to market do not take these fundamental safety issues into account, let alone problems associated with harmonic distortion. For those unfamiliar with this term, let me explain. Like surfers, most electrical devices are looking for the perfect wave! For alternating current, perfection is defined by a sinusoidal (sine) wave, in which electrical voltage changes smoothly from positive polarity to negative, and back again, 50 times per second. Unfortunately, modern equipment, including inferior EV charging solutions, is having an effect on the quality of this perfect wave. Harmonics may already be present in your building, but not causing adverse effects at present, but as harmonic levels rise, the likelihood of experiencing problems also increases. To give examples, harmonic distortion could lead to malfunctions of microprocessorbased equipment, overheating in neutral conductors, transformers or induction motors, deterioration or failure of power factor correction capacitors, erratic operation of breakers and relays and pronounced magnetic fields near transformers and switchgear. In other words, it could attack the very heart of your business operation. To make matters worse, harmonics can sometimes be transmitted from one facility, back through the utility’s equipment, to neighbouring businesses, especially if they share a common transformer. Harmonics ►
generated in your building could actually adversely affect another business, with all that might mean in terms of litigation. These are the considerations that any EV installation partner should be talking through with their clients, following an expert analysis of how EV charging can be accommodated within the workplace, retail environment, or leisure sectors. Getting harmonics right is absolutely key and installing charging points that could negatively affect the business and also the end-user’s perception of EV charging and safety is a risk. If you are going to embrace EV technology, to allow your eco-friendly workers to charge up during their working day, your greener guests charge up during an overnight stay, or your carbon conscious leisure customers to get more juice into their car while watching a film or enjoying a meal, make sure you do it well and not at a much higher cost to yourself later down the line. Getting the wrong first time advice and charging systems could mean a very expensive replacement process when you realise you have to get it right. The EV and the charging network situation is very much chicken and egg in nature. Which comes first? Will it be manufacturers like Toyota who are predicting 60,000 sales of their Prius Plug-In EV in year one who drive EVs growth, or will it be the availability of a wider and more comprehensive charging network? It may well be down to innovators and forward thinking business leaders and entrepreneurs to help EV partners like Inteb steer the network forward and enable us to use our knowledge, experience and industry links to install complete charging solutions that are reliable, safe and simple to use, as well as being future-proofed and mindful of the likely evolution of the smart grid. Businesses may soon find they can sell electricity from their EVs back to the smart grid at peak times and top up their supplies during lower cost charging hours, making
the electricity in their EVs not just a power source, but a real business asset. A US business model is already based around harvesting the stored power in electric vehicles. If the consumer can gain faith in the charging network, EV sales may begin to shoot up, regardless of subsidies. Fleet managers need to take the lead, offering EV packages to their employees, which are flexible and cost-effective, while commercial fleet managers should be examining the cost and carbon savings they could accrue. At a domestic level, the cost of petrol and diesel is having a devastating impact on the finances of the motorist, so if more people do the sums and work out the cost of their motoring, maybe purchase prices will not seem so unreasonable. One very good point to throw into the mix is that many households do not have to rely solely on their EV to get them from A to B, with a quarter of homes in this country owning more than one vehicle and 5% owning more than two. Swapping one petrol model for an EV that tackles motoring round town, the school run and the supermarket sweep and using a non-EV for those longer trips such as holidays, would make a substantial difference to EV growth. In January 2012, The Guardian said: “The UK is primed for an electric car boom”. That may be true, but let’s just hope we have the right charging network in place and that EV growth is in safe hands. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |129|
HEAVY TRANSPORT WITH AN
T WIST Nigel Hanwell
Increased transport on Europe’s roads has so far always led to added emissions of carbon dioxide and greater climate impact. Trucks and buses are currently responsible for around 8% of all carbon emissions in the EU. By comparison, cars deliver about 12% of all emissions. By the time of the mandatory introduction of Euro6 in January 2014, legislation will have reduced engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen by around 77% and particulates by around 50% since Euro1 was introduced in 1993.
retailers and manufacturers to demand that their transport and logistics providers not only have a carbon reduction policy but also provide proof of its ongoing implementation. One manufacturer above all others has become synonymous with its policy of caring for the environment. Indeed, at Volvo Trucks, care for the environment has become integrated into its business and manufacturing processes to such a degree that it is one of the company’s core values.
Over the last 20 years, truck manufacturers and operators have become increasingly aware of the impact their vehicles have on the environment in terms of engine emissions in particular. It is quite common nowadays for transport end users such as
The company has recently launched its latest engines that now meet the tough Euro6 environmental standards. The first to be available is the fuel efficient D13-460 13 litre engine which powers more than a third of all Volvo trucks. Customer demand ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |133|
for Euro-6 trucks is still at a modest level. Since February 2012, it has been possible to certify vehicles according to the new regulations, but it will be another 17 months before the requirements become compulsory for all new trucks. The tough emission standards involve advanced engine solutions, including many new components, which in turn mean higher cost for customers. However, this increased cost can be partially offset by various financial inducements and incentive packages, above all in regional traffic and long-haul operations in the UK and Europe. Tried and tested technology The Volvo D13 for Euro-6 is based on Volvo’s tried and tested Euro-5 engine. Just like this unit, the new engine is an in-line six cylinder engine with unit injectors and catalytic exhaust treatment (SCR). In order to meet the new emission requirements, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is also used, as well as a diesel particulate filter (DPF) – systems that Volvo Trucks has already been using for several years in the US and Japan. Compared with Euro-5, oxides of nitrogen emissions have been cut by 77 per cent and particulate emissions have been halved to 0.01 |134| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
g/kWh . The SCR system, which converts the oxides of nitrogen in the exhaust gases into harmless nitrogen and water vapour, is integrated with the particulate filter in a compact unit that takes up the minimum possible space. The particulate filter, which captures and incinerates the microscopic particles found in the exhaust gases, is automatically regenerated during operation. EGR is used primarily to raise the exhaust gas temperature when the engine is not sufficiently hot to heat up the exhaust gases, which must reach at least 250°C for the SCR system to operate optimally. Unlike conventional EGR systems that cool down the recirculated exhaust gases in order to lower engine temperature and thus reduce nitrogen oxide emissions, Volvo’s Euro-6 engine’s EGR system is virtually inactive during highway cruising, so it does not impact on fuel consumption during such operations.
management was quick to note and absorb the implications of the ongoing debate. Volvo’s core value of care for the environment dates back to 1972. That was the year a United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. In conjunction with this conference, the company’s new CEO, Pehr G Gyllenhammar, took the opportunity to formulate Volvo’s first environmental declaration. It stated, among other things: “Volvo now believes it is responsible not only for ensuring that its products are a functional means of transport, but also for ensuring that they function in a wider context – in our environment.”
Environmental declaration During the 1960s, environmental issues quickly gained in ascendancy. Industry’s effects on the environment were also highlighted with increasing frequency and Volvo’s top
In 1989, Volvo appointed an internal environmental auditor to review all the corporation’s facilities the world over. The company aims to meet and preferably surpass all eco-legislation. ►
Volvo’s engines have become increasingly clean over the years in terms of emissions, and Volvo has in fact often been one step ahead of the legislation in this respect. Today, emissions from a modern large truck are mere fractions of what they were a decade or so ago.
In 1991, Volvo presented a unique database for chemical use known as Motiv. It contained 4000 chemicals listed according to how hazardous they were. A large number have been blacklisted and replaced with more environmentally suitable alternatives. Similar classification is now being discussed in many countries. In 1995 Volvo revealed its environmentally optimised ECT (Environmental Concept Truck), which attracted immense attention the world over. The truck featured hybrid power for exhaust-free operation in vulnerable areas, based on a gas turbine with an integrated high-speed generator and an electric motor powered by nickel-cadmium (NiCad) batteries. Other cutting-edge environmental technologies included a highly aerodynamic shape and materials optimised for recycling.
Inspiring challenges One decade later, in spring 2006, Volvo revealed a new generation of hybrid vehicles, now with an electric motor coupled to a diesel engine. Once again Volvo made positive headlines. The Volvo Group invests considerable resources in the development of alternative fuels and drive systems, all with the ultimate aim of ensuring sustainable development. Each successive new engine model integrates ever more refined technology that reduces fuel consumption and cuts emissions. One important goal for the company’s environmental dedication is to make Volvo Trucks production plants entirely carbon dioxide-free. First out was the factory in Ghent, Belgium, followed by the Tuve and Umeå factories in Sweden. The ultimate aim is that all production shall be carbon dioxide-free. At Umeå, cutting
Each successive new engine model integrates ever more refined technology that reduces fuel consumption and cuts emissions.
energy consumption has been achieved through the use of an icecold underground river to cool the production machinery. At the same time, considerable environmental improvements in the paintshop have helped create the world’s cleanest and most energy-efficient paintshop. Volvo Trucks’ large factories have in fact already met the company’s target of CO2 free production. With its eye firmly set on reducing the effects of constantly increasing congestion in the transport infrastructure, particularly on European roads, Volvo Trucks is also keen to see widespread introduction of EMS (the European Modular System) with its longer trucks (25.25metres overall length). If the system were implemented fully, two trucks would be able to haul the same amount of cargo as three of today’s semi trailer combinations. For Volvo Trucks, constantly tougher emissions requirements, rapidly depleting oil resources, accelerating climate changes and immensely hard competition are the global – and inspiring – challenges facing all the employees of this vital 85-year-old company as it embarks on its next 85 years of successful operation. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |135|
22% of UK domestic carbon emissions are from
Duty cycle and whole life cost modelling Robert Anderson, Cenex
transport and more than half of all new cars in the UK are bought by fleets. Therefore, it is essential that businesses start to take-up ultra-low emission vehicles in order to achieve the strict Government targets of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
With the new and emerging generation of low-carbon vehicles, fleet decision makers have an alternative to petrol and diesel vehicles that can suit a wide range of applications. However, given the range and recharging requirements of electric vehicles, duty cycle based whole life cost modelling is essential for their successful economic and operational integration into day-to-day operations. Although the trend of using a common range of vehicle technologies is increasing, it is recognised that different vehicle technologies will deliver different performances across a range of vehicle types and duty cycles. It is for this reason that the â€˜one size fits allâ€™ solution no longer applies and greater care needs to be taken in matching the right vehicle to the right application. A significant number of fleet vehicles operate within well-defined parameters, with only a small variance in operation. By analysing the duty cycles of fleet vehicles and the activity of each vehicle over a period of time, it is possible to cluster vehicles together and define a selection of duty cycles for a typical fleet. Combining whole life costs and a duty cycle approach therefore enables a fleet manager to determine whether a certain technology application meets the financial and operational performance required for the fleet. Analysing the duty cycle of a fleet can be a complicated process, especially when it comes to assessing the best mix of vehicles to deliver operational and function benefits. Electric Vehicles (EVs) alone come in various forms such as pure battery electric, hybrid EVs with internal combustion engines and fuel cell hybrid EVs. Then there are conventional vehicles and low carbon alternatives, such as gas vehicles, running on natural gas or bio-methane.
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Standard whole life cost modelling already indicates that there is a vast difference in the distribution of costs between conventionally fuelled, low carbon and electric vehicles, making a like-for-like comparison difficult. However, a duty cycle based whole life costing approach will take into account the large number of variables beyond simply the purchase price of the vehicle, including some costs that will alter over time such as vehicle taxes, subsidies, fuel and electricity use, battery lifetime, fuel and energy costs and refuelling infrastructure costs.
Due to the issues associated with introducing new low carbon vehicles and supporting infrastructure into fleet operations, Cenex, the UK’s first Centre of Excellence for low carbon and fuel cell technologies, has developed their unique Fleet Carbon Reduction Tool (FCRT). This tool is able to provide the performance and economic data needed for business case development and is able to contrast electric vehicle investments with those for conventional vehicles and low carbon alternatives. The results provide the business case analysis that fleet decision makers need to determine which combination of vehicles will prove most practical. The FCRT allows for the accurate estimation of the carbon reduction performance of different transport fuels and technology options in real-world fleet applications. It is a computer simulation tool that can calculate the fuel usage, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) generated and operating costs incurred by the operation of a fleet of vehicles (see figure 1). The tool is designed to be flexible in operation and employs duty cycle based whole life cost modelling so that the evaluation of a variety of differing powertrain technologies within a fleet can be compared on equal terms. In addition, the FCRT can be used to ascertain the exact criteria required to cover a specified duty cycle in order to identify the lowest cost vehicle capable of achieving the task. Our analysis, using the FCRT, reveals there are a number of sweet spots already available to fleet decision makers looking to deploy low carbon vehicles to reduce carbon and energy consumption, while at the
same time saving money. With fuel prices continuing to rise many fleet decision makers are already prioritising carbon and fuel reduction strategies. While carbon reduction may not be the only driver for change within fleets, it is worth keeping in mind that the continuing evolution of low carbon technologies will require fleet decision makers to assess their operational and economic suitability to ascertain whether any new technology is worth adopting. Cenex has an established track record of working with fleet operations on the planning and implementation of the latest generation of EVs and low emission vehicles. Our FCRT can help fleet managers identify which mix of transport fuels and technology options makes operational and financial sense. A number of fleet operators, including Coca Cola Enterprises, have already used Cenex’s expertise to assess the best mix of vehicles to be introduced into fleet operations. Following a successful trial to assess the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel costs, Coca Cola Enterprises has invested in 14 Biomethane powered vehicles. The Cenex FCRT was also used during the development of the recently launched Climate Group “Plugged-in Fleets” report to analyse the potential ownership cost and environmental impact of operating electric cars and vans in a range of different operational scenarios. The results of the analyses have helped prove that electric vehicles can provide financial as well as environmental benefits when they are deployed in the right situation. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |137|
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
Waste Management 140 - 142
Battery thefts - Michael Green
143 - 146
Plastic, packaging, Recycling - Stuart Foster
148 - 152
153 - 159
RWM 2012 News
Resource Ireland Preview
162 - 164
The Wood Recycling Scene â€“ Clem Spencer
Miscellany |138| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
a headache and a hazard
A worrying aspect of high metal prices is highlighted by Michael Green, Managing Director of G & P Batteries.
Think of metal theft and most people immediately recall the raft of scandalous stories of life-threatening removal of railway cables or the despicable destruction of war memorial plaques. But those thefts have also turned the spotlight on an issue that has long vexed the waste industry â€“ that of unscrupulous operators who thrive by dodging the law. While mainstream press headlines scream about lead theft from church roofs, much less attention is placed on the number of thefts of a seemingly mundane object, the lead acid battery. High metal prices have attracted unwelcome and dangerous interest from the criminal fraternity, which is proving to be a major headache for those who operate within the law. Lead acid batteries are seen as a nice little earner by some sections of society. The more daring thieves remove batteries from vehicles which are parked up. Apart from the |140| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
cost of a replacement battery, which for commercial vehicles can cost anything up to ÂŁ150, there is also the expense and inconvenience of downtime for the vehicle. The theft of live batteries may be a higher profile form of criminality, but the theft of waste batteries is far from victimless and causes a great deal of damage to businesses in the UK. In addition, the theft of waste lead acid batteries and the lack of care taken in their removal carries a significant environmental risk. Waste vehicle batteries have long been classified as Hazardous waste due to their heavy metal content and they have been banned from landfill since 2002. Producers of waste batteries have a duty of care to ensure that they are handled in accordance with strict regulations. Fail to comply and the penalties can be severe, ranging from unlimited fines and/or imprisonment of up to two years. â–ş
Theft of lead acid batteries is not a straightforward issue. Not all thefts are executed under the cover of darkness. Indeed, some thieves pose as legitimate collectors, even attempting to provide a fraudulent Consignment Note. Sites allowing such collectors to take their batteries could suffer a double indignity; not only do they lose the value of their batteries, they also risk being prosecuted for breaking the law by allowing their waste to be moved in breach of the regulations. The legislation concerning waste batteries is quite complex and can be difficult to interpret correctly. For example, whilst new Hazardous Waste Regulations came into force in England and Wales in 2005, Scotland continues to be governed by the Special Waste Regulations 1996 and the Special Waste Amendment (Scotland) Regulations 2004. In Northern Ireland it is a different story again, with its Hazardous Waste Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2005 being broadly similar to those in Scotland but using a Consignment Note format which is similar to those used in England and Wales. So a multiple retailer operating throughout the UK could require knowledge and compliance with three different types of waste legislation. And that is only one of several pieces of legislation that waste battery producers need to be familiar with. Others include: • • • • • • • • • • • •
Environmental Protection Act 1990, part ii Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991 The Controlled Waste (Registration of Carriers and Seizure of Vehicles) Regulations 1991 Landfill Regulations 2002 The Carriage of Dangerous Goods Regulations The Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulations 2010 ADR Regulations 2011 The Transfrontier Shipment of Waste Regulations 2007 Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010 Batteries And Accumulators (Placing on the Market) Regulations 2008 Waste Batteries and Accumulators Regulations 2009 Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2011.
What’s more, audit trails for waste batteries are vital. Waste producers must have a Consignment Note and other relevant documentation to prove compliant disposal and batteries must ultimately end up at an Authorised Battery Treatment Operator (ABTO) or Authorised Battery Exporter (ABE). Along with other compliant waste operators, G & P has a long-standing frustration with a lack of policing of the unauthorised collectors. It has been a sore point in the industry for a very long time that those who flout the law can seemingly get away scot-free and we welcome the current high profile status of metal theft created by incidents such as thefts of metal from railways, Church roofs and war memorials. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |141|
It seems that, finally, the problem is being taken seriously, with the formation of the National Metal Theft Taskforce, created with a £5m budget in November 2011. Announcing the initiative, Lord Henley revealed the Taskforce had six objectives: • Reduce the theft of metal • Increase the level of offenders brought to justice in relation to metal theft and non-compliance with current legislation • Disrupt organised criminal networks involved in metal theft activity • Implement a structured pattern of scrap metal dealer visits • Improve compliance with the Scrap Metal Dealers Act 1964 • Develop an enhanced intelligence picture of metal theft activity across the country. So far, £3m of the £5m budget has already been spent or committed. Some of the initiatives funded so far include: • The roll out of Operation Tornado, a successful operation to curb metal theft in the North East of England, across the UK • The introduction of police and industry operations to protect critical national infrastructure • Covert policing targeting of scrap yards • Policing of itinerant collectors • Crime prevention initiatives with businesses • Olympics site planning • National days of action targeting collectors and sellers of scrap metal. |142| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
For companies such as G & P, who have built their reputation on compliance, this is welcome news. For too long, our business has suffered because we cannot compete with those who steal batteries and have ready outlets to sell their ill-gotten gains. The problem faced by legitimate collectors goes further than having to contend with out-and-out theft. There are also those who will cut corners, offering to pay for batteries, but may not provide supporting paperwork. If paperwork is provided, it may be of very poor quality and will not withstand scrutiny. And their environmental standards may fall far short of those required by the law. This is one of the hardest messages to get across to hardpressed businesses: by using ‘back door’ or bogus collectors, they are putting their own businesses and reputations at risk of prosecution because of the lack of a proper audit trail for their waste batteries. G & P urges its customers to verify the identity of their drivers and collection vehicles and to ensure they receive all the necessary documentation when handing over waste batteries. The site manager who succumbs to a cash deal for his waste batteries could be risking not only his own job and reputation but that of his company, by exposing them to a potential environmental offence. There is much more than cash at stake here. ■
Plastics Packaging Recycling Stuart Foster, Chief Executive, RECOUP (RECycling Of Used Plastics Limited)
As we tip over the half way mark for 2012, it already promises to be a key year in the strategic development of UK plastic packaging recycling. Targets have now been set to 2017 by which time the current 24% recycling level must exceed 42%, which in reality means more than 500kt of additional material will need to be recycled. Alongside this, there are ongoing debates and discussions around an MRF code of practice, end of waste criteria for plastics, the feasibility of pot, tub and tray collections, and how the definition of separate collection of waste will be transposed into waste regulation. Hot off the press is the latest reported plastic packaging recycling levels for Q2. For 2012 the plastic target is 606kt, but based on the EA (Environment Agency) report the UK have only recycled 262kt of plastic packaging to the end of June. Even taking into account the “carry forward” tonnage from 2011, the UK will still need to recycle another 322kt of plastic packaging across Q3 and Q4 in 2012. ►
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The lower than expected performance may be due to less packaging entering the market, lower recycling levels, or increased material storage against the backdrop of difficult market conditions, particularly in export markets. But it was the 2011 recycling level (630kt) that helped to justify the ambitious new targets. So unless there are significant improvements in plastic packaging recycling levels across the rest of 2012, the 2017 target looks increasingly ambitious. Creating demand, capacity and markets The UK has a healthy reprocessing infrastructure for plastic bottles, but there is more limited demand for the non bottle rigid items such as pots, tubs and trays. Given that these items tend to be mixed together and few MRF’s have the capability to separate them effectively, reprocessors will either need to install additional sorting capacity themselves, or rely on bespoke plastic sorting facilities to supply the appropriate quality material. The PRF (Plastics Recovery Facility) is fast becoming a common front end process for a number of UK reprocessors. Markets for collected plastics are generally more reliable and stronger than they have ever been. Putting monthly or even yearly fluctuations to one side, it is easy to overlook
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that the plastic bottle collected in the 1990’s often struggled to find markets, and a gate fee was required in some cases to get the material recycled. As household collections began to increase, some leading UK and EU reprocessors together with a strong export market allowed the increased tonnages to be recycled. From here, more UK infrastructure could be justified with significant facilities coming online from 2005 onwards to process more material, including major developments in PET and HDPE bottle food grade reprocessing. There is an expectation that the amount of bottles exported has reduced in recent years as UK reprocessors compete. However, the common practice of mixing bottles and non bottle rigid items such as pots, tubs and trays produces a lower quality output which can attract competitive prices from non EU markets where cheap manual sorting is used. For any plastic collection scheme a key requirement is the availability of end markets and a clear understanding of the quality standards or specifications for entry to those end markets. As a rule the higher the quality standard of the material collected and sorted the higher the sales value that will be achieved, and the wider the choice
of end markets. It is important to ensure a rational and practical approach, collecting only materials which can be sorted and which can achieve sustainable end market outlets. RECOUP first issued a bottle recycling guidance document back in 1995, with a similar guide for pots, tubs and trays published in 2007. These are now updated and combined in a single reference document ‘An Information Guide on Recycling Plastic Packaging from the Domestic Waste Stream’ which is freely available from the Recoup website www.recoup.org. Demonstrating Compliance RECOUP have suggested in various consultation responses that the PRN system does need to be refined. There are some options for the development of the existing PRN system to focus the support of PRN value where it is most required, and most importantly create a fair playing field for UK reprocessors. It is of particular concern of RECOUP that there is a discrepancy between the level of treatment needed to generate a PRN when, by comparison, a PERN of the same value can be issued simply through loading baled material onto a container and ship for export, subject to it being plastics only. The BPF Recycling Group (BPF RG) has issued a formal proposal to ►
amend the PRN/PERN system for plastics. They also identify a need to address the current situation and suggest using a mechanism of differential targets to create the fair playing field, where obligated businesses, through their compliance schemes, would be required to obtain an increasing percentage of their evidence from UK reprocessed tonnage and a decreasing percentage of evidence from unprocessed export. Managing contamination and improving quality Importantly, work does need to be done to improve the quality of collected and sorted plastics packaging materials if the UK/ EU is to be able to maintain and support plastics reprocessing facilities. This contamination can be split into two types: other plastics packaging where not requested, and non packaging plastics/ other materials. The delivery of recycling targets must be embedded within a culture of improving and maintaining the quality of materials presented to reprocessors for recycling. Unlike most other EU countries, it appears almost impossible for voluntary specifications to be applied in the UK. Reprocessors are in a position to offer lower values for material, but this still results in material outputs from collection and sorting systems which are substandard, or unrecyclable. There is an immediate need to develop and maintain the bottle quality generated by local authorities and their contractors. This means that sorting facilities must produce plastic bottle bales that meet longstanding RECOUP and industry recommended contamination levels of <5% for bottles. They must also produce PTTs bales that also contain no more than 5% contamination. There are a number of initiatives
that may assist the required quality improvement, most notably the MRF code of practice. Another part of the solution is the splitting of plastic recycling targets, ensuring that the bottle collections are accelerated, PTTs collections are controlled, and household flexible collections are discouraged until sorting technology and the infrastructure is commercially available. Local authorities should be encouraged to ascertain end market destination of all household plastics collected for recycling, and be satisfied with the answers given.
Standardisation of collection and sorting systems may not be viable, but instructions to householders need to be more consistent, whether collecting plastic bottles or a wider range of plastics packaging. Work is already ongoing across Packer Fillers and Retailers with the On Pack Labelling scheme being run with WRAP and the BRC. But still more work is needed to create accurate and consistent recycling guidance for the consumer. RECOUP are aware of a number of kerbside schemes where consumers are asked to recycle yoghurt pots, but not polystyrene. These terms are contradictory and could undermine recycling efforts. Furthermore, it is very likely that different
handlers and reprocessors of PTTs materials will actually have similar specifications and thresholds. Why canâ€™t we move towards a designated colour for dry recyclables collection bins across the UK, to be adopted as new and existing schemes replace their existing collection units? Source separate collections can also adopt Recycle Now colour coding. Plastic bottle collection data shows a disparity between infrastructure provision and collection rates. Consumer buy-in is critical to further developments to ensure that recycling is encouraged where collection systems are provided.
Collection â€“ separate? commingled? - who should decide? RECOUP fully support the increased collection of plastics packaging for recycling, to a quality which is acceptable based on UK reprocessor specifications. RECOUP agree with DEFRA in that during negotiation of the Waste Framework Directive, it was not the intention of the European Commission to mandate a particular system for the collection of recycling across all Member States. The preference for separate collection did not exclude separation at a subsequent point (commingled collection into an MRF) provided it delivers suitable quality recyclate for reprocessors. RECOUP also agree that there are inherent difficulties in attempting to impose a one size fits all solution on local authorities and that local authorities themselves are best placed to determine the most appropriate recyclables collection system to use in their local area, working with their residents. As such, the focus on kerbside sort systems is unnecessary. â–ş ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |145|
It has served to divert time, effort and resources away from deliverable strategies and actions to realise the aim of increased tonnage and increased quality recycling, something that will become critical over the next five years if the new plastic packaging recycling targets are to be met.
of commingled collections in the future as the number of different materials and formats collected for recycling increase. Kerbside sort systems are generally more limited in capacity and less able to absorb higher collection levels, particularly for higher volume materials such as plastics packaging.
It is acknowledged that the sorting and handling infrastructure for plastics does need to be improved, particularly as a wider range of plastics are being collected, intentionally or not. It is accepted that all MRF operators should work towards more stringent quality requirements.
Getting the message across A report titled ‘Attitudes To Waste and Recycling in Great Britain 2011’ by Icaro Consulting reported that consumers constantly highlighted the issue of a lack of information on what happens to recycled materials when they have been collected. RECOUP believe that consumer education is a key driver to behaviour change, so this needs to be addressed, becoming a bigger part of the ‘why you should recycle’ message to consumers. They need the full story, and evidence of how their actions are having a positive impact.
The principle remains that the local authority must be empowered to make the collection system decisions, and also be responsible for the resulting material quality alongside their contractors. Legislating against commingled collections would fundamentally alter some of the parameters that realise cost efficiencies for local authorities including alternating fortnightly collections. It tends to be the commingled schemes using larger capacity collection units (wheeled bins) that more easily accommodate an extended plastic collection. There is also anecdotal evidence to suggest that those local authorities currently using kerbside sort may consider the use
The consumer demand for plastics to be collected for recycling is difficult to quantify, but is a strong driver which can actually over-ride economic considerations. With the focus from many areas of the supply chain on ‘behavioural change’ and encouraging the consumer to recycle, it seems likely that demand will have to match ability. The key concern is that it may be difficult to encourage some local authorities to drive additional increases in plastics packaging collection. This may be due to the expectation that it may require additional vehicles, staff and cost which is not covered by the value of the additional material collected, or creating issues within a current efficient optimised system which delivers the overall recycling target set for local authorities. It is expected that the UK will show modest increases in bottle collection rates, and further significant increases in pot tub and tray collections across 2011, when the RECOUP UK Household Plastics Packaging Survey is completed, due in the Autumn.
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It becomes apparent when talking to members of the general public, friends and family, that there is a desire to do the right thing, but complex recycling messages beyond ‘bottles’ or 'bottles, pots, tubs and trays’ can become lost, and also cause more questions to be asked. It is the dedicated few that will seek out plastic codes, detailed guidance and ask technical questions that make us question whether the simple messages are enough. The wrong material being placed in the recycling container at home, has, and will, continue to lead to a greater expense for the sorting and reprocessing facilities, either in additional labour or further sorting equipment. If this material cannot be sold, a landfill cost will also be incurred. The on-pack message and the LA collection guidance must work together to be effective in the home and on the go. Destination Recyclability Much of RECOUPs work focuses on the Plastic Packaging Journey, ensuring that we work with and engage with the supply chain across that journey. Striking a balance between on-shelf impact of a plastic pack and the recyclability of that pack can be a battle. The pack must be first and foremost fit for purpose. Design is the first step for any pack and one where if the right combination of materials and components are used the more recyclable the pack becomes. RECOUPs Recyclability by Design Guide is available for free download from www.recoup.org. For all those working in the plastics supply chain, the destination for plastic packaging should be ‘recyclability’. If we can work together to achieve this, then we will deliver from an environmental perspective. By increasing understanding of the plastic packaging journey and stimulating change, we can realise benefits from a commercial and legislative perspective too. ■
RWM 2012 serves up a host of business, learning and networking opportunities This year’s RWM in partnership with CIWM, which takes place from 11th to 13th September at the NEC Birmingham, looks set to be even bigger and better than ever this year. The 2012 event will boast over 700 exhibitors and an even stronger emphasis on knowledge sharing and best practice, with unrivalled formal and informal networking opportunities and over 100 free CPD-accredited seminar sessions led by expert speakers across six seminar theatres. Key ministers and political figures will be on the platform in the Leader’s Theatre, highlighting the growing importance of resources and waste on the political agenda. On day one, the importance of diverting food waste from landfill will be one of the key messages from former Environment Secretary John Gummer, now Lord Deben, who chairs a new Visionary Panel on food waste. Shadow Waste Minister Gavin Shuker MP will be giving a keynote speech on day two looking at how government can support the industry in tackling the major challenges it faces, and the final day will see planning and local government minister Bob Neill MP talking about what localism means for councils and the waste and recycling sector. |148| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
There will also be plenty of interactive discussion, with the ‘Big Debate’ on day two providing a platform for leading commentators to explore the future of recycling, including the role of targets, ensuring public participation and end market issues. Other exciting keynote speakers will be providing a very different perspective; visitors will be able to go ‘off the record’ with Alastair Campbell, former Director of Communications and Strategy for Tony Blair, find answers to the universe with particle physicist turned TV science presenter Brian Cox OBE, and debate the future of the energy market with the leading academic James Woudhuysen, Professor of Forecasting and Innovation at De Montford University. Offering more tailored content will be the Local Authority Theatre (sponsored by Amey Cespa, Balfour Beatty and UPM and supported by LARAC), the Commerce & Industry Theatre (sponsored by Biffa), the Energy from Waste Theatre (sponsored by Advanced Plasma Power) and the Technology & Innovation Theatre (sponsored by TOMRA Sorting Solutions) and the Communications Hub, delivered by Sauce Consultancy in partnership with SLR Consulting, the Associate Parliamentary Sustainable Resource Group and CIWM. ►
A comprehensive showcase for the sector On the show floor, visitors will find answers to all of today’s waste and recycling challenges, with over 700 exhibitors showcasing everything from sweepers to safety equipment, fluorescent tube recycling to food waste solutions, and composting to the latest containment innovations. Once again this year the event will play host to many of the UK’s major waste contractors such as Biffa, SITA UK, Viridor and Cory Environmental, as well as leading waste treatment technology providers, vehicles, plant and equipment suppliers, container and street furniture manufacturers, and software specialists. New names in the lineup this year include FCC Environment, the new integrated brand for Waste Recycling Group and Focsa Services (UK). The company is inviting local authorities and industry partners to visit the stand to learn how they can benefit from a new approach to recycling and waste.
materials recovery solutions from specialists such as O.Kay Engineering and Tong Peal Engineering. On the materials handling front, JCB will be putting on what it calls its ‘best ever display’ with a series of new Wastemaster machines, and there will be plenty to see from other leading names including Liebherr and Toyota Materials Handling. Materials also feature strongly this year, with first time exhibitors SAICA celebrating the launch of the group’s new containerboard mill that will recycle around 450,000 tonnes of recovered fibre a year which would previously have been shipped to the Far East. Luxus, meanwhile, will be showcasing its ‘closed’ and ‘open loop’ recycling services for plastics waste, developed to enable local authorities, manufacturers and more recently major retail logistics businesses, to minimise their environmental impact and reduce waste disposal costs.
There will be plenty of innovation in waste collection and transport from the likes of Ecofar UK, Heil Environmental, Geesink Norba, Mercedes Benz UK and Isuzu Truck (UK) and exciting developments too from some of the sector’s leading vehicle hire companies. Fleet management, safety and weighing solutions are also key themes this year with Bartec Systems demonstrating its next generation information systems, including a new in-cab terminal for use in RCVs and other municipal vehicles, and Sentinel Systems introducing their patented radar reversing safety system.
In addition, two brand new features will also see all the key materials associations and social enterprises in the waste and recycling sector brought together under one roof for the first time. With a line-up including the Resource Association, the British Metals Recycling Association, Recoup, Alupro, Confederation of Paper Industries, British Glass, the Textile Recycling Association and the Association for Organics Recycling, the new Materials Village will provide a valuable one-stop shop for anyone looking to get up to speed on the latest issues around collection, sorting and end markets for recovered materials.
Catering for every waste stream – from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) to recovered plastics – will be a wide array of sorting and processing equipment, including new combined sorting technology from Pellenc that detects both material type and colour in one pass. There will be new developments in conveyors, shredders, and screening technology, as well as turnkey
The Social Enterprise Zone, meanwhile, will provide visitors with an opportunity to connect and forge useful partnerships with some of the key third sector organisations, including Community Resource Network, REalliance, Community Composting Network, Furniture Reuse Network, Scrapstores UK, Rehab Recycling and London Community Resource Network. ►
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Anaerobic digestion, gasification and other forms of Energy from Waste (EfW) will also be under the spotlight, and the Energy from Waste Trail features some of UK’s leading technology providers, including Biogen Greenfinch, Covanta Energy Ltd, and New Earth Solutions. Solutions for every scale will be on show, from Tidy Planet’s new onsite CHiP cogeneration system that turns waste cooking oil into electricity and hot water, through small scale local gasification facilities from Energos, to a working model of Advanced Plasma Power’s Gasplasma® process, which combines gasification and plasma conversion technology for maximum efficiency. Reflecting on the increasing synergies between the waste, resource management and energy generation sectors, RWM 2012 is also once again co-located with the Energy Event and also with a new Renewables Event targeted at the commercial, industrial and public sector markets. Better than ever networking New for this year are the RWM Speed Networking sessions, designed to help visitors and exhibitors to connect with RWM’s vast network of resource efficiency and waste management professionals. Covering five themes and lasting approximately 45 mins each, the sessions provide a quick and easy way to find new business partners or suppliers or simply share best practice. The show also offers plenty of informal networking opportunities (and comfort for tired feet), with Café Viridor and the Stobart Biomass Networking Hub providing the ideal spots to meet colleagues and exhibitors. Bringing some glamour to the NEC, meanwhile, will be the RWM Catwalk, where fashion designers will once again be demonstrating how to turn unwanted clothes into innovative new designs. Run in partnership with the Salvation Army Trading Company Ltd (SATCoL), I&G Cohen and Chris Carey’s Collections, the catwalk also
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highlights efforts to recycle some of the 2 million tonnes of textile waste generated in the UK each year which are becoming an increasingly important part of the recycling and sustainability agenda. And for those looking to relax or entertain in convivial company, why not book up for the CIWM Gala Dinner on the night of Wednesday 12th and the 2012 CIWM Clean Britain Awards Lunch on Thursday 13th, hosted by the BAFTA award winning comedian and impressionist Alistair McGowan and featuring high profile entries from local authorities across the length and breadth of the UK. Visit the exhibition website (www. rwmexhibition.com) for further information, registration for free entry and more information about RWM Connect, a new networking and knowledge sharing hub for all those involved in the event. ■
RWM Speed Networking Schedule Tuesday 11th 10:30am - Partnership Networking 12:45pm - General Networking Wednesday 12th 10:30am - Infrastructure Development Networking 12:45pm - General Networking 14:30pm - Women in Waste Networking Thursday 13th 10:30am - Technology Networking 12:45pm - General Networking
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Show Preview News Efficient Facility Design is something to strive for in all aspects of Recycling
Simon Ingleby of Recycling Plant Design Specialist Alfatek UK, describes how a new low cost service called “Site-Serve” to be introduced at the RWM2012 can help Waste Management Companies to maximise the potential of their Site by using Practical Experience gained building some of the UK’s best recycling plants. “Waste Management Sites evolve over time and can sometimes become inefficient and crowded. With Site-Serve we can visit the site, observe and identify the areas to formulate a strategy for the Client. “We can look at how to enhance the existing recycling plant by producing concept drawings, mass-flow diagrams and budget project costings to enable a plan for the Client by selecting the right equipment, orientation and infrastructure”. Efficient Facility Design has to take account of a number of key elements: • Obviously cost – enhance the site to a strict budget and quantify payback • Site logistics – truck movements, traffic flow and quick turnaround • Health and Safety – get the guys off the floor, access and maintenance • Input and recyclate storage – first-in-first-out principles • Environmental issues – dust, odour and emissions • Trommel fines – what to do Each project is different but still requires stringent commitment to identifying and procuring the equipment, increasing throughput, project and installation management. The waste does not stop coming in and modifications must be phased and carried out efficiently to ensure that the plant is not down for long. Investment into existing facilities has to balance with the available waste stream income but with the right concept and proven technology it is possible to attract new customers and wastestreams, especially Corporate, with recycling rates that can boost their environmental policies and statements. ‘Site-Serve’ works direct for the Client to tailormake a proven combination of the best technologies and practice together in an Efficient Facility Design. Call Simon Ingleby, Alfatek UK 07870 681321 or 01964 503925, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.alfatek.karoo.net
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Food recycling company benefits from new technology
Covanta calls for an ‘all wastes’ approach at RWM Stand 20J19
At this year’s RWM show Covanta Energy, the world’s leading Energy-from-Waste (EfW) provider, will be demonstrating the importance of EfW and urging government, local authorities and businesses to work together to deliver cost-effective solutions for all residual waste streams.
A FOOD recycling company is one of a number of businesses saving money since it started using a mobile phone app to record waste pickups. Bioco Recycling’s team of nine waste collectors have scrapped paperwork out in the field and instead use the 25p-a-job mobile phone app called MyMobileWorkers to record all the job details needed. And recording details of waste collections accurately is more essential than ever for the Lincolnshire based company because of the Waste (England and Wales) Regulations 2011. These new rules mean that all businesses handling waste must keep accurate records of all waste activity and declare they have applied a waste hierarchy before disposal. Day-to-day, Bioco Recycling staff use the technology to record details such as how many bins they empty from site, how much the containers weigh and where the waste is disposed and when. Previously staff recorded this data on paper leading to more administration for both workers on the road and office staff. Scrapping paperwork for field staff has meant fewer trips to and from head office to drop off paper job sheets and less administration time inputting details onto a computer. The savings amount to 1,738 man-hours since Bioco Recycling started using the app. They have also saved roughly 6,750 sheets of paper.
Covanta Energy’s Managing Director Malcolm Chilton recently called on local authorities and commercial waste producers and managers to take a more pragmatic and joined-up approach to waste management. Working together rather than in the traditional “sectoral silos”, he says, will save local authorities, business waste producers and national government millions in both development and operational costs. It will also contribute to unlocking the inward investment that is essential for the development of the UK’s renewable energy infrastructure. While the UK is on track to meet the European Union’s 2020 landfill diversion targets, Malcolm Chilton states that the Commercial and Industrial (C&I) waste sector, which is not subject to such regulations, still sends huge quantities of waste to landfill. This, he says, should now be the target of new policy drivers to encourage more sustainable commercial waste behaviours while simultaneously supporting local authorities in their drive towards zero waste to landfill goals. The most recent survey of C&I waste in England found arisings of over 44million tonnes a year. While some 50% is recycled, only 2% of the total goes to EfW. That means well over 20million tonnes still goes to landfill every year. On top of that, there is significant energy potential in residual construction and demolition waste. Capturing the energy value of this waste is critical to the EfW sector’s ability to contribute to meeting the UK’s long-term energy needs. For more information about Covanta Energy and the company’s planned projects, talk to a member of the team on stand 20J19. ► |154| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Kingfisher demonstrates reduced maintenance costs and improved operational availability using latest wear protection techniques at RWM Having saved primary manufacturing industries millions of pounds of expenditure through the introduction of bespoke materials handling solutions used to handle abrasive and hard to handle minerals and fuels, total solution provider Kingfisher Industrial are exhibiting at this year’s RWM 2012. Having followed the trail of materials through to the recycling industry, they have built up a successful portfolio of applications where the alternative prior to their interaction was costly replacement or time consuming repair costs of MRF. As a whole plethora of materials are now being recycled, including glass, ash, metals, plastics, wood, paper and even stone, these materials are extremely abrasive when transferred, especially so when they are conveyed in greater volumes and in larger automated operations where the process involves mechanical and pneumatic movement. If adequate wear protection is not provided, the inevitable result will be high levels of plant degradation that can cause premature failure such as perforations in pipework systems, transfer chutes, material separators, cyclones, fans, filters, crushing and shredding equipment, resulting in spillages that can be difficult and costly to clean-up, and if not controlled can result in breach of environmental legislation. Kingfisher Industrial will be exhibiting a range of materials and equipment used to extend the service life of recycling plant by meeting key industry demands for increased throughput and operational uptime, while reducing maintenance and running costs.
Leafield Environmental to exhibit new Envirobins at RWM Leafield Environmental, the award winning UK manufacturer of premium plastic litter and recycling bins will exhibit its wide range of Envirobin recycling solutions at RWM. Of special interest at the show will be the Meridian Envirobin, exhibited at a major UK exhibition for the very first time. This stylish 110 litre rotationally moulded MDPE bin has a variety of unique ‘split lid’ arrangements that can be changed easily to suit the requirements of changing waste streams. It is also designed to encourage segregation of recyclable materials at the point of collection. Whatever your indoor or outdoor recycling or litter collection needs, there is likely to be a suitable Leafield solution… on show at RWM.
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Optimised Waste Logistics (OWL) will be hosting the OWL Innovation Zone at the annual RWM Exhibition held at the NEC in September. Optimised Waste Logistics (OWL) is a unique partnership initiative developed by a number of companies who work together to deliver a fully integrated waste collection solution. Driven by customer demand, OWL has brought together industry specialists including CMS SupaTrak, Vision Techniques, Vehicle Weighing Solutions, Dotted Eyes, Civica and Whitespace Waste Software, who now work together to provide one fully integrated, end to end waste collection solution to support local authorities and waste collection organisations. Bringing together these technologies, customers can benefit from chassis CANbus information, body CANbus information, live 360 degree video recording, carbon footprint management, payload data, bin weight and bin identification information, in cab job control and driver behaviour management. Visitors to the RWM are welcome to join the OWL team for a drink and a discussion at the OWL Innovation Zone on stand 17B19-A18
RWM DEBUT FOR CROMWELL’S K-BAG® Stand Number 19R69
Cromwell Polythene, the leading supplier of sacks, bags and speciality products for the storage and collection of waste and recyclables, has been awarded the UK license to market the K-bag®, a lightweight bag that is easy to open, making it more hygienic and of particular benefit to the physically impaired. The company will have sole distribution rights among local authorities and the waste management sector for K-bag® technology, typically used in the manufacture of bags made from thinner gauge material, such as kitchen caddy liners or those used in supermarkets for bagging loose fruit and vegetables and bakery products. Unlike some conventional bags, however, K- bags® can be easily opened by those with impaired vision or dexterity. The K-bag® has many other applications, including those where users wear disposable gloves. “It’s common to see people finding it difficult to open bags made from thinner gauge materials and having to resort to blowing into the bag or licking their fingers, neither of which is particularly hygienic, especially where food or waste is involved,” says James Lee, Cromwell Polythene’s CEO. “There are many other instances where hygiene is paramount or physical impairment may be an issue.” A short video, showing the K-bag® in action, may be seen at: www.cromwellpolythene.co.uk
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Blue Group at RWM 2012 Waste processing, recycling and materials handling equipment distributor, Blue Group, is exhibiting at the RWM Show again on their usual stand number OA 160, located just outside the main hall. UK Show Debuts for TEREX Fuchs: Two specialist, longreach materials handlers distributed by Blue Fuchs are on show for the first time in the UK. The new MHL350E offers excellent reach, height and lifting capacities throughout the duties chart, together with unrivalled fuel efficiency from the Tier 4 compliant diesel engine. The newly designed cab is an ideal workstation, with even greater comfort for maximum productivity and minimum operator fatigue for efficient materials handling. The new MHL820 is electrically powered and ideal for undercover waste processing plants, with zero exhaust emissions and virtually silent operation. The Doppstadt DW-3060 K Bio Power Shredder: The highly mobile, crawler-mounted Doppstadt DW-3060 K Bio Power heavy-duty shredder is capable of handling large bulk timber and wood waste, mixed construction waste and industrial refuse. The DW-3060 K Bio is equipped with a 430HP Mercedes-Benz diesel engine which has power to spare for heavy duty applications and processing multiple raw waste material types, producing recyclables to exacting specifications and enabling significant volume reductions – all with a reliability, productivity and fuel economy which belie its size. An additional benefit is the shredder’s mobility, which allows operators to easily and quickly relocate the machine to the waste material for treatment throughout the site, rather than the costly and time-consuming process of taking the material to a static machine. The Marathon Gemini Xtreme Baler: Blue Group is the appointed distributor for the successful range of horizontal 2-ram and channel balers in England, Scotland and Wales. Featured on the stand at this year’s RWM Show is the Gemini Xtreme, displayed complete with conveyor. This is a mid-capacity, closed-end, multi-material baler with a vertical tie system, which is ideal for baling light alloys, paper, plastics, PET and similar waste stream materials, producing a standard 762mm X 1219mm X 1524mm bale with an average cycle time of 34 seconds. The full penetration ram ensures optimum compaction and full bale ejection. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |157|
IT’S ALL IN A DAY’S WORK FOR NEW JCB WASTEMASTER BACKHOE LOADER At RWM 2012, JCB will add the brand new 4CX Wastemaster backhoe loader to its well-established range for the waste and recycling industry - delivering unprecedented levels of efficiency, versatility and cost savings. Fitted with a package of features, the flexible and productive backhoe loader is transformed into a tailor-made model for arduous waste environments. With its ability to power an extensive range of specialist attachments, the JCB 4CXWM model – set to become JCB’s first dedicated backhoe loader for the industry – will excel in the non-stop working environment typically found at Household Waste Recycling Centres, also known as Civic Amenity Sites. Globally, the backhoe loader is already one of JCB’s biggest selling machines into waste, recycling and demolition applications, with large volume sales in Asia and South America and a strong presence in specific European markets. The JCB 4CXWM offers unrivalled versatility at a price which is likely to be less than the wheeled excavator typically seen on site. |158| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
MAX X TRACT IT AT RWM Stand: B25 (Hall 17) Supplier of materials processing equipment, Worsley Plant, is showcasing the Max X Tract at RWM. Based in Manchester, the company supplies the materials separator to the demolition, skip hire and waste management industries to help them extract a higher proportion of high quality materials generating a revenue stream and reducing landfill volumes. The Max X Tract uses industry leading, patented separation technology, is compact and can be easily integrated into existing systems. It is designed to separate materials less than 100mm to give the customer higher value materials whilst reducing the amount of material going to costly landfill. It uses a series of actions to process 100 tonnes per hour to extract a variety of materials including compost, metals, wood, plastics and organics which can be returned to the composting process, used as biomass fuel or to meet recycled material specifications. ►
Bell raises the bar at RWM 2012 Bell Equipment UK will challenge the industry at RWM to match the benchmark it has set with its groundbreaking range of wheeled loaders. This year marks only the second time Bell has exhibited at RWM, having introduced its six-strong wheeled loader range to the UK only three years ago. The manufacturer will be exhibiting an L1204E and an L1506E loader, both with Hi-Tip buckets, on outdoor stand OA142. Bell will be pushing three core benefits of its product, which it believes redefine wheeled loaders for the waste and recycling industry. These are: QuadCool: The industry-leading cooling system which is unique to Bell loaders in the UK. Developed by John Deere for the US agricultural market, QuadCool has proven outstanding within the UK waste & recycling sector, particularly in indoor waste facilities and environments with high levels of airborne debris. The system prevents the engine from overheating, reduces downtime and significantly reduces the frequency of cleaning routines. High-Spec machines: Bell wheeled loaders are widely recognised as offering the highest “as standard” specification on the market. This means that Bell not only supplies all machines with its unique design elements but its machines are also factory-fitted with items that other manufacturers typically include only as optional extras. Examples include the reversing camera and reverse radar detection system, embedded payload system and keyless start with lock-out codes for added security. Bell Assure: This is a package of Bell’s added-value offering, which has been formalised with measurable levels of service and guarantee and pulled together under a single umbrella. Bell Assure provides customers with a transparent menu of services far beyond the supply of yellow metal. The package includes flexible finance, multiple servicing and R&M packages, market-leading parts availability and service exchange programmes, and the industry’s most advanced offering in terms of satellite-based fleet management systems and plant security. ■
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Resource Ireland Show Preview Momentum is building fast for Resource Ireland the leading event for the Irish environment, water, recycling and waste markets. With a varied exhibition floor, outside demonstration area and comprehensive free to attend seminar programme, this event is not to be missed. Taking place at Simmonscourt, Dublin from 17th – 18th October 2012 Resource Ireland is set to be the most content driven event of the year. Focussed on two core themes for 2012, water and waste, the exhibition consists of the well established Irish Water Exhibition and the Irish Recycling and Waste Exhibition, with almost 100 exhibitors. Ireland is facing the same challenges as other EU countries with legislation on landfill charges making recycling a more attractive option. The Irish Recycling & Waste Exhibition is an excellent method for anyone in this sector to demonstrate products that exploit these business opportunities and is a ‘must visit’ for end users looking for products and services, or information from the excellent seminar programmes, to resolve such problems. The Irish Water Exhibition began 30 years ago and is still going strong today. The relevance of an exhibition of this kind is not to be underestimated. The introduction of the new water authority to be administered by Bord Gais, water metering and associated water charges will all play a part in the topical seminar programme at the exhibition. The planned introduction of water meters and charging to all residential properties throws up challenges in terms of the supplier of the meters themselves and the way in which the conflicting political and socioeconomic factors are resolved. All of the above environmental issues present opportunities for companies who sell products and services in Ireland that address the above issues, and Resource Ireland as an exhibition provides a platform for them to showcase their offering and to meet the decision makers, purchasers and specifiers in this sector.
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Details of the seminar programmes will soon be available and visitors can expect two free to attend seminar programmes held within the exhibition, bringing together leading industry experts to offer solutions to the country’s biggest water and waste challenges. High profile speakers and panel discussions will provide excellent best practice learning and networking opportunities over the two days. With leading experts in the environment, water, recycling and waste sectors attending, the event creates the ideal setting for sharing industry knowledge and inspiration. The last exhibition in 2010 attracted over 1,600 attendees, with major industry names represented. The packed seminar theatres and busy exhibition floor shows the strength of the water and waste sectors and the emphasis that more and more companies are placing on sustainability. Exhibitor Rachel Woodhall from Groundforce said “Groundforce, in its 3rd year exhibiting at Resource Ireland, has enjoyed continuing success during this 2-day exhibition. With the opportunity to meet local authorities, civil and environmental contractors, engineering designers and other key decision makers, Groundforce received over 50 new enquiries requesting quotations for hire or sale of equipment that was on display.” Visitors will have free access to practical and policy advice, ensuring their organisation remains up to date. The Waste theatre in association with CIWM, stopfoodwaste.ie and foodwaste.ie will explore the latest industry issues and regulations affecting Ireland’s waste sector. The Water theatre will feature key industry speakers who will join together to discuss the big changes taking place in the structure of the water sector and challenges currently being faced in Ireland. Event Director Donna Bushell says “Resource Ireland brings together the Irish Business leaders and technology providers. This important event places the management of water, waste and sustainable business opportunities at the forefront of the environmental sector. Resource Ireland will once again provide a ‘one stop shop’ for industry to see the latest innovations, hear from thought leaders and network with peers.” Running for two days, Resource Ireland will attract environmental, water and waste professionals from some of the most influential organisations in the industry. Resource Ireland will be held at Simmonscourt Dublin from 17th – 18th October 2012. For free entry into the exhibition and to attend the seminars, please register at www. resourceireland.net Exhibition space may be booked by contacting: James Boyd on +44 (0)1342 332091 or email james.boyd@fav-house. com
THE WOOD RECYCLING SCENE
Clem Spencer, Chairman WRA
When I established my company, Wood Yew Waste, a few years ago, I had no idea that the industry I was investing in would prove so exciting, or so unpredictable. That’s a lesson I have had to learn, and never moreso than in the past couple of years. Back in bad old 2010, wood recycling was a supply driven industry. Although there were strong regional variations, it’s fair to say that in general recyclers were struggling to get their hands on the feed-stock needed to satisfy their expanding and increasingly diverse groups of customers. Market forces underlying this situation meant that gate fees, which are an important part of the wood recycler’s business model, were in decline in most parts of the UK. How things change! Perhaps I can pause here to explain in a little more detail how the |162| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
recycler’s business model works. It’s actually pretty straightforward. If you, as a company or an individual, want to get rid of waste wood (let’s call it “waste” for now, even though we don’t actually like the word) then it will cost you. That cost is called a gate fee, and it is levied by the wood recycler who accepts your wood. (Or, of course, by a landfill site operator who will charge you much more!) The size of the recycler’s gate fee will depend on a number of factors, but mainly on the quality of the wood and the level of competition for it. So high grade wood, having more and potentially more lucrative end uses, will rate a lower gate fee than low grade wood whose only real use is for biomass fuel. By the same token, in some parts of the country where there are many recyclers vying for feedstock, market forces will tend to depress the gate fee compared to regions where
recyclers are thinner on the ground. I count myself lucky to operate in South Devon, where the lower levels of competition enable my company to charge higher gate fees than in regions further north. So the gate fee is an important ingredient of the recycler’s income. He then processes this wood for “appropriate end use”. The cleanest wood will normally go to animal bedding and a variety of landscaping applications: composts, soil conditioners, mulches, pathways and so forth. The price that he gets for these “products”, plus his gate fee, must exceed his processing costs for him to make a profit. As Mr Micawber said in David Copperfield, “Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen pounds nineteen shillings and six, result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure twenty pounds ought and six, result misery.” ►
He would have made a good recycler, Micawber.
This further depressed our export market.
So that’s how it works. At least in theory.
At home, meanwhile, the government’s continued ratcheting of landfill tax is certainly working, by diverting more low grade wood away from landfill – and into recyclers’ yards. But the biggest single factor in the UK has been the problems at Sonae’s panelboard mill at Knowsley in Merseyside. For some years now, Sonae has been a major user of recycled wood, consuming 1200 tonnes a day (400,000 tonnes a year). To put this in context, this is equivalent to about 18% of our industry’s UK market. So when it suspended operations following a serious fire in June 2011, the impact on the UK wood recycling industry was pretty severe. Sonae have now commenced a consultation process which may, in the worst case, lead to the closure of the Knowsley plant. This would be very bad news indeed for our industry, as we struggle to balance the supply/demand equation at a challenging time.
But the past year has seen some theories utterly discredited. For a start, gate fees have risen, against historic trends. At the same time our major customers – the panel board mills – have been dropping their prices and/or tightening their feedstock specifications. And perhaps most alarmingly, recyclers (especially those in the south) have found themselves sitting on embarrassingly high stock levels. So what on earth has happened? Well, in a nutshell, my industry has been hit by what the WRA Technical Adviser, Neil Bailey, recently described as “a perfect storm”. What did he mean by this? To an extent we can blame the mild winter that most of northern Europe has recently experienced. This unseasonally warm weather depressed continental demand for mixed grade waste wood, and sharply reduced our export figures which had been growing sharply for the previous 2 years. But the picture is not quite that simple. For a start, European stocks were already high as European biomass installations, responding – perhaps over-reacting - to stock shortages during the previous, harsh winter, built up their stocks in anticipation of another freeze. So when a warm winter arrived, they found they had plenty. Furthermore, there are quality issues which mean that the Scandinavians, in particular, will only purchase UK wood if the price is right and they need to make up deficits in their market. On top of this, European panelboard mills have recently been purchasing less feedstock than usual because of the economic down-turn. Then the Euro weakened against Sterling, making exports more expensive.
The situation is particularly bad in the south, since this part of England is furthest from the principal UK markets – which are mainly in the north of the country – and closest to Europe. Further north, things are not so bad, although the trends are similar. Nobody sees the situation changing much in the short term. And perversely, following the worst socalled summer that any of us can recall, recyclers find themselves praying for a long harsh winter to boost demand and take the strain of stock levels. It is against this background that the government recently launched its consultation on restricting wood waste to landfill in England. Scotland has already embarked on this road. The WRA has always been a supporter of landfill bans for wood, but from what I have said already, there are obviously timing issues here. If a landfill ban ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |163|
were to come into operation tomorrow, this would make an already bad situation much worse. But in choosing the right line to take, my industry needs to be looking far beyond the end of its nose. This requires a crystal ball to tell us what will be happening in 2, 3 or more years from now. Many commentators predict that, by that time, the UK biomass market will have truly taken off and that this year’s problem will have gone away. We shall be debating this important issue among ourselves, and with Defra, over the next couple of months. It is very important indeed that we draw the right conclusions, if the future of our industry is to be assured. So this is how things look today. Vastly different, I have to say, from what I would have been writing 18 months or so ago. Vastly different, I hope, from what I hope to be writing a year from now. It does occur to me that in such a volatile climate, membership of the Wood Recyclers’ Association has never looked more attractive. Our 85 member companies enjoy immediate access to the latest and most accurate information in a rapidly changing landscape. They also benefit from networking opportunities which those outside the Association can never hope to see. As harsh economic circumstances bring yet more challenge to the running of their businesses, member companies know that they can rely on the WRA to fight their corner with government and the regulatory bodies, and this is happening. At this present moment, for example, the Association is holding important discussions on such diverse subjects as limits and conditions for the storage of combustible materials; the development of a quality protocol for waste wood; and the protection of operating rights for those many small companies which are operating under environmental permitting exemptions.
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The rise and rise in WRA membership numbers, and the relentless broadening and enrichment of our member base, is worthy testament to the job that members think the WRA does for them. So for all those companies out there who are not yet members of the WRA, do give it a thought! Visit our brand-new web site, www. woodrecyclers.org where you will find more information about us and also a membership application form. We look forward to hearing from you, and to welcoming you to “the In Crowd”. Now, what about all this wood? ■
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
168 - 169
Teaching the value of water - Mark Jankovich
170 - 173
State of the Nation – Phil Mills
174 - 176
UV SYSTEMS - Paul Hennessey
178 - 179
Keeping the UK’s Water Flowing – Bastian Fischer
180 - 184
UV disinfection technology - Gunvinder Bhogal
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Teaching the value of water: From today’s school children to tomorrow’s leaders.
Mark Jankovich, CEO, Delphis Eco
he warnings of severe drought that have permeated the UK’s airwaves in recent weeks have forced the reality of water’s value as a commodity into the minds of millions. Alongside an emphasis on the importance of sustainable water management in meeting future demand, our behaviour towards the water that we access every day has been put under the spotlight. Following the launch of a new business partnership targeting water conservation in schools, Mark Jankovich, CEO of Delphis Eco, explains what’s at stake and why schools are the right place to start.
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The warnings of severe drought that have permeated the UK’s airwaves in recent weeks have forced the reality of water’s value as a commodity into the minds of millions. Alongside an emphasis on the importance of sustainable water management in meeting future demand, our behaviour towards the water that we access every day has been put under the spotlight. Following the launch of a new business partnership targeting water conservation in schools, Mark Jankovich, CEO of Delphis Eco, explains what’s at stake and why schools are the right place to start. ►
“Water is the lifeblood of all ecology – there’s no living without it. Global water scarcity is one of the most pressing issues facing the world and presents a serious challenge that can’t be ignored. 98% of the water on Earth is saline and so unusable in its natural state for humans, who rely on freshwater to drink. And even the amount of available freshwater is shrinking; much of it is groundwater, which we are currently extracting at a faster rate than it can be replenished. Although we are becoming aware of the extreme resource scarcity that lies ahead of us, water continues to be one of the most under-respected commodities, particularly in the UK, and it is vital that we change this. A report by the Institute of Civil Engineers (ICE), ‘State of the Nation: Water’, warns that without “swift and decisive action” the UK’s water security level will worsen dramatically, reaching a danger security level of eight or nine out of ten by 2025. This is a serious situation, the gravity of which is not reflected in the mind sets of the population at large, perhaps in part because our climate does not lend itself to visions of parched lands and other images associated with serious water shortage. If the ICE were to have its way, however, we would be forced to understand water’s true value as a resource; they would like to see the introduction of universal metering with higher costs for water expenditure that is not deemed to be “necessary”. Consumers would be allocated low-priced water for drinking, bathing and cooking, but would be forced to pay extra to, for example, wash their cars. A line would be drawn between water as a right and water as a privilege that requires payment. Although such measures may well have to be enforced in the future, making environmental protection and resource conservation second nature to us must be a priority now. One of the best means of embedding responsible behaviour in society is to impart it from as young an age as possible; schools are an ideal forum for teaching children about the importance of ecological responsibility and, what’s more, they really embrace it and want to make a difference. We’ve already seen the great success that can be achieved with these kinds of projects; you only need to look at the fantastic recycling schemes that have been introduced in schools around the country and adopted with huge enthusiasm.
However, the problem is not just the volume of water we use, but our behaviour towards it, and cleaning is a key area in which we need to make more sustainable choices. Cleaning is obviously a critical activity in our society but our preoccupation with it seems to border on obsession! We clean surfaces excessively, overdose on chemicals and often use dishwashers and washing machines when they are only half full. Furthermore, we so rarely pay attention to the products we use in our pursuit of spotless hygiene. Although many of the nastiest substances to be used in the name of cleanliness are now outlawed in Europe, there’s a misconception that water recycling plants remove any and all chemicals that we throw down the drain, which promotes a sense of complacency. This is not in fact the case; many products contain phosphates that can’t be removed and are discharged into the sea or rivers. We also tend to forget about storm drains; how many times have you seen a bucket of detergent poured down a street drain? This goes straight into the water course. Although the recent drought warnings have provided a great opportunity to encourage people to assess their water habits, the means of tackling this behaviour are found in education and in providing an effective, viable alternative to traditional cleaning products. The Eco-Schools partnership is all about education and choice. We are educating children, their parents and procurement staff about what sustainability looks like and giving them a genuine, accredited option to put what they have been taught into practice. It is also important to remember that this partnership is fun for its participants; we’re working with some major organisations that are going to help to develop educational modules, run competitions and reward inspiring behavioural change. While the government tries to understand what motivates people to embrace sustainable behaviour towards water, we are investing in a future that prizes education, awareness and responsibility. Put simply, today’s school children are tomorrow’s leaders; they are part of a new era and will ultimately control the form it takes. Crucially, school pupils are the most tenacious influencers with valuable powers of persuasion. They are in a great position to influence buying behaviour within their households and schools to effect lasting, positive change.” ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |169|
State of the Nation This year’s Institution of Civil Engineers’ State of the Nation Report made the headlines in a big way. In fact 182 media ‘hits’ with a total audience figure of 36 million. That may not mean 36 million people actually read articles about SoN - but it did give the ICE and the subject matter – Water – great exposure. ►
Phill Mills, Deputy Chair of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) water panel
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State of the Nation reports have been produced each year since 2000 by panels of experts drawn from across the ICE’s membership and beyond. Some reports have focused on specific issues such as capacity and skills, defending critical infrastructure, waste resource management. Others have focused on an overall assessment of UK infrastructure. The aim of these reports is to stimulate debate in society, influence governments’ policies and highlight the actions that the Institution believes are needed to improve the state of the nation’s infrastructure and essential services. Clearly there has been great public interest this year in Water. Leading up to the SoN launch on 7 June a large part of England had been subject to drought, and much of the population in the south east, east and midlands were suffering from hose pipe bans, aka as temporary use bans. It was prophetic perhaps that the weather had broken the month before and the UK was now moving from drought conditions to flood warnings and incidents. Of course the two are related; hard dry ground creates the perfect runoff conditions for heavy rainfall. There was a risk therefore that the launch would be a low key affair. The media focusing on flooding and too much water rather than drought and future water security. But because of significant media engagement during the first half of the year by ICE’s media team and promotion of the Institution as a source of independent and trusted commentary, the media came and listened. The ICE spoke out, giving a critical 4 out of 10 assessment of today’s water security. It concluded “The UK has a looming and significant challenge to its water security. As a matter of urgency ICE recommends that leadership is established to deliver a strategic, coherent and integrated roadmap to water security”.
ICE’s main recommendations 1. Government should establish a UK water security taskforce and roadmap to deliver water security by 2025. 2. The importance of water to society is more effectively emphasised and water conservation more actively promoted to drive reduced water use. 3. New sustainable and cost effective supply schemes are developed to maximise the use of water resources in our river basins and where appropriate at wider scales.
The SoN set out three main recommendations. And each of these three main recommendations had two, three or four supporting recommendations. In this article I’d like to focus on the second and third recommendations, i.e. to cover both the demand and the supply side. But clearly it is fundamental that the three governments of the UK nations must take the lead, and working with regulators and water users, (By water users, the ICE does not mean just the public water supply undertakers, but also industry, agriculture, household customers, the energy sector and the environment) publish national water resource management road maps and an integrated UK water security strategy. The ICE believes this must be done by spring 2014.
Understanding the growing supply demand deficit: • By 2050s summer river flows may reduce by 35% in the driest parts of England and by 15% for the wetter river basin regions in Scotland. This will put severe pressure on current abstractions
• Populations throughout the UK will continue to grow with Wales increasing by 13%, Scotland by 11.5% and Northern Ireland by 11% by 2035. The South East will have increased by 23% • Demand is going to increase, but not just from a growing population. Agricultural needs will also increase as drier summers mean irrigation needs will be higher. Putting more pressure on public water supplies.
Recommendation 2: the importance of water to society is more effectively emphasised and water conservation more actively promoted. To meet the growing imbalance between supply and demand the SoN report suggests we must reduce the amount of water we use, and use it more efficiently. But key to this will be ensuring that the public has a real appreciation of the value of this finite and precious resource. For most, but not all of us, our water services come relatively cheap. On average in the UK, each household gets almost half of one tonne of clean, high quality, treated drinking water delivered to their taps and around the same amount of waste water taken away each and every day – for just over £1 a day. That would not even buy half a cup of coffee at any high street coffee shop. There is therefore no surprise that most people in the UK are not going to value water on the basis of price alone. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |171|
And most people have no idea how much water they use. The reason – because most households in the UK are not metered. Despite increasing installation programmes in the south east and variations from region to region there are on average only 35% of households in England and Wales that are metered. The EA suggest that on current trends, it will still only be 54% in 2015 and 78% in 2030. The ICE does not believe we can expect customers to manage their water use and in the longer term reduce that use, if they have no way on knowing just how much they currently use. So the report supports a change in how water is charged for that can reflect that some types of use, such as watering the garden and washing the car, is ‘discretionary’. The most effective way to do this is to introduce universal metering, with discretionary tariffs and ‘safety-net’ social tariffs to protect the poorest in society. And since publication of SoN, Defra has issued guidance to water undertakers on company social tariffs.
ICE feels that discretionary tariffs would reward low use and discourage high use. This is also likely to encourage a public shift in attitude towards solutions that can significantly reduce domestic water use - such as recycling household water for non-drinking purposes and rainwater harvesting for outside use and watering the garden. Just using this ‘grey water’ to flush the toilet alone could reduce domestic water consumption by up to a third. The ICE suggests the second important action to reduce demand is for Governments to target a 30% reduction in household per capita consumption (currently around 150 litres per day). Reductions across agriculture and industry should also be promoted to reflect our need to conserve water. Coupled with these measures the Institution suggests a public awareness campaign will be crucial to encourage behaviour change and help win the hearts and the minds of people to the value of Water. Interestingly, despite the range of recommendations it was the metering argument that most of the popular media latched onto. Recommendation 3: new sustainable and cost effective supply schemes are developed to maximise the use of water resources The report acknowledges the need for a triple track approach to meet the growing demand for water when climate change and weather patterns are likely to reduce the availability of water resources. So it’s not just about reducing demand, it’s also about making best use of existing resources and developing new cost effective and sustainable resources where needed. Essentially ICE believes that new resources, additional storage – capturing that water we do get in storm conditions – and inter-company transfers will all need to be developed. And not just in the south east. But it also suggests that the ‘Achilles heel’ of leakage and modernising infrastructure also needs to be addressed. It points out that the companies are meeting or operating below their current economic levels of leakage agreed with Ofwat. But this takes us back to the value of water argument. There must be a more accurate value that reflects water’s true value to society and the environment. This, the report points out, would drive lower leakage levels by incentivising companies to make better use of their existing resources. But clearly the ICE is not proposing setting a value by price that would impact adversely on customers’ bills. A ‘shadow’ value of water could be developed for this process. ►
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To ensure future collaboration between companies – in sharing existing resources and potentially the investment costs and risk of developing new ones – ICE maintains current regulatory barriers must be removed. And where possible new resources should be developed for a range of uses including hydropower, flood control, agriculture and public water supply. So truly cross- sector, and by implication cross-regulator, collaboration. However the ICE points out it's not all about large or costly construction projects. Multiple, small scale and local projects also provide great opportunities to help reduce the current and future water supply deficits. Such ‘distributed’ infrastructure the SoN suggests is under-developed in the UK, but elsewhere small and medium scale storage, such as household and community rainwater harvesting and SuDS (sustainable drainage systems), have been shown to be viable solutions to collecting and managing storm water. The report believes these measures may be small individually but their benefits accumulate and therefore need pursuing as part of the wider solution to avoid future supply-demand deficits. What the ICE and the SoN believe is not a solution is a so-called ‘National Grid’. This is not the ‘silver bullet’ for water security that some make it out to be. Transferring water, a heavy product, long distances or around the UK would be too costly, too environmentally damaging, too carbon intensive and too grand a design for the need. The killer argument though is where it would be built from and to. It’s no good saying from the north of England or Wales to the south east. The EA’s Case for Change report suggests catchments across Wales and northern England are predicted to experience significant unmet demand under many of the scenario combinations they have modelled. Building large infrastructure to transfer water from these areas would merely be a short term expedient. I have not attempted to cover all the content of the State of the Nation report, more what I, as one of the steering group panel, thought were some of the basic issues. The report does consider other factors, e.g. catchment management, skills and capacity, water footprint and virtual water, and water and its interdependencies. I recommend the report to you. What is essential for the future reliability and security of water supplies for households, industry, agriculture, energy production and the environment is that governments recognise the issue and pick up the recommendations from the SoN report. The Minister gave it his positive support at the launch. The drought was a wake-up call. We must not let the recent rains and removal of the use restrictions mean that Water falls back off the agenda and we just stumble on to the next drought and the next drought with even greater restrictions and more damage to the environment. SoN Process The report was prepared following a process similar to that of a select committee enquiry, with a wide range of stakeholders giving written and in some case oral evidence. ICE staff was assisted by members of a steering group having specialist knowledge of the water sector. Supporting and more specific regional briefings were produced by ICE regions for Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, the South West, the North West and the East of England. Over 50 people or organisations submitted evidence to the ICE. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |173|
ARE UV SYSTEMS SET TO DOMINATE THE MUNICIPLE INDUSTRY IN A WATER STRESSED WORLD Paul Hennessey, atg UV Technology International Sales & Marketing Manager Tony Leigh, atg UV Technology Technical Director
The use of Ultra Violet (UV) light has now become standard practice in most municipal waste water treatment processes. Effluent is now starting to be recognised as a valuable resource, not a problem that needs to be dumped. Many waste water facilities are being renamed as water reclamation facilities, and whether the waste water is being discharged into a river, being used to irrigate crops, or injected into an aquifer for later recovery Ultra Violet light is now being used to ensure water is free from harmful organisms. atg UVâ€™s Technical Director Tony Leigh looks in detail at the advancements and future for UV.
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Ultra Violet light was discovered in 1801. It took over 100 years to develop lamps and power supplies on a commercial scale, and a 0.2MGD drinking water plant in Marseilles, France briefly used UV light in 1910. Chlorine was the disinfectant of choice, and UV was really only used in a municipal context where chlorine could not be used, or where the distribution main was itself being used as a contact vessel and the first consumers lived adjacent to the point of injection. UV light was used successfully throughout industry with brewers, pharmaceutical plants and fish farmers adopting the technology quickly. UV gained prominence in applications where the water was itself used as the product (bottled waters, beer, carbonated soft drinks), or where the water has a process application (wafer rises by ultra pure water, Clean in Place applications, product rise and chase applications, Ballast Water, well field injection). As the customer base expanded, so did the process application. UV was now being used to break specific chemical bonds, sometimes by direct photolysis, but more often by the creation of highly reactive hydroxyl (OH-) radicals. Photolysis applications now include dechlorination, de-ozonation, the removal of TOC from ultra pure rise water in the semiconductor industry, and recently as a barrier to counter the threats caused by the endocrine disruptors and both metabolized and un-metabolised pharmaceutical compounds found in wastewater. By the year 2000 several key drivers had led to the technology being routinely incorporated into wastewater processes; a flight from chemical regimes, a desire to avoid potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products, increasing attention to the discharge of chlorine as an active substance into receiving watersheds, and the growing re-use of tertiary treated effluent. The early applications for re-use were limited to golf course irrigation, however applications have expanded to use the reclaimed waste water for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR), and broad non-potable industrial uses. The ASR applications are popular in coastal regions where aggressive water abstraction has led to brackish, saline water permeating into the water table from the sea. The ASR processes inject highly polished reclaimed effluent as a buffer between the water table and the ocean.
atg UV System under going validation for drinking water
How does UV work?
UV light between 250nm and 270nm is absorbed by the DNA in all living matter, or RNA in the case of a virus. The light causes cross bonds within the DNA structure to vibrate to the point of rupture. The UV light breaks the cross bonds in the DNA, and forms dimers. Once these bonds are broken, normal cell function quickly ceases. Replication, assimilation of food and respiration are all permanently interrupted, resulting in non viability of the organism. The ease of kill for most organisms is well understood, and companies such as atg, Trojan and ETS in the US maintain databases quantifying the ease of kill. A number of research groups have shown that the effects of UV light can be reversed, particularly in sunlight. This â€œlight-repairâ€? process occurs when the organism receives a low dose of UV light, and is then subsequently exposed to sunlight, in an open channel for example. The repair process is enabled by an enzyme called Photolyse, which is triggered by sunlight. This phenomena has led to open channels being covered, or the process being contained in pipe. Several organisms have now developed resistance to chlorination, largely as a consequence of the evolution of the organism and the chemical being dosed at low levels for so long. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |175|
These resistant or “emerging” organisms include Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. No species has demonstrated any resistance to UV light to date, and it is unlikely to occur given the basis of kill using UV light involves the destruction of the genetic material. Lamp technology is based around either Amalgam or Medium Pressure lamps. Both lamp types are used by the leading companies, and each type has specific strengths and weaknesses. Model performance is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and usually off-the-shelf software is customised by the manufacturer to accurately gauge performance. UV systems destined for drinking water applications are validated using a third party test house to demonstrate system capability, and usually a non pathogenic surrogate such as MS 2 phage or Bacillus Subtilis is used to verify actual system performance. ETS and atg have verified the performance of a number of reactors in the USA, in each case iteratively improving the predictive models.
“All the water that's here now is all there ever was - and ever will be” (National Geographic). The world is quickly running out of drinking water. Critically the drivers are accelerating: population growth, a warming climate, drought, urban sprawl, waste and excess. According to the World Bank, water usage has increased by 600% since 1900, as the worlds’ population has increased by 200%.
The era of cheap water is now drawing to a close, and price increases are inevitable to fund the repair or rehabilitation of aged infrastructure. Water demand doubles every 21 years. The worlds’ population is forecast to increase again by 50% to 9 billion people, causing 80 countries to face shortages of water by 2050. Agricultural use of water accounts for more than 70% of treated water use, and rising standards of living (meat, not grain in diets) will accelerate this trend. Therefore it is logical to use reclaimed waste water (“reuse”) for applications such as crop irrigation, and the application of UV ensures that the water is free from pathogens such as e-Coli, Legionella and Cryptosporidium. In the USA alone 36 States will face a severe shortfall of water by 2013, and many of these States are those that also face energy shortfalls. Re-use will be applied to a wider variety of industrial applications, and can be used for cleaning, chasing, and cooling applications. In many areas, it will probably need to be directly consumed, given the dire forecast many analysts are making. The era of cheap water is now drawing to a close, and price increases are inevitable to fund the repair or rehabilitation of aged infrastructure. Increasingly water conservation will become the norm, and wastewater, once seen as a nuisance to be dumped will be seen as a valuable resource. A non-chemical disinfection process such as UV will play a key role as the planet realizes how valuable clean water actually is.
+ For More Information email@example.com
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he t g n i p Kee
n i w o fl r e K’s wat
an embarrassment of riches in this respect. That does not mean however, that water conservation is not an issue, the recent memory of drought warnings and hosepipe bans provide ample evidence of this.
Bastian Fischer, Vice President Industry Strategy, Oracle Utilities Global Business Unit, discusses how utilities in the UK can improve water conservation Anyone who has had their summer plans disrupted by this year’s relentless weather, or had to sandbag their homes against the merciless encroachment of flood waters, may be forgiven for thinking that an article about water conservation is, at best, somewhat ironic. The fact is that the UK does not currently have a problem with the availability of fresh water; if anything we have |178| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
A question of distribution As with most countries in Western Europe, the challenges around water conservation in the UK are largely born of distribution. While some regions within the country have relatively easy access to water – be that via aquifers or reservoirs – others do not. It is due to this that the water industry is largely a regional affair, with networks built up around local reserves and water utilities dependent on the local supply chain; this includes everything from exploiting water sources to distribution and retailing. When it comes to conserving water we must therefore, start on a local level. The first consideration is zoning. It is incumbent on the water utilities to protect water zones from urban and industrial development to ensure that their catchment areas
can operate optimally. With these protected, the next consideration lies in storage: putting in place a strategy for balancing out seasonal variations in water levels. Effective storage needs to take place both on the grid/utility level, which encompasses reservoirs and retention basins, as well as on the customer side. The latter involves working on a community level to maximise the collection of rain water, for instance. All of these factors are crucial to any conservation strategy, but arguably more important is a third element: the distribution network. The network is perhaps the most complicated aspect of water conservation, requiring as it does a complete understanding of a variety of factors including pipe age and condition, the materials used to construct the pipes, water pressure and the type of soil pipes are buried in. It is a constant source of work for the utility, involving risk assessments on the pipes, predicting possible bursts and leakages, as well as the scheduling of repair and replacement in a cost efficient manner. ►
Optimising the network Water network managers are under increasing pressure to plan for the modernisation, rehabilitation or replacement of their network to reduce failures and leakages, while not losing sight of the quality and cost of the service provided. To meet these challenges, utilities increasingly require real-time, enterprise-wide visibility into the type, location, and condition of the assets they possess. Asset managers are in a better position to judge whether to repair, upgrade, or replace assets when they have precise knowledge of the physical condition and cost history of each one. By deploying asset management technologies, utilities can prioritise investment into those network segments which are the most prone to burst. It also helps utilities better understand the cause of non-revenue water (an all-encompassing term for any water loss on the network, whether this is through leakage
water temperature at acceptable levels, further helping to keep networks fit for purpose. Managing pressure and temperature is a major step towards reducing leakage and vastly preferable to fixing it once it happens. Innovation in water distribution The best way to conserve water however, is at the point of use. Items such as washing machines and dishwashers need to be built to an agreed minimum standard of efficiency, while agricultural businesses could do worse than take lessons from the drier regions of the world, such as Israel where innovative drip-irrigation technologies have been pioneered. This end of the equation is largely a matter of economics however. Once the cost of water has risen to a point where it is cheaper to deploy water-conserving technologies than not, we would expect to see such approaches become widespread. Necessity, after all, is the mother of invention.
The fact is that the UK does not currently have a problem with the availability of fresh water or inefficient metering). Not only does this make good sense from a conservation point of view, but it helps businesses meet regulatory mandates that increasingly focus on non-revenue water as the most important KPI. Good asset management will help to transform water management from reactive to pro-active, helping to conserve cash as well as water. Linked to this is the use of network models and sensors to analyse and optimise networks. These devices can help prevent pipes bursting by reporting on water pressure, helping to identify where unnecessary stresses and strains are occurring. As excessively warm water can erode pipes moreover, a similar process can be used to maintain
The way in which Singapore has dealt with its water challenges illustrates this point well. The nation has no water of its own and has had to import its water from neighbouring Malaysia under a 100 year contract, due to expire in just 15 years. The ambitions plan is for Singapore to become totally self-sufficient in water by the time this contract expires. This is a goal which, when combined with their dense population and limited space, has led to one seriously innovative water network. They have rolled out the full gamut of modern water management solutions from network sensors and remote-controlled valves to remote-controlled pressure, realtime quality monitoring as well as
exceptional storage capabilities. With this infrastructure in place, Singapore stands a very good chance of being able to rely entirely on rainfall for its water requirements and act as a best practice example for all countries looking to improve on water conservation. Changing behaviours Technology however, can only go so far. One of the biggest factors that will determine how well we can conserve water lies in how well the industry can incentivise customers to adapt their consumption behaviour to the availability of water. Season-variable pricing and reward schemes are the obvious solution to this as they will provide a financial incentive for conserving water when required. For consumers, conservation will involve making small changes to their lives: making sure the washing machine is always used with a full load, or turning off the tap when brushing teeth for example. The more creative water utilities can be in encouraging responsible water usage, the more successful they will be in protecting this vital resource. As with most things, the solution to the problem of conserving water will not be a magic bullet, but rather a series of interlinking factors that together will make a difference. Technology has a major role to play and will deliver a wide range of benefits to utilities. By increasing network and operational efficiency, water utilities will not only increase conservation rates, but will also improve customer service levels and brand image. Whatâ€™s more, the growing number of analytical technologies being used within the network will allow water utilities to better prevent leaks and more accurately bill for the water being used. Utilities will be able to understand their networks like never before and resolve any problems much more quickly. In the long term this will prove of benefit to the utilities and their customers while preserving our water supply well into the future. â– ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |179|
UV disinfection technology â€“ the applications just keep on growing Gunvinder Bhogal, Marketing Communications Manager, Hanovia Ltd
Introduction Ultraviolet (UV) technology was originally used to ensure the adequate disinfection of municipal drinking water. Since its introduction over 40 years ago it is now applied globally for disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction, deozonation and de-chlorination of water in many different industries, including food and beverage industries, pharmaceutical manufacturing, aquaculture, pools and leisure, shipping and oil drilling. UV kills all known spoilage microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts and moulds (and their spores). It is a low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology which eliminates the need for chemical treatment while ensuring high levels of disinfection. In this article Jon Ryan, Managing Director of Hanovia Limited, discusses the myriad applications where UV is now routinely used on a daily basis worldwide. â–ş |180| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
How UV disinfection works UV is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum between visible light and X-rays. The specific portion of the UV spectrum between 185400nm (known as UV-C) has a strong germicidal effect, with peak effectiveness at 265nm. At these wavelengths UV eliminates microorganisms by penetrating their cell membranes and damaging the DNA, making them unable to reproduce and effectively killing them. A typical UV disinfection system consists of a UV lamp housed in a protective quartz sleeve and mounted within a cylindrical stainless steel chamber. The liquid to be treated enters at one end and passes along the entire length of the chamber before exiting at the other end. Virtually any liquid can be effectively treated with UV, including water, sugar syrups, beverages and effluent. There are no microorganisms known to be resistant to UV â€“ this includes pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria, Legionella and Cryptosporidium (and its spores, which are resistant to chlorination). The UV dose necessary for deactivation varies from one species to another and is measured in millijoules per square centimetre (mJ/cm2). Values for specific microorganisms have been experimentally established and are used to determine the type and size of UV system required. The dose received by an organism in a UV treatment system is dependent on four main factors: 1. The energy output of the UV source 2. The flow rate of the fluid through the treatment chamber 3. The transmission value (ability to transmit UV light) of the fluid being treated 4. The geometry of the treatment chamber By optimising these criteria, a UV system can be tailored to effectively
UV treatment can be used for primary water disinfection or as a back-up for other water purification methods such as carbon filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurisation.
treat large or small flows, as well as viscous fluids or those containing dissolved solids and high levels of starch or sugar compounds. There are two main types of UV technology based on the type of UV lamps used: low pressure and medium pressure. Low pressure lamps have a monochromatic UV output (limited to a single wavelength at 254nm), whereas medium pressure lamps have a polychromatic UV output (with an output between 185-400nm).
Benefits of UV Disinfection UV disinfection has many advantages over alternative methods. Unlike chemical treatment, UV does not introduce toxins or residues into process water and does not alter the chemical composition, taste, odour or
pH of the fluid being disinfected. UV treatment can be used for primary water disinfection or as a back-up for other water purification methods such as carbon filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurisation. Since UV disinfection does not rely on a chemical residual, the location(s) of the units should be carefully considered for optimum performance.
UV applications Food, beverage and brewing industries Disinfection of direct contact water Although municipal water supplies are normally free from harmful or pathogenic microorganisms, this should not be assumed. In addition, water from private sources such as natural springs could also be contaminated. Any water used as an â–ş ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |181|
ingredient, or coming in direct contact with the product, can therefore be a source of contamination. UV disinfects this water without chemicals or pasteurisation. It also allows the reuse of process water, saving money and improving productivity without risking the quality of the product. CIP (Clean-in-Place) rinse water It is essential that the CIP final rinse water used to flush out foreign matter and disinfecting solutions is microbiologically safe. Fully automated UV disinfection systems can be integrated with CIP rinse cycles to ensure final rinse water does not reintroduce microbiological contaminants. Because of their high energy density, MP lamps are less affected by any sudden changes in the temperature of the CIP water than LP lamps. Filter disinfection Reverse osmosis (RO) and granular activated carbon (GAC) are often used to filter process water, but can be a breeding ground for bacteria. UV is an effective way of disinfecting both
stored RO and GAC filtered water and has been used in the process industries for many years. Cooling media and chiller disinfection Some meat and dairy products are subject to contamination after heat treatment or cooking. UV provides an excellent way to protect foods from contamination by contact-cooling fluids. Sugar syrups Sugar syrups can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. Although syrups with very high sugar content do not support microbial growth, any dormant spores may become active after the syrup has been diluted. Treating the syrup and dilution water with UV prior to use will ensure any dormant microorganisms are deactivated. Liquid sweeteners Sucrose-based sweeteners can be a prime breeding ground for microorganisms. UV systems are available specifically for treating these syrups.
De-aerated liquor De-aerated liquor is added as part of a high gravity brewing process, often in the packaging operation. This liquor is added directly to the beer so needs to be kept free from contamination by gram negative bacteria, which can cause off-flavours and acidity. Yeast preparation The problems associated with yeast preparation in breweries are well recognised and include hazes, altered fermentation and surface membranes on packaged beer. A single cell of Sacchoromyces (var. Turbidans) in 16 million cells of pitching yeast will cause detectable hazes. UV destroys all known yeasts and their spores. Waste water As part of a multi-barrier process, including filtration, UV can destroy microorganisms in the effluent from food and beverage facilities prior to discharge. As UV reduces reliance on hazardous chemicals, it also ensures all discharges meet with local environmental regulations. Bromates and bottled water – UV as an alternative to ozonation Nongfu Spring Co. Ltd., one of China's leading producers of bottled water and beverages, has recently opted to use UV for its production plants across China. This is a major milestone in the bottled water industry – particularly in China – because presently in that country virtually all bottled water is disinfected using ozone. And around the world ozone is still the disinfection method of choice for many producers. The decision by Nongfu Spring to opt for UV was driven by a number of reasons, not least of which was concerns about ozonation by-products such as bromate. In fact, Hanovia has noticed that more and more bottled water and soft drinks producers are now looking for ozone alternatives, and enquiries about UV are on the increase. Bromide ions occur naturally in many spring waters and on their own pose no problem. However, the presence of ozone can cause conversion ►
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of bromide into bromate, with the consequent potential for consumer health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) lists bromate as a carcinogenic substance and recommends its maximum limit in mineral water be set at 0.01mg/l (10ppb). In July 2008 the Chinese General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ), recommended in a revised draft national standard for drinking water and mineral water that a maximum limit for bromate in bottled water be in line with the WHO guidelines. This limit has now been in force since October 2009. Pharmaceutical industry Disinfection As in the food and beverage industries, UV is used to disinfect water used in the manufacturing process, whether it is for direct product make-up or for rinsing and washing process equipment. TOC reduction Short UV wavelengths (below 200nm) are highly effective at breaking down organic molecules present in water, especially low molecular weight contaminants. The process works in two ways: the first method is by direct photolysis, when energy from the UV actually breaks down chemical bonds within the organics; the second method is by the photolysis of water molecules, splitting them to create charged OH- radicals, which also attack the organics.
incubators for bacteria, causing biofouling of the membranes. In addition, these chemicals are hazardous to handle and there is a danger of over- or under-dosing due to human error.
in the water feeding the farm. To break the infection cycle between fish farms and natural fish populations, a disinfection system is needed to treat water entering and circulating within fish farms.
UV is now becoming increasingly popular as an effective alternative method of dechlorination. It has none of the drawbacks of GAC or neutralising chemicals, while effectively reducing both free chlorine and combined chlorine compounds (chloramines) into easily removed byproducts.
UV is ideally suited for these applications as it uses no chemicals and does not create by-products which would harm the fish stock, or other aquatic life, on discharge. Unlike other treatment methods, UV avoids the expense of complex monitoring systems involved in adding and removing chemicals before the water reaches the fish. In addition, it does not alter the pH of the water. Indeed, UV is the most economical disinfection technique that can be used in fish aquaculture. Applications include treatment of water in hatcheries, shell-fish purging tanks and fry rearing tanks, and recirculation water in marine parks and aquaria. â–ş
Aquaculture Increased water extraction and lowered water quality can result in increased outbreaks of viral and bacterial fish diseases in the aquaculture industry. Due to the intensive nature of fish farming, fish stock is also highly susceptible to infection from natural fish populations
UV is used to disinfect water used in the manufacturing process, whether it is for direct product make-up or for rinsing and washing process equipment.
Dechlorination To date, the two most commonly used methods of chlorine removal have been granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or the addition of neutralising chemicals such as sodium bisulphite and sodium metabisulphite. Both of these methods have their advantages, but they also have a number of significant drawbacks. GAC filters, because of their porous structure and nutrient-rich environment, can become a breeding ground for bacteria. Dechlorination chemicals such as sodium bisulphite, which are usually injected just in front of RO membranes, can also act as ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |183|
Swimming pools and spas UV is now a well-established method of swimming pool water treatment, from hydrotherapy spas to full-sized competition pools. This growth in popularity has been largely due to UV's reliability and ease of use. Another major factor is the reduced reliance on traditional chemical treatments it affords, particularly chlorine. UV is also highly effective at destroying chlorine-resistant microorganisms like Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Some of the more unpleasant byproducts of chlorination are chloramines, formed when chlorine reacts with sweat or urine in pool water. Trichloramines in particular are powerful irritants which are responsible for eye and respiratory complaints and the unpleasant smells commonly associated with indoor public pools. They are also corrosive and in time can lead to damage to pool buildings and structures such as ventilation ducts. Another major benefit of UV is that it significantly reduces the need for backwashing and dilution, saving hundreds of pounds a month for pool operators. Link between chloramines and asthma A recent study found an increased incidence of asthma in children who swam regularly in chlorinated pools. In some cases the damage was equivalent to that found in heavy smokers. Even people sitting at the sides of pools, such as lifeguards and instructors, were found to be at risk. The symptoms are caused, the researchers believe, by chloramines – particularly trichloramines. The problem is potentially so serious that the study’s authors suggested pool operators should seriously consider alternatives to chlorine-based disinfection. They also recommended better ventilation to help remove chloramine-laden air from pool surroundings, improved hygiene practices by bathers themselves – such as showering before swimming – and the regular renewal of pool water. While further research is needed, these findings add further credence to the importance of reducing chloramines as much as possible. |184| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Other UV applications
Ship Ballast Water All ocean-going vessels take on water to provide ballast and stability. It is usually taken on in coastal port areas and transported to the next port of call, where it may be discharged. The IMO (International Maritime Organisation) sets tough standards to treat all ballast water prior to discharge, and UV disinfection – in conjunction with filtration – is now one of the accepted methods of treatment.
Meeting the increasingly rigorous hygiene standards required in the production of food, beverages and pharmaceuticals, as well as water quality concerns in the leisure, aquaculture, shipping and oil drilling industries, is a real challenge. If improvements need to be made to plant and equipment, they need to bring quick returns on the investment and measurable improvements in product quality.
Oil Drilling The control of bacteria in injection water – the water injected back into an oil or gas reservoir to increase pressure and stimulate production – is vital in the oil and gas industry. Inadequate treatment can cause ‘souring’ of the reservoir with hydrogen sulphide gas or microbial induced corrosion of drilling equipment. Recent studies commissioned by Hanovia have shown that UV disinfection is effective at preventing bacterial contamination of injection water.
For manufacturers seeking to improve the quality of the end product, UV is an economic, realistic option. It is an established method of disinfecting drinking water throughout the world, and is now finding applications in many other industries. UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 9 - 12 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by general maintenance staff. ■
Food, Agriculture & Packaging
Labs & Testing
204 - 205
WASTE NOT, WANT NOT
188 - 189
206 - 207
190 - 192
They don’t know They don’t know - Simon Evans
“Driving Business Efficiencies and Reducing Carbon Footprint”
Planning environment and sustainability matters - Ian Carter
208 - 209
Gallery paints a greener landscape
210 - 212
Famous Last Words Ecology & Economy – Satish Kumar
Case Studies 196 - 197
Water quality is top priority at Brighton aquarium
198 - 199
Voltis Home draws the crowds at social housing event
200 - 201
Green wall installed at The Mermaid to help trap harmful pollutants
202 - 203
British design team behind Gardens by The Bay
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Spilt milk into waterways causes dairy distribution depot to be fined in Essex A dairy distribution depot in Essex was fined £30,000 for allowing milk to escape from their premises and pollute a watercourse in Barking. Medina Dairy Ltd of Gallions Close, Thames Road, Barking, pleaded guilty at Barkingside Magistrates’ Court on 26 July 2012 to causing pollution to the Buzzards Mouth Sewer in Barking, Essex. The company were fined £30,000 by Barkingside Magistrates Court and ordered to pay Environment Agency costs of £7853 and £15 victim charge.
Essex composting operator fined for burning waste and odour emissions A composting company from Essex and its managing director have been fined £3,000 and £2,000 respectively after burning waste and failing to comply with the terms of its environmental permit. They were ordered to pay costs of £7,181.50 and a Government victim surcharge of £30.00. Michael Lunnon, 35, of Edney Wood, Nathans Lane, Writtle, Essex pleaded guilty at Chelmsford Magistrates’ Court on his own behalf and on behalf of his company to burning controlled waste on a non permitted area of land, as well as causing the production and escape of odours from the permitted composting site on the same land. Wildlife charity benefits from Agency’s new powers A Welsh wildlife charity has received a donation of £1000 from a Carmarthenshire businessman after Environment Agency Wales used its civil sanction powers for fisheries offences for the first time. In 2010, Environment Agency Wales discovered that effluent from a Carmarthenshire poultry unit owned by Mr Benjamin Hay was discharging into a nearby river, potentially harming the local fish population. He offered the Agency a civil sanction, which they accepted, and made a donation of £1000 to the Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales. Illegal scrapyard operators forced to pay back over £150,000 In a case involving deliberate, repeated and persistent breaches of the law, Cambridge Crown Court yesterday (Monday 9 July) ordered, under the Proceeds of Crime Act, that a father and two sons forfeit a total of £152,500 of proceeds arising from an illegal waste site in Little Downham, Cambridgeshire. The court was told that David Loveridge, aged 51, of Plains Lane, Littleport, Ely described previously as having deliberately flouted the law for many years had benefitted by £1,000,000 as a result of the illegal activity
Farmer fined after blighting the countryside with waste A Devon farmer has been ordered to pay £35,265 in fines and costs for illegally dumping and storing waste in a beautiful area of countryside in the Exe Valley near Tiverton. The case was brought by the Environment Agency. William Dolley, 42, displayed a ‘blatant disregard’ of the law and stockpiled large quantities of waste at Holwell Farm,Collipriest, Tiverton despite repeated offers of advice and warnings from the Environment Agency. Fined for asbestos offences The owner of a waste transfer station was fined £20,000 and ordered to pay full prosecution costs of £5,270 by Lincoln Magistrates’ Court Clifford Page pleaded guilty to accepting waste asbestos in breach of a condition of his permit, storing and transporting the asbestos in an unsafe way. Magistrates were told that Page accepted waste asbestos from five different sources onto his site at Lissinglea House Farm, Lissington, Lincoln in the summer of 2011. In September 2011 two Environment Agency officers found two open skips containing asbestos at the Lissington site. The skips contained a mixture of white, blue and brown asbestos and were stored one on top of the other. The top skip was not covered properly and asbestos in the lower skip was broken, risking the release of fibres. Appeal for information on illegally dumped waste in West Sussex hotspot The unnamed site at Walburton, near Arundel is already under investigation by the Environment Agency’s specialist Environmental Crime Team and new illegally dumped material has appeared there since 10 July. Amongst the vast amount of household and construction waste that has been deposited is a distinctive leopard print board and a large wall poster that may provide clues to who the culprits may be. Water company fined for Plymouth sewage spill South West Water has been ordered to pay £33,515 in fines and costs following a major sewage spill from one of its largest treatment works. The case was brought by the Environment Agency. On August 26, 2010 the company reported pump failures at its Plymouth Central sewage treatment works. Normally four pumps are used to lift sewage up a deep shaft and into the works for treatment, but three of these failed leaving just one operational pump. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |187|
Product Guide EXO Breaks the ‘Sonde Barrier’ YSI, a Xylem company, has launched a new range of ‘EXO’ water quality monitoring sondes that will radically improve the simplicity, reliability and versatility of monitoring activities in groundwater, surface water and marine applications. Designed for both hand-held or remote monitoring work and built on YSI’s 60+ years of experience in the development of leading-edge water monitoring technology, the new EXO sondes offer the most advanced range of features available. The EXO range represents a giant step forward in water quality monitoring because it is founded on feedback from thousands of users from all over the world. Every aspect of sonde monitoring has been enhanced, including sensor technology, power management, sonde ruggedness, software features and communications options. YSI’s Ian Thompson says “The YSI development teams constantly surprise and excite us by building new technology into products that meet or exceed the needs of our customers, and the EXO sondes are clearly no exception.” Further information including an introductory video is available at www.EXOwater.com.
HACH LANGE nutrient monitors shine in final effluent trial Commenting on the results of a 4 month trial of nutrient monitors, HACH LANGE’s John Moroney says he is absolutely thrilled with the report on his company’s instruments which outperformed the competition in almost every measure. The levels of nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphates, entering natural water resources is of great concern because these nutrients can either remove vital oxygen or lead to excessive plant growth and algal blooms, which harm wildlife through eutrophication. In addition, high levels of phosphate or nitrate in abstracted water significantly add to the cost of drinking water treatment. The management of nutrient levels is therefore dependent on the ability to monitor accurately and reliably, and as a result, a group of UK water companies organised a joint monitoring trial to determine the best instruments. The trial involved the installation of turbidity, phosphate and ammonium monitors from the market’s leading manufacturers at two designated final effluent plants within the UK. HACH LANGE provided an AMTAX sc ammonium analyser, a PHOSPHAX sc phosphate analyser and a SOLITAX sc turbidity analyser for the trial. The SOLITAX sc performed better than any of its competitors and as a result, Severn Trent Water has adopted the instrument in a framework agreement. Summarising the report on the AMTAX sc and PHOSPHAX sc, John Moroney says “We are delighted to report that these analysers came first in almost all of the key performance measures, which included correlation to diurnal data, variance to laboratory data, and maintenance requirements". The results of this trial will be of great interest to process managers who have to comply with tighter discharge consents as a result of the Water Framework Directive. For more information www.hach-lange.co.uk |188| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The Ferret Leak Location System finds leaks on plastic, copper and lead pipes with internal diameters ranging from 10mm to 40mm. The simple system uses hydraulic principles to pinpoint leaks to within millimetres. The system uses water pressure in the pipe, which means operating costs are low. Hydraulic forces drive an inflatable plug down the pipe, the plug acting like a moving valve, so when the plug passes a leak it stops automatically as motive pressure is lost. A sonde directly behind the plug is then located above ground using standard pipe tracing equipment. Ferret has the ability to quantify the size of the leak, from as little as 0.03 l/min, using an in-built flow sensor. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The new T3 Gas Tester ensures Crowcon’s Tetra:3 (T3) portable, multi-gas detector complies with relevant national/regional safety regulations and individual company requirements The device feeds the T3’s sensors a known concentration of gas, a process known as ‘bumping’, to ensure the sensors are working correctly. The way it works is simple: when a T3 is inserted into the Gas Tester, the T3 automatically switches into ‘bump’ mode and either passes or fails. Once the test is complete the T3 is removed and the bump result is then accepted by the user and automatically logged in the T3. When the test has passed, the user is safe in the knowledge their detector is in good working order while, if it fails the bump, it informs the user that their instrument needs to be re-calibrated or serviced. All this is done without requiring a power supply, as the T3 detector does all the work. Rugged and robust, the T3 Gas Tester is a lightweight, stand-alone unit ideal for both on-site and in-field gas testing. Fast and simple to use, it features automatic gas detector recognition and automatic gas delivery. It can also be wall- or desk-mounted or attached to a DIN rail. Alfa Laval Gives You Confidence in safe water The UK has strict rules for compliance when it comes to products connected to the public water supply. These requirements are set out in the Water Supply (Water Fittings) Regulations or Scottish Byelaws. The simplest way of demonstrating compliance is by receiving WRAS approval. Users and manufacturers of products that will be connected to the public water system take WRAS approval into consideration when purchasing their components. Connecting a system (e.g. boiler, tap, pipework) to a public water supply without being able to demonstrate conformation to the aforementioned regulations is illegal. In order to receive WRAS approval products must undertake a series of tests to measure: • • • • •
Odour and flavour (does it taint the drinking water?) Appearance of colorant and turbidity (do these change?) Growth of aquatic microorganisms (also known as ‘microbial’ testing) (does the amount of oxygen in the water decrease? Extraction of substances harmful to health (also known as ‘cytotoxicity’) (is it harmful to humans?) Extraction of metals (does it leach metal particles?)
Once the above has been passed, the equipment undertook further tests to measure: • Pressure testing (is it watertight?) • Opacity (does it let light in?) • Identifier (is it easily identifiable?) Alfa Laval’s CB range of Heat Exchangers has been WRAS certified until 30th June 2017. For more information about Alfa Laval’s CB range of heat exchangers, visit www.alfalaval.com/cb
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They don’t know They don’t know A reply to: The Toxic Risk the Banking Industry Isn’t Aware Of!
Simon Evans, Marketing Director, Lubetech
Lubetech will be a familiar name to many as UK market leaders in Spill Control products & technology, supplying spill kits, bins, booms and absorbents through distributors throughout the UK and across five Continents. The Southampton-based manufacturer not only shares the concerns of the publication about the state of awareness within financial service providers but believes the article doesn’t go nearly far enough to state the real depth and breadth of the problem. One which, in their opinion, is bordering on systemic failure of the entire environmental platform in the UK, leaving the Environment Agency (EA) to literally pick up the pieces through no fault of their own. Marketing Director, Simon Evans: We are not often involved in responding to the media, but your article `Toxic Risk the Banking Industry Isn’t Aware Of` certainly struck a raw nerve among our Technical team as it perfectly reflects significant concerns arising from independent research we’ve been undertaking since 2011 and our own commercial experience. In addition to actual product design and manufacture we supply basic training in what we call the `PAR3` approach to spill control – Prevention of spills as the primary function, Attention to those that occur with appropriate response, and Retention/removal of any and all contaminants that might otherwise leech into the environment. |190| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
To an extent, this insulated us from the true nature and scale of the problem – those coming to us are typically `spill aware` or at least, aware of their lack of knowledge and wanting to do something about it. Reading your article and noting the abysmal number of downloads of Pollution Prevention Guidelines (PPG) from the Environment Agency (EA) website, 4,000 is a poor number by any standard (the EA already has plans to facilitate greater use) but we believe we know why and for the first time Lubetech will share its figures with readers: Recently we surveyed 768 companies in industry sectors that have regulatory or legal obligation toward spill prevention and control. No fewer than 76% of those contacted had `no knowledge` or only `rudimentary understanding` of spill control – neither formal guidance or training, nor instruction in how to operate a spill kit, even if they had one! A recent FOI request revealed fully 40% of Small or Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME’s) suffering a `substantial` spill (undefined, but indicative of negative media attention and a requirement for attendance by the Environment Agency) will fold within 18 months of the incident. Not directly attributed to the direct cost of the spill, but usually the straw that breaks the camel's back. The Highways Agency confirms the cost to the country of closure of a motorway route is valued at £1million per MINUTE. The HA is planning on cutting large numbers of their Incident Support Officers immediately after the Olympics to save money. ►
Safety and environmental implications for everyone on Britain’s roads are clear for all to see. NO highways are bunded or fitted with interceptors.
the above it’s not just about protection for the environment, it’s about protecting themselves and their business.
Next, Environment Agency fines and charges typically exceed the physical level of the clean up costs by a factor of 8 to 1. Standard Liability insurance does not cover this. So on the one hand we have untrained adjusters and claims assessors representing insurers and policyholders interests in clean-up cost management approval, while on the other exposing their policyholders to substantial fines and damages.
In a recent article in the environmental press we learned a UK water company received a £15k fine for pollution of a local river. But factor in the true costs: tankering away the spilt chemical £32,600; correcting the actual leak £8,300; fish surveys £26,000; required new equipment to detect a leak £60,000; EA officers attending £2,271; river restocking charges £63,500. When added to the fine and prosecution costs the total incident cost reached more than £211,000.
Finally, some further food for thought: There are 2.5 million white vans on UK roads among 33 million road going vehicles in total. Carrying more than 20 litres of chemicals in the course of their business requires commercial vehicles - by law – to carry an appropriate spill kit. We assess awareness of this fact is at no more than 9-13%! Even if we assumed only half carry fuels, oils, chemicals or environmentally unsound fluids that means a million or more spill risks travelling the roads and highways of GB. Every day. And that’s just the white vans. This puts recent PR waffle by the AA about 50% of UK Motorists travelling in France illegally with new French regulations into hi-viz and breathalysers into context!” Lubetech are also focussed on where they believe the problem lies: The issue before us - and it applies to all business sectors not merely the financial community - is not that they don’t care, it’s that they don’t even know they need to – and make no mistake reading
But the financial sector does need to share its burden of the blame. According to the Association of British Insurers (ABI) and the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) the insurance industry currently offers no training, has no formal or informal guidelines and no awareness of the costs or assessment of measures used in spill control. So they are unable to recognise warning signs or provide compliance guidance. However, we have direct knowledge of potentially dangerous situations going unrecognised through this lack of awareness. Where the Financial Services sector have failed is not in imparting the knowledge and requirement to their customers (that’s really our industrys’ role), but failing to recognise that this lack of awareness is damaging their business – their Shareholders believe that they act to mitigate costs, when the evidence suggests otherwise. Staff need training so that customers and policyholders are conscious of unfettered risk. ►
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |191|
Now we come to `our` failings. Both Environmental and Health & Safety training touch upon spill control in passing. But neither actively provide it. We have a recent example where a customer purchased a spill kit from a distributor, approached us for instruction on how to use it. Subsequently he achieved a Professional Environmental Qualification - and yet STILL has no idea how to work a spill kit in response to an incident. The Institute of Environmental Management & Assessment records over 15,000 members working across all industry with a wide variety of approved courses for their members, yet they have no spill control training and awareness - they regard it as too specialised for their members. If not them, who? We have approached the Department of Business Innovation and Skills to see how to remediate this problem. They have not replied. Many of us will no doubt at one time have announced to friends or contacts that we work in the `environmental industry` only to face a barrage of jokes about tree-hugging, lentil-eating, sandal wearing hippies…! Introduce the hidden costs, the lack of awareness and the potential risk to the Country and I doubt anyone’s still laughing. |192| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
The issue within the environmental community is that it would rather push paper and protect the environment by posturing rather than performing. And the state of this country’s preparedness is bordering on woeful. It’s little use blaming Government or the Environment Agency – whether they do the best they can with the resources at their disposal or not - it’s simply that the time for talking about it is past. Protection of the environment for future generations is not up for discussion, it’s compulsory. It doesn’t start with blame, it starts with action. It doesn’t start tomorrow, it’s here, now! Lubetech will shortly offer it’s own solution to the need to inform and educate. We urge the industry to get on board with our initiative. Our aim will be simple: One Million newly-educated business users in the UK, aware and informed about what they need to know. Join us and be part of the solution. ■
+ For More Information www.lubetech.co.uk
Planning environment and sustainability matters Ian Carter, Sector Manager of Ordnance Survey Businesses and organisations across Great Britain are getting better at using mapping information. And they are reaping the benefits. Big savings and better services, which better meet customer need, are just some of the possible benefits. This ever-increasing focus on using geographic information (GI) is having a particularly positive impact on the environment, sustainability and sustainable development. The future is bright for the future use of GI in environment and sustainable planning. RIO+20 - the recent international conference on sustainable development - recognised the importance of trusted GI in sustainable development. Meanwhile, in Great Britain, more than 2,500 public sector organisations are now making use of Ordnance Surveyâ€™s data. Times are hard and many funding streams have reduced. So it is important for the public sector to realise the benefits of making informed decisions based on the right information. And we are seeing many do just that when it comes to the environment and sustainability. As part of the Public Sector Mapping Agreement (PSMA) we have with the Government, much of our data is free at the point of use for the public sector. There are dozens of examples of public sector organisations using mapping data to improve the way they work with the environment. These include Newcastle City Council using 3D mapping to work out where to place solar panels, the Environment Agency using our topography layer of mapping to underpin its activities, and Daventry District Council has used information from Ordnance Survey to rationalise its waste collection routes, saving ÂŁ574,000 in the process. Other councils and organisations are using our data for flood planning, home insulations, carbon mapping and more. The PSMA is helping the public sector to make vital efficiencies and improvements to service delivery, providing them the access to mapping data to make a real difference to the environment and to save money by doing things more effectively and sustainably. Simply put, those who are not onboard and making use of our mapping data need to get on board. Decisions based on intelligent geographic data are more often than not the better decisions. At a time of extreme austerity, the public sector cannot afford to not make best use of GI that is free for them. It is data that they can use to run their services better and more efficiently. Whether GI is used for noise mapping, carbon mapping, flood planning or even working out the best place for a wind turbine to be, the use of GI must be embraced. |194| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Water quality is top priority at Brighton aquarium The SEA LIFE Centre next to the pier in Brighton is the world’s oldest operating aquarium. Originally designed by Eugenius Birch in 1872, the popular attraction has recently benefited from substantial renovation and now offers a range of new attractions including a 'Jellyfish Discovery' and a 'Behind the Scenes' tour. With hundreds of highly valuable marine creatures to protect, water quality is a key issue and routine monitoring is now undertaken with HACH LANGE instruments. Displays Curator Carey Duckhouse says “The recent building work presented a series of challenges, but we have been able to protect water quality throughout the project with a monitoring regime that was designed to quickly detect any deterioration in water quality and to provide the highest level of vigilance for the most sensitive species.” In order to protect water quality, each tank at the Brighton attraction has its own filtration system, including a pressurised sand filter, a biological filter and a carbon filter where appropriate. Some tanks, containing particularly sensitive species such as seahorses, octopus and jellyfish, also feature an ultraviolet treatment system. Many marine organisms will die quickly if the dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature or salinity levels move outside of acceptable boundaries, so temperature measurements are taken daily on all tanks, DO is measured three times/day in the main ocean tank, and salinity and DO are measured twice per week in all tanks. A hand-held ‘HQD’ water quality meter is employed for this purpose, utilising the latest sensor technology such as an optical LDO™ sensor which substantially improves the reliability of oxygen measurements. However, as Carey explains “Even subtle changes in water quality can stress marine organisms, which makes them more sensitive to disease, so a range of other parameters such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, copper and iron, are also measured with a HACH LANGE DR 2800 spectrophotometer.” Reagents for the spectrophotometer tests are supplied in small pre-filled powder pillows containing extremely accurate amounts of reagents. This ensures that the tests |196| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
are conducted in the same way every time and avoids potential errors whilst also saving time and chemical wastage. The spectrophotometer has an internal memory containing the calibration data for a large number of parameters so that Carey and her colleagues simply choose the pillow reagents for the tests they need. The test procedure is very simple: the contents of a powered pillow are simply added to a small sample and a coloured solution is allowed to develop for a specific time. The sample tube is then inserted into the spectrophotometer which provides a highly accurate and repeatable reading. The water quality monitoring equipment is also used in research conducted in collaboration with Sussex University. Much of this work is with Cephalopods such as cuttle fish and addresses a range of issues including feeding behaviour, camouflage and nutrition. Accurate water quality monitoring is necessary in all of this work to ensure that observed effects are not the result of water quality changes. Visitors to the aquarium can view research work during the ‘Behind the Scenes’ tour, in addition to the nursery area, the laboratory and the food preparation section. Clearly, water quality is key to the success of an aquarium and Carey says “If Eugenius Birch was alive today I am sure he would be delighted to see that the aquarium has continued to thrive, and as an engineer he would be fascinated by the water quality monitoring technology that we are now able to employ.”
Water quality is a key issue and routine monitoring is now undertaken with HACH LANGE instruments.
+ For More Information www.visitsealife.com/Brighton ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |197|
Voltis Home draws the crowds at social housing event Affordable homes kitted out with Voltis Home power saving units have gone down a storm with visitors to a new development showcasing how sustainable technologies can be incorporated into mainstream housing. The high performance domestic voltage optimisation units from Marshall-Tufflex were installed into two properties within the Housing Innovation Showcase, a £3.3million project in Fife, Scotland, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly building methods for the social housing sector. For two weeks in May the project’s 27 homes, built by 10 development partners and expected to have total energy costs averaging just £300 per home per year, were open to visitors with thousands of people, including representatives from the Scottish government, BRE, Good Homes Alliance, housing associations, universities, major contractors, local authorities, architects, consulting engineers etc, taking the opportunity to find out more about the scheme. The event was opened by Wayne Hemingway, co-founder of the Red or Dead fashion label and now a champion for affordable housing. “This project will help shape the future of housing in Scotland and the UK. The showcase gives the industry a chance to show off new technologies and thinking,” said Mr Hemingway, who chairs national organisation Building for Life and is a ‘London Leader’ for the London Sustainable Development Commission. Voltis Home caused quite a stir at the showcase, according to Derek Grubb, senior architectural technician with Glenrothes-based Lomond Homes which developed two of the properties in conjunction with Kingdom Housing Association: “Voltis Home was the thing that grabbed most people’s attention,” he said. “Many people hadn’t heard of the technology but it’s a fairly easy sales pitch; the system is a doddle to install and, we believe, will return electricity bill savings of about 10% on an incoming mains supply of around 232Volts at this site. “Housing associations latched on to the fact that there are no user controls and tenants therefore need do nothing to make savings. There’s also the bonus that domestic electrical equipment will last longer because it is not over supplied with power. I think Voltis Home is brilliant. It is so |198| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
simple in operation, inexpensive and gives an immediate benefit from the moment it is installed,” added Mr Grubb. Installer Ronnie Grant, of RB Grant, Kirkaldy, was similarly impressed, describing the installation process as ‘very simple and straight forward’. “Voltis Home does what it says on the tin,” said Mr Grant. “It has a good display that gives tenants information about savings and the automatic bypass feature is an important safeguard.” Bill Banks, Deputy Chief Executive with Kingdom said: “The Housing Innovation Showcase aimed to demonstrate how modern methods of construction and new technologies could be mainstreamed across wider housing programmes. We feel the project has demonstrated this potential and the installation of the Voltis Home system has identified a relatively low cost technology which can provide an environmental benefit and make a significant contribution to tenants energy costs. We are currently looking at how we can roll it out to our other projects.” Housing Innovation Showcase 2012 is a partnership between Kingdom Housing Association (KHA) & Fife Council, with support from Fife Construction Forum & Green Business Fife. It features 27 new homes on a site in Dunfermline, each built by one of 10 development partners on behalf of Fife Housing Partnership and Fife Economy Partnership.
“This project will help shape the future of housing in Scotland and the UK" Wayne Hemingway
Lomond Homes, in conjunction with KHA, was tasked with building a pair of semi-detached homes for the project, and it is these that are fitted with the Voltis Home. The units were supplied by Edmundson Electrical, Kirkcaldy. Lomond believes domestic optimisers offer both the public and private sector a good-value energy management solution, as Mr Grubb explained: “For a relatively low cost with a potentially short payback period Voltis Home can be installed, bringing instant benefits by reducing power bills and extending the life of appliances. I am also very impressed by the safety features built-in to Voltis Home, for example its ability to cope with power spikes and equipment that draws high electrical loads. That it can be easily retrofitted and has no user controls are added bonuses. RSLs want to address fuel poverty and have a keen interest in the welfare of their tenants, making voltage optimisation an exciting proposition for them.” The Voltis Home units, which measure just 300mm x 240mm x 147mm, have each taken about one hour to install and, because Voltis Home is rated to 60Amps, there is no need to isolate some circuits such as the cooker or power showers, making installation straight forward. The Housing Innovation Showcase homes are now tenanted. A key element of the project is a monitoring of the performance of the different house systems and a comparative analysis of the benefits of different renewable energy options and other enhanced specifications.
The project has already won a Scottish Green Apple Environmental Award and been shortlisted for the Fife Partnership Excellence and Scottish Homes Awards. Keith Brown, Scottish Government Minister for Housing and Transport, visited the project. He said: “The Scottish Government is committed to the long term sustainability of our housing stock – this is the reason we were happy to input £2million into this development. It is very encouraging to hear how young, local trainees are actively involved, in creating sustainable housing to such a high standard and I'd like to add my congratulations to Kingdom Housing Association for this excellent development."
+ For More Information www.marshall-tufflex.com www.savepowerathome.co.uk
ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |199|
Green wall installed at The Mermaid to help trap harmful pollutants An innovative green wall has been installed at The Mermaid, in Blackfriars to help reduce harmful pollution. The 120m2 wall is made up of 15 plant varieties designed to reduce locally generated pollution, particularly from nearby busy roads. This is Transport for London's (TfL) second green wall in the capital following one installed on Marylebone Road at Edgware Road Tube station last year. The green walls are part of a package of targeted short term measures TfL is introducing at places where PM10 levels are at its highest. Other initiatives include the use of dust suppressants, tree planting and the use of cleaner buses. This is all in addition to London-wide schemes to cut pollution such as an age limit for taxis and tighter standards for the Low Emission Zone. The vibrant green wall at The Mermaid has been designed to include plants which will thrive in its underpass location. The attractive swirling planting design takes inspiration from the nearby Thames, the connection with water and The Mermaid. The wall forms part of the underpass located on Puddle Dock, parallel to Upper Thames Street. The mixture of native and ornamental plants has been selected particularly for the highway location and wildlife value. The wall will contain plant varieties in a mixture of vibrant colours including yellows, greens and blue tones, along with some variegated plants. Preliminary data gathered from the Edgware Road site by scientist Dr Linda Davies and her colleagues from Imperial College London, suggests these green infrastructure features are successful at capturing some airborne pollution. The team collected leaf samples from the green wall for five months since its installation in order to evaluate their ability to trap airborne particulate matter. An initial analysis shows that all 15 varieties of plants have been able to trap pollutants, although some have been more effective than others. Matthew Pencharz, the Mayorâ€™s environment advisor, said: â€œThe Mayor is taking a range of robust measures to cut pollution. Green infrastructure is an innovative approach that provides a practical way to absorb dust from road vehicles and an attractive feature. We have installed |200| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
several walls to test which plants work best and we want to share this knowledge to encourage their wider uptake.” Dr Linda Davies, Imperial College London, said: “Results so far show some plants capture particles better than others, and small hairy leaves appear to do this the best. Green walls offer a wide range of environmental benefits such as helping cities keep cool and providing a haven for wildlife.” Alicia Duncan, General Manager of The Mermaid said, “The installation of a living wall helps to impact the area aesthetically as well as environmentally. The Mermaid currently has a silver award in Green Tourism and a platinum award from the City of London in waste management and recycling. Any new ideas are looked at and implemented if beneficial, and current practices are constantly reviewed to ensure we have the minimal adverse effect on the environment.” TfL has also provided Crossrail with funding to install green screens at five of their constructions sites. These screens are part of the hoardings which surround the working sites. Four of the green screens are in place at Park Lane, St George Street, Hanover Square and Finsbury Circus; a further screen will be installed later this year on Farringdon Road. Having invested in these trial sites, Transport for London is in discussions with other businesses where third party funding is available in order to deliver additional green walls including sites in Victoria and Chiswick.
The vibrant green wall at The Mermaid has been designed to include plants which will thrive in its underpass location
+ For More Information www.tflpressgallery.co.uk ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |201|
British design team behind Gardens by The Bay The first phase of Singapore’s dramatic Gardens by the Bay project opens to the public on 29th June following completion of the 54-hectare £500m Bay South Garden by a world-class British design team led by Bath-based landscape architects, Grant Associates. Gardens by the Bay is one of the largest garden projects of its kind in the world. Ultimately, the site will total 101 hectares comprising three distinct gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central. Located on reclaimed land in Singapore’s new downtown at Marina Bay, the site will provide a unique leisure destination for local and international visitors. The project is an integral part of Singapore’s “City in a Garden” vision, designed to raise the profile of the city globally whilst showcasing the best of horticulture and garden artistry. A Great British Collaboration Following an international design competition, a team led by landscape architecture firm Grant Associates was appointed in 2006 by the National Parks Board of Singapore to masterplan Bay South Garden, the first and largest of the three planned gardens at Gardens by the Bay. Alongside lead designers Grant Associates, the British design team for Bay South includes Wilkinson Eyre (architects); Atelier Ten (environmental design consultants); Atelier One (structural engineers); Land Design Studio (museum and visitor center designers) and Thomas Matthews (communication designers). A Fusion of Nature and Technology Taking inspiration from the form of the orchid, Grant Associates’ masterplan is a rich fusion of nature, technology and environmental management. Stunning architectural structures are combined with a wide variety of horticultural displays, daily light and sound shows, lakes, forests, event spaces and a host of dining and retail offerings. The whole plan has an intelligent environmental infrastructure, allowing endangered plants, which could not normally grow in Singapore to flourish, providing both leisure and education to the nation. |202| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
Highlights of Gardens by the Bay are many and include: Cooled Conservatories Two giant biomes designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects – theFlower Dome (1.2 hectare) and theCloud Forest Dome (0.8 hectare) – display plants and flowers from the Mediterranean-type climatic regions and Tropical Montane (Cloud Forest) environments and provide an all-weather “edutainment” space within the Gardens. Supertrees Between 25 and 50 metres in height, the 18 Supertrees designed by Grant Associates are iconic vertical gardens, with emphasis placed on creating a “wow” factor through the vertical display of tropical flowering climbers, epiphytes and ferns. At night, these canopies come alive with lighting and projected media. An aerial walkway suspended from the Supertrees offers visitors a unique perspective on the gardens. The Supertrees are embedded with sustainable energy and water technologies integral to the cooling of the Cooled Conservatories. Horticultural Gardens Two collections The Heritage Gardens and The World of Plants centre on ‘Plants and People’ and ‘Plants and Planet’. Together with mass flowering and coloured foliage landscape, they form a spectacle of colour and texture and fragrance within the Gardens, providing a mesmerising experience for visitors.
designed to raise the profile of the city globally whilst showcasing the best of horticulture and garden artistry
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WASTE NOT, WANT NOT Continued climate change, strict legislation and escalating taxes provide compelling ethical, legal and commercial reasons for companies to reduce their environmental impact throughout the supply chain. With landfill tax currently at £48 per tonne and an escalator which will see this reach £80 by 2014, major supermarket retailers are unsurprisingly committed to achieving zero waste to landfill, through minimisation and increasing recycling rates and recycling content in packaging. Within the supply chain, the principle ways in which this is being achieved are through the use of returnable transit packaging and the recycling of packaging waste. The issue of food waste is also coming to the fore, with WRAP’s (Waste & Resources Action Programme) high profile, ‘Love Food Hate Waste’ campaign, aiming to educate the consumer to buy only what they need and use what they buy, and an increasing number of retailers using techniques such as anaerobic digestion to generate energy from food waste from stores.
With landfill tax currently at £48 per tonne and an escalator which will see this reach £80 by 2014
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A number of retailers are also trialling in-store systems which allow consumers to refill reusable packaging for liquid products. In March 2010, 36 major food manufacturers and retailers signed up to the second phase of the Courtald Commitment, a voluntary agreement aimed at improving resource efficiency and reducing the carbon and wider environmental impact of the grocery retail sector. Following the launch of the original Courtald Commitment in 2005, and despite increases in both sales and population in the UK, some 500,000 tonnes less packaging was used in the period from 2005-2009. Phase two of the commitment sets three new targets, as follows:
Tesco – the UK’s largest supermarket retailer - has renewed its contract with Norbert Dentressangle for the management of 12 Recycling Service Units (RSUs) throughout the UK and Ireland. Established by Tesco in 1995, the RSU network handles all loose equipment and packaging waste from more than 2,200 stores. Items including trays, flower buckets, roll cages and dollies are collected by Tesco’s store delivery vehicles and delivered to the RSUs on the return leg. Returnable items are then processed for collection and re-used by Tesco and its suppliers.
Packaging – to reduce the weight, increase recycling rates and increase the recycled content of all grocery packaging, as appropriate. Through these measures the aim is to reduce the carbon impact of this grocery packaging by 10%. Household food and waste – to reduce UK household food and drink wastes by 4%. Supply chain product and packaging waste – to reduce traditional grocery product and packaging waste in the grocery supply chain by 5% - this includes both solid and liquid wastes. Of course, the ability to achieve these targets relies on the existence of facilities for the handling and processing of returnable transit packaging and store waste, and specialist expertise and resources to manage these effectively. Variously referred to as Recycling Service Units, Service Centres and Resource Recovery Units, an increasing number of major retailers operate national networks of integrated handling centres, dedicated to the processing of re-usable and non-reusable packaging and other waste. Of these, two of the largest networks are managed and operated by Norbert Dentressangle. By recovering and processing equipment and waste from all stores in a region under one roof, these facilities offer significant efficiencies and economies of scale. The majority of these facilities are currently operated on a dedicated basis, however, as retailers increasingly recognise that competitive advantage is achieved by their product assortment, availability and price and not through the supply chain, the opportunity for collaboration – and with it, even greater commercial and environmental benefits - in the future is clear.
The operation plays an important role in Tesco’s commitment to minimising the waste it produces. In 2008, the RSUs contributed almost 80% of the 400,000 tonnes of material recycled by Tesco in the UK, equivalent to 85% of the total packaging that Tesco produced. This exceeded Tesco’s target of 80%, helping towards its target to divert 95% of store waste from landfill. Norbert Dentressangle is responsible for activities within the RSUs including equipment washing, packaging waste baling and equipment sortation. Employing around 800 people, the operation currently handles in excess of 230 million trays and flower buckets and recycles more than 300,000 tonnes of card and plastic each year. The centres also handle an increasing amount of food waste and, in a recent initiative, have recycled 10,000 tonnes of bakery waste for use in animal feed since August 2011.
Scale of Norbert Dentressangle’s reverse and environmental logistics operations • Over 20 years environmental logistics experience • 24 sites across the UK and Europe ranging from 20,000 to 110,000 sq ft • 450 million trays washed per year • 350,000 tonnes of card and plastic recycled per year • 4.8 million returned items processed per year • More than 9 million equipment units tracked and controlled • 24/7 operations
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CASE STUDIES “Driving Business Efficiencies and Reducing Carbon Footprint” – How OKI Teamed Up with IBM to Revolutionise Printing at Defra
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was formed in 2001 when the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) was merged with part of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) and with a small part of the Home Office. Defra’s employees are based at more than 170 sites located across the UK, ranging in size from small unmanned facilities to large central London sites, each with several hundred staff. Throughout the UK, IBM, in its capacity as one of the largest outsourcers in the world, is responsible for providing managed IT services and solutions to Defra. Working closely with its client, IBM identified a need for Defra to reduce operating costs and carbon footprint and highlighted print as an area where it could potentially make significant savings both financially and in terms of CO2 output. Scoping the Challenge Defra tasked IBM to help it save costs. In response, IBM recommended a move away from ad hoc procurement of print devices as well as purchase of consumables and move instead to a managed print service (MPS) solution. The new approach would allow hardware to be provided covered by a specific service level agreement (SLA), consumables to be provided automatically free of charge as part of the service on a just-in-time basis. It issued a tender for a solution provider to deliver the service and after a period of consultation selected OKI as its partner. OKI fitted the bill as an experienced printing solutions manufacturer and MPS provider with proven expertise in managing large projects. IBM had confidence that OKI would be able to provide all of the services that were required and manage the printing solutions element of the project accordingly. Defra had a fleet of approximately 1384 printing devices, of varying makes, models and ages. Many of these were locally attached inkjet devices but it also had a wide range of non-networked photocopiers and many aged networked devices. The department had little visibility of print type, volumes, associated costs, or indeed even if its printing solutions were really meeting its strategic business needs. Equally, Defra was reliant on internal deskside support technicians to service and support the printers. |206| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
IBM and OKI initiated the MPS process at Defra by carrying out a comprehensive print audit. This catalogued all of the department’s printing devices, their precise location and the volumes of printed page output, enabling OKI to gauge the total number of pages Defra would be likely to print in a typical year and to tailor its offering accordingly. The audit was an intensive process involving visiting over 170 Defra sites in just three months. Site staff were interviewed and employees completed questionnaires to gain an understanding of users’ print/ scan/copy requirements. During the audit process prior to the solution being implemented, OKI’s printers had to undergo a rigorous testing process to ensure that all of the devices were capable of supporting all applications that Defra use. And that any specialist printing requirement such as colour accuracy, mapping or specific non standard media types were of the highest quality. The solution implemented by OKI represented a balanced deployment of devices from A4 desktop printers to A3 and A4 colour and mono MFPs right up to large departmental A3 multifunction devices. New functionality provided includes confidential print release, enhancing security and reducing wastage, scan to email, and sleep and deep sleep power modes which reduce power consumption and CO2 output. Default duplex and mono policies were recommended and implemented to further reduce cost and wastage. The printers are used for a range of office and administrative printing including outputting export licence certificates. Benefits Achieved In total, the printer fleet at Defra was rationalised down from 1,384 to 548 devices, representing a significant saving in hardware, consumables, running costs and space. Equally, Defra now has a much greater level of control over, and visibility of, its print operations. Effectively, it knows exactly what printers it has, where each printer is located and exactly how much printing is costing it as a business. Rob Brown, business manager, Managed Print Services, OKI, comments, “it is all about controlling Defra’s printing costs and making sure their printing requirements are met at the same time – not only today but also into the future as its business needs change”.
Other key benefits include improved reliability of printing devices. OKI is also supplying remote monitoring of devices to provide automated consumables supply, a telephone helpdesk and on-site engineering support when required. The implementation of OKI printers as part of an MPS approach has also resulted in Defra achieving environmental benefits. It has been able to achieve CO2 savings of 47% as a direct result of the new approach. IBM and OKI are determined not to rest on their laurels with respect to this implementation. The solution delivered is as much about ongoing management of the printer fleet as it is about the initial installation and roll out. First level support of the printing solutions is provided by IBM’s IT helpdesk. So if a user has a problem with a device, they contact IBM in the first instance to resolve issues swiftly. Any unresolved issue is logged and quickly an engineer is dispatched to site. OKI, however, is responsible for actually delivering the printing services to Defra. The ongoing management of the solution hinges on a quarterly printer effectiveness meeting involving representatives from OKI, Defra and IBM. The objective is to provide a continuous assessment of the department’s printing requirement. This includes information about how the fleet is operating and the number of pages that have been printed; also advice on whether there is a need to move devices around, or in some cases replace them, to improve the benefits Defra is receiving from MPS, and to ensure that changing business needs are met. According to OKI’s Brown, “Carrying out an initial audit, proposing and installation of the equipment is one element of this project, managing the fleet over time is another. But it is absolutely key in that it allows us to identify any requirements in terms of new or different hardware. This enables us to prevent Defra from slipping back into an ad hoc approach to acquiring devices which are likely to be expensive to purchase and difficult to manage and support”. “Our entire engagement with Defra and IBM on this project has been part of a consultative process,” continues Brown. “It is about understanding what Defra needs both at board level and down to what individual users in the smallest most far-flung Defra sites require. In conjunction with IBM, we have helped to revolutionise the whole approach to printing at Defra and the department is reaping the rewards in terms of enhanced operational efficiency, reduced costs, greater budgetary control and environmental benefits.”
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Gallery paints a greener landscape One of Scotland’s leading galleries has commissioned a more sustainable future, thanks to green technology that’s set to cut electricity consumption by over 10 per cent. The installation of powerPerfector’s voltage optimisation technology at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery on Edinburgh’s Queen Street, will reduce the Gallery’s annual power bill by £6,225 and reduce carbon emissions by 38,657kg. The Portrait Gallery is the fourth of the National Galleries to have installed the technology, following the Dean Gallery, Mound Gallery and the Gallery of Modern Art. The National Galleries of Scotland look after one of the world's finest collections of Western art, and every year welcome over a million visitors. The Portrait Gallery has recently undergone a £17.6million renovation, the first major refurbishment in its 120year history. powerPerfector’s VPO® is just one of many forward thinking modernisations the building has undergone to streamline energy efficiency. The technology deals with the discrepancy between the actual supply voltage you receive (on average 242V) and the optimum voltage your electrical equipment needs (220V). Uniquely, it also features embedded power conditioning benefits, improving the quality of power the Gallery will receive. Speaking of the installation, Nicola Kalinsky, Interim Director of the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, said: “One of the Portrait Gallery’s priorities is to reduce its carbon emissions and the newly installed system will ensure energy efficiency throughout the entire building.” Wayne Muncaster, powerPerfector’s Director of Sales said: “We have already installed our voltage optimisation technology in the Scottish National Gallery and the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and have achieved excellent savings, so there is no reason to suggest that the Scottish National Portrait Gallery will be any different. |208| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE
“Electricity costs are likely to double over the next decade, so taking steps now will save the National Galleries even more in the future.” As well as the Portrait Gallery north of the border, powerPerfector units have also been installed in the National Portrait Gallery in London too. In London, The National Portrait Gallery specialises in displaying portraits of historically important British people. Since it was founded in 1856 its collection of portraits has grown to be the most extensive in the world. The site at St Martin’s Place near Trafalgar Square houses a significant proportion of these, although many reside in other locations around the UK, including in a number of houses managed by the National Trust. The Gallery attracts nearly 2 million visitors a year. A 1000kVA powerPerfector unit was installed at the Gallery in March 2010 which reduced consumption by at least 12 per cent. This equates to a projected annual carbon dioxide emissions saving of at least 207,769 kg and a reduction in annual energy spend of £28,645. Tim Knight, Building Services Engineer, said: “The savings witnessed post installation, were instant, obvious and matched the predictions made to us. It was pleasantly surprising to see how our energy consumption graph took a sudden drop thanks to the powerPerfector.” The effectiveness of voltage optimisation technology is load dependent. Resistive equipment such as heating elements will not see the same level of savings as inductive equipment such as motors. These differences mean that some sites are ideal candidates for voltage optimisation, whilst others will have a reduced opportunity for energy savings. Wayne Muncaster, powerPerfector’s Director of Sales said: “We have developed a unique process to ensure we accurately predict the savings achievable, taking into account the individual mixture of on-site electrical equipment. Information about the site’s loads is collected through a site survey process, then combined with voltage data to produce an estimated saving.
“Uniquely, all of our savings projections are calibrated, because we accurately and consistently ‘measure” the savings after installation.
“Uniquely, all of our savings projections are calibrated, because we accurately and consistently ‘measure’ the savings after installation. “The loads in Galleries are ideal for voltage optimisation. Lighting and air-conditioning units see good savings and make up the vast majority of power use on site.” ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |209|
FAMOUS LAST WORDS
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It was recently reported that George Osborne said, “The environment gets in the way of the economy”. What a statement!
By Satish Kumar
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The Chancellor has reduced the meaning of the economy to GDP, finance, or money but if he remembers his university days when he was studying economics he will remember that the economy is a much bigger concept than mere GDP, finance or money.
In the current thinking of the economy, spearheaded by the treasury, banks, and other businesses, land has become a mere commodity to buy and sell. Forests, crops, animals have all become commodities. In the modern economy we produce food, not primarily to feed the people, but to make profit. Feeding people has become a means to the end of making profit, whereas in the true meaning of economy profit should be the means, and caring for the land as well as feeding the people and other creatures of the earth should be the end.
Let us remind ourselves of the proper meaning of economy: the classic notion was based on three key words – land, labour and capital. Land came first. Land includes all natural wealth – forests, rivers, farms, animals and so on. If we take care of the land, the land will take care of the rest. Everything comes from the land and returns to the land. Food, housing, clothes, all our sustenance depends on the land.
When the Chancellor prepares his budget, how much does he think about keeping the land in good heart? How much attention does he pay to ensure the land is protected? How much does he know that the land has intrinsic value; land is good in itself and humans are the trustees of the land to make sure that land is handed over from generation to generation and not destroyed or diminished for short term gain.
Does land play any role in the view of George Osborne and his idea of economy?
The second principle of the economy is labour, which means people. People are the true economy. The skills of ►
cultivating the land, building houses, manufacturing clothes, shoes and furniture, technological innovation, artistic creativity all this is an integral part of the economy. GDP, finance and money are there to serve and enhance people skills and creativity, but in the current thinking people are also treated as instruments in the making of profit for companies and big corporations. People are made to go where the jobs are, rather than jobs are brought to the people. People’s satisfaction, fulfilment and wellbeing are sacrificed in the name of profitability. Families and communities are broken down in order to maintain profitability. This cannot be defined as true economy. It is a travesty of economy. Then we have capital. In the holistic meaning of the word, land is natural capital and people are social capital, and then there is also a place for financial capital. Money has a place in the economy but it must be kept in its place and not allowed to dominate the entire human existence. Capital should be there to oil the wheels of economic transactions. In that context money is a very good invention as a servant of the land and labour. Money is a good servant but a bad master. Not long ago I was invited to speak at the London School of Economics. When I arrived I asked the learned professor who was going to be chairing my session, “Where is your department for ecology?” Do you know what the answer was? “We don’t have one.” This is the disconnection between the environment and the economy. They are teaching economics but have no department for ecology. During my speech I explained the meaning of the words ‘economy’ and ‘ecology’. The words ecology and economy are made from 3 Greek words: oikos, logos and nomos. Oikos means home and in the great wisdom of the Greek philosophers the entire planet is our home. Therefore oikos means earth home and home means a place of relationships. Then nomos means management. Thus oikos and nomos put together means management of home and all its activities
and relationships. The word logos means knowledge. Thus oikos and logos put together formulate the word ecology which means knowledge of the home and all its relationships and activities. By teaching only economy and leaving out ecology, the students are being taught how to manage the household without knowing the household. It is commonsense that you cannot manage something which you don’t know. If the students learn about economy without learning ecology then they are halfeducated. In my view being halfeducated is worse than being uneducated! The young who have learnt the discipline of economics at LSE are in very influential positions all over the world but they are not managing the resources of the earth and the relationship between the species properly because they have not studied what it is that they are managing. It is therefore no wonder that the economy in most countries is in such a mess and we face economic crisis. Wherever ecology is studied, it is studied in a very narrow, academic way. Students will take up a particular species or a particular natural phenomenon and study it in isolation, in a reductionist way. That is not proper ecology. Knowledge of home means knowledge of inter-connectedness, inter-dependence and inter-relatedness of all members of the earth community, and within the context of such holistic attitude and approach it is entirely in order to study a particular aspect, but that particular aspect has to be studied as an integral understanding of the whole home. In modern use of the word economy the meaning has been reduced to imply financial capital. When one asks how the economy is doing in a given country, one means how the money supply is doing. Money, finance and GDP are part of economy but not the entire economy. The classic economies used to have the notion of land, labour and capital. If the importance of these three factors were put in the right order with land at the top and then labour in the centre and then capital at the bottom so then ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |211|
“Money has a place in the economy but it must be kept in its place and not allowed to dominate the entire human existence.” money and finance would facilitate the relationship between nature and people, and that will be the right order. So the true economy has to put planet first, then people and then profit. LSE has been successful in putting the economics at the heart of educational activities throughout the world and in all universities. Now, LSE needs to make a next bold move and bring ecological dimension to the centre stage because without ecology economics is incomplete. In the context of this understanding of economy and ecology, LSE needs to make a new bold move and change its name, LSE should become LSEE – London School of Ecology and Economics. By making such a change in the name LSE will be leading the educational world in a new direction. Economy cannot be sustained without sustaining ecology. Economy has become too human centred and the purpose of such economy is merely to use nature for human benefit only. In fact many economists see their task to conquer nature, to subjugate nature
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and to exploit nature in order to bring wealth and prosperity to humankind. This is a mistaken notion; conquering nature will not bring wealth and wellbeing to humankind. If nature is defeated then humanity will be the loser. So we need to make a new covenant with the natural world by embracing the notion that humans are as much part of nature as the socalled nature in the forms of forests, mountains, oceans and animals. The word nature comes from the same root as natal and nativity thus, nature means to be born as we humans are born, and we will die as animals do, so we are nature too. Therefore what we do to nature we do to ourselves. We need to practise economy with humility within the context of ecology. This is why I would like to say that ecology and economy are two sides of the
same coin. If you are in agreement with this proposition Mr. Osborne, environment never gets in the way of economy. In fact, economy is a wholly owned subsidiary of the environment. If we lost our environment, our natural resources, we will have no economy – we cannot eat money, we have to breathe the pure air, drink pure water and eat good food. To do that we need a safe and sustainable environment. Please, Mr Osborne, do not allow economy to get in the way of the environment. Satish Kumar is the Editor-in-Chief of Resurgence Magazine ■
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