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INTRODUCTION FROM THE EDITOR Well, it seems we have made it relatively unscathed through our first year! I think I can say with absolute conviction that it has been the most amazing, petrifying, stressful and exciting year of my life so far. I am extremely proud of what we have achieved over the first four issues of Environment Industry Magazine and, even in the darkest of times, this is still the best job in the world. For the first time in my life a quote from Confucius that I heard many years ago has real resonance. “Find a job you love and you'll never work a day in your life”. This doesn’t stop you from having days when you wish you could throw the towel in, the difference is when the buck stops with you, you aren’t allowed to. You quickly realise why the “great and the good are seldom the same person” (Churchill). Not a bad quote for someone who’s other famous line is, “Oh No!” or “Oh Yes!” First things first I want to draw everyone’s attention to a crucial day in the calendar. Every year November 19th is recognised as “World Toilet Day”. World Toilet Day is about raising awareness in this global society to the plight of millions who do not have access to basic sanitation and clean water. It is about us taking responsibility for our water consumption. I have always been annoyed that in the “developed world” we use one of the rarest and most expensive commodities on the planet to flush our toilets. There is no logical reason for us not to use grey water for this purpose. I was told recently that we cannot collect water from green roofs to flush our toilets because, the substrates used in the roofs will colour the water brown and people do not want discoloured water in their toilets. This is a sad indictment of our society; there are people in the world who have to drink water that is less clean than our toilet water after we’ve used it! We need some perspective. Water is a major subject in this issue of the magazine and we have some of the world’s most respected experts in the water industry writing in this issue Barbara Frost CEO of WaterAid, Loic Fauchon President of the World Water Council and Margaret Catley Carlson former Chair of the Global Water Partnership. We also have Steff Wright, Chair of the Gusto Group of Companies and of Lincoln City Football Club, writing about Rainwater Harvesting, Steff is involved in developing sustainable homes with reduced carbon footprints and mains-water consumption as such has been a vital driver in the rainwater harvesting industry The other issue I want to talk about was Christmas! Which, we now seem to begin preparing for in July.

guest at the CABI Global Summit “Food Security in a Changing Climate”. Although there is great resolve in the developing world to improve with or without the reliance on international financial assistance, when it comes to providing food, the numbers and the poverty are almost incomprehensible. For instance, of the poorest one billion people in the world (that is people living on less than one Dollar a day) 50% work in food production. (Hearing this was my Geldof moment). How in the twenty first century can we allow the people who produce our food to starve? Equally disturbing is that 50% of all food produced in the world is destroyed by pests, poor storage, bad weather, contamination and decomposition before it even reaches the plate. I had the great fortune to be accompanied to the CABI Global Summit by Dr Charlie Clutterbuck, who very kindly penned his thoughts for us after the event (Page 20). Charlie has also provided the main editorial on food ethics and security for this issue. Charlie is on the Government Advisory Board for Food Ethics and the board of LANTRA as well as the Director of EPAW. Hand in hand with food production and consumption comes food waste and disposal. We have Jeremy Jacobs, Director of the Association for Organics Recycling, on composting as well as a food waste feature from WRAP. We also have a focus on Japanese Knotweed from Trevor Renals, author of the Environment Agency's "Knotweed Code of Practice", contaminated land from Dr Cecilia Macleod, Technical Director, Arcadis and on water law by Professor Patricia Wouters, Director of the International Water Law Research Institute, University of Dundee. Truly a great line up for the strongest issue of Environment Industry Magazine so far. As we head into the New Year we will be striving to improve the magazine on every level in design, content and circulation. Before I go I would like to thank the people responsible for this magazine being as strong as it is; Kimberley (graphic designer), Vivek (salesman), Claire (office manager), my wife Rachel and her Parents Carole and Michael (proof reading team), Steve and Simon (regular columnists) and to all the contributors. Thank you all. Finally I hope you all have a fantastic Christmas and a great New Year!!!

Alex Stacey Alex Stacey Managing Editor

As you can tell by the festive cover this is our Christmas Issue. So, as we get dragged into the whirlwind of over-indulgence, office parties, turkey and Cliff Richard, I wanted to bring you the issues of food ethics, food security and food waste. I was extremely privileged last month to be a sponsor and ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Pages 04 - 20

Religion, Philosophy or Plain Ol’ Common Sense? By Steve Grant

Page 21

UK Sustainable Development Association Back to the Future...with Rainwater Harvesting... By Steff Wright

Pages 22 - 24

The Silent Crisis By Barbara Frost

Page 26

Flushed with Success

Water to Feed the Planet By LoĂŻc Fauchon

The Global Ethics of Food Security and Water use in Agriculture: Check Lists from an increasingly impossible situation By Margaret Catley Carlson

Food Companies Continue to do the Right Stuff, Despite Recession By the Food and Drink Federation

Sustainable Food Security By Dr Charlie Clutterbuck

EnviroMedia Limited, 254a Bury New Road, Whitefield, Manchester, M45 8QN

Page 27

Pages 30 - 31

Pages 32 - 34

Pages 35 - 37

Pages 38 - 41

Food Waste By WRAP

Page 42 - 43

Getting Wise with Biowaste By Jeremy Jacobs

Pages 44 - 46

Alex Stacey Tel: 0161 3410158 Fax: 0161 7668997 Email:

Environment Industry Magazine is proud to be the official media partner for the UK Sustainable Development Association. Every effort is made to verify all information published, but Environment Industry Magazine cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of EnviroMedia Ltd. Environment Industry Magazine welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to EnviroMedia Ltd unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Page 49

Simon’s Dutch Diary By Simon Ingleby

Page 51

Riverside Waste Machinery – Untha TR Series Shredder By Simon Ingleby

Pages 52 - 58

Using Site Investigation for Sustainable Remediation By Cecilia MacLeod

Pages 62 - 67

Brownfield Briefing Award Winner Case Studies

Page 68

Apportioning Liability for Land Remediation by Professor Robert Lee

Pages 70 - 74

Know your Enemy By Trevor Renals

Pages 76 - 77

She Swallowed a Spider to Catch the Fly By Mike Clough

Pages 78 - 81

Protected Species By Philip Fermor

Pages 82 - 86

Training Critical Shortage of Skilled Workers Could Jeopardise Future Food Supplies By Gordon McGlone

Pages 88 - 89

Developing a New Generation of “Local Water Leaders”- The Important Role of “Water Law” in Ensuring “Water for All” By Dr Patricia Wouters

Page 91

Environment Agency Prosecutions

Pages 92 - 95

Case Studies

Page 80

Famous Last Words Will Melting Ice Stop Hot Air in Copenhagen By Pen Hadow



18th century ships’ logs predict future weather forecast 150 years ago Charles Darwin's ‘Origin of the Species’ revolutionised how we view the natural world - now his voyages on HMS Beagle are influencing modern research on the evolution of our climate. A ground-breaking partnership between JISC, the University of Sunderland, the Met Office Hadley Centre and the British Atmospheric Data Centre sees historical naval logbooks being used for the first time in research into climate change. The logbooks include famous voyages such as the Beagle, Cook’s HMS Discovery and Parry’s polar expedition in HMS Hecla. The UK Colonial Registers and Royal Navy Logbooks (CORRAL) project has digitised nearly 300 ships’ logbooks dating back to the 1760s. The accurate weather information they contain is being used to reconstruct past climate change – hitherto untapped scientific data. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Research team leader Dr Dennis Wheeler of the University of Sunderland comments: “The observations from the logbooks on wind force and weather are astonishingly good and often better than modern logbooks. Of course the sailors had to be conscientious – the thought that you could hit a reef was a great incentive to get your observations absolutely right! What happens in the oceans controls what happens in the atmosphere – so we absolutely need to comprehend the oceans to understand future weather patterns,” he added. Ships’ logbooks were the main resource used to monitor the weather in the oceans. Officers on these ships kept careful records of the daily, and sometimes hourly, climate conditions. What that means today is modern researchers are able to find out what the weather was like anywhere in the world on a particular day, right through the Little Ice Age and back to 1750.

Dr Dennis Wheeler

Ben Showers, JISC digitisation programme manager, said: “There is a lack of high-quality digital material for those studying historic weather data. By making these logbooks and lighthouse records available online, from the National Archives and the Met Office respectively, JISC aims to help researchers address the challenges of climate change and open up this historic resource to everyone via the website.

The logbooks include great explorers, such as Bligh, Cook and Flinders, and give unique accounts of life on board ship with plenty of footnotes and personal observations about life on board and the places and people they encountered on their voyages of exploration. A fully searchable version of the logbooks will be available on The National Archives’ website in 2010.

“The Royal Navy logbooks online are an exciting part of JISC’s £1.8 million investment in enriching digital resources, a set of 25 projects which enhances online content for better teaching, learning and research.”

The researchers are now transcribing the officers’ observations so they can begin work with the Met Office on analysing the data to feed into research on climate change.

Oliver Morley, Director, Customer and Business Development at The National Archives agrees: “The logbooks have long been of interest to historians and naval enthusiasts and the fact that they are now being used for scientific research is a great example of how archival information created for one purpose can be reused for something entirely different”.


Residents to recycle food from home Manchester is set to become one of the first UK cities to enable all its residents to recycle food waste at home. Around 60,000 households across the city with a green bin for garden waste will start receiving the new service before Christmas, while Manchester City Council will also introduce the scheme to other residents next year. Clients have named Enviros, part of the Sinclair Knight Merz Group, the best consultancy in four categories in the 2009 Edie Awards for Environmental Excellence after being shortlisted for all nine consultancy awards. Enviros collected awards for the following categories:  Best Consultancy for Climate Change and Renewables  Best Consultancy for Waste and Recycling  Best Consultancy for Due Diligence  Best Consultancy for Water and Wastewater. Enviros was the most successful company winning more awards than any other consultancy. The consultancy awards were presented at the Hurlingham Club, London on Thursday 12 November.

Unusual insect enters UK without a passport Inspectors from Fera found a brightly coloured and unexpected passenger on a flight from India which arrived into Stansted Airport recently. Fera’s Pest Identification Team identified the beautiful stowaway as a ‘Painted Grasshopper’ (Poekilocerus pictus) and confirmed that the uninvited guest is the first of its kind to reach British soils. Fera Entomologist Chris Malumphy said: “This insect is an economic pest in Pakistan and India where it is reported damaging a number of food plants including aubergine, citrus, cucurbits, potatoes and tomatoes, though it’s primary host is milkweed (Calotrops procera).”


Residents will receive a small plastic bin they can keep in their kitchen, together with a supply of compostable liners, and use these to throw away anything from vegetable cuttings to meat. The filled liners are placed in the garden waste bins, which are collected as usual, before being taken away and turned into compost for use on farms across the North West. The service is being introduced to stop food waste being sent to landfill sites where it decays, producing gases such as methane which contribute to climate change.

Encouraging signs for wild bird populations Recent statistics show encouraging increases in many wild bird populations between 2007 and 2008. This good news follows a period of decline over the last two or three years but Wildlife Minister, Huw Irranca-Davies has warned against complacency. The wild bird population figures, published by Defra, show that UK wild bird numbers overall have risen slightly, with small increases between 2007 and 2008 in numbers of breeding woodland birds, water and wetland birds and farmland birds. Seabirds have decreased in number slightly but overall are at higher levels than in 1970. Huw Irranca-Davies said: “There are positive signs for our wild bird population but we still have a lot of work to do. The population of farmland bird numbers in England has increased by 4% in England between 2007 and 2008. This is really encouraging and something that we hope will help tackle a downward trend in farmland bird numbers since 1970. In July this year Hilary Benn announced a voluntary agreement with farmers to recapture the benefits of set-aside and changes have been made to the Environmental Stewardship Programme to ensure that this population growth continues in the years to come. We must keep doing all the things that have contributed to these modest increases. Conservation organisations, land managers, farmers and individuals who care about birds all need to do their bit to ensure we encourage birds to flourish so that we see a repeat of these increases next year.”

Double awards success for FM Conway The Dartford-based civil engineering, highways maintenance and recycling specialist FM Conway has been presented with two British Association of Landscape Industries (BALI) Awards 2009, which are considered to be Europe’s leading trade awards for the landscaping sector. FM Conway has received an award in the Hard Landscaping - £300,000 - £1.5 million category for its work at Chandos Road Playground, Stratford, London, while a project at Twickenham Stadium, resulted in a success in the Hard Landscaping – over £1.5 million section. FM Conway will be presented with a special plaque to mark the achievement at the official awards ceremony at London’s Grosvenor House Hotel on Park Lane on the 4th December, where category winners and overall winners will be revealed. Every winner in each category has the opportunity to win the category overall and also has a chance to win the highly prestigious Grand Award, which is one of the industry’s highest accolades.




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Are Ecuador’s Plans to Leave Oil Under the Amazon a New Model for Tackling Climate Change? While the world’s attention may be fixed on Copenhagen, it is in Ecuador that one of the boldest new measures yet taken by a government to combat climate change has been announced. In a paper published today in Biotropica, experts assess the Yasuní-ITT initiative which aims to prevent millions of tons of carbon emissions from entering the atmosphere by not drilling for oil in the Amazon rainforest. The Yasuní-ITT initiative is a project launched by the Ecuadorian government which pledges to leave the estimated 850 million barrels of oil locked beneath the renowned Yasuní National Park despite the oil concessions which cover the region. “This is the first ever offer by a government to forego oil development as a strategy to address climate change,” said Dr Matt Finer from Save America’s Forests. “According to Ecuadorian official estimates not exploiting the oil fields will keep 410 million metric tons of C02 out of the atmosphere. It’s a novel concept that not developing fossil fuels could be used as a tool to address climate change.” “Yasuní National Park is an exceptional place in the world, biologically incredible, home to uncontacted indigenous people and yet, perhaps tragically, full of oil,” said co-author Dr Clinton Jenkins of the University of Maryland. “This initiative leaves society facing a test of what we value more,

drilling for oil or preserving a cherished national park.” The team also investigates the economic complexities underpinning the potentially precedent-setting initiative. The Ecuadorian economy is highly dependent on oil exports and this initiative will result in a yearly shortfall estimated to be $350 million. “Ecuador intends to cover this by selling guarantee certificates linked to the value of unreleased carbon,” said co-author Remi Moncel of the World Resources Institute, “However, emissions could result from oil buyers turning to other suppliers. Also, if the certificates are traded on the European Union’s carbon credits market, the initiative would not result in a net reduction of carbon emissions.” The alternative is for supporting countries to donate to the initiative directly without claiming a carbon credit to pollute in return. “The initiative’s trust fund will be activated by early November and will be backed by the United Nations Development Programme,” added Finer. “Germany will be the first to make a contribution, reported to be $50 to $70 million per year. This is to be followed by a world tour of high-level officials, including President Correa. This demonstrates how seriously the government of Ecuador is taking this initiative.”

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Commission proposes legislation to limit the CO2 emissions from light commercial vehicles The European Commission have proposed legislation to reduce the average CO2 emissions of light commercial vehicles (vans) to 175 grams per kilometre. The proposal will be phased in from 2014 to 2016, and contains a long term emission reduction target of 135 g/km by 2020. The format of the proposed legislation is similar to the proposals on passenger cars agreed at the end of 2008. It is one of the last outstanding elements of the EU's strategy to improve the fuel economy of light-duty vehicles which account for about 12% of the EU's total carbon emissions. The proposal underlines the EU's commitment to putting in place concrete measures to deliver on its greenhouse gas commitments in the run-up to the Copenhagen Climate Conference. The draft legislation is closely modelled on the legislation of CO2 emissions from passenger cars . Emissions limits are set according to the weight of the vehicle, using a limit value curve. The curve is set in such a way that a fleet average of 175 grams of CO2 per kilometre is achieved. Manufacturers must ensure that from 2014 vehicles registered in the EU during that time have average emissions that are below the limit value curve, when 75% of the vehicles are taken into account. For the calendar year 2015, the percentage rises to 80% and from 2016, 100% of the

fleet have to comply on average. Only the fleet average is regulated, so manufacturers will still be able to make vehicles with emissions above the limit value curve provided these are balanced by other vehicles which are below the curve. This proposal aims to safeguard Europe's competitiveness by stimulating the development of cutting edge automotive technologies. In order to promote all innovations, a mechanism is included to credit vehicles which are fitted with innovations which reduce emissions but are not covered by the standard CO2 emission test procedure. Further vehicles with extremely low emissions (below 50g/km) will be given additional incentives up to 2018. A degree of flexibility is built into the proposal. Manufacturers may group together to form a pool and act jointly in meeting the specific emissions targets. Independent manufacturers who sell fewer than 22,000 vehicles per year can also apply to the Commission for an individual target instead. The proposal will now be communicated to the Council and to the European Parliament as part of the co-decision legislative procedure.

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Environmental consultancy SLR Consulting has secured planning permission for a new Energy Recovery Facility (ERF) in Doncaster for BioGen Power. The facility will be capable of accepting 120,000 tonnes of residual commercial and industrial waste to generate 9.4 MW p.a. of electricity - sufficient to power 20,000 homes.

BioGen Power CEO Christian Reeve said: “SLR delivered both in terms of pace and professionalism. Our success here at Doncaster, where there was a fair amount of public concern, was due to the quality of the overall application and the skills of our own planning team working in conjunction with SLR.

The planned ERF uses gasification technology and provides a smaller scale method of thermal treatment than traditional mass-burn incineration.

We have recently received planning permission for other plants in Barry and Newport and have just instructed SLR to prepare an EIA for a new ERF in Northern Ireland.”

Teachers scared to leave the classroom Children are being denied school trips for fear teachers will be sued if something goes wrong, new research by The Countryside Alliance Foundation (TCAF) has revealed. The Countryside Alliance Foundation found that of the 1,400 teachers surveyed, 97% of teachers thought it important that pupils learn about the countryside within the National Curriculum but 76% felt the main barrier in taking pupils to the countryside to facilitate learning was ‘concerns about health and safety’ and 49% of teachers felt that a main barrier was ‘fear of litigation in the unlikely event of an accident’. The research backs up the Countryside Alliance’s Rural Manifesto, which calls for outdoor learning to feature on the school curriculum. Simon Hart, chief executive of the Countryside Alliance, said: “Statistically, the chances of accidents happening are low and we are working to explode the myths that the countryside is any more dangerous than anywhere else. The benefits of practical countryside education far outweigh the concerns. The Countryside Alliance wants to facilitate outdoor learning for the next generation without teachers feeling threatened by ‘compensation culture’. It believes by making the countryside more accessible for teachers and pupils, learning will be enhanced and pupils will be tolerant and understanding of the countryside”. | 10 | ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE






e V d n a t i Fr u e c r o F k s a T

s e l b geta A new Task Force will help England to grow and eat more fruit and vegetables and improve the nation’s health, Environment Secretary Hilary Benn recently announced. Comprising growers, retailers, consumers and agricultural researchers, the Fruit and Vegetables Task Force will develop an action plan to increase the production and consumption of fruit and vegetables in this country. Mr Benn said that the new group needed to look at ways to get people growing their own fruit and vegetables, as well as ways to support England’s commercial growers – and to get people choosing local fruit and veg, particularly when it’s in season. Consumer demand also needs to increase, as most people still do not eat the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables each day. In particular the group will focus on young people and low-income families, who are less likely to eat recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. In 2008, domestic production of fruit and vegetables was 37% of demand. The UK produces 11% of the fresh fruit we consume, which has increased in the last five years, and 58% of fresh vegetables, down from 63% five years ago. Current barriers to production include developing clear career paths to attract young people to the industry, the availability of seasonal workers, volatile energy costs and the effects of climate change including the availability and cost of water. Mr Benn said: “If we grow and eat more fruit and vegetables here – in our greenhouses, in our orchards, in our fields, our allotments and in our own back gardens – it will be good for our health, our farming community, and our landscape. “There is a gap at the moment, between what we consume and what we grow here, but there’s no reason why we can’t grow more here. And the main thing we can do to encourage this is to choose, and eat, British produce. “We need make to sure our farmers can compete successfully with imports, are resilient to the effects of climate change, and that we’re getting fresh talent into the industry so that we can continue to grow world-class fruit and veg.” Secretary of State for Health, Andy Burnham said: “Getting Britain growing more fruit and veg isn't just good news for our farmers - eating it is the tastiest way for the rest of us to maintain a healthy lifestyle too. “We know the demand is there - the latest Health Survey for England results showed an increase in the number of people eating fruit and veg and our ‘5 A Day’ campaign is supporting families to get even more fruit and veg in their diets.”


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Going Green to Grow Scientists TV personality Dick Strawbridge will be helping schoolchildren learn how to help save the planet from the scrapheap when he launches a new national initiative this month. The Scrapheap Challenge presenter and author of It’s Not Easy Being Green is backing 3M Worldlywise – a new, free online resource where students explore a virtual town to learn about sustainable living. The website is designed to encourage more children to study science, technology, engineering and maths – STEM subjects – from GCSE to A-level and right through university. Currently only 13% of undergraduates are studying these subjects and this shortfall leaves two-thirds of British busi-

nesses with recruitment difficulties, according to the Confederation of British Industry. But the 3M Worldlywise initiative, working with the Government-supported organisation STEMNET, aims to reverse the trend by educating young people about sustainable living and showing them how scientists, engineers and new technology can help solve the problems of the future. Former Lt Col Strawbridge, himself an engineering graduate, said: “I am delighted to be involved with such a fantastic project, which aims to ignite children’s passion for science and maths while raising their awareness of environmental issues.

RSPCA Honours Animal Welfare Innovators The RSPCA has honoured four pioneering organisations for their innovative work to further animal welfare, during a formal reception at the House of Lords. Representatives from Pembrokeshire County Council, Chelmsford Borough Council, Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council and Somerset Local Authorities’ Civil Contingency Partnership were praised by Baroness Janet Fookes after being crowned winners of this year’s RSPCA Community Animal Welfare Footprints and Innovator Awards (CAWF). The RSPCA launched CAWF in 2008 as a recognised seal of approval for those local authorities and housing providers pioneering new methods of addressing animal welfare issues. The Trading Standards Institute and Chartered Institute of Environmental Health have both officially given their endorsement to the scheme. Pembrokeshire County Council was named winner of the Wales Local Authority Innovator award in recognition of its use of funding from the Welsh Assembly’s Companion Animal Welfare Enhancement Scheme to tackle poor dog breeding in what has long been considered a puppy farming hot-spot. Puppy farms were also a factor for Chelmsford Borough Council, which has scooped the title of District and Borough Council Innovator. The Essex authority has introduced and enforced improved conditions on pet shop licences to protect animals imported from puppy farms, and those who purchase the dogs. Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council was hailed by the CAWF judges as a model of best practice for providing the complete animal welfare service. The authority was | 14 |ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

crowned winner of the English Unitary and County Council Innovator award and praised for its wide range of services, from free and low-cost microchipping/neutering to promoting responsible pet ownership. This year’s Housing and Multi-agency Innovator award was given to Somerset Local Authorities’ Civil Contingency Partnership. The partnership was praised for going way beyond any statutory requirements in tackling the animal aspect of emergency planning.

IS BRITAIN PREPARING FOR THE RISK OF FLOODING? As Britain braces itself for yet another wet winter, FM Global, the world leading commercial property insurer, recommends companies prepare for flooding or face significant financial costs and business disruption. Flood is the most costly natural hazard in the world, with financial loss caused by flooding estimated between US$2 billion and US$3 billion a year. According to the Environment Agency, the 2007 summer floods in England affected nearly 7,000 businesses with the total damage estimated at around £1.3 billion. Many of these premises had never flooded before. Historically 80% of all flood loss occurs within high-hazard flood zones and with the MET Office predicting a higher than average rainfall in the last quarter of 2009, it is not a case of if businesses are impacted by flood but when. These statistics are worrying for the 185,000 businesses in England and Wales which are located within such flood zones. FM Global maintains whilst the majority of flood is inevitable, through the implementation of a flood emergency response plan (FERP), flood loss is preventable. For an effective FERP FM Global recommends firstly focusing on prevention, in order to stop water entering a property and secondly to limit damage when floodwater does enter a premises.

A well planned FERP should also include: •

a designated leader with authority to take action

plans for safely shutting down production lines or electrical systems

simple actions to reduce the financial impact of the flood such as procedures to raise and/or relocate key equipment and materials

practical clean up

temporary operations

plans to take care of employees if the flooding and clean-up operation is prolonged

post-flood repair and business-recovery plans

Vice President and Operations Manager of FM Global’s UK operations, Stefano Tranquillo said: “As flooding becomes a growing issue in the UK, businesses need to be prepared for the wet weather ahead. They need to understand their potential flood scenario and ensure that they have an effective flood emergency response plan in place. We believe that the majority of all loss is preventable and the key to preventing flood loss is to fully understand the exposure of your site. Once a clear picture of what to expect has been developed, which includes an estimate of the damage and disruption to a business, action can be taken to reduce the risk.” FM Global has a series of Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets which are engineering guidelines written to help reduce the chance of property loss due to flood. To access these data sheets and for more information on flood emergency response plans please visit


JCB has achieved a three star Thatcham rating on its JS and JZ Auto tracked excavators and its popular 801 and 8020 mini excavators.

UK school teams wow ‘Green Dragons’ with environment ideas Teams from ten schools throughout the UK wowed environmental leaders with their Dragons Den-style ideas on tackling climate change in London today. The finalists, from schools all over the country, in the Footprint Friends Wipe Out Waste Awards each made a short presentation to senior figures in business, industry, science and the environmental lobby in a bid to win first prize for their schools. The Wipe Out Waste Awards initiative was hosted by ecosocial networking site Footprint Friends and sponsored by powerPerfector, the leader in Voltage Power Optimisation technology. All ideas were pitched in pressurised 10-minute spots and will be showcased via Footprint Friends. The winning school will also have a powerPerfector unit fitted, | 16 | ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

enabling it to reduce its power consumption and carbon footprint by up to 20%. The winning team, from Canon Burrows CE Primary School in Tameside, Manchester, came up with an ingenious idea to sustain the use of pencils which are normally thrown away when they have been half used. Their innovative design of a clever pencil holder that grips the pencil from new until it runs out sustains the pencil’s use until it is a stub. The idea has been developed further to incorporate a comfy grip, using sustainable materials, and even with commercial potential – all in a reusable device. The Canon Burrows Team comprised Miah Chaudhry (10), Rebecca Gunby (10), Ewen Hine (11), and Oliver Thornley

JCB PLAYS STARRING ROLE IN DRIVE AGAINST PLANT THEFT JCB has become the first excavator manufacturer to achieve a three star Thatcham security rating in the agricultural and construction machinery sector. The company has taken a lead in the fight against plant crime, achieving the three star rating on all JS and JZ Auto wheeled and tracked excavators and on its popular 801 and 8020 mini excavators. Throughout the first six months of 2010, JCB will expand this market leading security initiative to include all of its mini and midi excavators above one tonne operating weight. JCB UK and Ireland Sales Director Yvette Henshall-Bell announced JCB’s new initiative when she addressed the fifth Construction Industry Theft Solutions (CITS) annual conference. The Thatcham star rating scheme was launched in March 2009, taking into account machine identification, key security, immobilisation, peripheral security and anti-theft tracking devices. Thatcham’s vehicle security specialists carry out a full new vehicle security assessment on all agricultural and construction machinery that is submitted for test, awarding stars for each of the security features. The first star is awarded for clear CESAR marking, which is standard on all JCB equipment. A second star is included for machines supplied with an immobiliser, while the third star is given for the use of a unique key or keypad ignition system. From January 1, 2010, all of JCB’s JS and JZ Auto excavators, will be supplied with a keypad, while the 801 range and the 8020 will come as standard with a unique key. Customers who prefer the option of a keypad rather than a unique key can specify one at the time of order.

(11). “It was a really intense experience,” said Miah. “We were dazzled at coming to London and really enjoyed making the presentation.” Oliver added: “But we enjoyed it most when we won!” Teacher Suzanne Fildes said: “We thoroughly enjoyed the event even before we won but winning means so much to the children and it will have an impact on the whole school which is really committed to climate change action.” Second place went to the team from Smithycroft Secondary in Glasgow with their detailed plan to stop the schools use of 3m pieces of disposable dinnerware which goes into landfill each year, replacing it with reusable place settings and dishwashers. In joint third were Park School in Lancashire with ‘Local Milk for All’ to stop using milk in tetra

An electrical immobiliser, incorporated into the proven Advanced Management System (AMS) on the larger JS models, is standard on the JCB equipment. Without the correct keypad code, the electrical system will prevent the machine from starting. Customers can take security a stage further if desired, with the application of JCB’s optional LiveLink satellite tracking system. Thatcham’s Vehicle Security Manager Mike Briggs said: “Plant theft has become an all too common problem in the UK with high value equipment simply lacking in good allround security. It is great news to see manufacturers of the calibre of JCB making significant strides in this area and becoming the first to achieve three stars under Thatcham’s security star scheme. With the positive support that the scheme has enjoyed from all sides of the industry we are confident that others will follow suit.” Yvette Henshall-Bell said: “JCB has always been at the forefront of machine design and technology, including theft prevention and fleet security. By becoming the first manufacturer to achieve a three star Thatcham rating, JCB is once again taking the initiative in the fight against equipment crime.” She also revealed that many insurance companies will be prepared to reduce premiums for those fleets with three star rated equipment. JCB Insurance Director and General Manager Michael Gregory said some insurance companies are offering premium discounts of up to 40% for machines equipped with CESAR and an immobiliser. Companies taking out insurance directly through JCB Insurance can get a further 5% discount for the three star machinery.

packs and switch to milk in recyclable glass bottles sourced from a local dairy, and St Luke’s Science & Sports College in Devon with a commercial idea to take its litter and food waste to be recycled and reused or sold on. All winning teams and runners up were presented with a range of goodies including an energy monitor, signed books by authors present at the event, and T-shirts. Angus Robertson, CEO of sponsor powerPerfector, added: “Today has been all about these children and their role in our society. By understanding the importance of goals and the responsibility we all face on climate change, they are the leaders of tomorrow. I was ready to back the winning idea before the judges and the brilliance of these young people is not only impressive, it gives hope.” ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE | 17 |

Boost to South West marine energy research South West England’s ambition to be a global centre for marine energy research has received a further boost with a £1.2 million investment in a new wave tank testing facility. The wave tanks are being funded by the South West RDA (Regional Development Agency) as part of the Agency’s three-year £7.3 million investment in the Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy (PRIMaRE), and will be located at the University of Plymouth. The facility will be unique in the UK because it will allow model testing in both multi-directional waves and variable direction currents and will also be able to model shallow and deep water conditions. It will enable the testing of scale models of wave and tidal energy devices individually and in arrays. PRIMaRE is a £12.6 million project set up two years ago by the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, with funding from the South West RDA. It boasts 15 world-class academic staff and 60 researchers dedicated to the support and development of the marine renewable energy sector. PRIMaRE, and the wave tank facility, support and complement the South West RDA's pioneering £42 million Wave Hub project, which will create the world's largest wave energy test site 10 miles off the Cornish coast The main wave tank at the facility will measure 35 metres by 15 metres and be 2 metres deep. It is expected to be completed in early 2012.

France paves the way for greener trucks The French Government is supporting numerous initiatives designed to reduce the environmental impact of trucks and light commercial vehicles. The Transport section of the French law of 3 August 2009 implementing the first element of France’s Green New Deal, following the conclusion of the Grenelle Environment Round-Table Talks, aims to have cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 and to reduce France’s dependence on hydrocarbons.

NBPOL to supply certified sustainable palm oil New Britain Palm Oil Limited, a large scale integrated industrial producer of palm oil, has entered into a minimum two year supply agreement to provide United Biscuits. This is the first supply agreement signed for NBPOL’s UK refinery in Liverpool that is due to be completed in spring 2010. The refinery will have a dedicated supply source from NBPOL's certified sustainable plantations and so the palm oil will be fully segregated and traceable from seed to finished product. UB, like NBPOL, has a high regard for environmental sustainability and both companies continue to improve their performance. NBPOL also has an international reputation for leading the plantation industry in all aspects of plantation management. | 18 |ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Rural alliance calls for 1,750 pylons to be buried Countryside campaigners CPRE, in alliance with the Campaign for National Parks, Campaign for the Protection of Rural Wales and the National Association for Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty are calling for the eventual removal of three of the largest and most unsightly lines of pylons in the country, stretching over 350 miles of countryside. The call comes as a new Government policy is expected to support at least 12 new lines of overhead pylons across 170 miles of England and Wales which would add hundreds more to the 22,000 high voltage pylons already owned by National Grid. The alliance is calling for a long-term plan to dismantle three lines owned by National Grid that particularly affect our most important landscapes. The lines should be removed and then either replaced with underground or undersea cables, or re-routed. These lines run over 350 miles in total, typically involve pylons of around 50 metres in height spaced at five per mile of transmission line, and run: • across the Peak District National Park near Woodhead; • from Dungeness to Exeter, running directly through National Parks in the New Forest and South Downs, and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Devon and Dorset; and • in a ring crossing two parts of the Snowdonia National Park east from Trawsfynydd and on the North Wales coast in an associated back-up route.

The green measures hotels can take to attract guests Samsung Electronics Europe has announced the findings of a new European research project demonstrating the importance of the environment to today’s traveller and the green credentials they expect in the hotels they visit. Of the five thousand consumers surveyed across Europe, 29% of respondents would choose a known ‘eco-friendly’ hotel if it was offered by a popular online booking system. Expectations of eco-credentials are clear: 65% say all hotels should install low flow toilets designed to save water, while 54% say sustainable energy sources, such as wind, solar or hydro-electric power, should be used. Almost half (48%) say hotels should use more efficient electrical appliances, like flat screen energy efficient TVs. This demand for green credentials is echoed by guests’ own behaviour. 76% are as conscious or more conscious of the impact they have on the environment when staying in hotels compared with their behaviour at home and take measures to reduce their environmental impact. 88% switch off the lights when they leave their hotel room, 63% reuse towels more than once and 59% still switch electrical equipment off at the base.

Wales announces its 52 green heroes Peter Harper and Paul Allen from the Centre for Alternative Technology in Powys were named amongst Cynnal Cymru's 52 sustainable development champions, the green heroes from across Wales have been recognised for taking action to create a brighter more sustainable future. The Wales Green List celebrates individuals making Wales a better and more sustainable place to live. It’s the first list of its kind in Wales, bringing together the different elements of sustainable development – environmental, economic and social – in one award. A spokesperson for Cynnal Cymru said, “Across Wales there’s amazing work going on that will trigger a more sustainable future. People are striving to make a difference and I believe it’s time to recognise their efforts and encourage others to follow suit, embracing sustainability. We are searching for those committed groups, organisations or individuals, who, armed with determination, had and continue to have a positive effect on their communities, the environment and, ultimately, other people’s lives.” Peter Harper speaking on behalf of CAT said, “We are delighted to receive this award in honour of CAT’s 35 years of achievement and we continue to strive towards sustainable, low impact futures through our work.” The CAT visitors’ centre attracts around 65,000 visitors a year, it also runs courses, works in schools to bring sustainability issues to the classroom, has an active shop and mail order department, has a thriving graduate school and runs a free information service. Cynnal Cymru-Sustain Wales is an independent, not-for-profit organisation that promotes sustainable development and provides practical information to help people live sustainably.

Global access to safe drinking water likely to decline next year

Over £300 million of funding to help connect offshore wind farms

The world population’s access to safe drinking water could decline as early as next year, according to research by HaloSource, a leading clean water and anti-microbial technology company.

The EIB and Ofgem E-Serve have announced that the EIB is considering provision of over £300 million of funding to investors in high voltage transmission links to offshore windfarms in Great Britain. The funding will be available for six projects, which mark the start of an important expansion of offshore generation to help meet the Government’s emissions reduction targets.

The research also supports the strong correlation between access to safe drinking water and economic growth and means that falling access levels may affect global economic growth by 2050. In spite of major initiatives and financial commitments by national governments, water institutions and businesses, access to safe drinking water is expected to start declining next year. By the middle of the century, it’s likely to fall below 1997 levels, the year of the United Nation’s first World Water Conference when the international community launched its first attempt to increase access to safe drinking water. The research shows a strong correlation between access to safe drinking water and economic growth, suggesting that per capita growth can be expected to fall when less than 70% of the world population has access to safe water. The emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India and China are expected to be affected first, possibly as early as 2015 and this is likely to have wider implications for the global economy.

Taken together, the six transmission projects will connect around 1.6 gigawatts of offshore generation. Simon Brooks, Vice-President of the European Investment Bank, said: “The European Investment Bank welcomes Ofgem’s initiative in promoting this essential element of the UK’s renewable energy infrastructure. Electricity from offshore wind farms will make a key contribution to national power supply and help achieve 2020 emissions targets.” Given the importance of offshore wind in cutting emissions, the Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and Ofgem E-Serve have put in place competitive arrangements to ensure generators benefit from cost effective connections to the mainland electricity network. Those firms competing to run connections to these six projects can now apply to the EIB for funding. Welcoming the announcement, Minister of Energy Lord Hunt said: “The EIB’s support will be very welcome. Connecting offshore wind farms to the grid quickly and cost-effectively will be crucial to tackling climate change and securing our future energy supplies. This money would help projects currently under construction get their cables in the water and feeding into the grid quickly and cheaply.”


CABI global summit review By Charles Clutterbuck BSc MSc PhD FRSA PGCE Director of Environmental Practice @ Work

The CABI Global Summit on “Food Security in a Climate of Change” spelt out the challenges ahead for the food and farming sector. Recent price rises have reminded everybody of the size of that challenge. Not only do we have to produce more food, we have to do it more sustainably. Over a billion people now go to bed hungry each night - up several hundred thousand in the last couple of years, making the achievement of the Millennium Development Goal to halve hunger by 2015 virtually impossible. We have to produce more while taking into account reducing energy consumption, reducing greenhouse gases, conserving water and maintaining biodiversity. To try and encourage this increased sustainability there are all sorts of standards developing – eg Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN), standards approved by the Rainforest Alliance, through EuroGAP, to sustainability standards of the World Bank itself. Many of these are recognised by the World Trade Organisation (under Sanitary & Phytosanitary measures), but they make it harder for developing countries and smaller companies to enter world markets. Yet these standards are needed and are here to stay, so ways to facilitate poorer countries and companies must be established to enable freer trade. Perhaps retailers should set up online learning / audit systems. Somebody asked how they could cope with all this, to which the chair responded with the classic answer from the “Hitchhikers Guide” computer, saying “42”. However, there were lots of ideas and examples of how small producers could enter the market, varying from micro-finance, “support zones” where produce could go and be properly looked after, through to Global Plant Clinics to help farmers diagnose diseases, and online library systems enabling access to all the world food and farming journals – for some - for free. Other hopeful signs were using the dramatic

increase in mobile phone usage across the world to help farmers find market signals, previously denied them. The inevitable question about GM came up. While discussing the effects of climate change, it was noted that a nasty nematode was making inroads into banana crops at higher altitudes. The questioner said there was a GM crop that was resistant, adding that it was about time to revisit some of the controls on GM. The answer came that farmers could boil the corms to protect against the nematode so there was no great urgency. Both “sides” looked smug. Yet it is not so much a matter of right/wrong, instead we should consider the other elements of sustainable development. When we do, we would ask whether the local farmer can afford GM. And also ask whether they can get enough (cheap) labour to boil the corms. There seems to be a consensus building around GM, best articulated by Bob Watson Chief Scientific Adviser to DEFRA, who said that GM has little relevance to poverty in Africa arguing that existing technologies are enough, provided there is a bottom up approach that encourages local skills. However, he also said it would be stupid to ignore such a tool in our technological armoury, in developed countries, when trying to find new ways to improve sustainability. This theme was spelt out in the keynote address. We need to intervene along the whole chain to get closer to harnessing the potential of existing technologies and yet at the same time innovate to keep meeting the challenges posed by climate change. We need to recognise the complexity of this debate and enjoy it – rather than stick to slogans. What is also agreed widely is that the rundown in R&D and associated scientists, that has occurred in both developed and developing countries over the last 20 years, could prove catastrophic – just at the time when we need them most.

Energy Harvesting and WSN & RTLS Award Winners Announced Recently, the IDTechEx events Energy Harvesting & Storage and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) & RTLS took place in Denver, CO, USA. The gala dinner featured the famous IDTechEx awards. The judges were Dr Richard Waters of the US Military SPAWAR program, Professor Shashank Priya of VirginiaTech University, and Dr Peter Harrop, Founder and Chairman of IDTechEx. There were four award categories. For the best technical development of an energy harvesting device, AdaptivEnergy won for its new Ground Transport Harvester. For best technical development of a WSN/RTLS device, Intelligent Insights won for its impressive software platform. | 20 | ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The InSites Platform breaks new ground by providing healthcare organisations with a single system capable of locating patients, staff, equipment, and inventory via information derived through a variety of real-time locating (RTLS) technologies. EnOcean won the award for the best application of an energy storage device. EnOcean specifically won the award for its power-saving RF transmitter module STM 110C (315 MHz), which was launched in April 2008, which enables an easy implementation of wireless and maintenance-free sensors. For best application of WSN/RTLS, Awarepoint won for its deployment of RTLS/WSN at Jackson Health Systems.

RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY OR PLAIN OL’ COMMON SENSE? “Waddya fink abart that bloke in the courts then? See most ordinary people knew it all along. I mean all this climate change is a religion - just like any uvva religion. I mean you don’t have yer god or anything, but you’ve still got all these people following a belief. To my mind, that’s a religion. Loada’ bollocks innit.” So went the depressing cab ride to Charing Cross on the first Tuesday in November, just after Mr. Justice Burton ruled that “A belief in man-made climate change, and the alleged resulting moral imperatives, is capable if genuinely held, of being a philosophical belief for the purpose of the 2003 Religion and Belief Regulations.”

a personal viewpoint, I find the basis for the judgment completely wrong-headed. Mr Nicholson said that “The moral and ethical values are similar to those that are promoted and adopted by many of the world’s religions. But one of the key differences I think is that mine is not a faithbased or spiritual-based belief: it is grounded in the overwhelming scientific evidence and it’s the combination of that scientific evidence with the moral and ethical imperative to do something about it that is distinct from a religion”.

Just in case you hadn’t heard about it: the CEO at Grainger, one of the UK’s top property firms, left his Blackberry behind whilst on a trip to Ireland. So critical was this oversight, he instructed one of his employees to fly to Ireland and bring the device to him.

The trouble is that the all-important technical context of the ruling has been roundly ignored. It was in response to Grainger’s claim that to fall under existing legislation, his beliefs must have the same weight and certainty as those philosophical and religious beliefs protected by law. Justice Burton ruled that they did. And so this reasoned ‘evaluation of conviction’ gets translated immediately into the handy sound-bite: “climate change is a religion”.

The employee, one Tim Nicholson, was no less than the company’s Head of Sustainability. (As I’ve observed before in this column, you really couldn’t make it up.) Nicholson explained that whilst the company had good written policies on the environment, it didn’t abide by them and that when he tried to encourage a more environmentally responsible approach, he was obstructed by the management. Nicholson in particular was singled out as having shown “contempt” for his stance.

In common with most freedom-loving democrats, I fully support and have often defended the rights of those who believe in ancient middle eastern prophets, in elephantine gods, or even the scientologists who believe in Xenu and the Galactic Confederacy (although that is stretching it rather) to hold their beliefs and conduct their rituals as their faith dictates. However to take the realisation and acceptance of climate change and put it on the same basis as faith in a supernatural deity is nothing less than ridiculous.

And so the sorry tale went to court for a ruling to see if it could go to tribunal. Nicholson got his leave for a tribunal, but not on the grounds that he had acted in a responsible way or that a pair of such flights to deliver a mobile phone were in direct contradiction to the company’s stated policy, but because climate change is a philosophical belief.

They are very different matters.

It gets worse. In reaching this judgment, Mr Justice Burton concluded that a belief in climate change, whilst ‘a political view about science’ (’scuse me?), can also be “a philosophical view about science.” The legal eagles must have been sipping their Chardonnay with unusual glee, because it opens the doors - if not the proverbial floodgates - for any number of ‘deeply held beliefs’. Feminism, vegetarianism - one is sorely tempted to add cynicism, but I couldn’t sully the pages of this esteemed magazine with such, well, er…. cynicism? But it’s not that which has got Grant’s goat. Whilst I can only admire Tim Nicholson’s stance and be pleased for him from

Climate change is an observable process underlined by an overwhelming body of rigorously tested science and evidence, which is subscribed to by every respected scientific institution on the planet. That is not the definition of a religion or a philosophy. It does not represent a belief system. It is a matter of fact, such as the fact that the world orbits the sun, or that our precious planet is a sphere - both of which have been (and in some cases still are) challenged by some religions and philosophies. To wrap this up - if Tim Nicholson had been an employee in, say, a large print works and the boss had told him to pour the waste ink solvents into the local river, he would no doubt have refused on the grounds that it would damage the environment. What’s the difference? It’s not about religion or philosophy - it’s about common sense. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Steff Wright is the Chairman of the Gusto Group of Companies, and of Lincoln City Football Club. An award-winning developer of sustainable homes, he has been involved with the rainwater harvesting industry for 10-years, and is one of the founding members of both the UK Sustainable Development Association and the UK Rainwater Harvesting Association.

Back to the future

...with rainwater harvesting... With environmental concerns rising ever higher on the political agenda, the race is on to find proven techniques and technologies that will make the homes and buildings of the future sustainable in terms of their use of scarce natural resources. With carbon footprint and conservation of fossil fuels hogging the limelight, the developing national crisis in water shortages has tended to take a back seat, or be overlooked completely – particularly when levels of rainfall seem normal, or abnormally high. In truth, the average rainfall per head in the south of England is now less than in most of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean. As a result, water supplies throughout England south of the Humber are now under stress, in many areas critically so. With population growth predicted to continue, this is a problem that is every bit as pressing as climate-change. Fortunately, salvation is at hand in the form of rainwater harvesting, a sound practice that has been used successfully for thousands of years until the availability of seemingly limitless supplies of pure water piped conveniently direct to the sink. Government’s response to diminishing water supplies has been to encourage, with only mixed results, economising on water consumption through the use of fitments such as low/dual-flush toilets and aerated taps/shower-heads. The advantage of this advice is that it applies to the whole of the housing stock, and could be expected, where employed, to reduce mains-water consumption per capita by around 20% - ie down to around 120 ltrs per person per day, from a current national average of 150 ltrs. In new houses being built to the Code for Sustainable Homes, levels 3 & 4 of the Code demand a minimum standard of 105 ltrs ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

continuously available, and is supplied where and when needed. In short, from the users perspective it is indistinguishable from using the normal mains supply.

… the UK market for rainwater harvesting has increased ten-fold over 4-years …

Independent year-long monitoring of rainwater harvesting installations in service (see graph) shows that properlysized systems provide nearly all of a typical household’s demand for non-potable water, in the process reducing the demand on mains-water by nearly 50%. In many commercial buildings this saving rises to in excess of 80%. Buildings such as office blocks, retail parks, distribution centres and sports stadia all share in common the potential to capture very large volumes of rainwater. In many cases the preponderance of usage in these buildings is nonpotable (public toilets, fleet-washing, pitch/grounds irrigation and forecourt wash-down) which makes the water-collection and water-use equation extremely costeffective – quite apart from the environmental benefits.

per person per day, a level that can be reached, for example, by installing smaller baths. This may not, however, be popular with consumers who might prefer other options – plus the luxury of being able to water their garden from time-to-time. By the time levels 5&6 of the Code become mandatory, mains-water consumption per capita will need to be reduced by a whopping 47%, compared to current consumption, down to 80 ltrs per person per day. This reduced consumption can realistically only be achieved by incorporating technologies such as rainwater harvesting and/or grey-water recycling.

… the use of rainwater harvesting in Germany, is c100 times the current use in the UK …

Of the two, rainwater harvesting, where circumstances permit, is both the most straightforward and cost-effective. It works, very simply, by filtering and storing the water falling on a roof (usually), then using it to replace mains-water to supply non-potable services such as toilet-flushing, clothes washing machines, and the outside tap. From the homeowners perspective, all operations are entirely automatic with the system management panel ensuring that water is ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The environmental impact of rainwater harvesting also includes carbon footprint savings. With the energy used in transporting water to the point of its use being proportional to the distance involved, it clearly makes sense to retain non-potable water on-site and transport it a few yards back into the building, rather than from the nearest water-works. It also saves on the energy and chemicals used in bringing water destined for toilet-flushing up to drinking water standard.

… a typical domestic rainwater harvesting system provides around 50% of a household’s total consumption…

Full domestic rainwater harvesting systems are usually best installed at the new-build stage when fitting separate pipework for the non-potable water supplies can be done easily and at very little extra cost; extension works or refurbishment projects also present an opportunity to retro-fit systems to existing properties. Otherwise, retrofitting systems to existing structures is usually only costeffective for commercial building and offices (where pipe-work is often visible or fed-through accessible service ducts) or, where houses are concerned, restricting the system to garden-irrigation use only. For keen gardeners in areas potentially affected by hosepipe bans or drought orders, a garden-only system might in any case be preferable. Unlike full domestic systems, which are designed around maintaining crystalclear water for use inside the house, garden-only systems are optimised around the need to enter the summer period with a good body of water that will last through a long hot summer. Providing no mains-water is introduced into the storage tank at any time, such systems are not subject to hosepipe bans.

the smart sensoring system

So, subject to a few simple do’s and don’ts, rainwater harvesting does exactly what it “says on the tin”; it will reduce your domestic or commercial mains-water consumption by the amount for which it is designed. The basic do’s include buying your system from a reputable manufacturer, operating to the UK Rainwater Harvesting Association’s code of practice, and do make sure that it is installed entirely in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and water regulations.

The CNI2000 is a proprietary smart sensoring system with multi-purpose security and safety applications to protect critical national infrastructure sectors such as water, electricity, oil & gas, chemical, telecommunications, borders, and defence. The system has been designed, tested, and approved to deliver the highest level of performance in the most hostile operating environments.

This will ensure in turn that you don’t ever bring your rainwater harvesting system into contact with the mainswater supply, except via the top-up system incorporated into the system by the manufacturer. For further information visit, or For more information about the CNI2000-IDS Series and other products, visit or email to


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The Silent Crisis Barbara Frost Chief Executive, WaterAid

There is a silent development crisis gathering pace around the world today. It is silent because it affects primarily those who have the least power to speak up: women, children and those living in extreme poverty. It is a crisis of sanitation and water. Every year, 1.4 million children die from diarrhoea directly caused by unsafe water and poor sanitation, and hundreds of millions of children miss school as a result of illness. This water and sanitation crisis is holding back human and economic development and the current response of the international community is inadequate. Safe water to drink and a clean toilet are taken for granted by most people but one in eight people around the world do not have clean drinking water. Furthermore, one in three does not have somewhere safe to go to the toilet, a shocking total of 2.5 billion people. World Toilet Day happens every year on 19 November to raise awareness about sanitation issues and this year WaterAid is calling on Gordon Brown to make sanitation and water a development priority. Water is important and WaterAid always works in integrated programmes of water, sanitation and hygiene. Here however, I will focus on sanitation. This is because of World Toilet Day and because sanitation is often characterised as the poor cousin of water, getting less attention and money. Every year, 1.4 million children die from diarrhoea directly caused by unsafe water and poor sanitation. That is 4,000 children dying every day for want of these basic human rights. It is little known that diarrhoea is the second biggest killer of under-fives around the world, and it kills more children than AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria combined. Using a safe toilet and washing your hands afterwards dramatically reduces the risk of getting diarrhoea. However, the impacts of sanitation go beyond diarrhoea. Handwashing in particular has been shown to reduce the risk of pneumonia, the biggest killer of children, by up to half. With so many infections transmitted via dirty hands, it is worth remembering that the government advice for combating swine flu is to wash your hands regularly. Furthermore, history demonstrates that sanitation is a powerful catalyst for public health improvements and development gains. In Europe and North America, improvements in sanitation enabled unprecedented reductions in child mortality in the twentieth century. In the UK, in the decade from 1898, sustained investment in sanitation reduced infant mortality from over 160 per 1,000 live births to below 110. It is clear then that sanitation benefits health but there are knock-on benefits in other areas. The World Health Organisation has found that when all the benefits of access to ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

sanitation are quantified and added together, every dollar invested brings at least a $9 return. This is mainly because of all the school days and working days lost through illness that would be regained. For people in rich countries, diarrhoea is an inconvenience but in poor countries it can mean weeks off school, time in hospital if you are lucky enough to get to one, or even death for 4,000 children every day. Building a toilet can be cheap but it is the poor who are least able to finance their way out of poverty. Indeed, two thirds of the 900 million people without water live on less than $2 a day. Furthermore, the richest 20% in many countries are three times more likely to use improved sanitation than the poorest 20%. Given the scale of the crisis, and the massive potential benefits, why is so little happening? There are a multitude of reasons and the responsibility lies with both developing country governments and donor governments. First of all, institutional fragmentation means that in many countries, responsibility for delivering these essential services is split across several ministries. This is especially true for sanitation, which often falls between the gaps of ministries of water, health, education and environment. Accountability is further undermined by the fact that the burden of the crisis is borne disproportionately by women, children and those in extreme poverty – the very people who have the least voice in key decision-making processes. But there are other more banal reasons. Political leaders rarely extol the virtues of toilets. Health centres and schools are far easier ideas to sell. Who wants their photo taken next to a loo? What is needed is leadership and for this problem to be given the political attention it deserves. The international development community must now urgently bring together high level bodies that can target resources at the areas of failure. Sanitation is a critical development sector but it rarely gets the attention it deserves. This World Toilet Day on 19 November, we are calling on Gordon Brown to be a sanitation champion. Join us by adding your voice - go to our petition at Barbara Frost is the Chief Executive of WaterAid. She joined WaterAid in September 2005 after nine years as Chief Executive at Action on Disability and Development (ADD). Barbara has previously worked in Africa for over seven years with ActionAid, Save the Children, and Community Aid Abroad, managing programmes in Mozambique and Malawi. WaterAid is a leading independent organisation which enables the world’s poorest people to gain access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene education. We work in Africa, Asia and the Pacific region and campaign globally with our partners to realise our vision of a world where everyone has access to these basic human rights.

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Flushed with success Behind the scenes at UK stores of Lloyds TSB an innovative change has been taking place in the most mundane of places – with great results. Chris Wilson from Lloyds TSB’s Technical Operations team finds out more…

Lloyds TSB has a number of key steps in place to manage the organisation’s impact on the environment. Amongst these is a focus on water efficiency and tackling those buildings in its portfolio which have the highest water usage per capita on each site. A two year project began in 2004 which identified 500 sites where water use exceeded 15 cubic metres per capita per year. This comprised primarily toilet, urinal and tap usage, as well as small scale kitchen areas. With help from the Water Technology List (WTL), managed by Defra and HMRC in partnership with Envirowise, Chris Wilson and his team identified a series of water efficient products which offered the potential for both cost and water savings. Working with Dart Valley Systems, whose products are listed on the WTL, the company commissioned the installation of Flushmatic urinal controls which provide an automatic flush on demand, rather than a constant stream of water. More than 300 of these controls were installed in relevant stores, as well as retrofit displacement devices to reduce flush volume on traditional toilet cisterns. “The installation itself took place with minimum disruption to the stores and the process actually helped to raise awareness among employees of the importance of water conservation, as part of our wider environmental activities,” says Chris. “We were delighted to achieve average reductions of as much as 50% per branch, bringing water use per employee down to 7 cubic metres per year.” Lloyds TSB is now embarking on a second phase of activity, using the new 7 cubic metre figure as a benchmark, aiming ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

for continuous improvement. After an initial investment of £25,000, the company is aiming for total savings of £90,000 or 50,000 cubic metres of water over the second phase. Crucially, as the urinal controls were sourced via the WTL they are eligible for Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) for water saving technologies, which enables businesses to claim 100% first-year capital allowances on their spending on qualifying plant and machinery. This allows companies to write off the full cost of these products against the taxable profits of the period in which the qualifying expenditure was incurred - delivering a helpful cash flow boost and a shortened payback period on the investment. “We would certainly recommend that other businesses explore how products on the WTL could help them achieve financial and environmental benefits. The process has been so smooth and has not required large amounts of management time, yet we are seeing the cost benefits already,” adds Chris. Kate Davis, Envirowise water specialist, says: “This is an excellent example of what can be achieved by making relatively simple changes - we look forward to hearing the results of the next phase of activity.” As well as partnering the Water Technology List, Envirowise works with businesses across a wide range of industry sectors to help encourage water efficient practice. More information is available at More information on ECAs is also available

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Over the last year, new crises have been arising one after another. The financial and economic crisis just swallowed up the food crisis. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the effects of the crisis and the slowdown in the economic activity “have deprived more than a hundred million people of access to adequate food supply”. And closer to a billion people are probably suffering from malnutrition. Just like access to water, access to food is a right that, when respected, gives dignity and security. Today, food deficit and insufficient water resources constitute privileged topics for the media and political leaders. But it is striking to observe that these issues are rarely addressed together and that emphasis is practically never put on their interdependence. Yet food crisis and water shortages are inextricably tied together. Indeed, water is an element that is essential to the production of food. Agriculture alone accounts for the consumption of close to 75% of the water resources used on earth. And the pressure applied on these resources is constantly increasing due to global changes that affect the planet. Water catchment has tripled in the last 50 years and irrigated zones have doubled during the same period and we all know that this trend will not be reversed in the foreseeable future for the following reasons:  Each decade sees a billion new inhabitants on earth. It means that world food production will have to double by 2050 with much more water available. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

 The improvement of living conditions with, as a corollary, growing urbanisation lead to changes in food diets that consume increasing amounts of water. Remember that a meatless diet only uses 2,000 litres of water per day against 5,000 litres for a diet including meat. Eating a kilogram of beef boils down to consuming 13,000 litres of water needed for its production. This volume corresponds to the “hidden water resources” also known as “virtual water”.  Climate change with its uncertainties may play a role in the increase of shortages and, further down the road, in costly efforts to ensure protection against floods and pollution. So how can we feed the world’s population while preserving water, biodiversity and ecosystems? Concerning agriculture, we also have to make people realise that “the time of water comes easy” is over. We have no choice but to adopt a more intelligent and efficient form of management. Faced with an abundance of mollifying discourses and announcements effects, let’s try to focus on a few concrete, long-lasting and sustainable proposals. The first consists in restoring the credibility of agriculture by recreating a “virtuous circle of Southern farmers” and notably encourage all forms of production as close as possible to the consumer. To this effect, the recent creation of an African Agricultural Fund, even though it remains modest, represents a step in the right direction and so is the World Bank Fund for Agriculture and Food. The notion

water to feed the planet

that human development also relies on agriculture is a new one compared to what international institutions have prefered for decades i.e. the growth of industry or services.

Then there’s the more recent debate on the purchase or rental of arable land in poor countries by companies from rich countries.

The second proposal consists in reinvesting massively in the management of agricultural water: increase yields, track leakages, reduce abysmal losses, use the best suited technologies. The potential for progress is considerable and the cost not always that high.

15 to 20 million hectares located in developing countries have been subject to foreign investments since 2006. Rejecting this process, while it is accepted for mining or industrial investments, would be going to an extreme. Let’s learn to set the conditions for controlled and shared land reclamation with a valued and non exploited local labour along with the obligatory transfer of knowledge. Here again, water for agriculture can be encouraged.

In short, increasing water productivity should no longer raise fears as long as it allows reducing tensions over water resources. The third proposal, which is more challenging while being formidably innovative in people’s minds, consists in preferring dry cultivation which uses mostly rain water with little irrigation. This is a good way to start understanding and implementing the concept of virtual water. The fourth proposal will consist, using all relevant legal and regulatory levers, in preferencing an agriculture that is also capable of preserving the quality of the resource, ecosystems and biodiversity. This ranges from a more modern and more rational use of fertilisers and pesticides up to the support to truly organic cultures, breeding and aquaculture without chemicals.The fifth and sixth proposals are rather taboo subjects but these we cannot leave aside. First they consist in reducing drastically the amount of food wasted in the North as well as in the South. A recent report submitted by Sweden shows that in some countries 30 to 40% of the food is wasted, which corresponds to at least 40 billion litres of water that is the domestic needs of a population of 500 million people.

These few proposals demonstrate the need for an enhanced agro-responsibility and hydro-vigilance. Without a better used and better shared water, there will be no improvement in agrarian performance. This involves raising the awareness of the citizens to bring to food the water it imperatively needs. The good governance of agricultural water obviously calls for as much science as awareness.

Loïc Fauchon President, World Water Council ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The Global Ethics of Food Security and Water use in Agriculture: Check Lists from an increasingly impossible situation1 margaret catley carlson

“Alice laughed: “There’s no use trying,” she said; “one can’t believe impossible things.” “I daresay you haven’t had much practice,” said the Queen. “When I was younger, I always did it for half an hour a day. Why, sometimes I’ve believed as many as six impossible things before breakfast.”2

Most people would subscribe to the ethical proposition that the management of food and water on the planet should provide for both well-fed populations and the protection of the environment. In fact the view through the contemporary looking glass becomes more and more “impossible” viewed through the prism of how we get to that better state of affairs. Here are some of the inescapable realities – and ethical puzzles - in the water/ agriculture relationships facing our world.


 It takes one litre of water to make one calorie of energy.

 Maps of potential conflict areas grow.

 More people = more food needs = more water needs in agriculture.

 Fisheries – ocean and freshwater fisheries are at or beyond sustainability limits.

 More prosperity = more food protein demands = higher water needs.

The essential food/agriculture/water dilemmas….

 Biofuel energy – if we met 1/5 of our fuel needs with biofuels, the water consumed would equal all the water used in agriculture today.  Populations are still growing – the global total is now past 6.8 billion; the maximum and fastest population growth will generally occur in the most water stressed areas.3  Climate change forecasts are firming up to predict real regional water shortfalls.  Agricultural water demand is sharply increasing. Municipal and industrial water use show a sharp increase.  Recent food prices doubling/tripling showed that food trade will attract speculative funds and that protectionist responses will be swift and widespread.4  Groundwater depletion – we are headed for a brick wall in many key areas: China, India.  70 river basins are closing which means that no more water can be taken from them. This affects 1.4b people who have no water left for more development if today’s patterns of use continue: Yellow River, Colorado, Amu/Syr Darya, Murray-Darling, Egypt’s Nile, LermaChapala, Jordan, Gediz, Zayanda Rud, Indus, Cauvery, Krishna, Chao Phraya,….5 And here are some of the equally inescapable ‘impossibilities’ – impossible in the sense that if food and water are essential to life itself, it seems impossible that we, as an intelligent innovative species given the above changes, countenance these developments.  Falling investments in agricultural research for crops most important to poor people.  Few or negative changes in incentives for agricultural change.  Population growth is a taboo subject; attracting little/no investment.  The Doha international trade round is stuck, being rapidly replaced by bilateral agreements.  Agricultural subsidies remain, even in high price climate – these are a major factor in agriculture production decisions, including water use. The fabled European cow which attracts 2 Euros in subsidies per day surpasses the daily income of 2 billion people on the planet.  There are many closed doors and closed minds to drought and temperature resistant GMOs.

 Agriculture takes about 75% of the water used by human activity.  Water scarcity is a threat to food security but we are NOT running out of drinking water – we are running out of economic water – agricultural, energy, industry, tourism uses are in competition.  The needs of the poor and environmental needs everywhere tend to lose in competitions for water.  It is the poor people that are hungry and the hungry people that are poor. Increasing the amount of food available globally does not help those that cannot purchase it.  About 70% of the poor – and the hungry - live in rural areas. They need specific and targeted rural development – roads, water infrastructure, crop and farming method improvement related to rainfed agriculture.  Insistence on cheap food, especially in North America, leads to more demands for market-distorting subsidies.  Many countries have made remarkable gains in agriculture and food production – India, China, Bangladesh, Brazil – to name but a few. So, What needs to be done? Why it is so difficult to do what needs to be done? What needs to be done? This is not the difficult part. We can set out the solutions.  Get more crop per drop. We have to improve crop yields above the dismal 1 to 1.5 tonnes per hectare (about the same as Roman Empire agricultural crops) and get these up to 80% of what high yield farmers get from comparable land.6 We have done it before; we feed 6 billion now on little more land than we fed 2.5 billion.  We need multifunctional integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture. Ditto livestock.  Expand policies and take key actions to upgrade rainfed systems - this is the highest potential for poverty reduction and water productivity gains.  Some existing technology needs to be more available.  Africa has under 10% of its irrigation potential.  Sub-Saharan Africa uses less fertilizer than Bangladesh.  Some newer technologies need to be more used.  Water harvesting.  Supplemental irrigation. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

 Field water conservation to reduce evaporation – zero till. What are the enabling conditions for these things to happen? Aha. This is a zone of much less comfort.  Cost & affordability – poor farmers are not a priority for most countries, either in national budget or development assistance.  Price and profitability – we demand cheap food; the agricultural sector in low income countries does not thrive.  It is a politically fraught process to reform water and/or agricultural incentives and institutions. Why is it so difficult to do what needs to be done?  By common consent, the problem is management. Water is badly, or not sufficiently well managed everywhere. Pipes are easier to fix than management.  No further science innovations are required to achieve 90% of the desired water management objectives. The last 10% can be achieved with better monitoring systems, forecasting and data management.  There are technical answers but these do not become implementable solutions without investment.  Policies outside of the water sector have a huge influ-

ence on water resources – diets, trade, agricultural subsidies, energy.  More and more, solutions to difficult problems can be found only in composite actions.  No single idea will serve – no piece of infrastructure, no new fund, no programme, no piece of technology, no draconian social engineering, no dramatic price movement (though these may all play roles).  The difficult problems of our time – global climate variability, homelessness, the obesity epidemic, narcotics trade, rational water use, finding and using cleaner energy - all of these require changes from thousands if not millions of players.  This creates a political problem of some considerable magnitude: leaders are expected to ‘do something’ in response to disasters, threats and challenges.  Today’s real answer is often that a great number of players all need to “do something”.  If each one of us became vegetarian for a day or two a week, it would have an astonishing impact on world water use in agriculture. Why not?  The trick is to find the mechanisms that will increase the chances that they will move in the right directions.  Is policy change possible outside of drought, disaster, massive human displacements?

We have a duty to hope – the problem list is vast and complex, so are the ethical dilemmas. We must take heart from the fact that the human community has been innovative. We must give our leaders confidence that we will support actions that address these problems and we must each act as if the planet and its creatures’ lives were at issue – indeed they are.

1 The basic elements of this piece were delivered at the 4TH MARCELINO BOTIN WATER WORKSHOP, Santander Spain, September 16.08.2009 Proceedings will be published by the Foundation. 2 Lewis Carroll – Alice Through the Looking Glass 3 Digital Journal, July 11, 2009. United Nations Chief addresses one solution to the challenge of overpopulation on World Population Day, as the world’s human population now reaches 6.8 billion people. 4 FPRI – Coping with current high food prices: what, who and how of Proposed Policy Actions. 2008 5 Molden et al, The Comprehensive Assessment: Water for food, Water for life. 6 Molden p 2


Food companies continue to do the right stuff despite recession Each year the Food and Drink Federation’s (FDF) Community Partnership Awards recognise the inspirational work undertaken by companies in the food and drink sector to make a real difference through their contributions to local schools and hospitals, sponsorship of sports activities, and supporting cultural and civic projects. This year a new category was introduced to recognise the work companies are doing to reduce their environmental impact. The Environment category was split into two sections – one looking at consumer-facing initiatives, the other rewarding business best practice. An overwhelming number of companies sent entries for this new category – a clear indication of the energy and passion being put behind such activities by food and drink companies of all sizes across the country. It is truly testament to their commitment that despite the recession, companies have continued to see the importance of investing their time, money and effort in environmental initiatives. After all, one would fear that all perceived ‘non-essentials’ of core business would disappear in a recession. The importance of environmentally sustainable business is certainly not new to the food industry, nor is it viewed as being ‘non-essential’. In fact, industry’s commitment to environmental initiatives is a long-standing one as it recognises that it has a key role to play in bringing home the message that industries across the country have to take immediate action to tackle the most crucial sustainability challenges that the entire world is currently facing. FDF launched its Five-fold Environmental Ambition in 2007, in which FDF and its member companies committed to make a significant contribution to improving the environment by targeting those areas where they felt they could make the biggest difference, namely:  Significantly reducing CO2 emissions  Striving to send zero food and packaging waste to landfill  Cutting the amount of packaging reaching households  Reducing the amount of water used in their factories  Achieving fewer, and friendlier, food transport miles The Ambition’s first annual progress report in 2008 showed that companies had made impressive steps towards fulfilling these commitments. More and more companies continue to sign up to the Ambition, whilst those who are already signatories have begun the process of reporting back annually on their progress. The second annual report will be released in December this year. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The progress made by companies through the Five-fold Environmental Ambition, and the exciting and innovative programmes that businesses across the sector have developed to engage with consumers on environmental issues, was a clear motivator for including the category as part of CPA. The Awards offer the opportunity to really celebrate the highly innovative and exemplary work that has been undertaken by companies across the industry to make an improvement to the environment, whether they are members of FDF or not.

Jordans & Ryvita Company (Silver)

This year’s Awards judging panel was made up of food industry experts, who had the unenviable job of sorting through a record number of entries to decide on the gold, silver, bronze and highly commended award winners.

Working in partnership with local communities and nonGovernment organisations, Jordans has:

Despite the high number of entries, the Awards can only provide a brief taste of what is actually happening around the country but the winners are all great examples of best practice – and showcasing them in this year’s competition helps to promote the important role the sector plays right at the heart of Britain’s communities and the great achievements it has made to improve its impact on the environment. Please read on for more information on the award-winning schemes from this year’s Community Partnership Awards.

Environment: Consumer-facing Initiatives Taylor’s of Harrogate (Gold) Founded in 1886, Taylors of Harrogate is an independent family business blending and packing tea and coffee that goes into Yorkshire Tea, Taylors Coffees and Speciality Teas. In 2004 Taylors launched a community recycling initiative ‘The Cone Exchange’, which aimed to step up the work it was doing with the local community whilst reusing and recycling waste from its factory. The idea came from children in the local community who turned cardboard cones from Taylors’ factory into Christmas tree angels, which they sold to raise funds for charity. This inspired the launch of The Cone Exchange. One of Taylors’ employees got into character as the recycling pirate ‘Captain Rummage’, whose mission was to turn trash into treasure! Taylors works with Social Enterprises and schools which give the company’s waste a new lease of life. Taylors also runs an on-pack promotion, whereby tokens collected from Taylors’ packs of tea and coffee are turned into contributions for it’s Yorkshire Rainforest Project. With the help of The Cone Exchange, the family business now recycles almost 30% of the waste from its factory. Taylors has increased community involvement through working with over 100 schools and community groups in Starbeck, as well as increasing the amount of recycling carried out by staff and in the local community.


Research by the British Beekeepers Association has found the UK bee population is under serious threat. This has prompted Jordans, in collaboration with Conservation Grade, to launch ‘The Big Buzz’. The aim of the project is to engage people with bees as pollinating insects and educate them to the fact that farmland wildlife habitat loss has massively contributed to the decline of bees in the UK.

 developed interactive educational exhibits to help children understand the importance of bees to the environment. These have been installed at Kew Gardens, Pensthorpe Nature Reserve and Hitchin Community Bee Garden.  given away thousands of bee-friendly plants to create habitats for bees in gardens similar to those used on the Conservation Grade farms that supply Jordans with its cereals. Conservation Grade farmers are required to attend a training programme and implement specific wildlife habitats on their land. They are independently audited to ensure they comply with this and their ongoing impact on wildlife diversity and numbers is monitored closely. The purpose of The Big Buzz campaign is to communicate the benefits of the Conservation Grade approach and to encourage people to actively engage with bees and other pollinators. Jordans hopes to give away at least 35,000 bee-friendly plants and its educational exhibitions will be seen by approximately 400,000 people annually. Nestlé UK (Bronze) Nestlé UK believes that by finding long term business solutions it can generate benefits for both business and its local communities. In response to consumer concerns regarding packaging, Nestlé became one of the first UK manufacturers to remove plastic inserts from its chocolate eggs, with the aim of reducing the estimated 4,500 tonnes of waste generated by Easter eggs each year. Nestlé has succeeded in meeting its packaging reduction target by reducing packaging by 10% against a 2006 baseline. Nestlé no longer uses any plastic packaging in its small and medium eggs; the chocolate and eggs are now sold in a recyclable cardboard basket. Overall, Nestlé has reduced the total packaging weight of its Easter eggs by 30%, exceeding the Waste & Resources Action Programme (WRAP) industry agreement of 25%. The company provides clear recycling information on the back of packs to help consumers and, because the eggs are more compact, the move will save 48,000 road miles in transportation. This initiative has led to Nestlé receiving positive feedback from hundreds of consumers, as well as stakeholders such as WRAP.

Environment: Business Initiatives Category Müller Dairy (Gold) Müller Dairy is committed to minimising the impact of its business on the environment and a number of considerations have shaped the way it has developed its sustainable environmental strategy. The company carried out both an employee survey, which revealed they were passionate about the environment, and consumer research, which showed consumers thought businesses should be doing more to address environmental issues. In addition, awareness of Government targets for a reduction in waste and utility consumption, and the need to comply with requirements from suppliers in relation to environmental issues, led Müller Dairy to develop its environmental programme. It created the role of Head of CSR and established a CSR team to ensure its environmental programme embraced all areas of the company. To date, Müller Dairy has been involved in a variety of initiatives including becoming the first dairy company to join the Carbon Trust as a pilot partner. This enabled it to measure the carbon footprint of one of its lines and indentify where carbon emissions could be reduced. This initiative revealed that 59% of emissions were generated on the farm so Müller Dairy worked with contracted local farmers to measure their individual carbon footprints and advise them on how to reduce their emissions. To measure its progress, Müller Dairy set targets to reduce waste to landfill by 66% by 2011 and send zero waste to landfill by 2015; to reduce packaging weight by 10% by 2010; and to reduce energy use by 8% by the end of 2011. To date the company – which also aims to minimise food miles through working with local suppliers - is on track to meet these ambitious targets. Pinneys of Scotland (Silver) Pinneys of Scotland supplies premium quality salmon and seafood products for the UK and European retail market. Pinneys carried out an extensive environmental audit to identify areas for improvement in order to develop a carbon management programme. The company then set ambitious targets to drive it towards environmental excellence. Reflecting the key elements of the Food and Drink Federation’s Five-fold Environmental Ambition, by 2010 Pinneys will strive to implement:  improvement of its carbon footprint  a zero waste to landfill policy

sustainability, people, packaging and raw materials, product development, and waste, and set objectives for each strand with continued measurement. Key achievements include:  diverting 77% of waste from landfill  a 5.2% increase in recycling between 2007 and 2008 (now, over 6% of the company’s waste is recycled)  a 10% weight reduction across most product packaging  an 18% reduction in the company’s carbon footprint  an 11.7% reduction in electricity consumption from process redevelopments  a 31.15% reduction in waste per ton of finished product year on year  a 40% reduction in energy usage per cook through the introduction of a temperature monitoring system. Premier Foods (Bronze) Aware of its responsibility to the environment, Premier Foods is committed to improving its environmental performance. Its objective is to provide a comprehensive framework of good environmental management practices that are applied across the business and extended through the supply chain. To achieve this, Premier Foods developed a new Five Star Environmental Awards Scheme, which was introduced in September 2008. The scheme is aimed at putting environmental issues firmly on the agenda, helping Premier Foods meet its environmental commitments over the next few years, particularly in the areas of energy, waste and water management. Bronze, Silver and Gold stars are awarded in recognition of the performance in each category. The scheme has raised the profile of the environment and the desire to improve environmental performance throughout the business. Key improvements to date include:  energy performance, in line with the 5% year on year energy reduction target  waste to landfill reduction, in line with the 20% year on year reduction target  a high level of response to the Federation House Commitment on water reduction. The scheme has been successful in encouraging businesses to become actively involved with their local communities by promoting constructive dialogue and responding to local issues and concerns.

 a 25% reduction in water consumption  an Environmental Management System  strong customer alliance. To achieve these goals Pinneys developed an environmental strategy with seven pillars, climate change, water usage, ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Sustainable Food Secu We need to produce more food – more sustainably. While this applies worldwide, it is even more crucial to do so in the UK. The UK relies on food imports more than any other country, producing only 60% of the food we eat and less than ¾ of the food we can produce ourselves.

World Food Security The fragility and importance of our food systems was thrown into sharp relief in 2007-08 as food prices rocketed. This was due to droughts in Australia, increased demand from China and India, more land - especially in US, being used for biofuels, and speculators turning to a quick buck during financial turbulence. Was this price hike just a blip or the start of something more? Chatham House - the Government think tank, set out 4 scenarios – just a blip, food inflation, into a new era, food in crisis1. Asked in 2009 which of these scenarios was most likely, they said it could be any of them2. Franz Fischler (former EU Agriculture Commissioner) reckoned that food prices in the EU are likely to remain high for 10 years.3

While the world has responded by bringing new land into production (eg. in Eastern Europe but also set aside land in the EU), the longterm trends of increasing demand on land are not going to go away. Witness how China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and others are “landgrabbing” – ie. leasing vast chunks of other people’s countries for up to a 100 years, in order to guarantee their supplies. They are not going to rely on the market for their “food security”. It also reminds us that there are many more issues concerning food – including land, climate, and health, where buying it as cheaply as possible is not good for us. Perhaps we should pay more and invest more in its production here. This issue of ensuring food supplies, called food security, was first recognised internationally in 1943. The Hot Springs Conference, called by Roosevelt and a forerunner of the FAO, stated a resolution that “each country produce as much as possible”. This would seem to be both eminently sensible and moral.

Table 1 Decline in UK contribution to World Food Production 1980-2004 % Contribution 1980 % Contribution to world






United Kingdom










United Kingdom








United Kingdom



1000 tonnes


2004 100


Fruit & Vegetables


100 0.68


urity UK Security The Hot Springs resolution to produce more was implemented by the then Labour Government and followed in the UK. For the first time since the Repeal of the Corn Laws which had encouraged the import of cheap food a hundred years earlier, the UK invested more in its own food production. However, this went out of the window in the late 1980s. The Conservative Government followed the recommendations of the Barnes Report4 and crossed off any Government research which it felt should be carried out by industry rather than the state. The Government decided, “why bother researching and producing it ourselves when we can get it cheaper from abroad”. This cheap and cheerful policy – basically the “leaving it to Tesco” approach, has cost dearly – both in terms of health but also in terms of the environment. Cheap food is not good for us, nor the planet. In the world context the contribution of UK to food production is small – less than 2%. In the last 25 years, that small contribution has declined further– by a fifth for cereals, nearly half for livestock and over 2/3 for fruit and vegetables.5

This decline comes at a time when hunger is still prevalent (and rising) with about a billion people going hungry in the world each day. While very few die of hunger in Britain, about 70,000 will die early due to diet related disorders.6 The situation, where about a billion people worldwide go hungry while about the same number are now obese, is called by the World Health Organisation “the double burden”. The WHO Europe also recommends that “producing food locally, particularly fruit and veg, is the most sustainable way forward as it links rural and urban populations”. 7 Yet fruit and vegetables production in UK has fallen dramatically – about half for peas/beans/fruit and vegetables over the last ten years but asparagus is getting popular!

Table 2 UK Vegetable production 1997 – 2006 8 Change in area

Change in volume

planted (%)

of production (%)







Turnips and swedes






Brussel sprouts






Cauliflower and broccoli



French and runner beans



Peas for market



Peas for processing









Field lettuce


























One of the reasons the UK was particularly hit by the food price rises was that we depended more on world markets than others, especially in Europe. We shift food, popularly known as ‘food miles’ thanks to Tim Lang9, more than other countries. With oil prices likely to stay high, the issue of higher costing imports is not going to go away. However, our home grown food also uses a lot of oil, particularly in terms of nitrogen fertiliser production.

UK Sustainability Added to oil/energy consumption is the contribution of food and farming to global warming. According to the Stern Report, farming and food produce about a fifth of all greenhouse gases. The three main elements of this in farming are; animal production - 31% mainly from methane: 38% from fertilisers releasing nitrous oxide (300 times more potent than CO2): change in land use from forest to farm. Farming is exempt from Emissions Trading Schemes and yet any targets set in Copenhagen have not got any chance of being reached without dramatic reductions in GHGs from farming, yet farming is one of the few sectors which could help reduce carbon emissions. The ecological footprint is a measure of all our environmental impacts measured as land surface. According to ecological footprint calculations for food, the UK requires 5 times its own land surface to produce the food we consume; this takes into account the area for the food we grow here, but also that abroad. To this is the area of land, the footprint also measures the area needed to produce the energy (eg biofuels) and the land (as trees) needed to absorb the carbon dioxide emitted.10

So while we have to produce more food – especially in the UK, we have to do it more sustainably. This is a massive challenge and will require much more investment in research and development, which has been sadly lacking in the last 20 years. More investment needs to be made into research and development, reversing years of rundown – since the late 1980s. According to the National Farmers Union, the number of government research stations has declined from 17 to 3 in the last 20 years. This includes the loss of the Plant Breeding Institute, Glasshouse Research, Long Ashton Fruit and Wye Hop Research, perhaps the biggest loss! We need more state funding. The figure quoted to the recent EFRA Select Committee on “Securing UK Food Supplies to 2050” was that we need about £100 mill to fill the research hole11. We need R&D more than ever to investigate the various roads to “sustainable food security”. Some say that “productivity” is the answer, often referring to a magic target of 20 tonnes/hectare for wheat. Beddington initiated research which said it was feasible, would pay a high price in environmental impacts that only GM could rectify.12 While this could be achieved – it would still only be on the best land. Yet what we should talk about is productivity for the whole country – which means producing food on our poorer land. That will require using a wider variety of plants in all sorts of situations – using more derelict land, more marginal land and even golf courses if Edinburgh Council has its way.13 Whatever route, we are going to have to pay more for our food. This sounds like blasphemy in the face of the god of cheap food. 40 years ago we paid about 40% of our wages on food, 20 years about 20%, and now about 10%. Clearly we can’t go on like that but we cannot rely or expect consumers to pay more. This is too big an issue for individuals to deliver through the checkouts.


Invest in Land/Soil Instead of selling food as “value for money”, we need to advertise “values for money”. These values should include health effects, environmental impacts and social improvements – particularly wages and safety for food and farm workers. UK farmers and farmworkers are more likely to be killed while working than any other group of workers – being killed at twice the rate of building workers14. They are truly the killing fields of the UK. The Common Agricultural Policy is worth about £40billion and could provide for the “sustainable elements”. At present Pillar 1 funding (about 90%) pays farmers for the land they farm, with the remaining 10% going to environmental schemes. The pillars could be balanced so that half goes for land farmed and the other half (Pillar 2) for measures such as reduced carbon emissions, better energy use, less fossil fuel, less pesticides and water conservation. However, our food and farms needs much more than that, requiring a change in political will that values all the aspects of improved food production. If the EU could pay for sustainability, we still need UK investment to ensure greater security. At a time when billions seems to be spent on circulating money, it would seen eminently sensible to invest in our own back garden – our soil. When people are looking for a new Green Deal, what better investment? Our living soil is our greatest resource that could do more to alleviate global warming than any other. There is great potential for carbon sequestration in the soil.15 Here we can capture more carbon and more safely than capturing from power stations and then pressurising it through pipes to the North Sea. To do that we need not only the R&D but more skills on the land. We should be paying decent wages for people to look after the soil, our land and our landscape. Let’s stop treating the soil like dirt.

Dr Charlie Clutterbuck Specialist Adviser to EFRA Select Committee on “Securing UK Food Supplies to 2050” Host of - No 1 when you google “sustainable food”! Director Environmental Practice @ Work Ltd, producing online learning materials 1 Chatham House Thinking about the Future of Food 2008 2 EFRA Select Committee. Oral Evidence in writing Chatham House 3 International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Conference 2007 4 Add Ref from BSE Inquiry. 5 FAO Statistics oduction 6 Cabinet Office Food Matters 2008 7 WHO Europe Ref 8 9 Term invented by my mate Tim Lang… 10….add specific page 11 EFRA Select Committee Securing UK Food Supplies to 2050 12 Beddington’s research 13 14 15 16 ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Food waste

Food has always been a glorious part of our Christmas tradition in the UK but given newly-released data for household food and drink wastage, will we all have a closer eye on festive excess and the amount of food wasted in the future? Figures issued by WRAP (Waste & Resources Action Programme) in early November reveal that we throw out a massive 8.3 million tonnes of food, of which more than 60% (5.3 million tonnes) we could have consumed. This amounts to £12 billion worth of food and drink every year in this country, costing the average household £50 every month. In terms of environmental impact, producing, storing and getting this wasted food and drink to our homes also uses massive quantities of energy – 20 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to be exact. Eliminating this waste would be like taking one in four cars off UK roads. But this isn’t all; there is also waste in the supply chain to consider. Unfortunately, not all food procured by retailers meets the required standards for sale to the public. Then there’s produce which is damaged during processing, packaging and transport. Latest figures suggest that 4.1 million tonnes of food is wasted in the manufacturing process, while 1.6 million tonnes is wasted at the ‘back of store’. When food waste is landfilled, it produces methane, a powerful greenhouse gas which is 25 times more ‘warming’ than CO2.

Hate Waste campaign to bring about a positive impact on household food and packaging waste. This is not the only initiative on the go either; for example there is research into the waste caused by suboptimal chill chain management with the aim of producing recommendations to improve temperature control. The effectiveness of new packaging materials in protecting chilled foods from temperature variations will also be investigated. While efforts to reduce packaging are full steam ahead in some areas, its role in improving the keeping quality of food continues in others. For example, vacuum packaging is known to have considerable potential to reduce meat waste but it can also reduce packaging as a whole, meeting two goals simultaneously. An ongoing study into ethylene and microbial contamination throughout the fresh produce handling chain is identifying the categories of fresh fruit and vegetables most wasted by the consumer to assess the impact of a range of ethylene removal technologies. The use of ozone, which inhibits fungal growth and destroys ethylene, will also be tested. And finally, research to tackle one the highest categories of food waste, bakery products, will involve detailed consumer research around behaviour and attitudes to understand key drivers for waste around purchasing, storage and usage habits of bread. Love Food Hate Waste

Retail initiatives and consumer impacts The good news is the matter is well in hand. WRAP is well known for its work on reducing packaging and food waste at household levels, but more recently the focus of its retail work has widened to include the whole of the food supply chain. For example, WRAP is currently undertaking research - due for completion early 2010 - to identify the latest levels of waste in the grocery supply chain and propose solutions to tackle the issues. But the retail supply chain is not waiting around for these figures. Already, a series of new industry partnerships is looking to drive category-specific innovation in manufacturing, packaging, storage, distribution and retail, to considerably reduce food and drink product damage throughout the supply chain and improve product quality.

Many retailers are also working with WRAP’s Love Food Hate Waste campaign to influence and change behaviours of consumers. The campaign, which offers tips on planning, storing and making the most of the food we buy has been a resounding success since its launch in November 2007 – to the extent it is now helping around 2.1 million households to cut back on the amount of food thrown away. This is estimated to have reduced food waste by some 162,000 tonnes, saving £400m a year and preventing 725,000 tonnes of greenhouse gases being emitted. This is more than halfway towards the 250,000 tonne target WRAP is aiming for in 2011, saving 1.1m tonnes of CO2 equivalents.

The research studies are being led by Adare, Campden BRI, East Malling Research, Giraffe Innovation and Premier Foods. ASDA, The Co-operative, Sainsbury’s, Somerfield and Tesco are each involved with a project.

A number of retailers have positively embraced the Love Food Hate Waste theme; take Sainsbury’s ‘Love your Leftovers’ and Morrisons ‘Great Taste Less Waste’ campaigns, Tesco’s Greener Living website and in-store magazines, and The Co-operative’s use of Love Food Hate Waste material on till screens and grocery bags. Most retailers are also including tips and advice in their own magazines.

The findings are expected to generate a number of innovations and reveal insights into consumer behaviour and drivers, which will then be utilised in WRAP’s Love Food

With this level of industry and consumer engagement, maybe this Christmas will be one where we make the very best use of seasonal fare to the benefits of our pockets. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The Association for Organics Recycling (previously the Composting Association) was founded in 1995 as a result of an increasing interest and awareness of biowaste management. At this early stage of the industry’s development, there was no Landfill Directive targets driving the sustainability agenda but there was a real desire to improve the utilisation of this valuable resource. In the interim fourteen years there has been significant expansion and development within the sector. The industry has grown considerably to an estimated £166 million industry1 predominantly driven from the collection and processing of municipal garden waste either collected at the kerbside or from civic amenity sites. The dynamics of the industry are, however, rapidly changing and it is for this reason that the Association rebranded last year to better reflect the changing and expanding sector. This new name, Association for Organics Recycling, (AfOR) reflects our core values and activities more accurately through the coverage of a much broader spectrum of biowaste processing technologies than the previous name conveyed. This industry has grown to a size whereby in 2007/08, 4.5 million tonnes of biodegradable waste was actively processed at biowaste management facilities. This was

Getting wise with biowaste Jeremy Jacobs carried out at a combination of both small on-farm facilities and larger centralised sites. The latter are evolving to utilise a broader range of technologies, both to comply with regulatory requirements but also to enable them to process a wider range of inputs. Technologies include the traditional open-air windrow composting of garden waste, through the more complex and capital intensive technologies such as in-vessel composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) for the treatment of food and catering wastes; and lastly the mechanical and biological treatment (MBT) of residual waste streams. All of these processing technologies produce an organic output of varying quality which has beneficial properties that may be used in a range of applications from bespoke domestic compost through to a soil amendment in land reclamation projects. The main thrust of activity that has received most notable attention recently is the promotion and development of Anaerobic Digestion. The interest in this technology has been driven primarily as a result of the double Renewable Obligation Certificates or ROCs being offered from April 2009. In addition, this treatment is extremely well suited for dealing with the wetter waste streams that are harder to deal with in more conventional aerobic composting systems. Facilities, more so now than ever before, in light of the economic downturn are keen to exploit the ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


market wherever possible and take in the harder to deal with and less conventional feedstocks. As a result of the interest in this area, the Government have woken up to the potential of this technology and recognised the significant impact this will have in assisting them in meeting their renewable energy obligations to deliver 15% of the UK’s energy requirements from renewable sources by 2020. To this end, Defra have published "Anaerobic Digestion – Shared Goals". This has been developed jointly with a broad range of stakeholders including The Association for Organics Recycling. As a result of increased pressures on Local Authorities to divert biodegradable material from landfill, the processing of a wider range of feedstocks including food and catering waste is now being pursued with more vigour than ever before. Less than 20% of the 4.5 million tonnes of biodegradable material processed in 2007/08 was food or catering waste derived. It is likely that, within the organics recycling sector, further consolidation will occur as the barriers to entry are raised both in respect to statutory regulatory requirements but also as sites require additional investment to comply with the processing of more demanding feedstocks as these become available. Security of sustainable markets for compost and digestate outputs is an important aspect of biowaste management and one that continues to require significant effort. AFOR, in conjunction with a number of other key stakeholders including the Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP), are working hard to build confidence within end markets with particular emphasis being given to agriculture, where in excess of 1.3 million tonnes of material was sent in 2007/08. The most significant industry driver will continue, for the foreseeable future, to be that of diverting biodegradable material from landfill through the landfill diversion targets. With continued pressure at both a national and global level to reduce green house gas emissions, the next phase of Government policy is to actively target additional waste streams that are still ending up in landfill. The most obvious candidate here is that of food waste both from the domestic and commercial sectors. As highlighted earlier in this article, the percentage of food waste currently captured and treated is still small. This should be seen as a real opportunity for both processors, as a significant revenue generator, and also for the Local Authorities as a means of assisting them in meeting their landfill allowance trading obligation (LATS) targets. This is already starting to manifest itself across the UK through additional infrastructure investment and food waste collection schemes. There is in the region of 40 million tonnes of carbon continuing to go to landfill. This is both unsustainable and highly damaging to the environment in the long term. Not all of this material is suited for treatment through biological treatment systems; however material which cannot be converted into a beneficial fertilizer replacement or soil ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

conditioner will be useful in replacing fossil fuels through biomass plants. Demand for this material is growing all the time and a number of the Association’s members are starting to involve themselves in this market which offers significant potential in the future. The collection and treatment of commercial waste streams from industrial and commercial activities have been less evident in the past, although this is changing as the landfill tax escalator starts to bite deeper (by 2013 this will stand at £72/tonne) and certain waste types such as liquid wastes are less easily disposed of via the more traditional route of landfill. All these factors point to a continued and healthy growth within the organics sector. Innovation and diverse treatment options will continue to ensure that the sector does not become complacent or stale in its approach. The Association for Organics Recycling will continue to be at the forefront of this expanding activity and will continue to support and protect its members wherever possible in order that the organics recycling industry continues to be vibrant and viable for the foreseeable future.

About the Association for Organics Recycling The leading trade organisation for the composting and biological waste treatment industries in the UK, the Association for Organics Recycling, promotes the sustainable management of biodegradable resources. It actively encourages the use of biological treatment techniques and advances good management practices throughout the industry. The Association for Organics Recycling works on behalf of its members to raise awareness of the benefits of recycling biodegradable resources; aims to act as an advocate for the wider composting and biological treatment industries; and represents their views in a constructive dialogue with policy makers. The association envisages an industry in which best practice is shared, standards are maintained, and surpassed, and makes a positive contribution towards safeguarding the environment.

Contact: Jeremy Jacobs • Managing Director Association for Organics Recycling 3 Burystead Place • Wellingborough Northamptonshire NN8 1AH Main: 0870 160 3270 • Fax: 0870 160 3280 E: W:

BiProduct Recovery provides waste recovery and recycling services designed to identify the beneficial properties of industrial byproducts and re-use them in agriculture, restoration of brown field sites and most importantly the generation of renewable energy. BiProduct Recovery focuses on the provision of regional invessel composting and anaerobic digestion facilities, waste to land recycling, investment, operation and mobile plant licensing. Recognising the increasing awareness of climate change, exacerbated by the burning of fossil fuels, BiProduct Recovery fulfils a growing need to recover energy from waste and to seek alternatives to landfill. Our aim is simple: to adopt cost effective, innovative and sustainable recycling operations which deliver real value for our clients.

BiProduct Recovery Limited Biwater House Gregge Street Heywood Lancashire OL10 2DX A Biwater Services Company

T: +44 (0) 1706 626 214 F: +44 (0) 1706 626 294

Riverside Machinery Ltd Sole UK Dealer for NEUENHAUSER ENVIRONMENTAL

• Star Screens • Windshifters • Screw Mills Riverside Machinery Ltd T: F: M: E: W:

0800 689 9024 0800 471 5099 07766 405688 ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

5('2;WXUQV\RXUZDVWHLQWRSUR多W upgrading of compost

compost cleaning

construction waste

industrial waste

municipal solid waste


Stevinstraat 11 7102 DZ Winterswijk The Netherlands Tel. +31 543 - 531 030 Fax +31 543 - 519 089 E-mail Website 8.2I多FH7HO 

Simon’s Dutch Diary By Simon Ingleby Cleaning and screening compost, especially removing satisfactorily the plastics and other contamination are the major problems faced by the growing number of composting companies today. It has taken innovative but practical thinking in the Netherlands to establish an automatic compost cleaning facility to tackle the problem. I had the chance to visit this new installation on my latest trip to Holland with Dutch Company Redox Recycling Technology bv. Pre-shredded and maturing green waste is taken from the windrow area and fed into the start of the line, a high capacity deposit hopper. This can be loaded up with about 20mins. running time so as not to tie up the front loader. Triple shaft agitation devices break up the clumps of material to ensure an even and homogenous dosing onto the line. A magbelt takes any ferrous before the double-deck screening at 5mm and12mm. The 5-12 fraction passes over a highly controllable airstream device to take any small plastic foils. 5-12mm clean product is combined with the 0-5mm and discharged to a final product bunker.

The +12mm. material is then presented to a Redox Windshifter that again uses a concentrated and controllable airstream combined with a rotating drum to separate stones and heavy contamination from the organics. The separation drum takes the long pieces of wood out and over with the organics. Negative pressure is maintained in the discharge hood by recirculating the air back to the fan. Any airborne dust is collected by reverse jet filters and discharged into a bigbag. The organic fraction passes over a levelling deck to evenly spread the material to fall as a curtain where a state of the art triple-laser optical sorter is installed. Each laser has twenty channels each that can be tuned to different parameters enabling the optical sorter to identify different colours and eject them by compressed air jets. Bottle tops, plastics and even mouldy pieces are removed. The cleaned oversize organics are then returned to the shredding and maturing process and will be returned back through the plant to obtain a clean final fine product. So successful is this process that the company will now install an identical sister line in the other side of the shed to double the capacity. Maybe compost quality is a language that the Dutch can share with us! Simon Ingleby, 07870 681321 ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Innovation in size reduction

Reliability is our sucess

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Riverside Waste Machinery – Untha TR Series Shredder

Alfatek UK has been closely involved in Facility and Process Design for the Recycling Industries. Managing Partner, Simon Ingleby is a Design Engineer who has combined practical experience with innovative technologies from Europe to build some of the most robust plants in the UK. Environment Industry Magazine sent him out to report on a remarkable new machine…

Technological excellence can be stylish too……take the “Dyson vacuum, the Krups coffee maker, the Alessi lemon squeezer or even Lord Foster’s Gherkin. True design can embrace form and function to make for dynamic efficiency. So, when faced with the Untha TR series Shredder, my first reaction was…..Wow! This bright yellow and grey monster with curves made its first appearance at this year’s Recycling and Waste Management exhibition. It marks the logical progression for the Untha Company of Austria which, for thirty years, has produced equipment for shredding applications worldwide, into the sector of waste derived fuels. The UK has seen significant growth in the waste derived fuel market (sometimes known as RDF, SRF and WDF as the recycling industry clamber to make more and more acronyms). Untha have observed the troublesome high speed machines in operation out there and set about designing a product that combines simplicity and high throughput with the keyword being Uptime not down. Constructed around a substantial box frame that combines rigidity and mobility allows the TR to be mounted within a plant with minimal support. This revolutionary rigid frame design enables unstressed GRP service panels on hinges to allow for easy access, indeed the TR has been built with ergonomics at the top of the list. Too often do maintenance fitters have to work in backbreaking positions but the TR displays all its engineering parts at an easy standing position. The external panels are double-skinned and, along with the frame, are filled with quartz sand to absorb noise and vibration – a further testimony to operator comfort. Positive air pressure is observed inside the service panels to prevent the ingress of dust. The heart of the machine is the rotor which, at 1,100mm diameter, is the largest in this market. This rotor allows for larger screen contact thus giving better efficiency and throughput. It is most important to achieve an homogenous product in preparation for its use in thermal processing. The specifications for these derived fuels are becoming much more stringent depending on the combustion technology employed by the end user - mono - and co-combustion, fluidised bed or rotary kiln. The bane of all shredding equipment is the maintenance of the main cutting knives and Untha have addressed this in a novel way. They employ a quick-change cutter-holder system, each assembly located by only two bolts. The

holder simply slides out and the replacement slides back in, quickly and easily. The intention is to hold one complete set of holders in the workshop, so the actual change of the cutter blades is carried out without losing production. Protection from tramp (metal as opposed to Steptoe) has the Untha design treatment also. The cutting knives act against the cutting bar to achieve the shred. This cutting bar is mounted on a hinged door that is held in position by hydraulic pressure. Should an unshreddable enter the machine the pressure is detected immediately, the door is withdrawn, the rotor rotation stops and the tramp ejected. This all happens in milliseconds and affords protection to the machine as opposed to the violent end that is usual to other lesser equipment. Operator safety is paramount and the TR can detect a body who may be in the wrong place and automatically shuts down. The TR series is equipped with a modern energy-saving all electric drive unit. Invertor-controlled, this electromechanical drive powers the rotor from 0-160 rpm via a high-spec, toothed belt drive. Belt tension is controlled by an ingenious harmonic device that ‘tunes’ the belt to its ideal setting. There are no frictional losses through gearboxes, whilst flexible couplings and shear pins ensure smooth running. Central automatic lube systems keep everything slippery! These design features all add up to enable the Untha TR series shredder to perform at a class-winning 15tph, a remarkable step forward in the secondary shredding market and now compliments the Untha XR range of primary shredders with a matched output. I was introduced to the Untha range of equipment by Chris Oldfield, Chairman and Managing Director of Riverside Waste Machinery Limited, which acts as sole UK Distributor for Untha. Riverside is a family company which operate from modern, purpose built premises by the A1(M) near York. Chris and his team have been supplying and supporting key shredding and baling equipment for the last 12 years and hold a comprehensive stock of strategic spares for distribution throughout the UK. The versatility of the Untha equipment sees Riverside exploring new markets such as high volume plastics, ELVs and medical waste streams as well as the waste derived fuels. The new Untha TR series shredder has already gained much interest in this country with the first installations now operational. With these references it is exciting times for Riverside, the Untha TR might just make it to the list of design greats!


Using Site Investigation for Sustainable Remediation Cecilia MacLeod, BA, MSc, PhD, MRSC, CCHEM, CSCI Arcadis UK

Reaso nable Reasonable ((MNA) MNA A)

Sustainable S ustainable e Economics (Costs)

Planet (Environment)

Equitable Equitab a le Situ ((In In S itu Bio) Bio)

People (Social)

Acceptable Accep table Phase ((Six Six xP hase Heating) Heatting) Figure 1. Figure 1. Balance Balance between between eenvironment, nv vironment, economics economics aand nd social social w ants //needs n eds m ne ust be sstruck truck for fo re mediation to to be sustainable. sus u tainable. wants must remediation

The remediation of contaminated land in the UK has evolved from a ‘dig and dump’ scenario to a program of treatment using a wide variety of technologies. The initial resistance to using in-situ treatment is being overcome by the open discussion in forums such as Brownfield Briefing, CLAIRE and CIRIA conferences and publications presenting results of pilot trials and sharing of results. As UK Plc moved towards the use of different remedial tools the use of sustainability in describing remediation has been a comparison of different technological tools to ‘dig and dump’. Thus we were concerned with showing that technologies such as chemical oxidation, in-situ bioremediation, air-sparging or soil vacuum extraction and stabilisation / solidification were a more sustainable tool than digging out the soil and disposing of it to a landfill. The ‘indicators’ used to show sustainability of the technologies has typically been number of lorry movements, fuel consumption, tyre wear and creation of another problem elsewhere. The full implementation of the landfill directive has resulted in the requirement to pre-treat waste prior to disposal. This has lead to a number of waste contractors Table T able 1.. developing on-site treatment Sustainability Sus taina ability Variables Variab a les EPA EPA Primer P mer Pri facilities for waste which has Cites C ites ssix ix ccore ore elem elements ents of o gr green een rremediation emediation to be disposed of and to more Core C ore Elements Elements Metrics Metrics Example Example Inputs Inputs on-site remediation. Further E nergy rrequirements equirements of ttreatment reat e ment ssystem ystem kkwH wH G as (gallons), (gallons), di esel e , steel steel ((pounds), pounds), ccement, ement, et tc. Energy Gas diesel, etc. legislative changes dealing Apply cconversion onversion ffactors a tors ((kwHr/gallon, ac kwHr/gallon, kkwHr/lbs) wHr/lbss) Apply with the issues around global A ir E missions Priority P ollutants ((tons) tons) Air Emissions Priority Pollutants VMT, M PG of cconstruction onstruction vvehicles ehicles VMT, MPG PM ((10, 10, 2. 2 5) PM 2.5) warming and climate change, NO2 NO2 SO2 SO2 energy use and carbon rePb CO CO duction commitments are reO3 O3 W ater Requirements Requirements Gallons Net Effect Effect ((fresh fresh w a er, rreclaim at eclaim ttreated reated w ater) Water Gallons Net water, water) fining further the term Net w ater consumption consumption Net water ‘sustainable remediation’ and Lan d and ecosystem ecosystem impacts impacts Tons, A cres Land use use Land Tons, Acres Land Soil (minimize (minimize soil, soil, habitat habitat disturbance) disturbance) Soil consultants are developing M aterial C onsumption and w aste Waste (minimize) (minimize) Material Consumption waste Waste quantitative tools to use to g eneration Ability tto o rreuse euse m ater e ials, rrecycle ecycle generation Ability materials, Lon g-term sstewardship tewardship actions actions C O2 and d other other G HG em issions Gas (gallons), (gallons), di esel e , ssteel teel ((pounds), pounds), ccement, ement, et tc. Long-term CO2 GHG emissions Gas diesel, etc. assist in evaluating remedial Apply cconversion onversion ffactors a tors (lb-CO2/gallon, ac (lb-CO2/gallon, lb-CO2/lbs) lb-CO2/ 2 lbs) Apply technologies proposed for H ealth & Sa fety H ours on n the the job, job, driving driving distance distance Health Safety Hours use on contaminated sites to C osts of remedy remedy $$ Costs determine the actual cost in


NEW TECHNOLOGY LEADS TO SIGNIFICANT COST AND TIME SAVINGS Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd, (GGS) the leading environmental consultancy specialising in continuous ground-gas monitoring and risk assessment, is actively promoting the use of the latest technology, though a series of seminars and training events through out the UK, to provide developers and regulators with higher confidence information that will save time and money. With the largest fleet of Gasclams® in the UK, GGS is able to obtain high quality, time-series data that reduces the uncertainty associated with conventional ‘spot’ sampling techniques. Instead of measuring the gas concentration and borehole flow, say, once a week, GGS’s equipment will collect over 1,000 readings. Loosely termed ‘continuous data’, information on the standard bulk gases (CH4, CO2 and O2) is collected together with other environmental parameters. These include atmospheric pressure, borehole pressure and ground-water level. While the wealth of information on the fluctuating gas concentrations is valuable in itself, the correlation of concentration with these other parameters provides a unique insight into key factors that affect the ground gas regime at a site and the gas migration drivers. Additional information on the gas flux at a particular location can also be obtained by GGS by carrying out borehole purge and recovery tests. These provide real data for quantitative risk assessments.

A recent GGS project involved a hold-up to an ongoing development. Due to fears of potential ground–gas contamination, a housing development was facing up to a three month delay while sufficient spot sampling data was collected. Instead, GGS obtained two weeks of continuous data and produced a technical report that demonstrated, to the satisfaction of the local authority regulator, that there were no adverse risks from ground-gasses at the site.

Continuing Innovation By actively collaborating with the University of Manchester and Salamander, the company that developed the Gasclams®, GGS is assisting in the development of techniques to interpret VOC time-series data. With the recent publication of the new CIRIA guidance document, C682 ‘The VOCs Handbook’, the latest Gasclams® which will have VOC PID, H2S and CO sensors will be a valuable additional tool to gather continuous data. Continuous ground-gas data provides additional lines of evidence that reduces uncertainty. By better understanding the risks associated with ground-gas contamination, over design of gas management systems can be avoided and more sustainable solutions can be provided. While current guidance provides valuable background information, a best practice technical note is currently being written on the collection and interpretation of continuous ground-gas data and will be available in the New Year.

Fast Response Team Ground-Gas Solutions Ltd operates throughout UK and Ireland and is able to deploy equipment in existing standard borehole installations quickly and efficiently to help solve problems for clients and lead consultants.

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terms of energy and carbon in employing those tools. However, it is evident in economic terms that the cost of implementing what might be the most environmentally sustainable technology to remediate a site may significantly increase the cost of the remediation project. The USEPA have identified six core elements in their Green Remediation Primer (Table 1). The elements include energy and water requirements, air emissions, waste generation, land and ecosystem impacts, long term stewardship issues and health and safety. These elements need to be incorporated into remediation options appraisals using a scorecard to evaluate the technologies. Arcadis ,like other consultancies, has been involved in the development of tools or calculators which can be used to quantify these elements in order to assess the overall impact on the cost of a project (Figure 2). The result is that there are trade-offs that have to be considered in remedial option selection and the site owner or developer has to decide what is the most important factor for them in cleaning up a site.

Tools exist however, which if implemented during the initial stages of the project, i.e. the site investigation, could lead to a decreased cost of the remedial program. In the UK a site investigation is designed to follow the guidelines set out within CLR 11 and BS10175. Contaminated Land Report 4 (1994) and the Best Practice Guidance 1 (Forest Research , 2006) provide guidance on numbers of samples required to identify a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;hot spotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; but guidance on sampling in order to delineate an area requiring treatment is pretty much non-existent. In the United States, the USEPA has been promoting the Triad approach to managing projects which utilises onsite and real time decision making by using on-site screening and analytical ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


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tools. By using this approach, the investigator can collect more data that can be used to inform the design of the remediation program often reducing the overall area and depth interval requiring treatment. This in turn allows for a more sustainable approach to the remediation to be implemented. In Europe a Triad Community of Practice has been set up and is managed by the Environmental Knowledge Transfer Network. Currently the activity within this group is limited to consultancies and regulators who have an interest in implementing this approach and the sharing of knowledge. Further information is available from

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In the UK there are a number of on-site tools which can be used to evaluate sites to determine more precisely the spatial distribution of a contaminant within a soil. For volatile contaminants tools such as the Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) or the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) probe can make a major difference to remediation design (Figures 3 and 4). The daily cost of use of this equipment is similar to that of a direct push drilling rig as the probes are generally part of such a system. The rig is supplied with a driller to operate the mechanics and an analyst to operate the instrumentation and make interpretation on site. The output of these tools is semi-quantitative and thus some coring will have to be done to collect soil samples for verification purposes. However as illustrated in Figure 5, both the vertical distribution of the contaminants and changes in the sub-surface geology can be profiled quickly and accurately. This approach to site investigation makes the use of more sustainable remedial technologies more likely, as the unknowns associated with contaminant distribution are significantly reduced and the remediation can be designed to target the specific zone of

Soil and Water Remediation is an independent UK based specialist remediation contractor providing all aspects of Site assessment and Remediation services. The company's fundamental aim is to provide cost effective, pragmatic and impartial solutions for clients with problematic sites requiring remedial solutions. Our services include: In-situ bioremediation Ex-situ bioremediation In-situ chemical oxidation Dual vapour extraction Pump and treat Systems Dig and dump Ecology services – inc Japanese knotweed erradication For further information on any of the above, please call: Brian Graham, Fareham Tel: 01329 846824 Email: bgraham@ Alan Mckillop, Dundee

Tel: 01382 562540 Email: amckillop@

Advanced FTIR gas analysis technology for: · Chemical spill response · Occupational hygiene · Contaminated land · Leak detection · Anaesthetic gases · And almost anything else!


contamination within the subsurface, thereby conserving the reagent more effectively targeting the contaminated zone. Cost has been mentioned several times and it is useful to illustrate the economic benefit of using this approach. Figure 5 is a plot of a site where the MIP was employed to delineate a contaminant hot spot. The initial investigation had identified contamination was present in a 5.5 x 9m area estimated to the top of the underlying sandstone at 4 meters bgl. Thus it identified 198m3 of soil to be remediated. The MIP investigation on a regular 1 meter grid was able to reduce the volume of soil requiring remediation to 25.2 m3. In this instance the soil would have been classified as a hazardous waste and thus, if remediation was through excavation and disposal to landfill it would have required pre-treatment and cost £79,200 to remediate at a cost of £200/tonne. However, if the reduced volume of soil was to be disposed then the cost of disposal would have been £10,080. The cost to undertake the MIP investigation, which involved the placing of 49 MIP points, was £7,500. Analytical costs associated with collection of verification samples was

£6,000. Thus the cost to remediate the site using the dig and dump approach could have been significantly reduced, increasing the sustainability of the approach by reducing the number of lorries and landfill space required. However, the site was actually treated in-situ using chemical oxidation. The knowledge gained from the MIP investigation allowed for a more targeted approach to injection of oxidant, which was done through both the use of injection wells screened to target the 0.5m thick interval containing the contaminant and through injection directly into the zone down rods. This project was in fact a pilot trial and the costs were significantly higher than those which are presented here: However, in-situ chemical oxidation can typically be used at a cost of £65/tonne. Thus using the in-situ approach this site would have cost £16,776, which is still less than the £23,580 cost of the dig and dump approach. There has been a hesitance of clients to approve proposals for site investigation from consultants which they view as expensive. However, increasing the scope of the investigation through the use of on-site tools can significantly decrease the costs of remediation and result in use of more sustainable approaches to remediation.

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We all deserve a clean, safe environment in ARCADIS is one of the largest global providers of which to live remediation solutions to the public and private sectors. The company has built its reputation within the remediation sector by pioneering innovative technologies. We focus on the development of cost effective, innovative remedial solutions. Our UK remediation team consists of the very best engineers and scientists, many of whom are internationally recognized experts on remedial technologies. The team is supported by global technical knowledge and innovation teams. ARCADIS in the UK has a full-service capability within the remediation sector, being able to design and implement bioremediation, chemical oxidation / reduction, stabilisation, thermal and physical remedial solutions, which may be combined to form a treatment train approach. We define our success by both surpassing our Clientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations and making positive and lasting impact on the environments, people and places we touch.

For more information contact: Business Development | ARCADIS | 2 Craven Court | Newmarket | Suffolk | CB8 7FA | Tel +44 (0) 1638 674767 | Fax +44 (0) 1638 668191 | |

© 2009 Boart Longyear. All rights reserved.

CASE STUDY Sellafield, Cumbria, UK

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“I was impressed with the speed of drilling, how clean the drilling process was and how the rig could penetrate through all types of ground conditions.” - F. Dennis Golder Associates (UK) Ltd

Drilling Services

Sonic Drill Technology Rota-Sonic: an example of cutting edge drilling technology BOART LONGYEAR COMPLETES THE FIRST ROTA-SONIC DRILLING PROJECT AT A NUCLEAR LICENCED SITE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM. We are proud to announce that our drilling services team has completed the first deployment of a Rota-Sonic drill rig on a nuclear licensed site within the UK. Our crews successfully accomplished the difficult assignment of drilling approximately 125 boreholes, up to 60m in depth, using up to 228mm casing in a number of radiological and non-radiological controlled areas where space was limited.

CASE STUDY Sellafield, Cumbria, UK

SONIC DRILLING Drilling Services, UK





In February 2008 Boart Longyear commenced drilling on the Sellafield Site located on the west coast of Cumbria, England. The site is one of the most contaminated nuclear sites within the UK. Boart Longyear was commissioned to drill approximately 125 boreholes, up to 60m in depth, across the site located in both radiological and non-radiological controlled areas. The site was predominantly underlain by a varying thickness of glacial drift deposits mainly comprising of boulder clay and till overlying weathered and fractured sandstone. CHALLENGE

Successfully advanced through made ground including steel reinforced concrete. (Steel sample shown here)

The project presented many obstacles, including working within radiological controlled areas, and drilling within a limited space. These challenges were overcome by working closely with the client’s engineers and management team so each rig movement and drill location could be planned prior to any action taking place. In addition, all the drillers received comprehensive training at the Sellafield site and became classified workers under the Ionising Radiation Regulations. This increased their understanding and awareness with regards to working with potentially radiological contaminated arisings.

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This was the first time that a Rota-Sonic drill rig had been deployed and used on a nuclear licensed site within the UK. The Rota-Sonic drilling method was chosen by the client due to the integrated health and safety features, waste minimization, the quality of sample they received and the speed of drilling. Boreholes were advanced using 228mm, 203mm and 152mm casing to provide groundwater monitoring boreholes, as well as larger diameter pumping wells within the sandstone. The sampling technique provided the client with a continuous core sample which allowed them to log and sample throughout the depth of the bore and define horizons containing radiological and/or chemical contamination. Difficult ground conditions comprising of buried reinforced concrete and boulder clay containing large boulders were encountered. The Rota-Sonic system allowed the boreholes to continue through these ‘obstructions’.

Northern Office Telephone: +44 (0) 1259 727780 Southern Office Telephone: +44 (0) 1376 585917 Email:


QDS Environmental & ERM Best use of a combination of remediation techniques A former dye manufacturing facility significantly impacted with chlorinated benzene compounds was successfully remediated within nine months. The works employed a combination of innovative solutions applied to one of the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most challenging source scenarios; that of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) at depth adjacent to and in continuity with a sensitive surface water receptor. A combination of in-situ and ex-situ technologies was applied to the task. Both source zone treatment and pathway intervention techniques were used including soils excavation; biological substrate injection for reductive dechlorination; riverbed sediments excavation; emplacement of a low permeability riverbed barrier; and injection of a microparticulate zero-valent iron slurry. It also employed the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first application of surfactant flushing in an aquifer and the second UK use of a Modified Waterloo Profiler.

pile management allowed 45% of this material to be reused on site.

The presence of Trichlorobenzene (TCB) and daughter products Dichlorobenzene (DCB) and Chlorobenzene in soil, sediment, surface water and groundwater demanded an innovative approach to safely and effectively remediate the area. During the remediation design stage ERM and QDS considered several approaches to treatment of the source zones. Since each source zone posed specific challenges and had separate requirements it became apparent that a single approach to remediation would not work. Intervention measures were also necessary between the source zones and the adjacent river, ultimately solved through the installation of a bentonite barrier on the river bed after the excavation of contaminated sediment, combined with the injection of microparticulate Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) through the riverbed to generate a permeable reactive zone. The use of microparticulate ZVI facilitated injection of the slurry through the riverbed while ensuring that sufficient ZVI was present to react with migrating dissolved phase TCB/DCB.

Deep saturated zone DNAPL: A total of 23 injection wells, installed to a maximum depth of 21mbgl, were used throughout the main source zone for surfactant injection. Analysis of soil cores allowed each well to be designed and installed to target the impacted horizons. The risk of contaminant migration, was mitigated through simultaneous injection & abstraction to ensure that a hydraulic balance was maintained within the aquifer. In total 7000m3 of groundwater laden with TCB, DCB and surfactants was abstracted and treated through QDS water treatment plant.

The complex nature of the works incorporating multiple technologies necessitated intensive laboratory trials in the QDS lab, and a series of site based pilot tests, to ensure that the final design would achieve the optimum treatment and recovery of contaminants. Intensive research and trials were applied into the selection and application of surfactants for use in the deep aquifer. The selected technologies were subsequently implemented by QDS and ERM across the site to achieve effective site remediation within the contractual period.

The works resulted in more than 9,000kg of source material being successfully treated, of which 2600kg of the most technically challenging material to treat was recovered through the surfactant flushing.

Shallow soils and river sediment: Whilst 6192 tonnes of soils and river sediments were excavated, the application of stringent excavation, segregation, classification and stock ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Residual dissolved phase impact: A total of 199 injection locations were used for the high-pressure injection of Emulsified Vegetable Oil (EVO) substrate into the aquifer to enhance in-situ reductive bio-degradation. 3,030m3 of solution was injected at 1m horizons through the aquifer to ensure effective distribution of the EVO and provide the long-term carbon source required for ongoing reductive dechlorination.

The remediation works enabled the sale of the land to a new owner, and was underpinned by a risk transfer strategy whereby the client passed liability for any further regulatory-driven work to the ERM/QDS team. The project was delivered on time, and to an agreed lump sum price. Regulatory sign-off was achieved within three months of submission of the verification report, and the project enjoyed an excellent relationship with all regulators throughout the duration of the works.

Delivering Land Regeneration

AWARD WINNING INNOVATION ........ or PROVEN PRAGMATIC SOLUTIONS QDS has the remediation solutions to match the commercial objectives

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Ecologia Environmental Solutions Most innovative remediation method Total UK appointed Ecologia to carry out a remediation assessment of an in-situ soil heating technology at a typical decommissioned petrol station with high groundwater vulnerability. It was impacted by VOCs such as benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylenes (BTEX) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), mostly with C<21. The contamination was confined within the unsaturated chalk strata l0m below ground level (mbgl). In-situ radio frequency heating (ISRFH) electrodes were used in a triangular array between 3 and 6mbgl together with eight multilevel SVE extraction wells (screened depth 2.5 - 5mbgl and 5.575mbgl). Hydrocarbon contamination at depth meant additional remediation was required to reduce potential future environmental liabilities. ISRFH ISRFH is used to excite polar molecules present within the soil profile, generating heat like microwaves do. ISRFH uses a frequency (13.56 MHz) with a wavelength of 22m, so has the capacity to penetrate the soil more than microwaves. ISRFH is effective in dealing with volatile contamination in tight, unsaturated soils which cannot be efficiently heated using steam due to mass transfer limitations. It also reduces the potential for uncontrolled contaminant mobilisation generally associated with steam injection in impermeable/fissured soils, and is less susceptible to soil moisture than resistive heating (three-phase or six-phase) so the system performance is unlikely to collapse when soil dries. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Due to the good penetration of radiowaves into the soil, ISRFH produces a much smoother soil temperature gradient than the extreme gradient generally associated with conductive soil heating with simple heating coils/rods. ISRFH energy is delivered into surrounding soils by electrodes 3-4m apart at predetermined, discrete depths. It can be coupled with a soil vapour extraction (SVE), or a multi phase extraction (MPE) system to extract the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile contaminants that are mobilised by heat from the ISRFH system. This can also be easily coupled with resistive heating for unsaturated and saturated soils for less energy, using the same piece of equipment. Data from the remediation process demonstrated that combining ISRFH in-situ heating with SVE would: • Significantly increase the removal rate of volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from unsaturated chalk • Significantly improve the final soil contaminant concentrations • Significantly reduce treatment times without excessive energy costs. Soil retains heat well, so once a predetermined temperature has been reached the energy intensive ISRFH can be turned off, while the SVE continues to operate at a much improved extraction rate. This significantly reduces the treatment time, and therefore energy demand.

we suck

That is to say, our remediation equipment sucks... literally. Much of our remedial work is carried out using scientifically advanced, in situ-techniques which avoid the need for more intrusive excavation, thus reducing environmental impact.

We actively develop faster, more efficient remediation methods, testing new techniques, enabling us to meet our clients’ needs in the best and most economical way.

Call Ecologia now: +44 (0)1795 471611 or visit: TEL +44 (0)1795 471611 FAX +44 (0)1795 430314


experts on the ground



Redland Minerals (Redland) and Crest Nicholson (Crest) have lost an appeal against a remediation notice served by the Environment Agency. The remediation notice identified pollution linkages involving both bromate and bromide, which is leaching from the soil at a housing development, near Hatfield, into groundwater in a chalk aquifer which supplies drinking water to two water companies. The notice demanded that the parties characterise the linkages in detail to allow treatment options to be assessed, which might then become requirements in future notices. The cost of scavenge pumping as a temporary measure is currently around £600k per year, so future remediation may be extremely costly. Under Part 2A of the Environmental Protection Act 1990, liability for contamination falls upon the persons who caused or knowingly permitted contaminants to be present. The remediation notice identifies both parties as appropriate persons liable to pay for the clean-up. Redland are said to be responsible for the bromate assessment actions, having caused the pollutant to be present in the land. Redland bought Streetley Chemicals which had operated a facility on the site (between 1955 and 1980) on which Crest then built the houses. In acquiring Streetley after the site had closed, Redland also acquired that company’s liabilities but Redland argued that it should be excluded from liability for pollution caused by bromide because Crest bought the land with knowledge of the broad measure of the pollutant’s presence. The Environment Agency accepted that Crest did not know of the bromate but did consider Crest responsible for the bromide because, having been informed about this, they knowingly permitted it to remain under the land during the period when they had total control of the site, between 1983 and 1986. However, as the assessment is a shared remediation action to be carried out concurrently, the liability for remediation was split between both parties such that Redland would bear 85% of costs associated with the bromate pollutant linkage and 45% of costs associated with the bromide linkage, with Crest bearing the remainder of each. This apportionment was the main basis of appeal. The appeal was heard by an inspector whose report was endorsed by the Secretary of State. Crest was found to have ‘caused’ the pollution by accelerating the movement of water -solENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

uble substances from contamination hot spots into the aquifer. Although they had replaced contaminated soils with clean fill to protect the householders, the inspector found that: “They were warned that exposing the soil to rainfall could mobilise contaminants whereas, up until that time, groundwater quality had been given some protection by roofs over the works buildings and by hard surfaces elsewhere on the site. However, within a few weeks, they were demolishing the hard-standing and buildings, leaving the ground open to the leaching effects of infiltration.” The environmental impact of this was said to be “substantial” in allowing rainfall to percolate through the waste collection sumps below the chemical production areas, accelerating the movement of water-soluble substances from these contamination hot spots into the aquifer. These contaminated surface layers were left exposed to rainfall for about 2½ years and, by the time they were excavated, some of the bromide (which was known about) and bromate (which had not yet been the subject of testing) had migrated down towards the aquifer. On this basis, Crest positively caused at least some of the bromide and bromate to be present in the area now affected and there was no need to consider whether Crest knowingly permitted the pollutants to be present by not taking sufficient steps to clear them up. The apportionment of liability in the remediation notice was therefore upheld and, as things stand, both parties will bear liabilities that they did not anticipate. Redland bought Streetley in the early 1990s after the houses had been built. It probably never foresaw any difficulties with decommissioned sites of this sort. Crest had sought to protect householders in their development but may not have paid enough attention to the migration of chemicals downwards into the aquifer. In a case in which the liability may extend into the millions, the need for considerable due diligence in developing brown land has rarely been clearer.

See further: Contaminated Land Remediation Notice served by the Environment Agency: Appeals by Redland Minerals Limited and Crest Nicholson Residential plc; APP/CL/05/01 APP/CL/05/02 – decision letter of 22 July 2009.

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By Trevor Renals


I have a confession. I

keep a variety of knotweeds potted in my garden. It’s important to ‘know your enemy’. I occasionally give some of them a dose of herbicide and they are subjected to protracted periods of drought. These plants are far from loved. Recently, during one of the drought periods, I noticed one plant looking considerably more healthy than its neighbours. I approached it with trepidation and my worst fears were confirmed. A rhizome had come out of the bottom of the pot, snaked its way past the tray in which it sat, contemptuously poked a hole through the damp course sheet on which I was resting them (which fails to comply with the standards I set on page 19 of my own code) and had rooted in the chippings below. Thankfully, the chippings were part of a last line of defence and the rhizome was completely extracted and destroyed. So how had the author of ‘The knotweed code of practice – managing Japanese knotweed on development sites’ made such a basic error? Frankly, all too easily. ‘Knowing your enemy’ had become ‘familiarity breeds contempt’. After 20 years of study I should have realised that Japanese knotweed is a plant that simply doesn’t want to stay still.

Since its introduction in the mid-nineteenth century, Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica has gone from gold medal winner to garden pariah. Similarly, on development sites, attitudes have shifted from complacency to paranoia. A whole industry has established itself around competing claims of secret control methods and swift eradication. Does one plant really deserve this reputation? Well, the simple answer is yes. Japanese knotweed can produce a

3m high monoculture, excluding almost all native plants and animals. Within river corridors it increases flood risk and restricts amenity. It obstructs sight-lines on transport corridors. In the urban environment is damages buildings, engineered surfaces and creates a sense of dereliction. Obstructed footpaths are unwalked, litter accumulates and vermin seek refuge amongst its canes. If you have seen an environment heavily impacted by Japanese knotweed you will realise that losing the war against this weed is an intolerable outcome. UK Japanese knotweed is derived from a single clone, spread by pieces of rhizome, crown and stem. Seeds are almost always sterile. As Japanese knotweed fell out of favour with gardeners, it was dumped into the wild. It also crept across garden perimeters, or down the watercourses on which it was often planted to hide the privy. Sometimes it was planted on spoil heaps for stabilisation. Flails spread it along roadsides and streams. Industries, such as mining and construction, spread soil containing rhizome across the landscape. It is small wonder that brown-field sites, subjected to historical industrialisation and the attentions of green waste fly-tippers are one of the most ubiquitous landscapes for Japanese knotweed. The costs associated with managing Japanese knotweed are legendary. In 2003 the Government arrived at a conservative estimate of £1.56 billion to remove Japanese knotweed from GB, if it were possible. I have since seen this figure quoted by the press as the actual annual cost of Japanese knotweed! The press has even adopted Japanese

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knotweed as a metaphor for people and organisations that place selfish interests above all else. Deriving the costs associated with invasive non-native species is notoriously hard. What is clear is that those who persevere with the task arrive at very large numbers. Defra estimate the annual cost of invasive non-native species to the UK to be at least £2 billion per annum. This year, the Institute for European Environmental Policy estimated the European cost at 19.1 billion euros per annum. In 2005, Pimental et al estimated the annual cost to the US, UK, South Africa, India and Brazil to be US $314 billion. This correlates to a global cost of US$1.4 trillion per year, representing nearly 5% of the world GDP.

meeting the relevant waste objectives), our policy is such that we would not normally prosecute for failure to have a waste management licence or permit.

Costs associated with knotweed management at individual brown-field developments are rarely forthcoming. The baseline cost, often used by contractors who wish to establish a favourable comparison with their own quote, is usually the cost of physically removing all soil potentially containing Japanese knotweed rhizome and disposing of it at landfill. This should always be regarded as an absolute last resort. Contrary to some claims, it is not the preferred option of the Environment Agency. We seek to manage waste in a sustainable manner that protects the environment and fleets of lorries filling landfill with soil at huge cost to industry is not the outcome we prefer. Developers can do a lot to avoid the ‘dig and dump’ option. As a general rule, the more time you have and the more space you have available on site (maybe due to different development phases) the greater your opportunities for knotweed management.

The code of practice is available on the Environment Agency website at http://www.environment Alternatively, request a free copy by calling our customer services line on 08708 506 506. The hard copy has the advantage of including the rhizome identification guide as a pocket-sized booklet for site use.

To help developers navigate through the complexities of waste regulation, the Environment Agency has produced a knotweed code of practice. The code describes the relevant legislation and some methods that have been shown to be effective at managing Japanese knotweed. The code is not intended to be the definitive answer to knotweed management. There are other methods that are equally effective that are not described within the code. What the code does provide is a range of methods which, if followed correctly (thus

The code of practice also includes a guide to Japanese knotweed rhizome identification and excavation. It is important that hauliers and contractors are able to recognise rhizome. Inspect a site before you buy it. Inspect topsoil before you accept it on site. If you don’t identify the presence of rhizome the outcome can be expensive. It can also be expensive if you misidentify rhizome. I know of at least one site that added considerably to their waste disposal bill by digging to a depth of 6m because they had mistaken sycamore root for knotweed rhizome!

A property slump is a good opportunity for minimal investment to improve the quality of land banks and significantly reduce costs when markets recover. Good control practices over a number of years prior to commencing development can significantly reduce the problems associated with Japanese knotweed. However, this comes with a health warning. Effective knotweed management will allow you to reuse the soil in proximity to the treated knotweed in a manner described within the code but it must not be regarded as free from Japanese knotweed and therefore suitable for sale as topsoil or disposal under an exemption from waste licensing. Japanese knotweed rhizome can remain dormant for many years without regrowing. Therefore, the absence of regrowth from a treated site cannot be regarded as evidence that knotweed is dead. The only option for disposing of such soil off-site is still a licensed landfill. However, options for reusing the material on-site, in a manner that poses minimal risk to the built and natural environment are greatly increased.

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As I gingerly excavated the rhizome from the chippings that provided one of the last defences against the soil of my garden, I felt a great sense of empathy with the engineers and developers who have to deal with Japanese knotweed. It creates yet another area of expertise which you need to have in order to do your job profitably and well. It is an ironic legacy from the Victorian era, which we associate with progress and industrial growth. I hope our legacy will be the generation that turned the tide of Japanese knotweed spread across the UK.

If you want to avoid becoming a victim of Japanese knotweed you need to follow some basic rules. 1. Before you purchase a site, have it surveyed for the presence of Japanese knotweed. Its presence may be obvious, towering purple-flecked stems in the summer, or dense thickets of dead brown stems in the winter. Alternatively, the site may have been treated and you may need to look for more subtle clues, such as pin-cushions of regrowth following sub-lethal herbicide treatment, or areas scorched by glyphosate. The site may have been scraped, in which case you will need to look for crushed canes and exposed rhizome and crowns. The identification booklet in the code of practice will assist you. If you find evidence of Japanese knotweed you may still wish to proceed with the purchase. However, you will need to ensure that the costs you will incur are reflected in the price youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re willing to pay. 2. Before you accept topsoil or any material covered by a waste exemption, inspect it for the presence of Japanese knotweed. Ideally, inspect the site from which it originates first. The greater the number of sources of material you accept, the greater the risk that one or more of them may


contain knotweed. Try to use material from each source in distinct areas, so that if knotweed begins to regrow you can reduce the amount of material you will need to treat or dispose of. It will also give you a stronger basis for a legal claim against the supplier. 3. Follow the code of practice carefully. Use it to audit your contractor. It is not intended to be an exhaustive description of every known method of knotweed treatment. Be cautious of claims of swift eradication. 4. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t generate waste unless you have to. Try to avoid having to excavate soil that contains knotweed. If excavation is unavoidable, ensure your waste streams are separated. Much of the soil on site may be disposed of in a manner that is exempt from waste licensing, if it can be kept free from knotweed contamination. There is a restricted access sign in the appendix of the code that can be used to label knotweed-contaminated soil. Discuss waste management issues with an Environment Officer from your local Environment Agency office.

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TO CATCH THE FLY... Mike Clough, Founder of Japanese Knotweed Solutions, questions whether the UK is fully prepared to introduce a non-native insect species to tackle the problem of Japanese Knotweed.

We are all aware of the child’s nursery rhyme of a lady who inadvertently killed herself after swallowing a fly, having sent in a host of other animals to counter the initial problem. If the British Government has its way, by the Spring 2010 legislative bodies in England and Wales will adopt a similar strategy by introducing a sap sucking aphid to tackle the problem of Japanese Knotweed. On the surface the case would seem simple enough, as the Non-native Species Policy Review Working Group estimates that to control the invasive alien plant Japanese knotweed, the Government would need to spend more than £2.6bn. The introduction of a sap sucking aphid would appear a cheap and effective solution to halt the growth of the plant, although no detailed cost benefit analysis has yet been published. The problem of Japanese knotweed is also literally growing day by day. In some cases Japanese knotweed grows at a rate of a metre a month - whether that’s on open ground or through tarmac or concrete. The plant’s roots spread at least 7 metres horizontally and can burrow 5 metres deep and roots or plant fragments as small as 0.7g (size of a fingernail) can propagate new growth meaning that the problem is particularly hard to manage other than with effective herbicide treatments or expensive controlled waste excavation.


Although the introduction of “Aphalara itadori”, the small aphid tasked with chomping its way through the UK’s Japanese knotweed problem, is not likely to cause the same levels of environmental damage as the Cane toad that was introduced to Australia or the Signal Crayfish in UK waters, careful consideration needs to be made. Should the Government decide to introduce the alien species in Spring 2010, are we confident that there are appropriate controls or procedures in place to manage the situation should Aphalara itadori behave differently in the field than expected? The Government’s own Pest Risk Assessment states that; “It is not certain that Aphalara itadori could be contained or eradicated once it has spread beyond the limited release area.” The spread of a non-native aphid naturally brings concerns. Although there has been some testing on other potential hosts for the aphid – a total of 87 species from the UK’s total biodiversity range – there are no guarantees that the aphid won’t cross breed or even become attracted to other plants as its natural home declines. The UK’s native aphids have for centuries caused British gardeners problems but with the help of predators and a keen eye, the problem is effectively managed. The introduction of a new species into the gardens of England and Wales means that currently there are no predators for the Aphalara itadori. Although great for the aphid, a lack of predators has often been cited as a key issue for the poor management of introduced species. Conversely, if they do become a preferred choice for ladybirds or wasps – how will that impact on the subsequent growth in population of either of these species or other aphids that are no longer preyed upon? There is no doubt that the issue of Japanese knotweed needs to be tackled as in many parts of the country the spread is continuing unchecked. The plant has the ability to spread and grow from ‘a piece as small as a fingernail’ – and the urbanisation of the countryside has accelerated the growth throughout the country as infested topsoil is introduced to development sites. These sites see Japanese knotweed quickly establish itself, causing significant problems whether by pushing through tarmac and concrete, to root structures weakening buildings or flooding as leaf litter blocks drainage.

Knotweed from development sites involves the application of a foliar applied herbicide as timescale remains the driving issue. Having to wait for an aphid to eat the foliage simply would not provide the solutions needed for the beleaguered construction industry and most importantly Aphalara itadori does not actually kill knotweed but simply helps manage its growth – thus it is simply not tackling the root of the problem. Admittedly current eradication methods remain expensive, whether herbicide treatment or excavation, and if the Government includes the plant in the Weeds Act (this Act has historically been used to cover weeds that could be a threat to our agricultural industry) the onus for active treatment would fall on the landowner to treat remove and eradicate Japanese Knotweed at their own expense. This approach is likely to be unpopular with powerful landowners and those with the biggest problem, such as the Environment Agency, Network Rail, the Highways Department as well as the various Local Authorities. Each has political influence and managing the issue at their own expense is also likely to be regarded as a non propriety or an unpopular measure for the tax paying public. Perhaps the Government’s time would be better spent legislating against intentional or unintentional spread of Japanese knotweed, supporting landowners with the problem and backing an already established industry in the treatment and eradication of the problem? Whatever course of action is decided upon, the answer at a local level remains in providing a viable and appropriate solution depending on a customer’s needs whether herbicide, excavation, introducing the aphid or the latest mesh treatments. When looking at a national level, a co-operative approach between the public and private sector is critical in order to utilise all available resources and stem the spread of the weed. So before the Government fully commits to a similar course of action as the unfortunate heroine of the nursery rhyme, hopefully final procedures will be in place to help manage any potential fall out from releasing a non-native insect onto our island. All being well however, this new and seemingly effective weapon will certainly help bolster the armoury available for the management of this evasive alien species.

Currently the main strategies for removing Japanese


Old buildings awaiting demolition, greenfield and brownfield sites and sites that on the surface of it may look fallow and uninhabited can all house any amount of wildlife, including protected species. Developers ignoring their statutory duties towards the conservation of protected species are leaving themselves open to prosecution. The list of protected species also goes a lot further than just the more â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;high profileâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bats and newts. The recent court case involving a Lancashire planning consultant who was given a six month conditional discharge and ordered to pay ÂŁ2,000 costs when he proceeded with the demolition of some former hospital buildings in North Wales that were known to house two protected species of bats, illustrates that the courts are prepared to get tough on developers who do not take the necessary mitigation steps for protected species when demolishing or developing land. In this case, the developer was aware of the presence of lesser horseshoe bats and brown long-eared bats at the former hospital site, having had a site survey undertaken two years previously. However, the work under the bat licence to relocate or provide replacement features in which they could live, which was the responsibility of the defendant, was never carried out.

Image thanks to Jane Stevens

There are a great many protected species in this country and it is the legal duty of developers and landowners to ensure that these species are provided with appropriate protection when demolishing buildings, clearing sites or developing land. As has been shown, not following some simple procedures could land the developer or his contractors in court but there are also tremendous opportunities to enhance schemes by ensuring that effective mitigation is in place right from the start. Under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 and other legislation, it is normally an offence to intentionally or recklessly kill, injure, take, possess or sell any protected species (whether alive or dead), to disturb the animal, or to damage, destroy or obstruct access to its place of shelter or protection. The range of species afforded legal protection is wide and includes bats, badgers, white clawed crayfish, newts, reptiles, water voles, adders, slow worms, numerous species of birds and butterflies and several more besides. Certain species, such as the dormouse, great crested newts, sand lizards, bats and large blue butterflies are described as European Protected Species of Animals and are subject to very strict legal protection under the Habitats Regulations 1994. There is also a long list of plants afforded similar protection.



Image thanks to Jane Stevens

So, faced with a demolition or development site, the onus is on the developer to ensure that they do not fall foul of the law by intentionally or unintentionally disturb a protected species. Ignoring the legislation is not an option and could well leave the developer with a significant bill and a delayed development, which could prove very expensive indeed. However, arranging an ecological survey of your site to identify the presence of any protected species and then putting mitigation procedures in place, should they be needed, is not a complicated procedure, neither is it expensive. It also allows developers the opportunity to enhance their development by taking advantage of the expertise of the ecological team. What is most important is to involve ecological experts throughout the life of the project to ensure the right procedures are followed and the law is kept off your back. The first stage is the Extended Phase 1 habitat survey which can be carried out year round. Should follow on surveys be necessary to establish presence of any protected species, this is usually undertaken between April and September when animals are out of the hibernation period. For plants, the optimal time is June to July but they can often be undertaken earlier or later to coincide with animal surveys. These surveys comprise a combination of desk research of existing ecological records, including a search by the Local Biological Records Centre, and a detailed on-site survey by a qualified, specialist ecologist to identify signs of legally protected species and any other notable species. Clients are presented with a habitat map together with a report with recommendations. This will give the developer directions on what to do next.

Ecological consultants, can provide surveys which show if you have protected species present or the habitat for protected species and will manage the necessary steps, whether these include mitigation plans, on-site trapping and translocation, or the creation of new features or habitats for the future. A mitigation strategy will enable you to safeguard protected species as your development proceeds and deal with all issues of meeting your legal requirements. This strategy document needs approval from national agencies, such as Natural England, and Local Authorities, which an ecological consultant will arrange â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and then needs actioning on the ground. Again, this procedure can be straightforward but ignoring it can easily lead to lost time and stretched cash flow or even prosecution. For example, with some developments, providing a few bat boxes to replace existing roosting sites may be all you need. In other cases a whole new maternity box may be needed. Translocation to other suitable sites could be required and specialist help is needed to ensure safe and successful movement.


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A recent project for Middlemarch Environmental involved a barren demolition site featuring shallow puddles in aggregate and piles of crushed concrete as well as patches of sparse vegetation. At first sight, this area was devoid of wildlife. However, a site inspection revealed several breeding pairs of very rare little ringed plovers. With fewer than 1,000 breeding pairs nationally, the birds are listed on Schedule 1 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act. Lapwings were also noted to be breeding and a range of other passage wading birds were using the site to rest. The developer was unaware that little ringed plovers prefer post-industrial areas such as quarries, gravel pits, sparsely vegetated and recently bulldozed land for breeding purposes. Nests are located on the ground and consist of no more than a shallow scrape.

Image thanks to battyjan

Here, timing was key in order to minimise disturbance to these rare birds. The birds move in to breed between March and June, leaving again around August, so re-development works were scheduled over the winter period. An ecological consultant will advise not only on the best time to schedule demolition and construction but also on how such sites can be made unsuitable for the nesting birds in the short term to allow development to take place. Developers have a unique opportunity by working with ecological consultants to ensure compliance with the legislation and find creative ecological solutions to specific site issues as well. Where drainage is an issue for instance, ecological consultants can advise on the creation, management and maintenance of wetland habitats that meet both drainage issues and the needs of a whole range of protected species that may need to be relocated from the main site. Today, more and more developers are working closely with ecological consultants as a matter of course. Ecological surveys at the beginning of a project identify all issues surrounding protected species. If these are identified, measures can be quickly and efficiently put in place to ensure due diligence by the developer and compliance with legislation. Where there are opportunities for ecological enhancements, the ecological consultant can provide advice and help in planning these into the overall project. At a strategic level, they can help too in developing Biodiversity Action Plans and, at a practical level, can assist in planning how to implement Section 106 agreements.

Middlemarch Environmental Ltd is an integrated ecological consultancy with national coverage from offices in Allesley, Coventry. They are one of the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading biodiversity consultancies with a turnover in 2008 of over ÂŁ3m. Their clients range from private clients to Local Authorities and blue-chip companies. The company and staff are members of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, the Institute of Environmental Management and

Assessment and the Society for Ecological Restoration. The team includes over 25 suitably qualified ecologists, expert in various disciplines allowing them to deliver a complete service from ecological survey to mitigation works for clients. The company was first set up in 1989 and is a whollyowned subsidiary of Warwickshire Wildlife Trust, which is itself part of The Wildlife Trusts, the largest voluntary organisation in the UK concerned with all aspects of nature conservation and the environment.



Critical shortage of skilled workers could jeopardise future food supplies By Gordon McGlone Population increases, a dietary shift, the growth of biofuels and global warming are all factors which are impacting seriously upon the world’s ability to feed itself. Mass hunger and civil unrest over food shortages could spread more widely unless action is taken. Last year’s depleted harvests, soaring fuel prices and weak pound gave the UK an early taste of how food prices rocket when food supplies are reduced or become more expensive to cultivate or import. UK Government are now under pressure to ensure Britain is not only closer to being self-sufficient but commits to the joint moral obligation of those who, by virtue of their geographical position on the planet, have the ability to grow food and contribute towards increasing global supplies. According to Defra’s document Agriculture in the UK, the UK currently produces only 60% of its own food, down from 67% in the late 1990s. There are a number of reasons for this. The UK has for many years enjoyed a rich and varied diet, where the traditional seasonality of foods has largely become ignored and exotic produce from around the world is common place. Supermarket giants have seen their buyers travel the world to secure the supply of large volumes of appealing food which they can sell profitably at prices attractive to consumers but British growers must cope with weather shifting harvest dates, higher wage bills and stricter legislation. Prior to agriculture being part of the global marketplace, a poor harvest would see prices rise, enabling farmers and growers to recover costs and earn sufficient income. Today, food imports from countries that are willing to sell to the highest bidder, despite local hunger, is resulting in UK land being turned over to other uses. But this is not the only threat to food security. Lantra’s recently published Skills Assessment Report offers a stark ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

warning that unless current trends are reversed, the UK’s ability to produce enough food to be self-sufficient will fail due to a critical shortage of skilled workers in the environmental and land-based sector. The unpredictable returns, reduced profit margins and the diminishing number of young people with a passion for cultivation, the countryside and its wildlife, are all reasons why agriculture is struggling. Some 60,000 new entrants are needed in agriculture and horticulture over the next decade simply to replace those retiring. Currently 41% of the agricultural workforce is over 50. The average age of key decision makers on farms is around 55 and close to half of these do not have successors in place. In recent years economic migrants have enabled growers to meet the seasonal demands of agriculture but numbers have fallen over the last two years and relying on this source of labour is uncertain. Lantra is working to attract new entrants. This has included developing new qualifications with an environmental and land-based element that can be delivered in schools and colleges to 14-19 year-olds. Industry is being asked to help support and develop a positive image for these courses. Lantra is also re-launching its careers website,, this Spring to demonstrate the breadth of opportunities offered by the sector. The levels of knowledge and range of skills required to run a successful, profitable agricultural business has increased over recent years. The agricultural workforce is highly skilled with 51% of jobs requiring two or more years’ learning, though this need not necessarily be through the attainment of qualifications. Currently some 31% of vacancies across agriculture are hard to fill because of skills shortages, compared to 21% across all sectors, with significant problems experienced by those wishing to find farm managers (70%) or farmers (59%).

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It is important to have skilled, competent workers who can adopt and implement new methods and techniques. The sector needs to be equipped with the right professional skills, delivered through apprenticeships, qualifications, continuing professional development and other forms of knowledge-transfer. Modern technology must be embraced to optimise efficiency, increase yields and meet the drive for economic, environmental and social sustainability. Extensive management skills and knowledge is needed to understand and meet issues relating to supply chains, food quality and traceability, land usage and changing consumer patterns. Lower profit margins require risk to be minimised, and returns optimised for a business to be viable, and all this must be achieved in conjunction with care of the environment and higher animal welfare standards. Climate change is already varying temperature and rainfall patterns, leading to altered crop timings and cycles. Increasingly scarce resources will need to be well managed in order to operate in a sustainable way. There will be changes to materials used, planting and yields. Biodiversity must also be conserved, while new pests and diseases previously unseen in this country are likely to appear. Lantra is responding to agriculture and horticulture’s need to develop a wider range of skills, adopt new technology and better working methodologies. Through working with employers, Lantra is supporting the changing workforce profile and, in consultation with industry, updating the sector’s National Occupational Standards (NOS). These describe the skills, knowledge and understanding needed to do all the particular tasks or jobs within an industry. They must reflect innovation, new technology, legislation and modern good practice. Lantra also works with businesses and trade associations on industry specific research projects. It also influences policy and helps identify areas where funding or support should be directed. It is crucial for businesses to recognise and apply the latest research, a great deal of which is being generated through initiatives sponsored by the energy industries and levy boards. Effective knowledge and technology transfer will be key to ensuring Britain has a successful farming industry. Lantra manages or co-ordinates a wide variety of training programmes to help our sector achieve this. In England we work with six of the nine Regional Development Agencies to deliver LandSkills, a programme specially designed to address the needs for farmers, growers and foresters and others whose livelihoods depend on primary production or land management. The programme funds training that ensures access to the right kind of information and training. It is all about developing businesses, no matter their size, with the skills and knowledge that will benefit them and their productivity, rather than adding qualifications. LandSkills works with local training providers, partner organisations and industry to develop the best ways to achieve this. Many in our sector have also benefited from England’s Women and Work Programme which helps boost women’s ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

access to funded training. The aim is to help progression prospects in industries where their gender is under-represented and over time encourage more women into these industries. Business Forward is a programme, jointly run by Agri-Bip, Lantra and the Rural Business School at Duchy College, aiming to help and support rural businesses in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly with training and staff development. Lantra manages the Farm Business Advisers Accreditation Scheme for Scotland (FBAASS), which has accredited over 100 advisers to deliver Whole Farm Reviews. The Scottish Rural Development Programme funding is enabling rural women to further develop their business skills, also assisting families with succession planning. In Wales Lantra arranges 50% funding support to develop the skills of rural businesses through Farming Connect. Best practice events, commissioned by the Environment Agency Wales, have also been run to deliver advice on effective sheep ectoparasite control, health and safety and environmental advice to safeguard waterways. To help recognise skills built within the work place, Lantra has developed Skills Manager, an online system which enables employees’ training and experience to be recorded and verified in a standard manner across an industry. It is an easy, cost effective method of maintaining training records that increases productivity and reduces the likelihood of spending money on unnecessary training. It also demonstrates an employer’s commitment to skills and investment in staff development, so helps attract and retain employees. The benefits provided can include increased customer confidence and assistance with assurance scheme compliance. Examples of successful Skills Manager applications within agriculture include the Poultry Passport, administered by Poultec; the Pig Passport delivered through Quality Meat Scotland; and the Dairy Skills Passport (again Scotland) delivered through First Milk. Crofters in Scotland, keen to preserve and record the skills they rely upon, have worked with Lantra, through the Crofters Foundation, to develop the National Occupational Standards for their industry and a paper version of Skills Manager due to a lack/or slowness of the online technology in their often remote locations. A further version of Skills Manager, the National Student Database, is bridging the gap between further education and the world of work. It will help students demonstrate all aspects of their education and work experience to prospective employers and can be used by students to research future job roles and recognise the skills they should be building if they wish to pursue particular careers. For some, particularly smaller family-run operations, diversification has become essential to the survival of the farm. Businesses in the sector are already willing to co-finance schemes when they are provided with the right training. The LandSkills programme, co-funded by employers and EU funds through the Rural Development Plan for England, is

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highly successful as it links skills development with business support. This approach should be replicated in the mainstream. There are ambitious hi-tech projects and innovative new methods being introduced across the UK. The growing season of salad crops is being successfully extended. Biodigesters are turning waste into electricity and natural fertiliser. GPS and aerial scanning is increasing efficiency and reducing fertiliser usage. Robotic milking is increasing yields. The services of agronomists are helping farmers and growers to predict the varieties that should produce good yields within particular fields and require less chemical aid. Although there are high capital costs and knowledge requirements associated with many of these new technologies, their greater efficiencies and benefits could help the UK to compete in today’s agricultural world market and help reduce the environmental impact caused by farming. However the role of the consumer cannot be ignored. Although I am sure no-one would expect the UK population to forgo its passion for exotic produce or shift from diets that are intrinsic to this country’s rich array of cultures, there is still plenty the public can do to support Britain’s drive for increased self-sufficiency. Consumers are the final link of the food supply chain with the collective buying power to influence what is stocked on the supermarket shelves or direct from outlets such as from farms or farm shops. They can support the various farm assurance schemes that demonstrate high standards

practiced by many UK farmers and growers. They can buy in season home-grown produce or food from sustainable sources, such as managed estates or fish farms, rather than the wild and accept that produce comes with the minor imperfections of nature and which has no bearing on its quality. If agriculture and horticulture is to deliver the high level productivity required to feed this nation in future years, it must be recognised as a strategic priority by governments and action taken. Environmental and land-based businesses spend more money on skills and training per employee than any other sector; £2,975 a year, compared to an all-England average of £1,725 but they often miss out on grants and economies of scale which benefit larger companies. Nearly one in ten businesses across the UK is in the environmental and land-based sector, yet they are often overlooked as 96% are micro-businesses employing fewer than ten people. Yet the nation cannot afford to get this wrong. Farmers and growers must be equipped with the right kind of specialist. Governments need to back costeffective skills initiatives that are tailored to the needs of the sector. The proposed Agri-Skills Strategy, to which Lantra is contributing, aims to increase the recognition of skills and further professionalise the sector. There are thousands of businesses out there prepared to play their part but their vital role in feeding the nation has to be supported and understood by Government.

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Dr Patricia Wouters Professor of International Water Law, Director Dundee UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science University of Dundee

“The consequences for humanity are grave. Water scarcity threatens economic and social gains and is a potent fuel for wars and conflict.” Ban Ki-moon, UN Secretary- General (2009)

Water for Life “The world has to respond much better”— Almost 5 years ago, UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan, on the occasion of World Water Day (22 March 2005) launched the “Water for Life” decade, urging States to move beyond national sovereign boundaries and to act collectively in addressing the world’s water problems — an approach now echoed by the private sector and some national governments under the aegis of the World Economic Forum, looking at water resources management in the long shadow of the global financial crisis.1 Whilst this all sounds very nice and seems a sensible way forward, has any real progress been made? Without a doubt, water has moved up the global political agenda, although one wonders where it is to be found in the current climate change negotiations soon to be advanced in Copenhagen.2 Water security, often linked with energy and food security, currently captures political, academic and NGO debates around the globe, and drives discourse that often concludes with the refrain that business as usual simply will not do. How will such innovation be harnessed?

The work of the UN – In line with the UN Charter’s fundamental focus on promoting regional peace and security,3 more than 20 UN bodies work on water around the world and recently presented their collective views on this topic, through the 3rd World Water Development Report (“Water in a Changing World”)4 at the 5th World Water Forum (Istanbul, March 2009). That study warned of the increased likelihood of conflicts, resulting from water scarcity, climate change and other water-related activities and the shared world view is that the global community will fail to meet the Millennium Development Goals on water, in spite of evident increased attention to this topic, and numerous ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

local, regional and global efforts and initiatives (notable among these is the work of the Global Water Partnership).5 However, more action needs to be taken, especially on the development side, with investments inadequate to meet demands, especially for the poorest and voiceless.

The have and have-nots — The availability of, and assured access to, fresh water is often the difference between poverty and prosperity, life and death for more than ½ of the world’s population who live in the 80 countries that regularly suffer serious water shortages. By 2025, 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity and 2/3 of the world population could be under stress conditions, including most of the Middle East and North Africa, Southern Africa, and large parts of India and China. To sustain their needs, these countries need to focus on water use strategies that maximise the economic and social return of limited water resources and, at the same time, enhance the water productivity of all sectors. In this endeavor, special attention is required on issues of equity in access to water and social impact of water allocation policies. Conflicts-of-use will inevitably arise across a number of dichotomies. Crossing national, and political boundaries — The situation becomes even more complex when we introduce transboundary waters into the mix — more than 250 major rivers, lakes and aquifers around the world are shared by two or more States, often in situations of regional unrest. The UN Charter (the law of nations), concluded following one of the most violent international conflicts, provides the foundation for peaceful relations among States, and its fundamental objectives of promoting regional peace and security are directly relevant to the global water resources problematique. The 1997 UN Watercourses Convention, yet

to enter into force, provides a solid framework for the peaceful management of the world’s shared fresh water resources and should be endorsed more broadly by the international community.

Water for All? How would you decide? — If you had to determine “who” would get “what” “water” — how would you decide? It is a difficult question that needs a response in many countries around the world. On the Mekong — is China entitled to build dams upstream on the headwaters, or should the full flow of the water be sustained to meet the needs of the Tonle Sap (the Great Lake) in Cambodia, which produces fish to feed growing populations? And / or, should Laos be given the go-ahead to build hydroelectric dams on the Mekong, in order to support economic development; or should the full -flow of the river be protected for use downstream, to prevent salt-water intrusion in Vietnam? On the Nile — the 10 riparian States seek agreement on how they cooperatively develop the shared resources of the Blue and White Nile, struggling with historical events, and remain at an impasse in their current negotiations. Water security issues threaten large parts of Australia, the Middle East, Central Asia, Latin America; China and India face serious challenges now, with more in the future related to insufficient quantities and quality of water to meet growing populations, including serious problems with pollution, over-exploited groundwater, and recurring droughts and floods. In fact, problems over water seem omnipresent, while solutions are disparate and difficult to find and effectively implement.

Why Water Law? Law is not a panacea, but it helps — When difficult choices have to be made, where there is the potential for conflict, when a fair and just decision is required — the importance of a transparent, credible and responsive framework for ensuring these problems are addressed predictably and legitimately is readily evident. Where there is insufficient quality or quantity of water to meet all needs, priorities must be agreed or determined. And indeed, as the choices become more interconnected — witness the water/energy/food security trialogue; the financial/economic/trade interface; the national sovereignty vs. collective action debate; — each and all of these pressing dichotomies underline the need for clarity. At the international level, the culture of peace promoted by the UN Charter, and reflected in the identifiable body of treaty and customary laws that govern transboundary waters, offers a framework for certainty. Part of this package includes the 1997 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses (UNWC),6 which should be supported by the international community so that it enters into force, in line with the Hashimoto Report recommendations (UNSGAB’s ongoing work; see article by Margaret Catley-Carlson in July/August 2009).International water law provides a roadmap for the peaceful management of the world’s shared water resources.

Water Law and More Working across disciplinary silos — The “global water challenge” presents new opportunities for interdisciplinary research, including water law as an integral component. Together, we must find innovative ways to work together – to collaborate on out-of-the-box research, to devise exciting and relevant new graduate and training programmes focused on developing our next generation of “local water leaders”, as an enlightened community of champions mentored and supported at the local level in all regions of the world. How the international community manages its transboundary waters now and in the future will determine whether or not there will be wars over water, and how possible conflicts-of-use might be avoided or resolved. International water law provides a transparent and dynamic legal framework to tackle these issues in ways that promote regional peace, prosperity and security – and more water resource experts need to know this more fully.

A New Generation of Local Water Leaders Local Water Leaders — In a world already facing crises over water, at the local, regional and international levels, we need fresh new thinking, applied at the local level — identifying local needs and finding innovative solutions that can be applied to the benefit of all. The challenge is great — with climate change, natural disasters and growing populations, added to all of the complex issues linked with global poverty — the demands for efficient, effective and equitable access to the world’s diminishing water resources are increasingly more difficult to meet. The single-sector approach to water management is no longer tenable. We need innovative and operational interdisciplinary approaches, led by a broad constituency of fresh new talent: eco-hydrologists, engineers, natural and social scientists, lawyers who are willing to move out of their comfort zones and set in motion a new dynamic based upon creative partnerships, working together with common purpose. At the University of Dundee UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science we are trying to make our contribution to this important mission. Professor Wouters, a Professor of international water law, leads the University of Dundee UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science, where a team of water lawyers and scientists conduct water-related research in Scotland and around the world and teach on the Water Law, Water Leaders graduate teaching / training programme. See 1 World Economic Forum, Summit on the Global Agenda, Dubai, November 2009. See 2 “Water evaporates from the climate change negotiating text” , Press release, 3 November 2009, Global Water Partnership; see s_release.pdf 3 UN Charter, see 4 5 GWP, see 6 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, UN Doc. A/51/869 (21 May 1997; not yet in force), reprinted in 36 I.L.M. 700 (1997). ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Environment Agency prosecutions CASE 1: Liquid waste spreading incident costs firm £34,000

CASE 4: Waste broker fined for breach

Liquid waste spread on a field to fertilise it at Priory Farm, Braisworth, grossly polluted a tributary of the River Dove having a catastrophic impact on macroinvertebrates and restricting some crop growth on the land.Bury St Edmunds Magistrates’ Court fined the company responsible, EnviroWaste Ltd, a total of £17,000 with £17,159 full costs for two offences relating to the spreading.Enviro-Waste Thetford, Norfolk pleaded guilty to polluting the stream and disposing of controlled waste at Priory Farm, Braisworth, Eye without a waste management licence.

A waste broker has been fined for its role in the disposal of storage drums contaminated with a hazardous chemical. At Teesside Magistrates’ Court, Innovation Waste Management Limited (“IWM”) pleaded guilty to an environmental offence by misdescribing waste which was subsequently sent to a scrapyard. The company, of Woodside Business Park, Birkenhead, Wirral, was the waste broker for the disposal of storage drums, which should have been washed but in fact contained hazardous waste residues which caught fire and were potentially hazardous to scrapyard staff.

CASE 2: Oxfordshire farmer fined for creating a flood risk

CASE 5: Recycling business stockpiled waste

Mr Paul Caudwell, the owner of Caudwell and Sons Limited, Oxfordshire, was ordered to pay £2,600 by Didcot Magistrates’ Court after pleading guilty to two offences of failing to obtain consent to carry out dredging and forming a structure within eight metres of the bank. The company was also ordered to pay the Environment Agency’s costs of £2,500.The court heard that on the 13 March 2009 a member of the public telephoned the Environment Agency to say that a farmer was scraping up the river bank with a digger and building a barrier of boulders and earth along the banks of Ginge Brook. The brook, which is a shallow and mainly fast flowing water course, is known to support a rare habitat for the water vole - a protected species that has been in significant decline over the last 15-20 years.

At York Crown Court, Louisa Smith was ordered to carry out 120 hours’ work for the good of the community after the judge told her that, despite her good intentions, her “chaotic” business had added to environmental problems. The court heard Smith was a company director of Filey and Scarborough Trust for Recycling Limited (FAST), which has since ceased trading. Its business was described as “recycling non-metal waste and scrap, social work without accommodation and collection and treatment of other waste”. The court heard the collection side of the business was developed with little thought for the disposal and recycling side, resulting in a large quantity of waste being collected with nowhere for it to go. So it was piled up in various locations in and around Scarborough.

CASE 3: Food producer pleads guilty to polluting stream

CASE 6: Waste fine for skip hire business

A food company which severely polluted a tributary of the River Colne has been ordered to pay more than £17,700. Ambala Foods Limited, of Watchmead, Welwyn Garden City, Hertfordshire, which describes itself as a producer of quality Asian food and confectionary, pleaded guilty to causing polluting matter to enter a tributary of the River Colne. Environment officers saw a number of containers in the entrance yard to the bakery, which held whey (waste milk product) and waste cooking oil, close to two surface water gullies. The environment officers were concerned about possible pollution because the containers did not have bunds, and the gullies are part of a surface water drainage system which feeds a tributary of the River Colne.

A skip hire company and its boss have been hit with a financial penalty of almost £13,000 for running an illegal waste transfer station in Barnsley. Michael Weldrick and his company, 1st 4 Builders Limited, have each pleaded guilty at Barnsley Magistrates’ Court to one offence of operating a waste transfer station without an environmental permit. Weldrick admitted he was responsible for the running of the company, which had been operating for about seven years, in addition to running another business, 1st 4 Skips, for about six months. Weldrick and 1st 4 Builders Limited each were fined £5,000 and ordered to pay full prosecution costs of £2,911.40. Weldrick and his company each also has to pay a victim surcharge of £15.


CASE STUDIES Grontmij and Carillion Complete Innovative Track Stabilisation Project with Network Rail

Experts from leading European engineering consultancy, Grontmij, have been instrumental in developing and implementing a plan to stabilise a 540 metre length of track, on the busy freight line between Doncaster and Scunthorpe. The £10 million ‘Medge Hall Track Stabilisation’ project was completed on behalf of Carillion Construction Limited on a Network Rail design and build project. The contract was awarded to Carillion in January 2009 after a competitive tender process, which saw Grontmij’s team of Geotechnical engineers provide a solution that offered Carillion and Network Rail distinct advantages in terms of reducing programme and construction risk. The track, underlain by soft peat and alluvium, had been suffering from settlement related problems for a number of years leading to the introduction of a 10mph speed limit. The line carries approximately 35 million tonnes of freight per year, making track maintenance and safety a key concern. The solution was engineered by Grontmij’s Geotechnical and Transportation teams, who developed a plan to drive up to 1,300 small diameter piles through the existing railway embankment over a distance of approximately 500m. The piles support a reinforced concrete slab which carries a new ballast and track. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Clive Powell, geotechnical director at Grontmij, said: “We have worked closely with Carillion to develop and implement a solution with the least construction risk during an 11 week rail blockade. “Although the main concern in this project was the Geotechnical issues with the track stabilisation, access was limited as the track is surrounded by water, with a significant watercourse to the north and a major canal to the south parallel to the railway. Access to the site was only possible with the construction of five temporary bridges over the northern drainage ditch. The selection of a mini pile meant that smaller scale plant could be used and that offered distinct advantages in terms of reduced temporary works, ease of plant movement and less risk to the canal sheet piling.” Network Rail’s Project Manager Paul Fairburn commented, “This is a vital piece of work and we were impressed with Grontmij’s geotechnical solution and implementation of the plans. The strength of the team that Carillion and Grontmij represent allowed the work to be completed on schedule with the minimum disruption to the ecological environment.”

Data centres: friend or foe to the environment? Jeff Thomas, CEO, Ark Continuity The role of ICT is set to grow as Britain strives to compete as a world leader in the knowledge-based economy. This will result in an exponential growth in infrastructure with an attendant rise in energy consumption and CO2 emissions, at a time when power brown and blackouts are predicted. At the same time, the UK is committed to creating a low carbon economy, rightly seeking to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions whilst employing alternative and renewable sources of energy. How can we resolve the tension between these opposing drivers? The Greening Government ICT strategy aims to take a lead, making energy consumption of Government ICT systems carbon neutral by 2012, and to make them carbon neutral across their lifetime by 2020. Data centres play a key role in achieving this target. ICT expects the number of servers worldwide to increase by almost 18% per annum until 2020 - an increase from 18 million (in 2008), to 122 million1. The percentage of those servers located in data centres – rather than in server rooms onsite - is set to increase rapidly. In the UK demand is high and supply still low, so the selection of data centre space is becoming one of the most important decisions IT procurers will make. Investment in IT should be made in such a way as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. When purchasing data centre capacity, there are three key elements to consider: 1. the carbon footprint of the facility (design, build and operation); 2. increasing the efficiency of processes, reducing energy consumption; and sourcing of energy (renewable sources?); 3. and the management of waste energy. Caution is required on the second point. Data centre electrical load profiles are generally not compatible with onsite renewable power generation. So, offsite mitigation may be considered as an alternative. The key driver in reducing the carbon footprint is the consumption of energy over the life of the facility.

The Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) is used to provide an insight into the effectiveness of a specific data centre. PUE coefficient is the ratio of power entering the facility compared to power used by the IT kit inside it. The closer the PUE is to 1 the higher the efficiency of the system, although a PUE of exactly 1 cannot be achieved. Older data centres tend to run at a PUE of 3 and above. The UK industry average is 2.2. This year a new data centre campus is opening at Spring Park, Corsham, which will offer a design PUE of just 1.45. The rural setting of the campus means the proportion of free cooling available is already over 60%. Future plans include an integrated energy management system that will allow waste energy to be recycled through absorption chillers into the naturally cool subterranean environment under the campus. Once deployed, the data centres at Spring Park will achieve a design PUE of 1.15 to 1.2 utilising 100% free cooling. While PUE is a useful starting point, there are other sustainability measures that often get overlooked. Data centres have generators as backup for electricity supply failures. Most use battery-based UPS to deliver power while the generators start up. These batteries require conditioned environments which consume significant energy; in addition, the batteries have a relatively short life and usually end up in a landfill. The more sustainable option is to use a kinetic UPS system that provides a source of autonomous power, removing the need for batteries in the UPS. I believe that ‘from the ground up’ should be the key to assessing whether a data centre developer is really going to deliver a sustainable option. Too often sustainability is treated as an afterthought and seen as the expensive option; however, real sustainability will result in a significant reduction in the carbon footprint and will help reduce costs by increasing energy efficiency. This means selecting a data centre provider who embraces best practice and sustainable first principles in the design, construction, engineering, operation and end of life of their data centres. ¹Source: IDC 2000-2010 Server Forecast


Berson UV Chosen to Disinfect Aruba’s Drinking Water and Greywater -Caribbean island opts for UV instead of chlorineTen of Berson’s InLine UV disinfection systems have been installed on the Caribbean island of Aruba – eight systems are used to disinfect drinking water and two are used to treat greywater* prior to discharge. The island opted for UV instead of chlorine as part of its ‘non-chemical’ approach to water treatment.

In addition to disinfecting drinking water, two Berson UV systems are also used to treat greywater. One unit is installed at each of the island’s two wastewater treatment plants and the treated greywater is used to irrigate the island’s two golf courses. The Dr. Horacio Hospital on the island also uses UV technology.

Five Berson UV units are installed at the Balashi water treatment plant, the site of gold mill ruins near Aruba’s capital, Oranjestad. Operated by W.E.B. Aruba N.V., which supplies drinking water and electricity to the island’s residents and businesses, Balashi also houses the world’s second largest desalination plant. Aruba has a semi-arid climate so desalination is necessary to supply its growing population with much needed water.

“There is a lot of interest in our UV systems on the island, especially from businesses wanting to use greywater for hosing down buildings,” says Berson’s customer service manager Danny van Kuringen. “It is very dusty on Aruba, so keeping the outside of buildings clean is a real concern for many companies. We have also recently supplied one of our new InLine+ UV systems to disinfect drinking water for the airport.”

Following the desalination process the water passes through the UV systems before being transported to seven storage tanks situated at elevated locations around the island. The UV units, which are installed outdoors and controlled by DGtronic microprocessors, each disinfect 400m3 of water per hour, rising to 600m3/h during peak flow conditions. No chlorine is used at any stage of the water treatment process.

Berson’s compact InLine medium pressure UV systems use MultiWave lamps, which emit a wide spectrum of UV wavelengths with a very high energy output, causing the total and permanent deactivation of micro-organisms. The small size of the lamps means that they are positioned perpendicularly to the flow of liquid, increasing disinfection efficiency and reducing the overall size of the disinfection unit.

Commenting on the installation, Project Manager Mr Ruiz said, “Chlorine was originally considered as an alternative to UV but was rejected after concerns over costs and safety. W.E.B. Aruba also has an anti-chemical policy”. Two of the seven storage tanks situated around the island are also fitted with Berson’s InLine UV systems, providing an additional disinfection step prior to distribution. It is expected that all the tanks will eventually be fitted with UV. One of the storage tanks is situated in the harbour and supplies cruise ships with UV treated drinking water. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Berson UV is one of the few non-German UV system suppliers capable of providing a complete range of UV systems with capacities between 10 – 10,000 m3/hour, certified to the latest German DVGW** norm, W294, Part 1, 2 & 3 – the highest standard currently possible in the world. The systems are also fully validated in accordance with the USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM). * Non-industrial wastewater from domestic processes such as laundry and bathing. ** DVGW (German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water) is the body responsible for industry self-regulation in the German water and gas and water supply industry and its technical rules are the basis for safety and reliability.

Norfolk holiday home woos green visitors with eco-energy conversion A Norfolk holiday complex has unveiled five carbon-neutral barn conversions set to attract this winter’s eco-minded ‘staycationers’. The self-catering cottages, at Cranmer Country Cottages on the north Norfolk coast include solar energy and ground-source heat pumps – even the Swedish eco-friendly paint used carries an anti-asthma endorsement. Experts at Suffolk-based East Green Energy installed the state-of-the-art systems, which aim to reduce the oil consumption of the cottages to zero and of the swimming pool by 50%. Owner Lynne Johnson said: “We are committed to providing guests with good quality accommodation while taking reasonable measures to reduce the environmental impact of our business in promoting responsible travel. Our new cottages will be virtually carbon neutral with heat light and power generated through a number of alterative and sustainable energy sources.”

Environmentally friendly measures include geothermal heat probes buried 90 metres underground and an 18m wind turbine which supplies electricity to the swimming pool as well as the holiday cottages. East Green’s technical director, Robbie Gawthrop, said: “One of the ways homes and businesses can really lower their carbon footprint is by installing a ground source heat pump, an electrically powered system that taps into the greatest solar collector in existence: the earth. The system uses the earth’s relatively constant temperature to provide heating, the magic equation being that it only requires 1kw of electricity to run the pump to create 4kw of usable heat”, he added. East Green Energy scooped the ‘Greenest Business Award 2008’ for outstanding commitment to sustainable design in buildings, is leading the way to a lower carbon Suffolk. For more details on East Green call 01728 602315 or visit

Environmentally Friendly Visitor Centre The Berkshire, Buckinghamshire & Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust (BBOWT) is due to complete the building of an eco-friendly visitor centre at College Lake Nature Reserve (Buckinghamshire) in January 2010. The building will attract 10,000 visitors a year and will open to the public in the spring. The 410m2 building features a green roof, rammed earth internal walls, air source heating /cooling system, borehole water supply and a waste peat water treatment system. The construction uses slag based concrete and very little steel in the roof support. The open-plan building combines visitor facilities with a fully working office space. The entrance hall features a blue-green opaque glass floor with a fossil pit in the centre. Walking through the hall, visitors are treated to the full vista of the lake and the reserve below. The centre sits on the edge of a cliff overlooking a lake (the old chalk quarry restored by BBOWT) and is designed for minimal visual environmental impact.

Architect: Howard Sargent Contractor: Edgar Taylor Budget: £940,000 ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


WILL MELTING ICE STOP HOT AIR IN COPENHAGEN? Pen Hadow Last month we held a press conference in London to unveil a science report on the findings so far from the Catlin Arctic Survey. Sitting alongside me that day was one of its authors, Professor Peter Wadhams from the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading academics studying ocean ice. All summer his Polar Ocean Physics Group had worked on the data we had brought back from our 73-day long expedition earlier in the year. Along with my fellow explorers, Martin Hartley and Ann Daniels, I had trekked, ski-ed and (on occasions) swam along our route capturing thousands of measurements and observations about the thickness of the ice in a part of the ocean of particular interest to researchers. Scientists have over the last few years pieced together an increasingly gloomy picture of what is happening to this huge iconic feature at the top of our planet and seen it change fast as a consequence of global warming. They have documented it shrinking in surface area to a record minimum in the summer of 2007 and looked at the other, less immediately visible dynamic, its thinning. To a crowded room Professor Wadhams revealed that the data we had captured showed the ice averaged only 1.8 metres in thickness and, being all first year ice, would be too thin to have much chance of surviving through the summer. The results were from an area that had been, without ground-truth information like ours, assumed to be older, thicker, multi-year ice. Most worryingly, he described how our survey evidence supported a new concensus amongst researchers, that the Arctic Ocean would be ice-free in summer within 20 years and that it would be largely ice-free within about 10. As an explorer who has visited this remote region for over 20 years, it is shocking to hear that this vast, magnificent icescape, which has been there for tens of thousands of years, will no longer be a perennial feature so soon. Up to now it seems that our policy-makers had viewed the impacts of climate change as something to be addressed now in order to prevent serious impacts later this century and for future generations. Suddenly, scientists are describing even recent predictions from the UN’s IPCCC and others about the rate of disintegration in the Arctic as too conservative. So how should we react to hearing that the demise of this icescape will be within so short a time? Should we take some positives from it and welcome comENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

mercial shipping across the ocean as progress? Are oil, gas and fisheries resources becoming open to exploitation in a world facing both energy and food shortages a benefit? Of course not. No one can doubt the complexity of the natural phenomena impacting on the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, but the basic physics of what will happen as the ice disappears tell us to be very worried indeed. For as long as the ice has existed it has reflected the majority of energy from the sun’s rays back into space. As the sea becomes open water it will, being darker, absorb the energy of the sun, warm and begin to change the weather patterns of the northern hemisphere where the overwhelming mass of humankind lives. It is no wonder that our findings and those of countless other research teams are being pressed into the hands of the delegations heading to Copenhagen for the UN Climate Change talks. Our own findings have been made available to the UK’s negotiating team heading to Copenhagen. Facts are hard to ignore. The implications are too serious. What we don’t know at this stage is whether our political leaders really will commit to meaningful action on climate change. Politicians the world over are always looking at the next election but not everyone thinks that way and elsewhere there are more positive signs of backing for a big response to global warming. At a meeting at Lloyds of London last month the Secretary-General of NATO, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, identified climate change as the biggest single challenge of the 21st century. He was there speaking to a hard core of city and business figures who seemed to recognise there is a real and present danger in not taking action. After all, what business does not want to know more about something so potentially dangerous as climate change? My hope is that if the military leaders, businesses and scientists are all telling our elected policy-makers it is time for action, then they will step up to the plate at Copenhagen. In many ways what I did on the Catlin Arctic survey was my own personal response to climate change. I lent what skills I have. It is really now up to others to respond in their own way. Lots of small steps, taken together, can make a difference. Looking back on the expedition itself, I’m left wondering, was it worth it? Well, yes. I know I have done all I can ahead of Copenhagen to enable better informed policy. If, as a result, the world really does start to commit in a significant way to renewable energy and moves to drastically reduce its carbon emissions and yes, ost of all, if the world’s leaders show they really can lead. All images thanks to Martin Hartley