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ISSN 2043-0140

Issue 30

Fairtrade Gold 144 Circular Economy 124 Sustainability Live 100 Sustainable Behaviour Change 152 Primate Pet Trade 48

We create chemistry that makes compost love plastic. Most plastics don’t biodegrade. However, ecovioŽ polymers are certified compostable and biodegrade when composted in a controlled environment. Compostable plastics are an ideal solution for food packaging, especially when it comes to disposal with leftover food. Rather than ending up in landfills, the organic waste can be turned into valuable compost together with the ecovioŽ packaging.

~ Plato Welcome to the latest issue of Environment Industry Magazine, as usual we have endeavoured to bring you another fantastic magazine. I hope you will have noticed that over the past few months we have made some considerable improvements to the design and layout of Environment Industry Magazine.

from the


Each issue, we scrutinise every detail of the magazine to ensure we are bringing you the finest quality publication we can. Some of the changes are obvious such as the exquisite layouts; which captivate the reader, illustrate, and complement the editorials with an honesty and frankness that you would associate with publications that have far greater resources than us. Other changes are more subtle, removing the navigation tools like the splash pages and colour coded page edges and replacing them with the simple and elegant “tabs” on the top of each page gives a much more sophisticated and professional look to the magazine. The contents page is going through its own artistic revolution in an attempt to show the vast content of each issue in as simple and comprehensive way as possible, whilst maintaining the strong visual aesthetics for which the magazine is renowned. Your comments on the success of the latest incarnation would be appreciated. In the next issue, we are removing the line spaces between paragraphs to improve readability and continuity within the editorials. In addition, the font will be replaced and increased in size, again to improve readability. Although I am obviously biased, I believe we are producing one of the best trade publications in the industry, with everyone in the company striving to achieve excellence.

Once again, we have a great feast of editorial on offer. We are proud to welcome Estelle Brachlianoff, Veolia Environnement Executive Vice-President as one of our contributors. Veolia Environmental Services is second in the world in waste management services. As a leading light in the Environmental Sector, Estelle gives us an insight into Building the Circular Economy and where she sees Veolia’s role in developing this important concept. Tony Harrington, Director of Environment, Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water, returns in this issue with a timely editorial introducing their amazing RainScape projects. These are essentially community surface water management schemes looking at innovative solutions alongside traditional methods to prevent water runoff and localised flooding. Alongside this, and continuing the theme of flood management is a stunning and informative editorial from Javier Carrillo de Albornoz Portes and Emilio Correas Valle, from Grundfos Pumps Water Division. This editorial really epitomises our keynote editorial content. One of the great things about editing Environment Industry Magazine is that we can shine a light on some of the cruelty and injustices that exist, in the world and the campaigns to address them. We have a heart-breaking story from Brooke Aldrich, Campaigns Manager in the Primate Welfare Team at Wild Futures showing the terrible consequences of the primate pet trade. We also have an enlightening feature from Donna Simpson on Fairtrade certified precious metals and the opportunities and benefits Fairtrade certification can bring, leading to a more sustainable, ethical and ultimately safer and healthier gold industry. As usual, we are interested in your feedback, if you have any questions or comments please send them me at I hope you enjoy this issue of the magazine Kind regards

Alex Stacey Editor

Contact: Vivek Pandey (Head of Publications) Tel: 0161 341 0156 Email:

BlooGlobe Limited, 254a Bury New Road, Whitefield, Manchester, M45 8QN

Alex Stacey (Editor) Tel: 0161 3410158 Fax: 0161 7668997 Email:

Every effort is made to verify all information published, but Environment Industry Magazine cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of BlooGlobe Limited. Environment Industry Magazine welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to BlooGlobe Limited unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality.

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News & Comment 8 News 36 The Watercooler 38 Jason Drew 40 Steve Grant 170 Environmental Prosecutions 172 Product Guide


Air Quality 42 Burning Issues

-- Dan Higgins, Senior Liaison Manager, Enitial

46 Germany lowers biogas formaldehyde emissions

-- Gasmet Technologies




48 The Primate Pet Trade and the conservation

of nature – at cross purposes?

-- Brooke Aldrich, Campaigns Manager, Primate

Welfare Team, Wild Futures

Energy 54 London’s Energy Future

-- Matthew Pencharz, Senior Advisor, Environment

& Energy to the Mayor of London

60 Demand response: The alternative to

polluting peaking power

-- Nick Butlin, Director of Operations, KiWi Power


64 The future for independent generators

-- Robert Groves, Chief Executive, SmartestEnergy

66 POWERGEN Africa Show Preview -- 17th - 19th March 2014

68 Business Lighting: Practical steps to sustainability

-- Rune Marki, Managing Director, Osram UK

72 Renewable Energy World Europe Show Preview -- 3rd - 5th June 2014

50 60




Food & Packaging 74 Specifying Returnable Transit Packaging

-- Simon Knights, Sales Director- UK/Ireland,

Schoeller Allibert | 5 |


Land Management 78 Investigating former Gaswork sites

-- Dr Russell Thomas,Technical Director

Environment, Parsons Brinckerhoff


Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering 86 Proving the future

-- Mike Smith, Engineering Director, BSRIA

88 Concrete Action on Sustainable Development -- Guy Thompson, Head of Architecture, Housing

and Sustainability, MPA The Concrete Centre

94 Integration, Integration, Integration

-- Martin Passingham, Product Manager, DX, Daikin

96 BREEAM is the Environmental Standard of


Choice in the Netherlands

-- Gavin Dunn, Director of BREEAM, BRE

100 Sustainability Live 2014 Show Preview -- 1st - 3rd April 2014

Timber & Forestry 104 Green Building and the Future of Our Forests -- Kathy Abusow, President & CEO, Sustainable

Forestry Initiative Inc.



Transport 110 Diesel – A Versatile Engine

-- Lars Mårtensson, Environmental Director,

Volvo Trucks

Waste & Recycling 116 Landfill Tax Status of Trommel ‘Fines’ -- Dr Richard Coulton, CEO Siltbuster

120 Zero Waste To Landfill: A Flawed Target? -- Mark Hall, Director, BusinessWaste



124 | 6 |

124 What Does the Future Hold?

-- Estelle Brachlianoff, Veolia Environnement

Executive Vice-President – UK and Northern Europe

For more news, editorials, and product reviews, visit

Water 128 Solutions for effective flood management -- Javier Carrillo de Albornoz Portes & Emilio

Correas Valle, Water Division, Grundfos Pumps Spain

138 Designing Homes and Communities to

Minimise the Future Risk to Flooding


-- Gordon Miller, Co-Founder of Sustain Worldwide

140 A Community Based Approach for

Surface Water Removal

-- Tony Harrington, Director of Environment, DĹľr

Cymru Welsh Water

Misc 144 Fairtrade Gold

-- Donna Simpson, Press Officer, Fairtrade

152 Sustainable Behaviour Change



-- John Drummond, Chairman, How on Earth/

Corporate Culture

156 The EU dreams of Renewable-Powered

Datacentres with Smart-City Addresses

-- Andrew Donoghue, Senior analyst, Datacenter

Techologies, 451 Research

158 Environmental Consulting 2030

-- David Mole, Business Development Director,

Landmark Information Group

Case Studies


160 Biomass heats up luxury holiday homes -- Euroheat

161 Emergency response to Tidal Surge -- Land & Water

162 Fuel Cell Systems' off-grid power for CCTV -- Fuel Cell Systems

164 Derby Midland Station, Retrofit Tree Pits -- Derby City Council

165 Knauf Insulation’s Changing Rooms



-- Knauf Insulation

166 Hybrid Energy Harvesting System -- Minus 7

168 Food Waste into Energy and Revenue -- SEaB Energy

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NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Speakers announced for international emissions conference The organisers of CEM 2014 have published the titles of the Conference presentations that will take place from 14th to 16th May at the Renaissance Polat Istanbul Hotel in Turkey. Speakers from 13 different countries will give selected presentations covering a wide variety of subjects within the event’s emissions monitoring theme. The control of emissions to air can only be effective when accurate, reliable monitoring systems are in place. The Conference will therefore address all of the most topical issues relating to emissions monitoring and will contain four main themes: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Regulation - international and industrial Standards, quality assurance and control Equipment innovation Case studies

Within these themes there will be presentations covering the latest regulatory changes in both Europe and the USA, in addition to a range of papers that will provide an update on relevant standards such as Quality Assurance EN14181. In addition to standards relating to industrial emissions, there will also be a paper on particulate emissions from residential heating appliances and boilers burning solid fuels. All of the most important pollutants will be covered by the presentations, but there will be specific papers on mercury, particulates, VOCs, ammonia, dioxins, furans, formaldehyde, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The presentations will address process and emissions monitoring issues for all types of regulated processes including power stations, steelworks, industrial processes, biogas plants, combined heat and power plants, energy from waste systems and carbon capture. Full details of the presentations are available from and there is an early booking rate for delegates of 495 €uros (saving of 100 €uros) for bookings made before 1st April. The CEM 2014 exhibition is already almost sold out and the organisers are anticipating a heavy demand for delegate places with strong attendance from the Turkish Ministry of Environment and the Turkish cement industry. | 8 |

Climate Engineering – What do the public think?

Members of the public have a negative view of climate engineering, the deliberate large-scale manipulation of the environment to counteract climate change, according to a new study. The results are from researchers from the University of Southampton and Massey University (New Zealand) who have undertaken the first systematic large-scale evaluation of the public reaction to climate engineering. The work is published in Nature Climate Change (12 January 2014). Some scientists think that climate-engineering approaches will be required to combat the inexorable rise in atmospheric CO2 due to the burning of fossil fuels. Climate-engineering could involve techniques that reduce CO2 in the atmosphere or approaches that slow temperature rise by reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. Co-author Professor Damon Teagle of the University of Southampton said: “Because even the concept of climate engineering is highly controversial, there is pressing need to consult the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are made.” Lead author, Professor Malcolm Wright of Massey University, said: “Previous attempts to engage the public with climate engineering have been exploratory and small scale. In our study, we have drawn on commercial methods used to evaluate brands and new product concepts to develop a comparative approach for evaluating the public reaction to a variety of climate engineering concepts.” The results show that the public has strong negative views towards climate engineering. Where there are positive reactions, they favour approaches that reduce carbon dioxide over those that reflected sunlight. “It was a striking result and a very clear pattern,” said Professor Wright. “Interventions such as putting mirrors in space or fine particles into the stratosphere are not well received. More natural processes of cloud brightening or enhanced weathering are less likely to raise objections, but the public react best to creating biochar (making charcoal from vegetation to lock in CO2) or capturing carbon directly from the air.” Nonetheless, even the most well regarded techniques still have a net negative perception. The work consulted large representative samples in both Australia and New Zealand. Co-author Pam Feetham said: “The responses are remarkably consistent from both countries, with surprisingly few variations except for a slight tendency for older respondents to view climate engineering more favourably.” Professor Wright noted that giving the public a voice so early in technological development was unusual, but increasingly necessary. “If these techniques are developed the public must be consulted. Our methods can be employed to evaluate the responses in other countries and reapplied in the future to measure how public opinion changes as these potential new technologies are discussed and developed,” he said. Six climate engineering concepts were tested: • Biochar (making charcoal from vegetation to lock in CO2) • Enhanced Weathering (increasing the rate that carbon dioxide dissolves silicate minerals to form limestone) • Air Capture (building structures that filter CO2 from the air) • Stratospheric Aerosols (spreading very small particles in the upper atmosphere to reflect sunlight) • Cloud Brightening (automated ships spraying small seawater droplets over the ocean to reflect sunlight) • Mirrors in Space (placing large mirrors or sunshade structures in orbit to block or reflect sunlight)


Frazer-Nash in market trials for all-new British designed, engineered and built Range Extended Electric Metrocab Nash and Ecotive, the companies behind the all-new, purpose-built Range Extended Electric (REE) Metrocab taxi, confirm the vehicle’s full specification. The British designed, engineered and built Metrocab, from Mytchett Surrey-based Ecotive and Frazer-Nash, is a new generation zero-emissions electric-powered taxi for London, and represents the cutting edge of green transport technology with a design both evolutionary and sympathetic to the iconic black cab silhouette. Ready now, Metrocab launches a campaign inviting London taxi drivers to register with the company for real-world trials in the new zero emissions capable taxi. The trials will demonstrate significant cost savings, environmental benefits, easy ownership and maintenance and enhanced passenger experience. The Metrocab from Ecotive and Frazer-Nash is the latest in a long line of electric powered transport solutions they have marketed and developed over the last 25 years with world-class highly efficient, optimised and fully-integrated digital-electric and hybrid-electric powertrains. Priced competitively to enter the taxi market, the Metrocab is powered by a lithium-ion polymer battery pack with an electric motor to each of the rear wheels. Following the in-market trials this year, the Metrocab will be rolled out in London and other key cities in the UK and internationally. • >75mpg and over three times more fuel efficient than comparable current London taxi • 75% less CO2 than comparable current London taxi, <50g/km CO2 • 560km combined range • Significantly lower running costs, typically saving a London cabbie £30 – £40 per day • Zero-emissions mode and home charging via standard mains outlet • Evolutionary design, sympathetic to iconic London taxi silhouette • 10 years in development and over a million engineering test kilometres • Six passenger seats (plus optional seventh passenger seat in the front) • Fully compliant with London Public Carriage Office (PCO) regulations

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A key features walk-around film of the Metrocab can be found by scaning the QR Code below, and drivers wishing to register for a trial in the taxi can do so by visiting

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Availon wins 124MW wind farms maintenance contract in Italy

Kerbside first for Alupro as two new “Leave Your Cap On” recycling campaigns launch

Availon announced today that it has won a 124MW maintenance contract for two Italian wind farms from Alpiq Holding Ltd, the Swiss energy group that owns and operates the two farms. The full service maintenance contract runs for a 10 year period, and covers 62 Gamesa wind turbines.

North Lincolnshire Council and Leeds City Council have become the latest local authorities to launch Alupro’s “Leave Your Cap On” recycling communications campaign that encourages recyclers to screw the aluminium caps back on glass bottles before recycling. The new campaigns have seen ‘Leave your cap on’ stickers applied to over 870 glass banks across Leeds and 191 in North Lincolnshire. In addition, North Lincolnshire Council is the first to take the message kerbside, running a trial in one round.

Both wind farms are located in Sicily. Availon have taken over responsibility for the maintenance of the wind turbines, after the expiry of the wind farms warranty period. The 40MW Enpower 3 Wind farm consists of twenty 2MW G8X Gamesa turbines, located in Cattolica Eraclea, in the Agrigento region. The 84MW Aero-Rossa wind farm, located in Cammarata (AG), Castronovo di Sicilia (PA) and Vallelunga Pratameno (CL), close to Palermo, has been in service since September 2011. It consists of forty-two 2MW G90 turbines. Markus Spitzer, Managing Director of Availon, commented: “This contract is a major success for Availon in Italy, where we currently service 280 wind turbines. This strengthens our leading position on the Italian wind energy market, in which we expect to experience continued growth.”

The programme, which has been developed by Alupro (the Aluminium Packaging Recycling Organisation) in partnership with British Glass and EAFA (European Aluminium Foil Association), aims to increase the recovery of aluminium screw caps and closures, used predominantly on wine and spirits and cooking ingredients such as olive oil, as the metal can be successfully recovered during the glass recycling process. The ‘Leave your cap on’ campaign follows research by Alupro into the UK closure market which revealed that approximately 5,000 tonnes of aluminium from caps and closures could be recovered, equating to over £2m worth of aluminium, at current material prices. The research also highlighted that there was no enduser communication focussing on recycling aluminium caps and closures via kerbside collections or bring bank systems throughout the UK. A range of communications materials has now been developed to enable local authorities to inform and educate residents via advertising, leaflets, websites and social media. Local authorities interested in finding out more about running a ‘Leave your cap on’ campaign should contact Alupro on 01527 597757 or email

ENVIRON offices receive benchmark certifications for sustainable fit out Two of ENVIRON’s European offices have received benchmark certifications for sustainability and their commitment to tackling environmental impact in the workplace. ENVIRON’s Rome office has received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold certification for Commercial Interiors, the first of its kind in Rome and only the third project to be certified Gold in the city. The LEED rating system, developed and administered by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), is the recognised standard for measuring building sustainability. The Gold certification is the second highest rating that can be awarded to an organisation. ENVIRON’s London office received a Silver Ska certificate, an environmental assessment method, benchmark and standard for fit-outs, operated by the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors (RICS). In order to achieve the silver certificate the ENVIRON team worked with the fit-out contractor of its new London offices to ensure as many of the sustainability good practice criteria were met, including reducing energy and CO2 emissions, waste, water and pollution, specifying sustainable materials, improving employee wellbeing and providing cyclist facilities.ENVIRON implemented the Ska rating to reduce the office’s environmental impact and improve energy efficiency across the site.

Arjowiggins Graphic recognised by WWF for global leadership in transparency Arjowiggins Graphic, the leader in the development of environmental paper solutions, has been named as one of the 25 pulp and paper manufacturers which have followed WWF´s invitation to show leadership in transparency in the WWF Environmental Paper Company Index 2013. Through this index, WWF recognises Arjowiggins Graphic for promoting transparency on its ecological footprint for the production of pulp. WWF welcomes that by doing so, Arjowiggins Graphic demonstrates that it is taking environmental and social responsibility seriously. The EPCI is one of WWF’s key tools to promote transparency and to motivate continual improvement in the sector. The index identifies a company’s impact on forest ecosystems from fibre sourcing, its emissions from manufacturing processes and corporate transparency. The results offer independent analysis of the paper industry that can help businesses to make an informed purchasing decision. | 11 |


Fuel Efficiency Key to Boels Rental Order of JCB Machines Expanding plant hire company Boels Rental is investing in a fleet of JCB machines worth more than £11m in their third major order in three years. Boels Rental is buying more than 300 machines. The deal means that Boels now runs a fleet of more than 1,000 JCB machines. JCB CEO Graeme Macdonald said: “We are delighted to have secured such a significant order from one of Europe’s most important rental companies. This is the third year in succession that JCB has won this major business from Boels which speaks volumes for the superior quality, performance and efficiency of JCB’s machines.” The multi-million pound deal was placed by the Netherlands-based company for a range of micro and mini excavators, telescopic handlers and rough terrain forklift trucks. The Loadall telescopic handlers and JCB rough terrain forklifts are all powered by JCB’s Ecomax engine, which offers fuel savings of up to 7%. Pierre Boels, CEO of Boels, said: “Performance and efficiency were key factors in our decision to purchase the JCB machines. In particular, the fuel savings offered by the Ecomax-powered products are particularly important, as being environmentally responsible is essential to our business.” All the machines are also being supplied with JCB’s LiveLink telematics system which monitors service requirements and protects them from theft.

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WWF/ Panthera

Computer Aid International Wins New Year Honour Computer Aid International has been granted a Royal Warrant of Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen for the provision of computer recycling services, a breakthrough and a first for a UK charity. This means that Computer Aid is able to use the Royal Arms on all marketing and communications materials. It is anticipated that Royal Warrant status will really raise the profile of this innovative charity. Keith Sonnet, Chief Executive at Computer Aid, said: “Everyone at Computer Aid is delighted to have been honoured in this way and it was a reflection of the high quality service they provide. Computer Aid refurbishes PCs and other ICT equipment for use throughout the world to overcome the disadvantage faced by so many people. Computer Aid has been collecting and refurbishing PCs from the Royal Household for a number of years.” Computer Aid was formed 15 years ago in 1998 with a mission to alleviate poverty and overcome discrimination through the creative and innovative use of ICT in development, and in so doing also to bridge the digital divide between rich and poor. So far, in its 15 year history Computer Aid has provided nearly 250,000 PCs and laptops to over 100 countries and it is estimated that approaching one million people have benefited from this access to technology.

First Ever Photos Of Snow Leopards In Uzbekistan Newly obtained camera trap images have provided the very first photographic evidence of snow leopards in the central Asian country of Uzbekistan. In November and December of 2013, a team of rangers and biologists led by Bakhtiyor Aromov and Yelizaveta Protas, in collaboration with global wild cat conservation organization Panthera and WWF Central Asia Program, conducted a snow leopard camera trap study in the Kizilsu area of Gissar Nature Reserve, on the border of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Images taken through the study have confirmed the presence of at least two individual snow leopards in the region, along with other large predators – lynx and bear – and an abundance of prey animals, including ibex, wild boar, and hare. Today the snow leopard is classified as endangered, with as few as 3,5007,000 individuals remaining in 12 countries across Asia. For years snow leopards have been reported in this area; however, until now, their presence has only been confirmed through traditional surveys and very rare visual encounters. Panthera’s Snow Leopard Program Executive Director, Dr. Tom McCarthy, stated: “It is very exciting to document snow leopards within the Gissar Nature Reserve in Uzbekistan using camera trap technology. Panthera has provided over 300 camera traps through partnerships such as this to better document the range of this elusive and endangered cat of central Asia’s mountains. With an improved understanding of their range and numbers we have a better chance to save them.” The confirmed presence of snow leopards in Uzbekistan, in the westernmost part of the species’ range, and the availability of prey as confirmed through this study’s camera trap images, provides hope for the survival of this endangered wild cat in Uzbekistan and throughout its range.

Edinburgh Joins World’s Top Cities in Adopting LEDs Edinburgh has become the latest major city in the UK to swap their dull sodium bulbs for bright, efficient LED light bulbs in a project that is estimated to be worth around £30m. The radical plans will bring the Scottish capital’s streetlights bang up to date, and will ensure that not only will the city be brightly lit, it will also save huge amounts of money for the council . In Edinburgh, £2.97m is spent every year simply lighting the city, and it is expected that with the introduction of the efficient LED lighting solutions onto streets, in stairwells and in other public areas, it will help to save almost 40% on this huge outlay. An interest-free loan has been secured for the first 6,000 streetlights, but the citywide project will likely cost fifteen times this amount and require a lot more bulbs. Steven Ellwood, Managing Director of BLT Direct, says: ”Edinburgh has become the latest in a long list of cities that are taking the plunge and opting to install LED lighting on their streets. The first year’s outlay may seem like a significant figure, but the energy-saving costs over the next decade will pay for the initial investment many times over, and will offer citizens of Edinburgh more consistent, bright and efficient lighting in their public areas.” To find out more about energy-saving light bulbs, visit

intu Saves £1m Worth Of Electricity As Part Of Energy Reduction Targets As part of an ambitious 30% three-year energy reduction target, intu has achieved half of its savings in just a single year. These reductions equate to £1m worth of electricity. This has been achieved largely through the implementation of a £6m capital investment project, which involved installing nearly 57,000 LED light bulbs across the portfolio of shopping centres over a period of three years. The investment will reduce operational costs over the long term, save carbon and contribute towards intu's corporate responsibility objectives. The lights have been installed by intu's project partner, Admiral Power & Lighting, across car parks, back of house, and the main malls, with the completed project due to deliver a three-year payback on capital investment. The project has been awarded Lux's "Client of the Year Award” in recognition of what judges described as "an LED rollout of awesome scale". | 15 |


Evance turbines generate record levels of energy for UK residents

One In Four British Small Businesses Say Sustainability Is a Top Priority For 2014

December 2013 saw Evance R9000 small wind turbines operate continuously across the UK, despite extremely high winds, generating record levels of electricity. "December was a great month for wind energy production, with R9000 owners across the country seeing record-breaking production", comments Kevin Parslow, CEO of Evance Wind Turbines. "To put these generation figures into perspective, based on the purchase cost of electricity and the income from the Feed-in Tariff, these figures equate to between £440£850 for the month of December". • In Devon a number of home owners saw their turbines producing between 1,400 – 1,650kWh • An Evance turbine in Derbyshire generated over 1,000kWh • In West Yorkshire production of over 1,500kWh was recorded • An R9000 turbine in Orkney, one of hundreds supporting residents on the islands, produced over 2,500kWh of electricity

25% of Britain's Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) say sustainability is one of their top three priorities for 2014, reflecting a renewed confidence and a desire to focus on developing their businesses' in the New Year, according to new research from Lloyds Bank Commercial Banking. However the findings show that many businesses are still focused on traditional 'green' activities, including energy saving and recycling rather than the broader range of sustainable business practices relating, for example, to supply chains and sourcing. It also highlights the fact that there are still businesses who do not believe there are any benefits to be gained from implementing such practices.

Kiril Havezov

The benefits reported

Most businesses that have implemented sustainable business practices (87%) believe there are clear benefits in doing so: • Over half (54 %) believe it helps reduce their costs • More than two fifths (42 %) cite that it makes a positive contribution to the environment • Just under a third (30 %) believe it increases their profitability • Over a quarter (27 %) feel it makes them a more attractive employer • A quarter (26 %) believe it makes a positive contribution to the community

The risks of overlooking sustainability

Similarly, nearly nine out of ten businesses (87 %) believe that ignoring sustainable business practices can be a risk: • Nearly half (49 %) believe it could have a negative impact on their costs • Just under a half (43 %) think it may harm their profits • Over a third (39 %) believe it will have an impact on their brand perception • A third (33 %) cite that it could have an impact on compliance with relevant legislation • A fifth (21 %) believe it will impact on their competitive edge • Just under a third (32 %) believe it could mean they are excluded from tender processes • A fifth (20 %) believe it improves their brand perception

The current focus

Exova acquires Catalyst Environmental Limited Exova, the global testing, calibration and advisory services provider, has acquired Catalyst Environmental Limited, the leading stack emissions testing specialist in the UK and Ireland. The company, which will become Exova Catalyst, will add 6 facilities and 58 personnel to Exova’s existing network of over 3,600 specialists worldwide and will further extend the company’s range of environmental testing services, which includes air, water and soil. Specialist stack emissions services offered include landfill gas sampling, continuous emissions monitoring, annual surveillance testing, dispersion pattern modelling and lab testing of physical and chemical samples and emissions. Demand for stack emissions and wider environmental testing is predicted to grow as new domestic and international legislation is introduced, creating significant opportunities for specialist testing as authorities and organisations worldwide seek to ensure compliance. | 16 |

However, the research does show that businesses do still tend to focus their efforts on more traditional sustainable business practices, including environmental activities (89 %) such as recycling and energy saving. SMEs are less likely to offer a clear business code of conduct (46 %); work responsibly within a supply chain (42 %); operate an ethical sourcing policy (25 %); work with local charities (24 %); or offer apprenticeship schemes (17 %).

The sector view

There is also a clear difference in terms of levels of engagement across different sectors. All healthcare companies (100 %) state that they engage in some sort of sustainable practice compared to just nine out of ten in the Leisure (90 %) and Professional Services (91 %) sector and just under nine out of ten (88 %) in financial services.

Level of investment

Whilst just under two thirds of businesses (63 %) were unable to clarify how much they spend on sustainable practices, three quarters (78 %) of those that could said the level of investment was below 5% of the company's turnover.

Future prospects

Looking forward, a third (33 %) expect to increase their investment in sustainable business practices over the next five years, while two fifths of businesses (42 %) expect their investment to remain flat. Only a small minority (2%) think they will cut back on spending in this area. Of those businesses that still have no sustainable business practices, more than two fifths (44 %) say they will start investing over the next five years. The key motivations of these future investors are to reduce costs and increase profitability (52 %), and also to make a positive contribution to the community (28 %). The key practices these businesses plan to take on are similar to those focused upon by current sustainable businesses. They relate to the environment (79 %) and being a responsible company (48 %). Engaging in charitable projects and working with the local community are not mentioned as a priority by any businesses who are intending to invest for the first time.

Conference & Exhibition 17–19 March 2014 Cape Town International Convention Centre Cape Town, Republic of South Africa

EQUIPPING AFRICA’S ENERGY FUTURE PRE SHOW GUIDE OUT NOW REGISTER TODAY! POWER-GEN Africa combines with DistribuTECH Africa for the first time to provide an extensive coverage of the power needs, resources, and issues facing the electricity generation, transmission and distribution industries across sub-Saharan Africa. The Pre Show Guide offers you a comprehensive event overview with everything you need to know to be part of this all inclusive power event.

EVENT HIGHLIGHTS: • Opening Keynote Session featuring keynote speakersMr. Dikobe Benedict Martins, Minister of Energy, Republic of South Africa Mr. Steve J. Lennon, Group Executive, Sustainability, Eskom Group Holdings, Republic of South Africa • W orld-Class Conference Programme with 145+ speakers and 42 conference sessions focussing on hot industry topics • Dynamic Exhibition Floor featuring 80 + international exhibitors and technical training workshops

EARLY BIRD DISCOUNT Save $200 or more if you register by 18 February 2014! For Exhibit and Sponsorship Opportunities please contact: Leon Stone Exhibition Sales Rest of the World Phone: +44 (0) 1992 656 671 Email: Andrew Evans Exhibition Sales Africa Phone: +27 (0) 21 930 9515 Email: Tom Marler Exhibition Sales Renewables & Hydropower Phone: +44 (0) 1992 656 608 Fax: +44 (0) 1992 656 700 Email:

• Informative Technical Tours of Eskom’s power plant facilities • WADE Africa Decentralized Energy Workshop • O utstanding Networking Opportunities including Opening Reception, Closing Reception and Best Paper Awards

To register for your Early Bird Discount or for more information, please visit: or Owned and Produced by:

Host Utility Sponsor:

Official CPD event of:

Presented by:


Make a fun New Year's Resolution - volunteer in the New Forest National Park

Hundreds of people are expected to make a New Year’s resolution and volunteer for wildlife projects, archaeological surveys and outdoor activities within the stunning landscapes of the New Forest National Park. The annual New Forest Volunteer Fair takes place at Lyndhurst Community Centre – a one-stop shop for organisations looking to recruit new volunteers who want to try new skills, meet new people and have fun at the same time. Organised by the National Park Authority this event offers a chance for people to find out more about the varied and exciting projects going on in the New Forest. Last year 300 people from across Hampshire, Dorset and Wiltshire came to the fair to meet 30 different organisations such as the Forestry Commission, Hampshire Ornithological Society, The National Trust, Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust, RPSB, Hampshire and Isle of Wight Air Ambulance, the New Forest Centre, Furzey Garden and Sir Harold Hillier Gardens. Spaces are limited for organisations who want to attend. Jim Mitchell, interpretation officer at the New Forest National Park Authority, said: ‘This is the fourth year we’ve held a Volunteer Fair in the New Forest and they’ve steadily grown in popularity with hundreds of people keen to make a difference through new and enjoyable experiences. It’s also become increasingly popular with volunteer organisations, so it’s best to book a space quickly.’ If you are from a volunteer organisation which would like to get involved email or call 01590 646681

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For more information scan the QR code below, or go to: volunteerfair2014

News Bombardier Celebrates Major Milestone in Delivery to London Underground Rail technology leader Bombardier Transportation has celebrated the production of the 1,000th Sub-Surface line (SSL) car for London Underground at its factory in Derby. Bombardier is the UK's leading train manufacturer and its Derby site has delivered, or has on order, 60% of the UK's fleet of trains. Bombardier is unique in the UK in that it designs, engineers, manufactures and maintains trains locally. Recent and current orders include iconic tube trains for the Victoria Line, new trains for London Overground and Southern Railway, as well as the trains currently being produced for the Sub-Surface lines of London Underground. The Sub-Surface network, which includes the Metropolitan, Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines, covers 40% of London Underground's network. The new SSL trains are the first air-conditioned trains to operate on London Underground and were described by the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, as "the coolest ride in town". Their award-winning design, featuring open gangways enabling visibility throughout, has been hailed by passengers as transformational. The 1,000 SSL cars are gradually replacing fleets on Sub-Surface lines. Laid end to end, the cars would create a tube train stretching over 10 miles, just under the distance between Wembley Stadium and the Tower of London. The new trains are being built over a period of five years with at least four trains leaving the factory each month. In 2014 the factory in Derby will celebrate its 175th anniversary producing trains for the UK. Bombardier has invested heavily in the creation of cutting edge manufacturing and R&D facilities, housed in the original Victorian brick sheds built during the age of steam. In addition, the company continues to recruit new engineering talent to complement the team of 350 engineers in its Derby-based centre of excellence, dedicated to designing and developing new trains for the UK.

Umicore once more recognised as one of the most sustainable companies in the world

SLR secures Environmental Mott MacDonald appointed Permit for first English Category on five-year coastal defence ‘A’ Mining Waste Facility contract, UK

Umicore has achieved the top position in the Materials industry group of the Global 100 Most Sustainable Corporations in the World index. Corporate Knights, an independent media and investment research company based in Toronto, Canada, have published the index annually since 2005.

Environmental permitting support provided by SLR Consulting for Wolf Mineral’s Hemerdon Tungsten Mine has led to the first environmental permit for a new Category ‘A’ mining waste facility in England under new EU regulations. Over the past 12 months SLR has worked closely with Wolf, the Environment Agency and a team of other consultants throughout the application process. The multidisciplinary team from SLR has been responsible for advising on a range of technical issues including air quality, nature conservation, waste classification, geomorphology, compliance with EU Directives, and permitting.

It is the fifth year in a row that Umicore has been included in the index and the fourth time in the top 10. Umicore obtained an all-time high last year when it was ranked the most sustainable company in the world. Corporate Knights uses its flagship Global 100 ranking and the underlying research methodology to explore sustainable investment strategies with investors. They collect data for the project primarily from Bloomberg and through direct engagement with the 350 companies that made the project’s shortlist, selected from approximately 4,000 global mid and large cap stocks.

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The Hemerdon Mine, near Plymouth, will be one of the largest Tungsten mines in the world. Tungsten is a rare metal with strong corrosion resistance, as well as thermal and electrical conductivity levels and is used in the manufacture of cutting and grinding tools as well as the filaments for electric lamps and lighting. For more information go to:

Mott MacDonald has been appointed on a fiveyear contract to provide consultancy services for coastal defence projects within the Southendon- Sea Borough Council area. Under the terms of the contract, Mott MacDonald will offer a variety of annual services, including coastal defence condition asset surveys, analysis of monitoring data and investment programming. The consultancy will also assist the council in delivering a range of schemes identified in the Southend-onSea shoreline strategy. Peter Phipps, Mott MacDonald’s project director, said: “We have already undertaken the initial appraisal of coastal defence assets and will be conducting further condition assessments early next year after the winter storm period. Currently we are liaising with stakeholders regarding the proposed Cinder Path Scheme, which will see the redevelopment of coastal defences and the Sustrans Cycleway between Chalkwell and Leighon- Sea.” Mott MacDonald’s contract will run until August 2018, with the option of a further twoyear extension.

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JCB Tees Off 2014 With Plans For £30m Golf Course JCB has announced a new wave of investment in Staffordshire with plans for a £30m golf course next to its World HQ to help boost sales and build global awareness of its brand. The proposals for a spectacular 18-hole, 7,150 yards, Par 72 championship golf course centre on 240 acres of rolling countryside to the south of its Rocester headquarters. When completed in 2018, it is expected that up to 100 people will be employed in groundcare and hospitality roles. The course will be designed by European Golf Design – the golf course design company of IMG and the European Tour – best known for the 2010 course at Celtic Manor in Wales, host of the 2010 Ryder Cup. It will be built to tour-quality standard and could potentially host a major tour event, attracting competitors and spectators from all over the world. The plans have been conceived by JCB Chairman Lord Bamford and follow an announcement in early December that JCB will invest £150m to build two new factories in Staffordshire and significantly increase production to meet an anticipated growth in demand for its products. At the heart of this premier golf development is Woodseat Hall, an 18th Century mansion currently in ruins, but which will have a new lease of life under plans to renovate it as the course clubhouse, complete with a new luxury spa, leisure facility and five-star hotel-style accommodation for visiting JCB guests from across the world. The new golf course, which is subject to planning consent, will be made available mainly to JCB’s network of 770 global dealers. It will be used to drive business growth, helping to build relationships with new customers and strengthen relationships with existing customers. Upon completion, golf days will become a feature of the wider JCB visitor experience, which already includes factory visits, the ‘Story of JCB’ exhibition and machine demonstrations. | 22 |

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Mitsubishi Outlander Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Is Confirmed Eligible For The Government Plug-In Car Grant Mitsubishi Motors is pleased to announce that The Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) has confirmed the all-new Outlander Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is eligible for the Government’s Plug in Car Grant (PiCG) totalling £5,000. In order to qualify, the Outlander PHEV has met a wide range of safety, emissions and performance standards set by OLEV. For OLEV to award the Outlander PHEV the PiCG, categorising it as an ‘ultra-low emission car’ is particularly impressive considering that it is a permanent 4x4 Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV). Few hybrids qualify for the PiCG. The Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV qualifies for the PiCG, whilst most other hybrids in the market do not, due to Mitsubishi’s significantly advanced hybrid system. Unlike traditional hybrids, the Outlander PHEV can be driven over a sizeable distance, at speeds over 70mph, using just its electric motors. In fact, the car can travel over the UK average person’s daily commute - 32.5 miles, in the PHEV’s case, without using any fuel at all. The combination of the Outlander’s powerful electric motors and petrol engine give it a silky smooth, quiet and refined ride. It only emits 44g/km CO2 (based on EU drive cycle figures), meaning a Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) of £0 and only 5% BIK for company car drivers. | 23 |


Pinsent Masons Advises Prosiect Gwyrdd on £1.1bn Residual Waste Project International law firm Pinsent Masons has advised Prosiect Gwyrdd, a consortium of five local authorities in South Wales, on a £1.1bn residual waste project - the first procured under the Welsh Government's residual waste revenue support programme. Projects Senior Associate, Didar Dhillon, led a team advising the five procuring local authorities - Caerphilly, Cardiff, Monmouthshire, Newport and Vale of Glamorgan - on the 25-year deal. The deal is thought to be the largest PPP project to close in Wales to date. The project will save the local authorities £11m in the first year of operation and £500m over its lifetime. The project will provide for the five local authorities' 172,000 tonnes of residual waste to be treated at Viridor's Trident Park Energy from Waste facility that is expected to be completed in 2014. The £223m facility, based in Cardiff, will generate 28MW of electricity, which is enough to power 50,000 households. The project has been structured under a complex merchant non-reverting model whereby 50% of the facility's capacity will be committed to third party waste. Commenting on the project, Didar Dhillon, said: "This project provides a perfect example of how local authorities can work collaboratively to efficiently deliver major infrastructure in challenging economic times. The scale and merchant nature of this project drew out a number of unprecedented issues that, with benefit of our market leading waste experience, we were able to guide the authorities through successfully. The project will deliver a significant contribution to the achievement of recycling targets in South Wales and valuable savings that may help to safeguard frontline council services." Pinsent Masons is also advising the procuring authorities on the North Wales residual waste project, which is to be funded with Welsh Government support, and is scheduled to complete in 2014.

Straight plc Wins ESPO and CBC Contract Straight plc, the environmental products and services group and the UK's leading supplier of specialist waste and recycling container solutions, has announced that it has been reappointed by the Eastern Shires Purchasing Organisation ("ESPO") and the Central Buying Consortium ("CBC") to supply a wide range of products. The estimated value of the four year Framework Agreement, which commences on 1 February 2014, is expected to be up to £100m through which Straight expects to generate at least £4m of annual revenues in line with previous levels achieved from this channel. Of 18 possible lots, Straight bid for a total of 14 and secured a position on all of these, meaning Straight have the largest product range on the framework. The products to be supplied include all of the Group's core product range including plastic wheeled bins, steel wheeled bins, food waste caddies and kerbside collection boxes as well as its two new products, the 3BoxStack and the Food Waste Inner Caddy. Straight holds joint supplier status on each lot with the exception of providing a Totally Managed Solution for Compost Bins where the Group is sole supplier. ESPO and CBC are local government purchasing and distribution consortia with a broad geographical coverage. The Framework Agreement can be used by all public sector organisations in the UK, including local authorities as well as other public bodies and charities. | 24 |

LGC acquires Dr Ehrenstorfer LGC, the leading international life sciences measurement and testing company, today announced it has acquired Dr Ehrenstorfer, the world’s leading producer of pesticide and other organic reference materials. Dr Ehrenstorfer offers an extensive range of over 8,000 products, including a number of very specialised materials, to the residue analysis and environmental testing market. Reference materials are fundamental to the reliability of analytical results, upon which key decisions around the safety and quality of products and processes are made every day. Dr Ehrenstorfer holds the ‘gold standard’ for reference material producers, with ISO 9001 certification and accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34. This acquisition gives LGC an unparalleled breadth of ISO Guide 34 accredited reference materials production facilities, with four sites across the US, UK and Germany. LGC has a long history in reference materials, as a producer within the UK National Measurement Institute and as a distributor for many of the world’s National Measurement Institutes, pharmacopoeias and globally-recognised private producers. Dr Ehrenstorfer is based in Augsburg, Germany. It was set up by Dr Siegmund Ehrenstorfer, who concentrated on pesticide residue analysis as a food chemist in a German government institute in the 1960s, prior to setting up his own company for the production of pesticide reference materials. Later on, the product range was continuously expanded with other organic materials such as PCBs and PAHs used by laboratories in the food, environmental and healthcare industries, in both the public and private sectors.

Power-Reach Shows its ‘Metal’ South East London-based Bermondsey Metals Recycling Limited is one of the latest operations to give the thumbs up to Boughton’s new Power-Reach skiploader with Intacova sheeting system. The firm which recovers and processes specialist metals including copper cable, aluminium and stainless across central London has run Boughton-equipped vehicles before – but has quickly confirmed that the new British-built Power-Reach represents a step change in operability, functionality and design features. Directors Danny Lands and Dominic Doorey now run the firm originally founded by Danny’s grandfather, Bill, over forty years ago. “We have always operated a free collection service, working around the times and schedules which best suit our customers. For instance, if contractors have to work overnight in the City, they want us to collect in the early hours – so that the site can be back to normal for the working day. Most of our business is probably within a 10-15 mile radius – but we do go further afield to help our loyal, longstanding and regular customers”, says Danny. Dominic has particular praise for the new Intacova. “Metals recovery and scrap are amongst the harshest operating conditions for a skip-loader and the new Power-Reach is clearly very strong and well built. The operating arc of the new Intacova places the sheet well clear of the load, so if there are projections, we can still get the cover over with less likelihood of damaging the sheet. The system is also very quick to operate – which is important if we are trying to load and get away quickly in a congested or narrow central London street”, he says.


ARE YOU SERIOUS IN YOUR PURSUIT OF ERADICATION? We are. The Invasive Non-Native Specialists Association (INNSA) is the industry body for companies involved in controlling and eradicating invasive non-native species. Membership of INNSA demonstrates professional knowledge and understanding of invasive species and the best methods for eradicating them. Registration provides members with a recognised accreditation backed up by a comprehensive insurance scheme.

INNSA aims to:


• Encourage the highest standards within the industry

• Represent members’ and sectors’ interests at all levels of the legislative and regulatory process by providing interfaces between the industry and the government, other industry and non-industry organisations.

• Improve the business climate in which the industry operates • Promote and protect the interests of our members • Provide members’ customers and clients with peace of mind and quality standards assurance

SERIOUS? THEN CONTACT US. Registration demonstrates commitment, expertise and professionalism in your field. alternatively call us on 0161 723 6457


Felling of Duke of Wellington Cedar In the context of the worldwide support from the arboricultural profession for his video on the felling of the Duke of Wellington Cedar ( ), Jeremy Barrell is calling for The National Trust to change the way that it manages heritage trees:

To download Jeremy Barrell's briefing note, scan the QR code below:

“Heritage trees are irreplaceable natural assets and The National Trust seems to be treating them as if they are disposable commodities that can be felled and replaced on a whim. Trees with cultural connections like The Duke of Wellington Cedar can never be replaced, but they can be retained and conserved. However, that takes vision and commitment, and an innovative management approach that seems to be lacking in that organisation. The time has come for a change and the support for my video is the mandate needed to drive that change.” In terms of background, as widely reported in the press, just before Christmas, The National Trust felled the Duke of Wellington Cedar at Kingston Lacy House against the published advice of its independent tree expert. The tree was planted in 1827 by one of our greatest national heroes, the Duke of Wellington, and ranked as one of Britain’s top heritage trees because it was of exceptional interest for visual, scientific and cultural reasons. Jeremy Barrell has studied the publicly available information and discovered a worrying catalogue of statements made by The National Trust in an attempt to justify the felling. He has also prepared a briefing note with more detailed explanations that can be downloaded at

Find Inspiration to Walk off Culinary Excess Over the past year, Transport for London (TfL) teamed up with a host of familiar faces who shared their favourite walks around the capital. So if you need any inspiration on where to take a pleasant stroll, then look no further than the Transport for London YouTube channel. Comedian Steve Furst, Olympic athletes Louise Hazel and Lawrence Clarke and Tyler James, finalist from BBC talent show 'The Voice' are among the people featured on the Walking in London YouTube playlist, which can be found at, or by scanning the QR Code to the right. All celebrities featured in the walking films gave their time for free, Or, if you fancy taking on a more planned walk then help is at hand. TfL and Walk Unlimited (formerly Walk London) have established a network of routes covering more than 360 miles in total around the Capital. Some of the highlights of the TfL/Walk Unlimited network include: • The Capital Ring – At 78 miles long this is a surprisingly green walking route that circles central London. It will take you through parks and open spaces. • The Green Chain Walk – An extensive network providing many days of walking through woodland and open spaces. • The Jubilee Greenway – A path for walkers and cyclists, linking the Olympic and Paralympic Games venues, with some of the capital’s best attractions, heritage sites, parks, waterways and views. • Jubilee Walkway – A route to celebrate the Queen’s Silver Jubilee, encompassing many landmarks, from St Paul’s to Buckingham Palace, with Bloomsbury and the City on the way. • Lea Valley Walk – 18 miles of path following the river and canal in northeast London. Highlights include the Swan and Pike Pool near Enfield Lock and two colourful marinas at Waltham Abbey and Springfield. • London Loop – This almost completely encircles Greater London and covers a distance of 152 miles. • Thames Path – On this route you are likely to see boating in almost all its forms, including canoeing, sailing, trip boats, tugs, barges, narrow boats, houseboats, marinas and boatyards. Additionally, TfL is making many other improvements to help make London a city that is easier and more pleasurable to enjoy on foot. These include creating more public spaces and enhancing existing ones, and improving walking routes and pedestrian wayfinding.

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For the Walking in London YouTube playlist, scan the QR code below, or go to:

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Biffa team up with homeless charity Streetlink At first glance the link between recycling and homelessness may seem a little abstract. But waste and recycling company Biffa is bringing the subject to the attention of industry in an attempt to raise awareness and ultimately save lives. People sleeping rough have many dangers to contend with, from abuse from passers-by to hypothermia. Finding somewhere dry and sheltered to spend the night isn't easy, and people may not consider the specific dangers when climbing inside a waste container. Biffa drivers are trained to check the waste containers of their 60,000 commercial customers, with drivers last year reporting over 20 incidents of finding people. Tragically, however, one person was not found until it was too late, and that fatality was not the waste industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first. Biffa is now hoping that by raising awareness further incidences like this can be avoided. In order to start to address the problem Biffa has partnered with StreetLink, a telephone line and website which enables the public to help connect rough sleepers to local services, to raise awareness of the issue of homeless people sleeping in bins. Working with the Chartered Institution of Wastes Management an industry-wide survey has identified the scenarios in which people are most likely to be found sleeping in bins. The report highlights the need for clear guidance so that vulnerable people can be better protected. Matt Harrison, Director of StreetLink commented: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The study has shown that people are most likely, though not exclusively, to be found sleeping in unlocked bins stored at the rear or side of buildings, and largely in urban areas. People sleeping rough seek shelter in bins through the night and in particular in cold or wet weather.â&#x20AC;?

The conclusions show that simply by encouraging commercial customers to lock their bins lives can be saved. Organisations working with people who are sleeping rough can also help to share advice on the matter. Although a bin full of cardboard may seem like a practical place to stay, the risk of being injured, or worse, is ever-present. This important piece of research will enable homeless charities to better communicate with rough sleepers about the dangers of sheltering in bins, whilst helping raise awareness of the issue amongst waste management crews and the public at large. Health and safety policies of waste management organisations do in some cases encourage staff to check bins for rough sleepers. However, this is not yet widespread enough to provide the consistent protection that these vulnerable people need. By raising awareness of the issue amongst the industry, and promoting best practice in training waste collection staff to be alert to such incidences, it is hoped that the sector will witness fewer injuries, and eliminate the risk to rough sleepers from their choice of a bed for the night. StreetLink aims to offer the public a means to act when they see someone sleeping rough and is the first step someone can take to ensure rough sleepers are connected to the local services and support available to them. If you are concerned about someone sleeping rough call StreetLink on 0300 500 0914 or visit | 27 |


Winner of Landscape Photographer of the Year Award 2013

Mist and Reflections

Crummock Water, Cumbria, England

By Tony Bennett

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Tony Bennett

The Landscape Photographer of the Year Award 2013 was won by Derbyshire-based photographer, Tony Bennett for his image of autumn mists drifting over Crummock Water in the English Lake District. The 2014 will open for entries later in the spring. There is a total prize fund of ÂŁ20,000 with a top prize of ÂŁ10,000 for the overall winner. Entry fees apply. Find out more details at | 29 |


Ground-breaking bird study receives vital funding Volunteers examining the behaviour of rare woodcocks in the New Forest have been awarded over £12,000 to undertake cutting-edge research. The New Forest Woodcock Group will use night vision equipment and radio tag transmitters to observe never-before-seen night-time mating behaviour and potentially track the movements of female with young. The volunteers aim to increase understanding of the woodcock and explore the reasons behind its national decline. The RSPB has given the woodcock amber status in its traffic light system of conservation importance, meaning the number of birds has moderately declined over the last 25 years. By understanding more about how woodcocks use the New Forest the group hopes to discover if human pressures are affecting the species’ population. The study’s grant was allocated by the New Forest National Park Authority’s Sustainable Development Fund (SDF) at its December meeting. The SDF provides grants for projects that will help sustain the New Forest National Park and ensure a better quality of life for now and future generations to come. Dr Manuel Hinge, New Forest Woodcock Group Research Coordinator, said: “This woodcock breeding study will be helped enormously by the SDF grant. The woodcock is a very secretive bird whose brilliant camouflage makes it extremely difficult for us to watch and follow through dense woodland, especially at night. The equipment purchased will allow us to follow three aspects of the woodcock’s breeding behaviour and will give the group an insight into how the birds use the New Forest in spring and summer. Members of the group will be able to watch the birds’ courtship behaviour at night with special imaging kit, follow individual birds at a discrete distance using radio tracking, and digitally record their display calls. We hope that this study will help the group estimate with greater accuracy the number of resident woodcocks breeding in the New Forest and identify behaviour that has not been documented before.”

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YHA announces investment in popular Derbyshire Youth Hostel

The UK Coastal Areas and Country Roads Are Holding Back a Tide of Litter

YHA has announced YHA Edale in Derbyshire's Hope Valley, as one of the recipients of the first round of investment in 2014. The 157-bed Youth Hostel, which is hugely popular with schools and groups looking for adrenaline-fuelled adventure breaks in the surrounding Peak District, is to undergo a £250,000 makeover to create a world class outdoor activity centre.

Whereas many of us may imagine litter to be mainly an urban problem the hot summer of 2013 brought more litter to UK beaches, and out of town retail parks are bringing more litter to our country roads. As Bill Bryson, President of the Campaign to Protect Rural England recently said in a BBC Panorama programme about litter in the UK, “Litter is becoming the default condition of a great deal of the countryside”.

As part of the investment most bedrooms at YHA Edale will be refurbished, all washrooms upgraded, the reception, lounge and self-catering kitchen will be redecorated and refurbished. Additionally the dining room will undergo full refurbishment and be reconfigured to better accommodate customers. With Kinder Plateau, the highest gritstone peak in the Peak District, just behind the hostel, YHA Edale offers amazing views and great places for walking, climbing, mountain biking and cycling on its doorstep and is hugely popular with outdoor enthusiasts. In 2013, YHA invested more than £13m in its network, refurbishing eight Youth Hostels and creating a new one - YHA South Downs - in East Sussex. YHA Edale is the first investment announcement in 2014 and more are set to follow as part of the Youth Hosteling charity's capital investment plan to create an excellent network of Youth Hostels in England and Wales and change the outdated public perception of its accommodation. YHA's continued investment in its network is helping YHA put further distance between the outdated public perception of Youth Hostels and the modern reality, which is proving particularly popular with young people and families looking for great value breaks in amazing locations. For further information about YHA membership or to make a booking at a Youth Hostel in England and Wales visit

Bournemouth beaches reported being hit hard by littering from 70,000 daily visitors during the hot summer of 2013. 50 tonnes of marine litter was also landed by 130 fishing vessels in July 2013 in Devon and Cornwall as part of the Fishing for Litter South West project. These and similar reports all highlight the now ongoing battle with litter in coastal areas and seaside resorts. The most recent Local Environmental Quality Survey of England (LEQSE) by ‘Keep Britain tidy’ has also shown that things like fast food litter are increasingly affecting rural roads. Other surveys and commentators have suggested that out of town retail parks have fuelled this trend. With UK country and coastal areas seeing much more of the action in our war against litter many people are asking what more can be done to prevent any increase in these trends that are threatening our wildlife and the environment as well as our enjoyment of these areas. The Fishing for Litter South West project, local council and volunteer beach cleaning and litter picking can help to some extent. In out of town retail areas such as the Kempston Interchange Retail Park in Bedfordshire, and at the Pitsea Retail Park in Essex staff from fast food outlets have even organised their own litter picking patrols to try to limit the effect of discarded fast food packaging on the surrounding area.

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John Dal

As UK remains on high alert, Know Your Flood Risk campaign launches new Flood Recovery Guide to support victims through the clean up Since December we’ve had two tidal surges and mass inland flooding resulting in devastating floods across much of the country. With further flood warnings being issued across the UK, data from the Met Office suggests that flooding could threaten to become an even more regular occurrence over the coming years. Against this backdrop, and in order to provide householders with practical advice in the event of a flood, Know Your Flood Risk has launched its new Flood Recovery Guide. Written by Mary Dhonau, Chief Executive of the Know Your Flood Risk campaign, along with Researcher Carly Rose, both of whom have first-hand experience of flooding, the document offers an accessible step-by-step guide to help victims through the initial stages of recovery, as well as in the months to come regardless of whether the property is insured or not. As Mary explains: “When I first flooded, I was caught utterly unaware. I was woken in the middle of the night by my son telling me that downstairs was under a foot of water. I lost all my youngest son’s playgroup drawings along with many other irreplaceable photographs and possessions. However, what struck me at the time was the complete lack of help or guidance for people such as myself, caught in that situation. “It can be extremely traumatic, and facing the clean-up process is daunting. However, by drawing on our own experiences we’ve been able to break the problem down into a series of manageable steps. It can be tempting to try and tackle everything at once, but there are some really important factors you need to take into consideration, from liaising with your Loss Adjuster through to some really basic health and safety considerations.

“The average flood claim is estimated to be around £40,000”, Mary continues. “However in many cases householders, particularly in the rental market, don’t even have the benefit of flood insurance simply because it is too expensive. If this is the case there are still a number of things you can do, and often there are grants and charities in place to support you. The real benefit of this guide is that it offers guidance and advice regardless of your situation. Every flood is different, and every house is unique, so the processes you need to follow will not necessarily be the same as your neighbour. It can take up to 12 months before any repairs are completed, but with the right support and guidance you can ensure that the recovery process is on track even from day one. “We understand as well as anyone the loss, disruption and heartache that flooding causes”, Mary concludes. “However recovery is possible and, even when the situation seems most overwhelming, simply following some practical steps can make all the difference in terms of getting things back on track following the damage caused by flooding.” The Know Your Flood Risk Flood Recovery Guide offers a wealth of practical hints, tips and guidance, along with third-party information sources and advice, all presented in an accessible, easy-to-follow format. The Guide is free to download at | 31 |


Making the Circular-Economy Model a Reality - ECO Plastics and Viridor Agree Multi-Million Pound Partnership Plastics recycling pioneer ECO Plastics has joined forces with the UK’s leading recycler, Viridor, announcing a twelve-month contract to help close the loop in soft drinks packaging. The multi-million pound agreement will see the recycling leader supply 10,000 tonnes of plastic bottles throughout 2014 – almost 8% of ECO Plastics’ total capacity. With the capability to sort 150,000 tonnes of mixed plastics, the business’ Hemswell facility is responsible for reprocessing 35% of the bottles collected in the UK every year. The announcement is the latest in a trend, which has seen a growing portion of the industry move away from spot trading and instead develop longterm collaborations. The additional surety provided by such agreements has allowed companies like ECO Plastics to invest in the creation of new technology, further developing the UK’s waste infrastructure. In total, some 35% of ECO Plastics’ feedstock is now supplied through longer partnerships, with a target to reach 70% by the end of 2014.

Nottingham Post

Finding A Better Deal On Your Energy Is Getting Easier It is getting easier to get a better energy deal as Ofgem's ban on complex tariffs kicks in. The changes are part of Ofgem's reforms for a simpler, clearer, fairer energy market. These reforms are the biggest changes to the retail energy market since competition was introduced in the late 1990s. Ofgem is banning suppliers from offering complex tariffs, for example, where consumers are initially charged a higher rate, which falls the more they use. The reforms also mean that once a consumer has decided how they want to pay for energy they will have just four tariffs to choose from for gas and four for electricity, from each supplier. Together these changes will make it far easier for consumers to compare deals and find the best tariff for them. From April 2014 a range of reforms are also coming into force to give consumers much clearer information on energy. For example, suppliers will have to tell consumers regularly in writing which of their tariffs is cheapest for them on bills, annual statements and other communications. Under Ofgem's reforms, suppliers must structure their tariffs using only a single unit rate and, if they choose, a standing charge. Some suppliers have tariffs with a zero or low standing charge, and if consumers consider these tariffs better suit their needs, we expect that suppliers will keep offering them. The ban on complex tariffs follows the introduction in October 2013 of Ofgem's rules for fixed-term tariffs. These rules ban suppliers from increasing prices on fixed-term tariffs. Suppliers are also banned from automatically rolling householders on to another fixed-term offer when their current one ends. In addition, since the end of August 2013, all suppliers have had to meet new standards of conduct set by Ofgem. These require suppliers to treat all consumers fairly and in an honest, transparent and professional manner. They must make sure that any information given to consumers is clear and easy to understand.

Painting Nottingham City Red A scheme to build nearly 400 new council homes in Nottingham has led to the development of a new red brick. Five million of the new bricks will be used to build brand new council homes across Nottingham, and have even been named after the scheme - an industry first. The ‘Nottingham City Red’ brick was selected for its traditional style, which is sympathetic to the existing Nottingham architecture.

Trustmark Numbers Soar In 2013

One of the country’s leading providers of wall, roof and landscaping materials, Weinerberger, is producing the Nottingham City Red from its Denton factory in Greater Manchester. It is based on a modification to a brick that was previously made at the factory, which meets the bespoke needs of the Building a Better Nottingham scheme. Councillor Alex Ball, Nottingham City Council’s Executive Assistant with responsibility for housing and regeneration, said: “We are really excited that this programme has been able to bring this brick into production. These new homes are just part of the Building a Better Nottingham programme, which is currently seeing £1bn being invested in regeneration schemes and transport infrastructure to transform Nottingham’s future.”

TrustMark, the Government endorsed quality mark for tradesmen, today records its greatest year to date for tradesmen details displayed on the website. In 2013 more than five million (5,277,705) search results were provided to homeowners who used TrustMark’s website and telephone helpline to find local tradesmen to carry out work on their homes or gardens. During 2013, the average number of details displayed across all trades rose by 36% compared to the same period in 2012. Solar panel installers (131%), installers for cavity, internal and external wall insulation (92%) and window installers and glaziers (70%) saw the largest rise last year, primarily due to homeowners wanting to reduce their rising energy costs.

Nick Murphy, Chief Executive of Nottingham City Homes, said: “The Building a Better Nottingham scheme is a landmark programme of council house building for the city, and will have a hugely positive impact on our local communities. “To have a brick named after the scheme shows just how significant it is. Now the Nottingham City Red is in production, other developers will have the opportunity to use a material that reflects an era of architecture and design, widely prevalent in Nottingham and other cities across the country.”

Notably in December, TrustMark saw a considerable surge in demand from the previous month for fence installers (65%), underground waterproofing specialists (65%) and flood recovery specialists (313%). The severe weather conditions experienced throughout the UK would have contributed significantly to these growths.

The 65mm wirecut brick is being produced at a rate to meet the requirements of the Building a Better Nottingham scheme. It has been designed to reflect the Victorian heritage of the city, while meeting modern performance standards. | 32 |

All TrustMark firms’ technical skills have been independently checked through on-site inspections to ensure a high quality of workmanship and trading practices. TrustMark is the only scheme that requires qualified inspectors to do these visits, so that technical competence is checked as well as business practices and customer satisfaction. For further information and to stay up-to-date with developments at TrustMark, visit

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India’s Power Hub Will Converge In New Delhi, May 2014 India’s economic growth appears to have bottomed out, with growth conservatively forecast to rise to around 6% this year. This is obviously good news, but it is fast-approaching national election, which is widely anticipated to produce a change in government that hopefully will mark the rebound of Asia’s third largest economy. Interestingly, despite the slowdown in India’s economic growth in recent years, the demand for electricity from its population, particularly its emerging educated middle class, has continued to rise. Undoubtedly, this growth in electricity demand informed the ambitious target for new generation capacity that the Government of India set for the current Five-Year Plan, which runs up to 2017. India is keen to diversify its generation mix away from fossil fuels, encouraging greater development of what are seen as low-carbon resources, such as hydroelectric power and nuclear power. In relation to the latter, India is aiming to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear by 2050. This is an ambitious goal, but if Kudankulam’s second reactor enters commercial operation at full load later this year, as expected, it will represent an important step forward. However, the low-carbon resources that offer the greatest potential for India’s diversification are renewable energies and Renewable Energy World India will be looking at the future of renewable energy across India and the ways these ambitious targets can be achieved. Policies to provide energy access through renewable energy are being integrated increasingly into broader rural development plans with India developing large-scale programmes that address the dual challenges of energy access and sustainability. However, for energy access targets to be met, institutional, financial, and legal mechanisms must be created and strengthened to support large-scale renewable energy deployment. Exciting news for this year is the launch of DistribuTECH India. Building on PennWell’s highly-respected DistribuTECH brand, this new co-located event will cover the latest advances in transmission and distribution technologies for the Indian market, as well as discuss many of the key issues facing the T&D sector, as India works towards its goal of ‘electricity for all’.

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The Indian Government is taking several measures to technologically strengthen the grid and prevent future failures following the country’s massive blackout in 2012 which left more than half the country’s population in the dark due to electricity grid failure. With India’s demand for electricity expected to reach 900GW by 2032, the Ministry of Power and Smart Grid Task Force Government of India has implemented a Smart Grid Vision and Roadmap for India that calls for a nationwide rollout of smart grids by 2027. The DistribuTech India conference will include sessions covering topics such as: Smart Grid & Smart Metering; Market Policies & Regulations, IT security and how India will achieve a Modern Distribution Grid for the future. Thus, POWER-GEN India & Central Asia, together with Renewable Energy World India and the newly-launched DistribuTECH India, truly reflect one of the most exciting electric power markets in the world. Taking place from 5-7 May 2014 at the Pragati Maidan, New Delhi, this annual event is widely recognized as one of the region’s most important forums for the power industry and is ultimately the premier event for meeting major players in the Indian and international power sector, learning about the latest technologies, exchanging ideas and developing new contacts. Bringing together for the first time leading power industry companies from across the entire power generation (both conventional and renewable energy) area, as well as the T&D sector, this is an event NOT TO BE MISSED!

+ More Information

incorporating: incorporating:

5-7 MAy 2014 5-7 MAy 2014 Pragati Maidan Pragati Maidan new delhi, india new delhi, india

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News / The Watercooler

IBE Director Awarded CBE

The Institute of Business Ethics congratulates Philippa Foster Back, Director of the Institute, who has been appointed a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2014 New Year’s Honours. The CBE was awarded in recognition of her work as Chair of the UK Antarctic Heritage Trust, for services to Antarctic heritage. Chris Moorhouse, Chairman of the IBE Trustees said: ‘I am delighted for Philippa; she thoroughly deserves this recognition.’

New Appointment for Austin Stroud

BSS Industrial has announced the appointment of Nigel Aiton as National Sales Manager for its specialist brand, Austin Stroud Carbon & Stainless. Before joining BSS Industrial, Nigel held the position of UK Sales Manager with DH Stainless for four years. Prior to this, he was National Sales Manager for Sanha UK and also worked for Crosslings Ltd. Austin Stroud is recognised and firmly established as a leading supplier of stainless and carbon steel pipeline products to the UK process and utility industry sectors.

Saint-Gobain's Employees Achieve Postgraduate Diploma

Employees from Saint-Gobain’s Building Distribution businesses have successfully completed a Postgraduate Diploma in Multi-Unit Leadership and Strategy at Birmingham City University.The group of 15, which included Senior Branch Managers and Area Managers, passed an initial assessment to gain their place on the course, which is specifically aimed at business leaders who wish to develop their strategic

Enitial Strengthens its Environmental Monitoring Team

Environmental monitoring and management specialist, enitial, has appointed two employees with expertise in the air quality sector and solar energy to develop and improve the services the company provides. Ibai Castezubi and Shaun Grainger have recently been recruited as air quality liaison manager and low energy and solar pump liaison manager respectively. Castezubi will be managing air quality monitoring for a number of enitial’s clients in the public and private sector. In another division, Grainger will be targeting landfill operators to offer low energy and solar pumps which extract leachate at landfill sites.

JCB Appoints New North American Chief as Patterson Retires

JCB’s John Patterson CBE, who rose through the ranks from field service engineer to Group Chief Executive, has retired after 43 years service. His retirement sees Arjun Mirdha take up the position of President and CEO of JCB in North America, where John Patterson has led operations since 2008 as Chairman and CEO. John Patterson joined JCB in 1971 and went on to work in Canada and America before returning to the UK in 1988 as Managing Director

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management skills. The employees studied for a year, dedicating their own time to the course, which was comprised of E-learning, online coaching and assignments, averaging seven to eight hours of study per week. Their hard work has paid off, as they have all passed the course and gained the qualification. The group will have a chance to celebrate at the official graduation ceremony in February. Held at Birmingham Symphony Hall, they will be presented with their Diploma by the Vice Chancellor of Birmingham City University.

Simon Kirby appointed as HS2 Construction Chief

HS2 Ltd has appointed Simon Kirby as Chief Executive - Construction. Simon joins from Network Rail where he is Managing Director, Infrastructure Projects, leading on a £5bn a year investment programme to improve the country’s railways. In his 10 years at Network Rail Simon has over-seen the largest investment programme in Britain's railway since the Victorian era - a programme which, since his appointment, has seen almost £25bn invested in improving the railway, including landmark schemes such as the transformation of Kings Cross in London, the modernisation of Reading Station, the Thameslink programme and the refurbishment of the Forth River Bridge in Scotland.

of JCB Service. In 1993, John was appointed Managing Director of JCB Sales before becoming Group CEO – only the third person in JCB’s history to hold the position. He went on to become the company’s second longest serving CEO and in his 10 years in the role, sales broke the £1bn mark for the first time, eventually reaching more than £2bn by the time he stood down in 2008. He then became Chairman and CEO of JCB Inc based in North America.

If you have any news stories, please submit them to

Dr. Jeremy Birnstingl becomes Vice President for Regenesis

Regenesis Corporate Headquarters in San Clemente, US, announced today that Dr. Jeremy Birnstingl has been promoted to the position of Vice President Environmental Technology. In this new position Dr. Birnstingl will be responsible for directing the Regenesis’ world-wide technology development and acquisition efforts, overseeing

BSIF names Alan Murray as new Chief Executive Officer

The BSIF announced that its Federation Council has appointed Alan Murray as its new Chief Executive Officer to succeed David Lummis who will retire in March 2014. Alan started in his new role on 6th January, working with David to ensure a smooth handover. Alan Murray comes to the BSIF with many years’ experience working in the safety industry. Alan has worked in a number of organisations including Marigold, MG Safety and Scott Safety and he brings a wide range of experience in both the manufacturing and distribution sectors.

Northwest Automotive Alliance Chief Executive Carol Holden Receives OBE in Queen's New Year Honours

Carol Holden, Chief Executive of the Northwest Automotive Alliance (NAA), has received an OBE in the Queen’s New Year Honours for services to the automotive industry in the North West. Carol was appointed Chief Executive of the NAA in April 2010, shortly before the announcement that the Northwest Development Agency was to be abolished, along with the funding it provided to the NAA. Despite such challenges, Carol has led the NAA through a period of successful growth and has secured a number of high profile projects for the organisation.

Michel Denis appointed President & CEO of the Manitou Group

The Board of Directors announced that Dominique Bamas, President and CEO, has resigned. Mr Bamas was appointed on an interim basis and is resigning in accordance with the agreements made with the Board in order to permit the appointment of Michel Denis as the new President and CEO. Michel Denis assumed his functions in January for a four-year-term. Michel Denis, a graduate of “ESSEC”, a French business school and the "Ecole Centrale de Lyon" a French engineering school, began his career as a

MBE for Terry Fillary

Master Plumber and craftsman Terry Fillary, has been awarded an MBE for services to historic building restoration and conservation. He is a specialist in ornate leadwork and has worked on many prestigious restoration projects at notable sites such as: the Tower of London; Kensington Palace; Mansion House; Thames House, Millbank; and Crosby Hall, Chelsea. Terry, who is a Liveryman of The Worshipful Company of Plumbers (WCP) and a member of the Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (CIPHE), also designed and manufactured ornamental lead planters at Buckingham Palace and Sandringham House.

new product commercialisation efforts and operating as a senior technical director on key remediation projects involving advanced in-situ technologies. Previously Dr. Birnstingl served as the founding Managing Director of Regenesis UK Ltd. in Bath, where he successfully established Regenesis as a leading provider of advanced insitu remediation technologies throughout Europe.

strategy consultant. He joined Dalkia in 1994 to develop cogeneration. He subsequently managed the French businesses of MC International which later became Johnson Controls. In 2003 he joined the Fraikin Group, the European leader in truck rentals, for which he was CEO until 2013. Over the past 10 years he accompanied the strong international development of the Fraikin group, which imposed its approach to the design of industrial vehicles, the associated services and the European financing of its fleet of 60,000 vehicles as a model.

Kayimbi Mpanya – the face of GEA Bischoff in South Africa

Kayimbi Mpanya has recently joined GEA Process Engineering in Johannesburg as the company’s Sales Manager in order to strengthen the Emission Control Unit. The company is the representative of GEA Bischoff in South Africa and Kayimbi’s appointment demonstrates the company’s commitment to providing top level emission control systems also throughout the sub-region and worldwide. GEA Bischoff is part of the emission control Strategic Business Unit within GEA Process Engineering, itself part of the GEA Group. | 37 |

News / Opinion

To save the planet we all need to share one-bedroom high rise flats and move to our cities instead of trying to get back to nature in some sort of misguided nostalgia for the past. Let me explain.

Urbanisation has been accelerating since 1950 when less than a third of us lived in cities. Now, for the first time more than 50% of the world population lives in urban environments - and this number is set to grow to over 80% by 2050. In 1950 there were 86 cities with a population of over 1 million. By 2005 there were 400 such cities and it is anticipated that there will be over 550 by 2015. Projections of populations in megacities are staggering: Mumbai is expected to have 33 million inhabitants, Shanghai 27 million and Karachi 26.5 million by 2025. The infrastructure of our cities is not expanding fast enough to meet the numbers of people moving from the land to occupy them. Current projections estimate that there will be 2 billion slum dwellers by 2040, representing a quarter of the global population. Across the world birth rates in cities are far below population replacement rates. Cities may be the only effective form of contraception humans have invented to date. Cities will be at the core of humanity and its civilisation over the coming thirty years as our population peaks. Our environment is breaking. Our cities are key to the new sustainable future we must build. We need to focus on three things:


New York City is one of the first to secure its watershed through land purchase and management - making its water supplies sustainable. Sana’a in Yemen will be the first capital in living memory to be abandoned because of lack of water. Johannesburg faces issues over mine water polluting its drinking water that will affect its inhabitants. Industries such as SAB miller relies on the same water. Whichever way you look at it water is the key to the future of our cities. From water efficient washing machines to grey water management systems we have the technology to run our cities more sustainably – when will we have the will? | 38 |


We cannot continue to use the fertile estuary plains on which most of our cities are built for human habitation. We have to build up not out. We have to stop paving our countryside for car parks and roads and put electric highspeed public transport at the core of all we are doing, We also have to plant our cities, such as the rooftop vegetable projects in the USA to the visible greening of China’s new cities. We must ‘green’ our cities, parks and rooftops into a sustainable entity.


Our cities use 75% of all the power we consume. If we were to switch to LED lighting in our major cities, we could eliminate the need for over 30 coal fired power stations in the US alone. New lateral urban wind farms should be integrated into the design of all our new cities. We must make power where we use it. Jeremy Clarkson has shown that electric cars are already as fast as any petrol driven equivalent – we have to mandate non-combustion vehicles in any city by 2025. We should also use the thermal energy beneath our cities to power them. The top 6km of the earths crust contains 50,000 times more energy than all the power contained in all the coal and oil that exists on earth. Cities are our future, but our future looks bleak unless they become part of the solution to the problems of the environment our planet faces. Whether it is Portland in Oregon, or Malmo in Sweden, or the new Chinese Eco City off Shanghai - our cities need to stop being producers of waste and pollution. We need to integrate cities sustainably into the plan for fixing our future. The future is broken but full of opportunity. Lets get repairing the future.



FROM PUMP CONTROLS TO CONTAINMENT WEIRS Data is delivered over our private and secure Radio Data Networks to Gateways that interface directly to existing SCADA / outstations. There is no need for cellular coverage, mains power or to modify manhole covers. Â Small scale PC based systems are also available for private site operators such as airports.

News / Opinion

Steve Grant No single event can be said to be caused by climate change, but if last year doesn't lead to an inescapable conclusion and underline the conclusions of both the IPCC and IPSO reports, then I don't know what will.


Monsoon rains flooded Malaysia – leaving 3 metres of standing water in some parts of Jakarta. 23,000 people were evacuated in their worst monsoon on record. Meanwhile, in something that hardly made the news here in the UK, the Limpopo burst its banks forcing 250,000 people to evacuate. In eastern Brazil, half a month's rainfall fell on January 3rd as temperatures hit an unprecedented 40C. Australia had its hottest month on record.


Maine in the USA experienced its largest ever snowfall from a single storm. Numerous snow records were broken throughout the USA, notably in the Texas Panhandle. The extent of sea ice in the northern hemisphere was the lowest known for what should be its peak, taking the total reduction in extent since 1979 to 606,000 square miles – about 7 times the size of the UK. In Antarctica, sea ice grew in its extent by some 300 miles driven by abrupt changes in wind patterns driving frigid air over the Weddel sea.


New Zealand experienced its worst drought in thirty years and China had its second warmest March on record (the warmest was 2008) as storms lashed southern Asia. Spain endured three times its normal rainfall for March, setting another record. In California, the year-to-date rainfall was the driest on record, at 3.59 inches and the snowpack in the Sierra Nevada was only 18% of its normal volume.


Australia continued to suffer extreme temperatures as part of an overall set of anomalies throughout the Southern hemisphere, leading to drought conditions in some areas and record-breaking rainfall and flooding in others.


China endured its wettest May on record with a national average some 23% above normal, an average masking some extremes of unprecedented torrents. Eurasia had its lowest snow cover on record. Early tornadoes of unusual ferocity hit populated areas in the mid-west of the USA. The largest tornado ever recorded – with a base of 2.6 miles – traversed part of Oklahoma. Internal windspeeds reached 296 mph. Overall, it was the planets equal-first warmest May on record – tied with 1998 and 2005.


The northern hemisphere had its fourth lowest snow cover on record – after 2010, 2011 and 2012. Over 1,000 people were killed in flash floods following 'indescribable' rains in northern India, as the world experienced its hottest June ever. A severe heatwave hit north America and the hottest temperature ever recorded was taken in Death Valley at 54C. The worst forest fires in living memory burned out of control in the US, especially in Arizona where 19 firefighters lost their lives.

| 40 |


July saw the Earth's temperature still well above average. Nine of the ten warmest Julys on record have occurred since 2000. The other one was 1998. Australia endures its driest July on record whilst the east coast of America suffers anomalous rainfall events – Philadelphia sees 8 inches of rain fall in 4 hours.


New Zealand and South Korea had their warmest-ever Augusts as both Eastern Russia and the Phillippines endure extreme precipitation leading to the worst flooding in over a century. California's low rainfall continued to rewrite the records as the N.E. USA had the wettest summer on record.


This was 2013's relatively 'normal' month globally, although it tied with 2003 as the fourth warmest month on record. The USA had a number of anomalous events including a 1 in 1000 year rainfall event in Boulder, Colorado, and Scandinavia had a particularly warm month at 2C above the average of the last 30 years. Vardo, in the extreme north, recorded its first ever September temperature above 10C.


Cyclonic storm Phailin hit India causing the displacement and evacuation of over 1 million people. October saw Australia's warmest ever 10 month period, and Wyoming and South Dakota had the worst early blizzard on record, with 3ft of snow and 70mph+ winds causing $1.7bn in damage and lost livestock. Alaska meanwhile, was enjoying its warmest October on record.


The world's warmest November on record. Intense weather patterns in the USA see Indiana record 28 tornadoes in one day (Nov 17) and Illinois 25. Following an extreme 'dustbowl' drought, rainfall hit Austin, Texas in a storm that destroyed over 1000 homes in an event unparalleled in the city's history. The key event of November however was tropical cyclone Haiyan which hit the Phillippines – the worst storm ever to make landfall in known history.


Texas, having endured a drought followed by unprecedented rains, suffered an ice storm – an event the city hadn't seen before. Russia has its warmestever December, and heat records were broken in Argentina. Scotland, with one of the longest accurate weather records in the world, had its wettest-ever December. Australia had its driest and warmest-ever year, as did California.

So there we have it – a potted climatic view of the most extreme weather year we have ever known. Not all the record-breaking events are featured because there were simply too many. Records tumbled all over the world – driest, hottest, wettest, windiest, fiercest – on it goes.

Register at

Driving the energy & environmental agenda 17-19 June 2014, ExCeL London

Addressing the critical issues within energy and environment management Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only exhibition developed to address the needs of those responsible for driving forward the energy and environmental management agenda within their organisation. Designed to help your organisation truly minimise its environmental impact, the show will provide solutions, technologies and strategies to maximise energy efficiency, reduce costs, ensure compliance and develop effective CSR & sustainability programmes.

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Air Quality

Dan Higg i ns / Ind ustr ial Emi ssi o ns D i rec ti ve / En i t ial

Burning Issues

Dan Higg ins, senior liai son manager at env ironmental monitor ing spec iali st enitial , e x plains how the Ind ustr ial Emi ssions Directive af fects the waste management industr y.

| 42 |


The European Biogas Association predicts that the UK’s biogas industry will grow exponentially in 2014, following a 4% increase in the number of biogas plants from 2011 to 2012. The European Union’s Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) combines the pollution preventing regulations from a number of different directives and came into force in the UK in 2013. The IED affects a number of installations in the waste industry and there is a timeline which sets out when different installations come under its control. Operators must liaise with regulators to make sure they obtain the correct permit and comply with the IED’s requirements in good time. It’s crucial that companies running waste treatment facilities monitor their emissions to ensure compliance with the IED.

Landfill diversion

For the first time ever in the UK, the amount of waste being landfilled dropped below 30 million tonnes as more and more landfill sites close according to BDS Marketing Research. This can be attributed to the EU’s Landfill Directive of 1999 which came into force in the UK in 2002 to reduce the weight of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) landfilled in comparison to 1995 levels. The 2010 target of 75% was achieved and we are on track to reach 50% by 2013 and 35% by 2020. A number of measures were gradually introduced to decrease the amount of waste going to landfill. The Government set up the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) for waste disposal authorities to help the UK reach its Landfill Directive targets. In addition, escalating landfill tax rates (currently at £72 and £2.50 per tonne for standard and inert waste respectively) encouraged businesses to decrease the amount of waste being sent to landfill in order to reduce their waste tax bill. The crusade against sending waste to landfill has driven an increase in the segregation and treatment of waste in order to extract the most value by recycling, using digestion or recovering energy. There are now many innovative waste treatment facilities across the country which produce emissions and therefore come under or are due to come under the IED’s remit. Plus, there are many more waste management installations currently in the planning or development phase.

The Industrial Emissions Directive

The European Commission launched a review of the existing legislation on industrial emissions in 2005 as there were concerns that the directives were not delivering the expected environmental benefits. The aim was to simplify and improve the legislation to offer a higher level of environmental protection, encourage technological innovation and reduce administration as well as making the implementation more cost-effective. The resulting IED (2010/75/EU) has amalgamated and replaced the following directives: the Waste Incineration directive (WID), the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control directive (IPPCD), the Large Combustion Plant directive (LCPD), the Solvent

Emissions directive (SED) and three existing directives on Titanium dioxide. It strengthens a number of provisions in existing directives and imposes new requirements on regulated installations. The range of regulated activities and installations has been extended to include waste activities and a number of previously exempted facilities. The regulatory responsibility for some installations has also been transferred to local authorities – this means that companies must apply to their local council for a permit to operate certain installations. The IED was transposed into UK law in 2013 with the Environmental Permitting Regulations (England and Wales) (Amendment) which came into force Bill McChesney in 2013. A timeline for implementing certain provisions of the directive has been set out with the following deadlines: • Any new installation immediately • Existing installations predating 6 January 2013 (except large combustion plants) by 6 January 2014 • Industrial activities not subject to the IPPCD by 6 July 2015 • Large combustion plants predating 6 January 2013 from 1 January 2016 Under the IED, appropriate preventive measures must be taken to protect against pollution which includes the use of Best Available Techniques (BAT) to deliver high levels of environmental protection cost effectively. This includes general environmental performance, emissions to air and emission levels, odour, water consumption and emission to water as well as energy efficiency. Permit applications for installations will be assessed against the current BAT and the regulator requires their use when licensing installations.

Emission limits

Licensing authorities may set less strict emission limits and permit conditions depending on the local environmental, technical feasibility and geographic location of specific installations. Therefore, it isn’t possible to state whether the IED’s emission limits are stricter on the whole than under the previous directives. In theory, the limits should be easily obtainable for new installations as they are set according to what is technically achievable. However, what can be achieved at optimal operation conditions can be significantly different in the real world. In addition, extra costs to ensure compliance will be a burden to operators but this will provide additional work for the environmental sector. Any proposed deviation from BAT conclusions should be robustly justified by regulators and the industry through the publication of the results. The ► | 43 |

Air Quality

Dan Higg i ns / Ind ustr ial Emi ssi o ns D i rec ti ve / En i t ial

For the first time ever in the UK, the amount of waste being landfilled dropped below 30 million tonnes as more and more landfill sites close according to BDS Marketing Research.

+ More Information Title photo: Marcus Klegg Michael Glasgow BAT conclusions have important cost and regulation implications so it’s vital for the industry (both as individual companies and as a group) to participate in the BAT Reference (BREF) Document review and drive the agenda. This can be achieved either directly as members of the technical committees (although this has time and cost implications) or through trade associations.

Waste management industry

Waste management facilities must comply with the IED if they meet the following criteria: • Dispose of non-hazardous waste through biological treatment such as mechanical biological treatment (MBT) and have a capacity of over 50 tonnes per day or 100 tonnes/day for anaerobic digestion (AD) • Recover or recover and dispose of nonhazardous waste using biological treatment including composting, AD and MBT with a capacity of more than 75 tonnes/day or 100 tonnes/day for AD • Dispose or recover hazardous waste via biological treatment with a capacity exceeding 10 tonnes/day The Environment Agency (EA) has provided guidance for AD, composting and MBT processes which set out how installations should be operated according to the specified standards. Waste incinerators also come under the IED and local authorities must regulate all waste incineration and co-incineration activities as well as the use of BAT. The European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies is leading the review of the Waste Treatment (WT) BREF Document. The Technical Working Group (TWG) was reactivated in 2013 and the revised WT | 44 |

BREF is due to be released in 2016. Under the IED, the industry will have four years to implement the BAT for installations as set out in the WT BREF.

Accurate monitoring

The operators of these facilities must continually monitor a number of factors to meet the IED’s requirements such as the type and levels of contaminants present in emissions to ensure that they comply with their permit. This will also help operators identify any potential issues so they can take action quickly in order to reduce the potential impact and cost. Environmental monitoring in the waste management and recycling industry has been a paper-based process until recently with the growing demand to record data digitally. The need to comply with regulations such as the IED means that waste management and environmental companies require faster and more accurate methods of capturing data. Manually recording data in a notebook and transferring it to a spreadsheet at a later stage can lead to transcription errors which need to be taken again or may result in erroneous readings being supplied to the regulating authorities. In contrast, using a PDA-based electronic data capture device speeds up the monitoring process, minimises errors and improves the accuracy and quality of a facility’s environmental data and reports. Accurate monitoring will help the operators of facilities which come under the IED’s remit comply more easily to their permits. Plus, a digital data collection system provides the regulators that the field teams are monitoring and collecting all the required information at the correct location and at the right time.

The Environment Agency’s biowaste sector performance report, published at the start of 2013, revealed that odour was the main reason for the breach of permits in the biowaste industry in 2011. Most of the serious incidents arose from composting with AD following behind. Worryingly, there are many more occurrences of serious pollution per 100 permits in the biowaste sector than all other waste sectors. Hopefully the IED will help the industry to tackle this concerning trend but it is important that the regulation levels are realistic and proportionate.

The future

Although the government is confident that the UK will reach the 2020 landfill diversion target, there are some concerns that the country currently doesn’t have sufficient infrastructure to divert this amount of waste from landfill. Defra’s sudden withdrawal of funding for three major PFI waste projects in the north of England earlier this year did nothing to allay those fears. These projects are not necessary to meet the 2020 target according to Defra as they are unlikely to be operational by then due to problems securing planning permission. It’s not all doom and gloom for the waste industry; the European Biogas Association (EBA) predicts that the UK’s biogas industry will grow exponentially in 2014. Following a 4% increase in the number of biogas plants from 2011 to 2012, the EBA expects around 20 new projects to be built this year which must comply with the IED’s control if they meet the specified criteria. In the future, it’s crucial that developers ensure that new facilities are designed and built with both the Landfill Directive and IED in mind to maximise the amount of waste diverted from landfill and prevent pollution ■

Air Quality

Emi ssi o ns Mo ni to r i ng / Ga smet

Germany Lowers Biogas Formaldehyde Emissions

Power generation from Germany’s enormous biogas industry produces emissions to air that are regulated by the Technical Instructions on Air Quality Control (TA Luft). As part of the approval process, the emissions from each plant have to be tested every three years. Formaldehyde is one of the pollutants of greatest concern because of its carcinogenicity and the TA Luft emission limit is 60 mg/m³. However, the German Government has also created a financial incentive scheme to encourage process managers to lower their formaldehyde emissions to below 40 mg/m³. To be eligible for the EEG (Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz) scheme, plants must be tested every year. Formaldehyde (HCHO) can be difficult to measure in hot, wet emissions, not least because it would dissolve in condensate if the sample gas is allowed to cool. Test engineers in Germany have therefore deployed portable (Gasmet DX 4000 and CX4000) FTIR analyzers to measure formaldehyde, and a number of systems are currently in use across Germany. | 46 |


The biogas industry in Germany has grown enormously in recent years. In 1992 there were 139 biogas plants in the country, but by the end of 2013 there will be almost 8,000 with an electrical capacity of about 3,400 MW – sufficient for the energy needs of around 6.5 million households. Initially, biogas plants were built to handle the byproducts of human and animal food production as well as agricultural waste, but with government incentives to generate renewable energy farmers are now growing crops such as maize specifically for energy production. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with anaerobic bacteria or fermentation of biodegradable materials. The main constituent gases are methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of hydrogen sulphide and water. The products of biogas combustion are mostly carbon dioxide and water, but the combustion of biogas also produces formaldehyde.

Biogas-fuelled combined heat and power (CHP) plants are becoming a very popular source of renewable energy in many countries because they provide a reliable consistent source of energy in comparison with wind and solar power. In addition to the renewable energy that these plants produce, the fermentation residue is a valuable product that can be used as a fertiliser and soil conditioner for agricultural, horticultural and landscaping purposes.

Exhaust gas tests

The exhaust emissions of each biogas plant are tested every three years for substances hazardous to air quality, such as particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and formaldehyde. Most of these parameters can be measured onsite with portable equipment. However, in the early years and still to this day, the complexity of formaldehyde analysis has necessitated sampling and laboratory analysis – a time-consuming and costly activity.


The VDI Test Site, and a Test Site Team Meeting.

In 2007 Wolfgang Schreier from the environmental analysis company RUK GmbH (now part of the SGS Group) started working on the use of portable FTIR gas analysers for formaldehyde analysis. The FTIR analysers are manufactured by Gasmet (Finland) and supplied in Germany by Ansyco GmbH, a Gasmet group company. FTIR analysers are able to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse an almost endless number of gas species. However, Wolfgang Schreier says: “The Gasmet units are primarily employed for the measurement of formaldehyde, and whilst they are able to measure other parameters of interest such as CO, NOx and Methane, they are not yet certified for doing so in the emissions of biogas plants, unless an internal validation has been undertaken. “The DX4000 proved to be the ideal instrument for this application because it samples at high temperatures (above 180 Deg C) so formaldehyde cannot dissolve in condensate, and the instrument provides sensitive, accurate, reliable real-time formaldehyde measurements – no other portable analyser is able to achieve this.

The VDI Test-Site.

The DX4000 is robust, and weighing just 14kg it is easy to transport from site.

“Importantly the DX4000 is also robust, and weighing just 14kg it is easy to transport from site to site. In addition to a heated sample line, the only other accessory is a laptop running Gasmet’s Calcmet™ software.” In contrast with the portable FTIR, it is typical for the results of laboratory gas analysis to become available around 2 weeks after sampling. This highlights a further benefit of the direct-reading instrument: real-time results enable plant managers to adjust their process in order to improve efficiency and minimise the emissions of formaldehyde and other gases. Ansyco’s Gerhard Zwick says: “We hope that the other measurements that are possible with the Gasmet FTIR will also soon be accepted. A new VDI method (VDI 3862-8) for the measurement of formaldehyde by FTIR is being established and this is likely to be published at the beginning of 2014. “The preparation of this standard involved rigorous field tests with 5 Gasmet FTIR analysers at a live biogas plant. During testing, samples were taken for analysis according to the existing standard

laboratory methods and the results showed that portable FTIR produced even better results than lab analysis.”

Formaldehyde reduction incentive

The bonus is paid to the operators of biogas plants which are subject to approval by the Federal Immission Control Act if certain conditions are met. Measurements to demonstrate the effectiveness of emission reduction have be taken each year by an organisation which is approved according to §26 of the Act. While the emission limit for formaldehyde is 60 mg/m3, according to the EEG legislative, the plant operator receives a bonus of 1 cent per kW when formaldehyde emission levels are below 40 mg/ m3, with simultaneous fulfilment of the emission limits for nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide (combined), and for carbon monoxide. With the benefit of real-time readings from the FTIR, process operators are able to employ process control measures to alter formaldehyde emissions. However, this may also affect the efficiency of the combustion process or the concentrations of other limited gases. In addition, it is now commonplace for modern plants to use a catalyst for formaldehyde emission reduction. Summarising Gerhard Zwick says: “The standard formaldehyde emissions monitoring package consists of a Gasmet DX4000 analyser and a heated sampling system, so no adaptations were necessary for the measurement of biogas emissions. “We have now supplied instruments to most of the key testing organisations as well as motor and system manufacturers in Germany. Happily, the feedback has been extremely positive because, as a portable analyser, the Gasmet FTIR systems are able to test more plants, more quickly, and this lowers costs.” ■

+ More Information | 47 |


Bro oke A ld r i c h / W i ld Futures / Mo nkey Co nser vat i o n

The Primate Pet Trade and the conservation of nature â&#x20AC;&#x201C; at cross purposes? by Bro oke A l d r i c h

Campaigns Manager, Primate Welfare Team, Wild Futures

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IN DECEMBER 2013 a Basingstoke man was charged with “causing unnecessary suffering to an animal” after being reported for bringing his pet marmoset monkey to the pub with him. The monkey was found to be in poor health, its normal quarters a barren “faeces-covered” birdcage.1 There is much to be said about the welfare implications of keeping primates as pets, though in a case like this, much of it is pretty obvious. But what about conservation – does the trade in primates as pets have an effect on the conservation of nature, here or elsewhere? Wherever there are wild primates, there are “pet” primates. It is known that the keeping of pet monkeys, apes and other primates in habitat areas is often intricately connected to the hunting of primates for meat – and often also with the logging industry.2 In fact, hunting (or “harvesting” for other purposes, including the pet trade) and loss or fragmentation of habitat are the major reasons that nearly half of the primate species are now faced with the threat of extinction.3 Forty three of these species are considered to be Critically Endangered – in other words they face an “extremely high” risk of extinction in the wild.4 A prime example of how the trade in primates as pets is directly oppositional to conservation is the trade in slow lorises. Five species of slow loris are recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and their level of threat ranges from Vulnerable to Critically Endangered.4 All slow lorises are listed in Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) which prohibits, except in rare cases, international trade in these species.5 The pet trade is listed amongst the major threats for each of these species. In many cases, the local trade is the major threat, but a group of scientists from Oxford Brookes University, led by Dr. Anna Nekaris, found that videos of pet lorises posted on the internet may help to generate international demand.6 We do not believe that the loris trade has gained a strong foothold in the UK, though Wild Futures has received one report of a pet loris in the past year. Unfortunately the informer had a change of heart and refused to provide any details, so the report remains unsubstantiated. The Barbary macaques of North Africa are another case in point. Their numbers in the wild have plummeted since the 1970s, and the pet trade in Europe has played a large part in this decline. A 2008 study estimated that about 300 of these monkeys were being captured annually from the wild for illegal import into Europe.7 This, along with habitat destruction, caused a massive crash in numbers. Els Van Lavieren, founder and director of the Dutch NGO The Moroccan Primate Conservation Foundation, says that the number of individual Barbary macaques annually smuggled into Europe now may be slightly lower, but that trade within Morocco is on the rise. ► | 49 |


Bro oke A ld r i c h / W i ld Futures / Mo nkey Co nser vat i o n

Despite the entirely inadequate facilities in which Joey was to be kept, the local authority initially granted a permit for Joey’s owner to keep him. When this licence was not renewed after the first year or two, the council did not follow up and Joey was kept illegally for the remainder of his time as a pet. In 2009, Wild Futures and the RSPCA estimated that there were probably between 2500 and 7500 privately kept primates (monkeys, apes and prosimians such as lemurs) in Great Britian.8 There is some indication that this number is growing, although insufficient legislation and poor compliance with existing legislation makes this difficult to know for certain. Critics of the position that a legal trade in pet primates in the UK not only has negative consequences for primate welfare and human safety but also negatively affects conservation of wild primates, have ridiculed this position by stating that our trade is entirely distinct from that which occurs in primate habitat countries; that all pet primates here are captive-bred, and that there is no conservation issue. We can counter that argument in several ways – for one, it is untrue that all pet primates in the UK are captive-bred. Joey and Kodak, two capuchin monkeys resident at Wild Futures’ Monkey Sanctuary in Cornwall, were both wild-born in South America. Both were caught as infants – which almost certainly involved the deaths of their mothers and probably other members of their natal troops too – and shipped to Europe in order to be kept as pets. Kodak was initially sent to Greece, along with a number of other monkey babies whose fates remain mysterious. Joey was brought directly to the UK where he was kept in a third-story London flat for nearly a decade, resulting in multiple and serious physical and psychological abnormalities that persist to this day. Despite the entirely inadequate facilities in which Joey was to be kept, the local authority initially granted a permit for Joey’s owner to keep him. When this licence was not renewed after the first year or two, the council did not follow up and Joey was kept illegally for the remainder of his time as a pet. But without the fact that one can legally keep a monkey such as Joey as a pet in a London flat, it would not have been possible to legally import him or to keep him for so long in such a damaging environment. In fact, there is a good chance that his owner would never have bought him – hence fuelling the capture and killing of wild primates – in the first place. Lodi, another capuchin monkey resident at the Sanctuary in Cornwall, was, after being captured from the wild, legally (or so it seemed) brought to Spain in order to be kept as a pet. Lodi’s papers, however, later turned out to be

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falsified. Another Sanctuary monkey was purportedly smuggled into the UK from another European country because the owner was aware that it was legal to keep monkeys here. Although this individual was born in Europe, it’s a clear example of how the existence of a legal trade here in the UK can fuel and encourage illegal activity. Lodi’s story is much the same. Certainly though, many pet primates in the UK were born here – to people who breed and sell primates for profit or as a hobby. In 2008, according to information obtained via the Freedom of Information Act, there was only one breeder of primates licensed to do so under the Pet Animals Act 1951 throughout all of England, Scotland and Wales. Unfortunately, “fuzzy” outdated legislation means that many breeders and dealers are able to operate unlicensed without technically breaking the law. Additionally, some zoos continue to release their “surplus” animals to private keepers (as recently as 2012, a new licence was issued under the Dangerous Wild Animals Act for a single lemur which had been obtained from a zoo). In fact, it is impossible to determine where the majority of pet primates kept in the UK were born. There are no data of any sort kept by government officials on the majority of privately kept primates. Indeed, the authorities only tend to take notice of them on the rare occasions that owners expose themselves by bringing their pet to the pub or to the town centre – by which time, irreversible damage is usually already done to the monkey through neglect or ignorance. What we do know is that of our own rescues, as of 2009, a full 39% were of indeterminate origin. Only 17% were known to have been bred in captivity for the pet trade. Thirteen percent had originated in zoos before entering the pet trade and 30% were known to have been wild-caught. Whatever the origins of the privately kept primates of Britain, and apart from the obvious direct impact that the sourcing of primates from the wild entails, we suspect that there is also an indirect, but significant, impact on conservation in range states when the trade in pet primates is legally condoned, despite being recognised as inappropriate, by our government.9,10 It has to do with attitude, and it has to do with influence. Paul Waldau has said that “it is the presence of lives not under the dominion of human community that is so important to understanding humans’ place in our ►


Bro oke A ld r i c h / W i ld Futures / Mo nkey Co nser vat i o n

larger, more-than-human community”.11 The negative welfare implications of keeping primates as pets are widely recognised and fairly indisputable (indeed, these implications are even generally acknowledged by “specialist keepers” themselves, although the common assertion that they are somehow “different” is difficult to substantiate, and the defining qualities of a “specialist” are somewhat mysterious). Yet we continue to keep them. People have a tendency to rationalise their actions in order to make themselves more comfortable when doing things that harm animals or harm nature;12 in the case of primate keeping it is often framed as a matter of the preservation of human privilege.11 Try arguing with a staunch supporter of the primate pet trade. When the other arguments fail (and they will), they will fall back on the argument that “it is my right to own whatever I want to own”. Note that the primate in question becomes a thing rather than an individual. This sort of denigration of primates – undomesticated wild animals who simply cannot thrive in domestic environments – to something more akin to objects, over whom we have rights of ownership, is exactly what fosters attitudes of dominion, human superiority, nature as an endless “resource”, regardless of the consequences, which parallels anti-conservationist thinking in terms of global warming or greenhouse gas emissions. But more specifically, it has been demonstrated that the use of nonhuman primates as pets and entertainers actually creates false public perceptions about their status in the wild, and may influence conservationrelated behaviour towards the species in question by people both within and without range states. Two studies published by PLOS ONE found that images of chimpanzees – endangered in the wild – pictured alongside human beings or in human-centred environments fostered the false beliefs that a) chimpanzees are not endangered in the wild and that b) chimpanzees can make good pets.13,14 The authors state that “the depiction of westerners on television or in print media interacting with chimpanzees as if they are pets can only further encourage the belief of poachers and animal traffickers that expatriates and foreigners have a strong desire for infant chimpanzees".14 This is consistent with ideas expressed to Wild Futures by conservationists working to protect primates in Asia, Africa and the Americas. While these two studies focused specifically on chimps, we are certain that the results will be found to be applicable to capuchins, macaques, marmosets and other primates commonly kept as pets. We look forward to seeing such research conducted. Effective conservation needs global input, and hinges on respect and true understanding of the plants, animals, and ecosystems involved. Our behaviours inextricably influence these systems. The use of wild animals, such as monkeys, apes or other primates as commodities does not foster respect – in fact quite the opposite. Not everybody is in a position to go out into the field and save the planet directly but we can all make choices that either help or hinder such efforts. Refusing to take part in or legally sanction the primate pet trade is one way we can do this ■

+ More Information

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Joey was brought directly to the UK where he was kept in a thirdstory London flat for nearly a decade, resulting in multiple and serious physical and psychological abnormalities that persist to this day.

1. Western Daily Press. (2013) ‘Monkey taken to pub lands owner with possible jail sentence’, 9 December. Available at: Monkey-taken-pub-lands-owner-possible-jail/story-20298752-detail/story.html 2. Wolfe, LD and Fuentes, A. Ethnoprimatology. in Campbell, CJ, Fuentes, A, MacKinnon, KC, Panger, M and Bearder, SK. (2007) Primates in Perspective. Oxford University Press pp 691-702. 3. Strier, KB. Conservation. in Campbell, CJ, Fuentes, A, MacKinnon, KC, Panger, M and Bearder, SK. (2007) Primates in Perspective. Oxford University Press pp 496-509. 4. IUCN Red List. Available at: 5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Available at: 6. Nekaris, KAI, Campbell, N, Coggins, TG, Rode, JE, Nijman, V. (2013)Tickled to death: analysing public perceptions of “cute” videos of threatened species (slow loris – Nycticebus spp. – on Web 2.0 sites). PLOS One. Available at: http://www. 7. Van Lavieren. E. (2008) The illegal trade in Barbary macaques from Morocco and its impact on the wild population. Traffic Bulletin 21(3). Pp 123-130. 8. Wild Futures and RSPCA (2009) Primates as pets: Is there a case for regulation? Available at: 9. House of Commons HC Public Bill Committee Deb 19 January, col 156. (2006) available at: cmstand/a/st060119/pm/60119s05.htm 10. House of Commons HC Written Answers 9 July, col 11590W. (2008) available at: pm/60119s05.htm 11. Waldau, P. Venturing beyond the tyranny of small differences: the animal protection movement, conservation, and environmental education. In Bekoff, M. (2013) Ignoring nature no more: the case for compassionate conservation. University of Chicago Press pp. 27-43. 12. Myers, OE. Children, animals and neuroscience: Empathy, conservation education, and activism. In Bekoff, M. (2013) Ignoring nature no more: the case for compassionate conservation. University of Chicago Press pp. 271-285. 13. Ross, SR, Vreeman, VM, Lonsdorf, EV (2011) Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets. PLOS ONE. Available at: pone.0022050 14. Schroepfer, KK, Rosati, AG, Chartrand, T, Hare, B (2011) Use of “entertainment” chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status. PLOS ONE. Available at: info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026048


Matthew Penc har z / G reater L o nd o n Aut ho r i t y

Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Energy Future

Matt hew Penc har z

Senior Advisor, Environment & Energy to the Mayor of London

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Web: | 55 |


Damien Everett

London is facing huge demographic pressure. The 2011 Census proved what many Londoners had already deduced from horrendously congested tubes, trains and buses, spiralling property prices and news headlines of insufficient primary school places – that our earlier population forecasts had seriously underestimated the capital’s growth. Since Boris Johnson was first elected, just under six years ago, London’s population has increased by an extra 600,000 people. It is forecast to grow by another million by 2021 and to 10 million by 2030. This is the fastest growth in our history – faster than in the inter-war period when the Tube was thrown out into the developing suburbs and Metroland was built. We face the challenge of meeting this growth: ensuring the homes are built, there is enough capacity in our transport system and delivering investment in our utilities. A fundamental requirement is to ensure that London’s development is not held back by a lack of energy infrastructure. This pressure is set within a context of the Mayor’s very challenging carbon targets – to reduce London’s CO2 emissions by 60% from a 1990 baseline by 2025. Targets, which have become all the more challenging considering the city’s population growth and the need to be mindful of energy’s affordability. Looking further forward to 2050, the Mayor’s Climate Change Mitigation and Energy Strategy has a carbon emissions reduction target of 80% in line with Government policy. Our challenge has not been made any easier by a failure of the previous government to have a coherent plan on where this country’s energy supply is to come from. In just two years, as nuclear generators come to the end of their operational lives and older fossil fuel plant is decommissioned because of EU emissions rules, we will see this country’s energy headroom at peak demand reducing to around just 5%. Ofgem has already warned that the likelihood of brownouts will increase from 1 in 12 to 1 in 4. To exacerbate the problem even further short-term party politics has caused great uncertainty in the energy industry. Since October last year we have had a taster of the tenor of the energy policy debate that will rage between now and the next general election. A debate that has resulted in the slamming of the brakes of much of the desperately needed energy infrastructure investment this country needs. The Mayor cannot stand by and see London’s international competitiveness suffer let alone working to meet the capital’s demographic pressure. Therefore, in June last year he published his 2020 Vision, a high level document on how London should meet this challenge and take advantage of all the opportunities a growing, youthful and dynamic population creates. City Hall is now working

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Matthew Penc har z / G reater L o nd o n Aut ho r i t y

James McCaffrey

on the Mayor’s Infrastructure Investment Plan to work out what infrastructure is needed by 2050, how much this will cost and how to finance it. London’s 2025 CO2 targets are to be met by a reduction in transport emissions, energy efficiency measures in our buildings stock, a decarbonisation of the grid and supplying 25% of the city’s energy from local energy generation. As we develop the Mayor’s Infrastructure Investment Plan it is becoming clear that local generation will need to meet substantially more than 25% of London’s energy needs by 2050. It is worth noting that, despite the recent increases and the noise about energy prices, the cost per unit in the UK is among the lowest in Western Europe. However, because our buildings are some of the least energy efficient in the EU our bills remain high. That is why the Mayor is driving forward the largest buildings retrofit programme the city has ever seen. We have a domestic programme that will deliver energy efficiency measures for hundreds of thousands of domestic properties by 2017, a public sector programme, which has already completed 230 buildings with a further 600 in the pipeline and is now being rolled out nationally, and we are beginning a commercial sector programme to stimulate retrofit activity. However, no matter how much we increase energy efficiency in existing building stock, we must keep up supplying low cost, more secure and lower carbon energy to London, which will also take the pressure off upstream generators. This supply can be delivered through more local generation and district heating networks. These are far more efficient than relying on electricity generated elsewhere – often hundreds of miles away – in the country. Generated locally, the waste heat produced as a by-product can be recovered to displace the use of natural gas for building heating and domestic hot water. Given that we consume more energy in heating buildings than for either transport or electricity generation, London’s dense urban development has huge potential to benefit from this cheaper, more secure and lower carbon energy supply arrangement. This is not “new” technology – it is well established and proven. We are over a generation behind our Nordic neighbours, who were driven to develop heat networks following the ‘70s Oil Shock and Finland deciding that combined heat and power (CHP) district heating to be the most economic way of heating homes following its sudden urbanisation after World War Two. As we have seen with our energy inefficient buildings, optimising energy generation and utilisation has not, until very recently, been a priority for the UK. This is a consequence of our relatively mild temperate climate and large


Duncan Harris

domestic reserves of coal and latterly North Sea oil and gas. However, with ever increasing prices and concerns over greenhouse gas emissions that era is now, finally, well and truly over and we now have a lot of catching up to do.

electricity than through current wholesale arrangement through the Big Six thus giving a better return, which should attract more investment in city-level energy production.

Heat networks play an important role in the urban environment connecting sources of low cost and waste heat to consumers to enable the decarbonisation of our cities at a market competitive rate. Unlike many other schemes, which are seeking to decarbonise our energy sources, large scale district heating should not require a government subsidy. With London being by far the most densely developed (and developing city) it is in the capital which has the greatest opportunities to deploy them.

The Mayor also intends to use his role in overseeing Transport for London, which through London Underground is the capital’s biggest energy consumer, to further stimulate decentralised energy projects. This will drive the decarbonisation of the capital’s transport network and help to deliver London’s energy future at no extra cost to the tax and fare payer.

However, district heating networks are relatively new to the UK and there are significant barriers with multiple stakeholders of different local authorities and developers, an ingrained culture and scepticism to overcome. For example, the large upfront capital investment, long development timescales and uncertainty about connecting future heat customers currently create too much risk for private sector investment. The Mayor is therefore doing everything within his power to overcome these barriers to attract the investment to deliver his target that 25% of the capital’s energy will be supplied by local sources by 2025 with greater penetration expected by 2050. This requires de-risking this investment, overcoming scepticism and taking a strategic view over the city’s long-term energy supply. The GLA (Greater London Authority – London’s strategic authority, which is led by the Mayor) has worked with London’s boroughs to heat map the capital and to support them with their energy masterplanning to identify where schemes could be brought to market. The Mayor’s Decentralised Energy Project Delivery Unit is working with the boroughs and the private sector to take the next steps in developing and procuring their larger-scale decentralised energy projects. The Mayor is using his role in the planning system to ensure that new developments are the most resource efficient they can reasonably be and able to connect to heat networks in the future. In order to meet the London Plan’s stringent carbon emission targets this often means the development having an energy centre on site. From 2010 to the end of 2012 74MW of cumulative CHP electrical capacity has been secured through the planning process. That is broadly equivalent to the capacity required to supply 150,000 homes. Working to remove other barriers, City Hall is the first public authority to apply for a junior electricity licence from Ofgem. By selling their electricity through the GLA this should give local generators 20-30% better income for their

London saw two groundbreaking schemes in 2013, showing clearly we are now on our way to deliver this vision. The first was London’s first energy from waste (EfW) district heating network from the South East London Combined Heat and Power (SELCHP) facility, which was celebrated last November. Such large-scale EfW facilities generate electricity at less than 25% efficiency but have huge potential to supply low cost and low carbon heat to their neighbourhoods. If the four major EfW facilities in and just outside London all had heat offtakes such as SELCHP we could heat and power 260,000 homes. After meeting the Mayor’s Waste Strategy targets to maximise waste reduction, re-use and recycling, we could meet 30-40% of the Mayor’s local energy generation targets from waste to energy processes. The second was the beginning of the work on phase 2 of the Bunhill scheme in Clerkenwell. The London Borough of Islington’s new CHP district heating network will be connected into low grade waste heat sources from a nearby London Underground vent and a UK Power Networks substation and will, together with the use of heat pump technology, deliver cheaper heat for a further 1,200 nearby residents – this is a European first. The potential of delivering renewable heat from waste sources such as these are huge, with a recent GLA report London’s Zero Carbon Energy Resource – Secondary Heat, stating that in theory 38% of London’s heat demand could be met from them if exploited through heat networks. We therefore hope that this demonstrator project will prove the concept, and as the Mayor’s initiatives and Government incentives stimulate the market schemes such as these will proliferate across London. Looking even further forward, it is worth asking the question if this vision of local generation with associated heat networks is properly future-proofed for when there is no natural gas and the circular economy has minimised waste to a point where there is very little left to burn. At its most basic heat networks have the simple role of circulating hot water as an energy carrier. They are heat technology agnostic – it does not matter where the energy comes from. Therefore when our electricity grid is effectively decarbonised ► | 57 |


Matthew Penc har z / G reater L o nd o n Aut ho r i t y

Annie Mole

The Mayor also intends to use his role in overseeing Transport for London, which through London Underground is the capital’s biggest energy consumer, to further stimulate decentralised energy projects. This will drive the decarbonisation of the capital’s transport network and help to deliver London’s energy future at no extra cost to the tax and fare payer.

with a mix of new nuclear and renewables, the CHP would be replaced by industrial heat pumps to upgrade sources of low temperature waste heat from the Underground, sewage treatment works and other industrial processes to heat our buildings. This retrofitting would be at a marginal cost as most of the heat network infrastructure would already have been constructed. So future London urban heat networks could evolve today from natural gas CHP, EfW and surplus heat operating at traditional temperatures and mature into low temperature networks scavenging low-grade surplus heat, minimising the need for primary energy input and interconnected to become fully integrated to create a heat market. With commodity prices likely to go in only one direction and the need to keep costs down while also bearing down on our carbon emissions this is the Mayor’s vision. It is a low cost, more secure and low carbon energy future delivered through a partnership between local authorities and developers co-ordinated by the GLA without the need for an exorbitant public subsidy. It requires an up-front capital cost but will give investors a reliable long-term return, perfect for pension and assurance funds looking for infrastructure investments. The challenge of London’s demographic pressure coupled with our dense urban development make the capital the place to invest in this vision ■ Title photo: Charlie Marshall

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Ni c k Butli n / K i w i Power / Energ y Chal l enges

Demand Response: The alternative to polluting peaking power

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Nick Butlin, Director of operations at KiWi Power, looks at the growth of demand response in the UK, the challenges facing the industry and the role of the ‘negawatt’ in a future Capacity Market. It seems hardly a day goes by without a mention of how energy prices are rising following decisions by the UK’s ‘Big Six’ to increase their domestic energy tariffs. Headlines warn us of impending rolling blackouts as early as next winter as our energy reserves shrink, and how an estimated £110bn of capital investment will be required over the next decade to upgrade the UK’s electricity infrastructure as ageing power plants are forced to close. However, according to KiWi Power - one of the UK’s leading demand response and smart grid firms there is light (which will stay on) at the end of the tunnel that can help mitigate against the doom and gloom of what some see as an inevitable energy crisis facing Britain.

Negawatts or Megawatts?

The American physicist and environmental scientist Amory Lovins first used the term ‘negawatt’, having spotted a typo in a Colorado Public Utilities Commission report. It was later coined to measure the amount of electricity that doesn’t need to be generated. In other words, electricity that can be saved, unused or wasted is measured in negawatts. Demand response (DR) accounts for how these negawatts are managed. It is a term that encompasses a range of mechanisms designed to help National Grid balance the supply and demand of electricity on the UK’s network. Demand response allows participating businesses to temporarily switch off or turn down non-essential power, either doing without power for a short period of time or substituting power from the grid by using

on-site standby power generators. It helps National Grid reduce electricity loads and meet the needs of the country during times of peak demand or grid stress without having to fire up expensive and highly polluting coal-fired power stations, or import electricity from abroad. National Grid pays businesses through aggregators like KiWi Power for each kilowatt of demand that can be temporarily turned down. It is more economical and environmentally friendly for National Grid to do this than to pay for peaking power stations to be kept on standby. The vast majority of grid stress conditions are short in duration. Therefore, an end user may be called upon to reduce energy consumption for about an hour at a time, never longer than two hours and never more than three times per week. Demand response events are relatively few and far between; additional strain on the grid is rare and statistically accounts for less than 100 hours in any given year. However, these events need to be managed effectively.

Enter the aggregator

Using other forms of balancing services, such as energy obtained from power stations that are kept in a constant state of standby or imported energy, can be expensive. However, DR allows aggregators to incentivise commercial and industrial customers to participate in programmes by offering payments for being available to respond to turn-down requests. Unlike other aggregators, KiWi Power manages the risk associated with ensuring that its portfolios of customers are active and available at short notice to meet DR requests. ► | 61 |


Ni c k Butli n / K i w i Power / Energ y Chal l enges

Demand response drivers

Compared to the US, the UK market for demand response is still in its infancy. Many businesses remain unaware of the benefits the scheme offers. However, progress is being made and a key driver currently influencing the UK market is the speed at which customers can be alerted to an event and have it automatically managed. Automated demand response (ADR) allows sites to be controlled automatically without physically having to contact each customer site, which is time consuming. Integration with existing building management systems (BMS) allows engineers to ensure DR events can be managed automatically without disruption to operations while maintaining business continuity. KiWi Power works with businesses to develop and expand the scope of an existing BMS, and in many cases pays for the equipment and installation costs for the required smart metering. This allows businesses wishing to participate in a DR programme to avoid any capital outlay. Automation is seen as a means to an end, that end being the management of risk. Around 95% of an analyst’s time working in KiWi Power’s smart grid operation centre is devoted to monitoring assets i.e. customer portfolios. This ensures a constant flow of reliable energy data is received from BMS or meters connected to the mains or standby generators. If information from a customer site falls outside normal operating parameters then contact can be made to rectify a potential problem. Periodic contact with each customer together with a constant flow of energy data provides KiWi Power with a real-time profile of exactly how many negawatts are available at any given time. Some demand response models penalise customers for non-participation in a DR event. KiWi Power maximises the likelihood of its customers benefiting from a DR payment by managing each portfolio of customers. It ensures that at any given time, there are enough aggregated negawatts within each portfolio to fulfill its commitment to a DR event. So, for example if there are ten sites in a portfolio and one of them is unable to participate, the others will not be penalised and the risk of nonpayment is covered by KiWi Power.

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A maturing market

DR programmes have been helping US Independent System Operators (ISO) to balance electricity demand and save customers money through lower energy prices for the last decade. For example, the inclusion of demand side response capacity in the ISO New England forwardcapacity auction alone has been credited with saving customers around $280m by lowering the price of electricity paid to all ‘capacity resources’. So what can we expect for the UK market? Leading energy market analysts Navigant Research expects to see substantial development and strong potential for DR initiatives in the UK with a 32-35% annual growth rate predicted from 2012 through to 2018.

The challenge ahead

The good news is that DR is already delivering positive results in the UK and is active in providing balancing services for National Grid. The technology is tried and tested with many commercial and industrial customers already taking part. More recently, successful results were announced following trials throughout summer 2012 with sites, including hotels, hospitals, water treatment plants and public sector facilities across London, participating in UK Power Networks’ Low Carbon London project. However, Ofgem’s recent Electricity Capacity Assessment highlights unprecedented challenges facing the UK’s energy industry and the UK electrical grid faces a number of imminent challenges to security and supply. These include: • 30 GW of wind generation is expected to come online between now and 2020, bringing with it greater intermittency of supply. • The majority of the UK's existing nuclear plants are due to be shut down by 2023 and nearly a third of the coal generation fleet will close by the end of 2015 due to the Large Combustion Plant Directive (LCPD). • An increasing reliance on volatile foreign supplies (the UK became a net gas importer in 2004).


• £110bn of investment is required in the energy network at a time when government support for capital expenditure projects is low and market uncertainty is at a high.

Capacity Market

In response to these challenges the Government has introduced the Energy Market Reform (EMR) consultation, which includes provision for a Capacity Market. This is designed to prevent risk to the UK’s energy supply by incentivising organisations, on both the supply and demand side, with financial payments to provide extra capacity during times of grid stress. National Grid, DECC and Ofgem have already identified that DR will play a significant role in the changing landscape of the electricity market. Furthermore, a report published in 2011 outlining National Grid’s view of the UK energy market in 2020 identified the potential for DR across a variety of applications, as shown below. One of the key elements of the EMR consultation is a capacity mechanism. This will encourage new

types of capacity to come forward to support the system, including DR. It is absolutely crucial that non-traditional sources of capacity, such as DR, storage and the use of standby power equipment are considered. But exactly how DR is implemented in the proposed Capacity Market is a cause for concern. Transitional arrangements have already been delayed for a year and the industry is calling for more certainty over how DR will be priced. The consensus in the industry is that when looking at the UK’s capacity margins, DR should be a part of any robust and sustainable long-term solution for the UK energy industry, participating in a fair and equivalent way to traditional generating resources.

app’ of the smart grid. The use of smart grid technology to provide a service with financial benefits for both end users and electrical network operators must be a sure incentive for businesses considering using DR as a means of reducing their carbon footprint, lowering CO2 emissions, saving money on energy bills and generating a new risk-free recurring revenue stream. As well as helping to improve the reliability of the electricity transmission network, DR is fast becoming an increasingly popular green alternative to the use of expensive, carbon-heavy power stations, which are relied upon by National Grid during times of peak energy demand ■

Smart grid ‘killer app’

There’s no doubt that DR will have a vital role to play in ensuring that the lights are kept on in Britain. The success of DR in the US has proved how effective this strategy is and it’s easy to see why DR is growing fast in the UK. With no capital outlay costs and no complicated contracts or penalties for nonparticipation, DR is being described as the ‘killer

+ More Information

Figure 1: The potential for DR across a variety of applications is identified in the National Grid’s view of the UK energy market in 2020. | 63 |


R over t G roves / Ind ep end ent Energ y G enerato r s

The Future

for Independent Generators

As the energy market embarks on what has been described as the biggest change in a generation, SmartestEnergy’s chief executive Robert Groves looks at the prospects for the independent sector. WITH energy bills continuing to rise and concerns over a looming capacity crunch, the potential role of independent renewable generation in the UK is becoming increasingly high-profile. Smaller scale, distribution connected projects developed by businesses, communities and landowners can reduce dependence on the grid and generate valuable new income streams. Independent generation is already an important part of the energy mix and the Coalition Government sees an even greater role for the sector in the years ahead. It is currently looking at how to ensure independent generation can reach its full potential as the changes to the energy market under Electricity Market Reform (EMR) start to be implemented. SmartestEnergy has worked in the sector for more than a decade but with current concerns over energy costs and volatility we are seeing a surge in interest in independent generation: figures we compiled for the Energy Entrepreneurs 2013 report highlighted the contribution already made by the sector. Commercial-scale independent projects developed by businesses, communities, farmers and the public sector are now generating £768m worth of electricity a year - enough to power 3.9 million households. Investment has risen sharply with a 24% jump in live projects in a year as developers look to cut costs and profit from high wholesale prices.

Shift to become both producer and consumer Onsite generation projects developed by businesses in particular are showing strong growth. While the

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rising cost of energy remains the greatest driver behind investment in on-site generation, concerns over security of supply are also contributing to the growing number of manufacturers developing their own facilities, particularly those which rely on a continuous and high quality power supply. The advent of the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) scheme has helped by providing security for those looking to invest in projects. A FiT-specific Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) we have developed has proved popular among on-site generators, providing commitment for up to 10 years and enabling many projects to secure necessary finance. The growth in on-site projects is further evidence of a recent shift we have been witnessing where the lines between energy consumers and producers have become increasingly blurred. As well as developing their own generation projects there is also a growing trend for large energy users to contract directly with independent generators under ‘linked supply’ arrangements.

What will change under EMR?

The EMR plans look to balance the competing challenges of achieving stretching climate change targets, while maintaining security of supply and affordability. The proposals aim to incentivise the huge investment in generation needed, given that a fifth of current capacity is due to close by 2020. The UK also has a target of achieving 15% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by then, plus an emissions reduction target for 2050.

Although the key measures under EMR have already been announced, the coming months will see many of the final details of EMR finalised or implemented. The four key pillars of EMR are the Carbon Price Floor; Contracts for Difference; Emissions Performance Standard, and the Capacity Market. There are also a raft of other changes being brought in alongside those main elements including the closing of the Renewables Obligation scheme to new entrants, extension of the smallscale Feed-in Tariff scheme, measures to improve liquidity and a review of embedded benefits.

Carbon Price Floor and Emissions Performance Standard

The Carbon Price Floor, also known as the Carbon Tax, was implemented in April 2013 with an initial level of £16 per tonne. The system sets a minimum price of carbon in the UK and works with the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) so that only the higher of the two is the price paid. It seeks to reinforce the concept of ‘the polluter pays’ and strengthen the carbon price signal to investors, encouraging investment in low-carbon technology. The Emissions Performance Standard aims to act as a “regulatory backstop” on the amount of emissions new fossil fuel power stations are allowed to emit.

Contracts for Difference (CfDs)

FiT CfDs will replace the current Renewables Obligation (RO) scheme but will also support other forms of low-carbon generation in addition to renewables. The CfD aims to remove exposure to long-term wholesale price movements which


Rising energy costs are the greatest driver behind investment in on-site generation, while concerns over security of supply are also contributing to the development of independent facilities. investors face under the RO. Support payments are variable based on the difference between the Market Reference Price and the fixed Strike Price. The RO is due to close to new projects on 31 March 2017 but will continue to provide support to existing projects until 2037. During the overlap period, between when CfD contracts are available in 2014 until March 2017, generators will be able to choose which support mechanism to apply for. CfDs are only available to new generating stations or additional capacity above 5MW, with the exception of biomass co-firers which can apply for a CfD as a conversion to full biomass firing. The Government is also consulting on policy proposals to ensure a route to market for independent CfD-supported generators, known as the Offtaker of Last Resort, to protect against any failure in the PPA market. In the EMR Final Delivery Plan published in December, the Government also said it was considering introducing competition for more established low carbon technologies when the CfD regime is introduced. Further details are expected in early 2014.

Capacity Market

The Capacity Market aims to give investors the certainty they need to put adequate reliable capacity in place and protect consumers against the risk of supply shortages. Providers of reliable capacity will gain from a predictable revenue stream in return for committing to provide capacity when needed. The proposed Capacity Market will be technology neutral and all existing and new forms of capacity (including demand side) will be eligible to participate, except for capacity receiving support through low-carbon support schemes such as the Renewables Obligation and FiT CfD.

Providers will offer capacity in a pre-qualification process run by the system operator. Pre-qualified capacity will then enter competitive central pay-asclear auctions, also run by the System Operator. Successful bidders will be awarded ‘capacity agreements’. Existing plants will have access to one year contracts, refurbished plant to three year contracts, and new plant to ten year contracts. The costs of capacity agreements will be met by suppliers based on their market share at times of peak demand although this is subject to further consultation.

How generators will get paid under the new CfD system

Generators will be paid a ‘difference’ payment to bridge the shortfall between the Strike Price and the Market Reference Price. This will be collected from consumers in the form of a supplier obligation and in the event that the Market Reference Price is higher than the Strike Price, generators will have to pay back to consumers. To give generators confidence that suppliers will fund the difference payment there is a range of measures planned including the need for all suppliers to post collateral to cover liabilities, an Insolvency Reserve Fund to cover failing suppliers and the use of existing industry processes such as the Supplier of Last Resort (SOLR) process under which a failed supplier’s licence can be revoked and another supplier take on its customers Under the CfD scheme, the three key issues for independent generators will be to (i) ensure they have a PPA provider that their capital providers are comfortable with, (ii) that they realise a price for their power that is as close as possible to the Market Reference Price and (iii) that they are able to manage the potentially very volatile cashflows associated with the CfD.

Opportunity for independent generation to thrive

The extent to which EMR represents real reform of the energy market is open to debate but there is no doubt it will result in significant changes to the sector. While some of the final details have yet to be announced, we are confident the reforms will be very positive for independent generators and that measures such as FiT CfDs will improve access to market and stimulate more competition in the supply market. Although there have been some concerns over the complexity of the new regime, SmartestEnergy will continue to offer PPAs to independent generators ensuring that those generators realise a price for their power that is as close as possible to the strike price of the FiT CfD, with the potential of also providing the data and payment terms needed to reduce administration and to manage any potentially damaging volatility in cashflows. It will be some time before the real impact of EMR can be assessed but with the right environment in place we believe the independent generation sector will continue to thrive and play a greater role in meeting the UK’s energy needs ■

+ More Information | 65 |


Power- G en A f r i ca 2 0 1 4

show preview 17-19 MARCH 2014 - CAPE TOWN INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION CENTRE CAPE TOWN - REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA POWER-GEN Africa will take place in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa, on 17-19 March 2014 providing comprehensive coverage of the power needs, resources, and issues facing the electricity generation industries across subSaharan Africa. With POWER-GEN Africa’s conference and exhibition focusing on all aspects of the conventional power industry, the event brings together the world’s leading power equipment suppliers along with those developing power infrastructure in this dynamic region of the world. POWER-GEN Africa targets those who work in the utility and private power sectors, engineering and commercial personnel from the equipment manufacturing and consulting fields. The event will address professionals from energy intensive industries with responsibility for ensuring power supply, and officials and ministers from the national and regional political spheres who are tasked with energy policy. Co-located for the first time with DistribuTECH Africa, following on from the success of DistribuTECH in North America and Brazil, these two events

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provide great and comprehensive coverage of power generation, transmission and distribution industries within sub-Saharan Africa. DistribuTECH Africa is a specialist event and is set to become the most important power related conference and exhibition for meeting major players in the African and international transmission and distribution sector and learning about the latest technologies. The 2014 conferences will run concurrently, alongside the power sector’s premier exhibition, at the Cape Town International Convention Centre, attracting African dignitaries and international energy experts from subSaharan Africa, the USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Russia and further afield, who will deliver their insights in a programme designed by an Advisory Board of African and international power industry experts. In a comprehensive programme spanning five tracks across the co-located events, speakers will include South African Energy Minister Ben Martins, Eskom Group Executive Dr Steve Lennon, and Nampower Namibia Managing Director Paulinus Shilamba. Senior executives from key local players such as SASOL, Shell and Alstom will deliver talks or participate in in-depth panel


discussions alongside high-ranking executives from top energy organisations from across the continent and the globe, including the Nigerian Presidential Task Force on Power, EDM Mozambique, the Ethiopian Power Corporation, Electricite de France, the Lesotho Highlands Water Commission and the African Development Bank, as well as respected academics and industry leaders. Global event organisers PennWell report that more than 2100 attendees from 63 countries and six continents attended the inaugural POWER-GEN Africa 2012, and they expect the 2014 event to attract even larger numbers of highlevel decision-makers and address key technology and development issues for the sub-Saharan Africa energy marketplace through a comprehensive educational programme and three-day exhibition. The DistribuTECH Africa conference will incorporate strategic and technical tracks under the broad headings of Power Delivery, Metering, System Automation and System Operation and bring together the entire spectrum of the power utility delivery industry all under one roof. The events will include two technical tours – to Eskom’s new Centre for Substation Automation and Energy Management Systems (CSAEMS), Cape Town Peninsula University of Technology; and to Eskom’s Ankerlig Power Station (previously known as the Atlantis OCGT power station), one of five gas turbine power plants in South Africa. A series of Technical Training Workshops with a careful selection of expert presenters will provide delegates with the unique opportunity to receive training in various categories of the generation, transmission and distribution fields. With this acquired knowledge you will be able to immediately implement what you have learnt back at your plant so that safety, efficiency and longevity can be optimised. “PennWell, as the biggest global event organiser in the power sector, is proud to be part of any new frontier or development, promising both business opportunity and the potential to transform lives. The current huge demand for the delivery of vital, secure energy services to the rapidly-expanding economies across the African continent offers one such opportunity”, says Nigel Blackaby, event director and director of conferences at the PennWell International Power Group UK. “POWER-GEN Africa and DistribuTECH Africa bring together power engineering planning and technology expertise from fuel supply, through power generation, right across the grid and down to the level of the customer’s meter. All the elements that African utility companies are responsible for will be on show here, with the event being designed to be a meeting place to exchange views, discuss experiences and learn new ways to expand and strengthen the power industry across the many countries of Africa”, says Blackaby. In addition to the conference programme, POWER-GEN Africa and DistribuTECH Africa offer a substantial and world-class exhibition floor, playing host to a number of world-class suppliers and service providers, from home and abroad. Those attending POWER-GEN Africa and DistribuTECH Africa will also be able to take part in free training workshops provided by leading suppliers and thereby enhance skill levels, plus the new addition of a WADE Africa Decentralized Energy Workshop. Exhibitors will also have a dedicated DistribuTECH Africa pavilion on the show floor which will be a focus of expertise and global technological excellence in the transmission and distribution sector. The exhibition is FREE to attend for those who pre-register for the event, and will include exhibits from many of the world’s leading power engineering organisations ■

+ More Information For the full Preliminary Conference Programme and to download the Pre Show Guide, detailing the conference, exhibitor list, floor plan, hotel and registration information, as well as Technical Tour and Workshop details please visit: or | 67 |


R une Mark i / Sustai nable L ighti ng / Osram

Business Lighting:

practical steps to sustainability

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By Rune Marki Managing Director, Osram UK

How many light switches have you turned on today? By the time I get to work I have already flicked the switch in multiple rooms in my house, walked to the station under street lighting and sat in a brightly-lit train carriage. We have been using light bulbs for over a century, so they have become second nature to us. It is easy to overlook the role that artificial lighting plays in our everyday lives, but if you stop and think for a moment, we’d struggle to get by without it especially during the winter months when we have fewer daylight hours. Lighting is a vital cog in the machine of modern living, and accounts for 15% of global electricity consumption. But our electricity usage could be drastically reduced: nearly 70% of these thousands of TeraWatt hours are fed into old lighting technology – a figure which has potential for improvement. But what does this mean for businesses? I mentioned earlier the sources of light which play a part in my morning routine, but of course that only helped me to arrive at the office door for the start of the working day. Although remote working is on the rise, many of us will sit in artificially lit offices for most of the working day. There is a big step up in volume from the few switches you flick on at home to the sprawling floors of open plan offices found in business parks. As 15% of the world’s electricity powers lighting, CFOs have to allocate a large part of their budget to paying energy companies every quarter. Finding a more sustainable way to light their premises would help reduce bills, lessening the impact on a business’ balance sheet and ensuring the long term well-being of the planet. Highlighting to employees the importance of switching off lights, or ensuring lighting controls systems are regularly checked for building capacity will only go so far in the battle against the bills; energy will continue to be wasted until you replace ageing technology. The good news is that sustainability and best practice are top of the lighting industry agenda; when he was appointed President of the Lighting Industry Association, Alasdair McRury stressed the importance of quality standards and compliance across the industry.

It was interesting to read in a recent edition of this magazine about the effect increasing environmental consciousness is having on the timber industry. The article criticised the lack of profile and subsidy in the process of making the timber industry more environmentally friendly. I’m pleased to report that when it comes to lighting, governments have taken an active interest and EU laws have been put in place to ensure this change happens.

Phase out inefficient lighting

As we approached the turn of the 21st century, people lined up to prophesise the end of the world. From the Millennium Bug bringing computers to their knees to solar flares ravaging the Earth’s surface, it sounded like our planet would not make it past the year 2000. That milestone birthday did have a more positive effect though, encouraging people to think about the way they treated the planet, and what long-term effects that could have. Actions were taken: drawn up in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which set internationally binding emission reduction targets. Although this is a worldwide initiative, it makes bigger demands of the developed world, which is principally responsible for the current high levels of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere after more than 150 years of industrial activity. In light of this, the European Union has brought in the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) - a comprehensive range of policy measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; these outline the phasing out of inefficient lighting through a series of regulations. Even the most casual of observers must have noticed that standard incandescent bulbs have been gradually phased out since 2009, disappearing from our shelves completely; their sale has been prohibited under EU Regulation (EC) 244/2009 for non-directional household lamps. When UK businesses complete the switchover, they will save money, energy and CO2 consumption. Through regulation (EC) 245/2009, businesses have been forced to phase out a selection of inefficient light bulbs, integrated light fittings (luminaires) and lighting control equipment since April 2010. Popular lighting technologies such as ► | 69 |


R une Mark i / Sustai nable L ighti ng / Osram

fluorescent are affected, along with High Intensity Discharge technologies such as metal halide and sodium. Halogen lighting has been categorised by the EU as domestic under regulation (EC) 244/2009. An EU Commission progress review is due to take place next year, after which, further changes must be made. For more information on how the different types of legislation affect both Osram products and the industry as a whole, please visit osram_com/sustainability/sustainable-products/ phasing-out-inefficient-lighting/index.jsp

How well do you know yourself?

Some business owners may be annoyed being forced by the EU to make an outlay for new equipment, but the new technology will bring great long-term savings which outstrip the initial cost. And with a gradually increasing number of products being outlawed by the European Union, it is more important than ever for businesses to have an accurate picture of what lighting systems they own. When we start working with a new customer, a surprisingly large number of them do not know enough about the types of lighting they have, when they were installed, and who by. Of course unless you are a lighting expert, you will be unaware of the huge strides that have been made in lighting technology. Just in the same way that business owners should know how much their internet service provider charges and whether they use PCs or Macs, they must have a firm grip on exactly what type of lighting technology is in place. Even without these new EU directives to think about, it would make sense for decision makers to have a clear understanding of something that is a constant drain on the balance sheet from month to month. We work with customers to produce an audit of exactly what is in the building, because without that knowledge it is hard to understand the present and almost impossible to plan for the future. With organisations needing to invest in new equipment, it is important to not repeat mistakes of the past and think about the impact your choices will have on both your organisation and the wellbeing of the planet.

Get analytical

A great vehicle for getting this right is to carry out a product life cycle analysis. This is a process you can use to analyse the environmental demand products will make throughout an entire life cycle. The most important factor to take into consideration is primary energy consumption. This is worked out in conjunction with international standard ISO 14040, which describes the principles

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This is how we do it: the life cycle of a light bulb

and framework for the life cycle assessment, and ISO 14044, which outlines what is required, and the different phases that need to be negotiated.

profit specialist recycling firm, is leading the way in the UK with a WEEE compliance service, aiming to increase luminaire recycling numbers.

products and the recycling or disposal of resulting waste was considered in the life cycle analysis study.

As shown in the box-out (opposite), a productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most energy-intensive period comes when it is in use. But there are other factors to take into account, which when applicable to a high number of products, can have a big environmental impact. Resources used to create the products, the way in which they are made, and how they are sent to customers are all important aspects to consider.

Those businesses that complete the lifecycle of a light bulb by recycling the products correctly can have a clear conscience that they have taken the right steps towards sustainability. This should go hand in hand with the implementation of more sustainable technologies, as there is a huge amount of energy that could be saved.


Completing one cycle, starting another

Something that is often overlooked by businesses but if incorrectly managed can be very detrimental to our environment, is the disposal of lights. The way in which products are disposed of is vital, especially when you take into account that finite resources are used in many stages of the production process. While recycling has been a part of the disposal process for some time, there is a danger that it can have a superficial, almost symbolic impact. This is because while light bulbs are widely recycled, luminaires (entire light fittings) are not: UK Government figures show that just 0.6% of luminaires were recycled by businesses in 2012 . The rest, it would seem, are being sent to scrap or landfill sites. In an effort to boost recycling of raw materials, the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) system ensures that waste luminaires, containing valuable minerals such as aluminium, copper and steel, are recycled properly. Implemented by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, WEEE is still being amended by governing bodies and the lighting industry is already taking advantage of this opportunity. Recolight, a not-for-

Some of us may rightly point out that one business alone cannot help solve a global problem, but if this approach was adopted globally by all businesses it would be technically feasible to save half of the electricity we use for lighting. Furthermore, a global approach toward sustainability could result in 650 million tons less of CO2 being emitted into the atmosphere â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an effect similar to planting a new forest double the size of the UK and Ireland combined. The savings potential for both the bank balance and environment should hopefully attract more businesses to take a sustainable approach to lighting both now and in the future.


This life-cycle stage involves the extraction of natural resources, transport to processing sites and refining to usable materials. All materials are carefully chosen to fulfil technical requirements in order to optimise both production processes and the finished product.


Energy, materials and suppliers required for the production processes and assembly of a light bulb at the Osram factory are covered in this stage. In addition, the packaging materials of supplier

All transportation processes within the manufacturing phase, including the transport of the final product to the customer, are taken into consideration.


This is the phase during which the product is used for its intended purpose. For Osram lighting products, it is modelled simply as using energy and giving light. Thus, for Osram products it is the most influential life cycle stage as it requires more than 98.5% of the primary energy over the entire life cycle. A possible positive 'heating' effect of the light bulb is balanced out by the fact that in warmer climates this heat must be removed from a building by air conditioning. The emissions from the use phase result only from electricity production.

End of life

This includes recycling and/or incineration of the materials. This stage can be virtually insignificant if energy used for recycling balances against energy saved from not having to produce the recycled material from scratch â&#x2013;

+ More Information | 71 |


R enewable Energ y Wo rld Euro p e 2 0 1 4

3-5 JUNE 2014 Koelnmesse | Cologne | Germany

Renewable Energy World Europe offers the largest and most comprehensive conference and exhibition for the European electricity and power technology sector. The combination of conferences and exhibitions across the entire spectrum of power generation is unique and is serving the vital move towards integrating the traditional fossil fuel and fast-growing renewable generation sectors. Europe’s most comprehensive exhibition and conference serving the renewable energy industry, Renewable Energy World Europe, returns to the Koelnmesse, Cologne, Germany for its 8th staging on 3-5 June 2014 under the theme of ‘Navigating the Power Transition’. Renewable Energy World Europe comprises a comprehensive exhibition floor made up of suppliers, sub-suppliers and service providers across the entire power generation value chain. The accompanying multi-track conference sets the agenda for strategic thinking and technical innovation in the sector, making it an unmissable event for the dedicated power industry professional. Global event organisers PennWell report that more than 12,000 attendees from 104 countries and 6 continents attended the 2013 event held in Vienna, Austria, and they expect the 2014 event to attract even larger numbers of highlevel decision-makers and address key technology and development issues for the European energy marketplace through a comprehensive educational programme and three-day exhibition.

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Renewable Energy World Europe is co-located with POWER-GEN Europe, which is now in its 22nd year and offers the largest and most comprehensive conference for the European electricity and power technology sectors. The combination of conferences across the entire spectrum of power generation is unique, and serves as an essential platform for professionals to debate the way forward in integrating the traditional fossil fuel and fast-growing renewable generation sectors. The strategic tracks for Renewable Energy World Europe 2014 are: The strategy for a changing power sector, renewable energy technology, and solutions for integration. Change is sweeping the European power industry as the integration of renewables gains pace, and the debate on whether renewables would form a significant part of the future power generation infrastructure has moved on considerably. The question is no longer ‘if’ the transition will take place, but ‘how’. Nowhere has the scale and complexity of the challenge been more apparent than in Germany, where the ‘Energiewende’ has placed the delicate balancing act that Europe’s power industry must perform at the heart of business and political discussion. “The recession and economic slowdown across Europe has meant the political focus has been on financial markets, with energy pushed to the sidelines”, says Mathilde Sueur, Conference Director, Renewable Energy World Europe 2014. “But as the economy recovers and the banks become stronger, the power industry needs to ensure it doesn’t become the next crisis. At a time when the market is in transition and flux, and with ongoing conflict between


European policy and those of member states, it is all the more important for power industry professionals to come together to devise strategies and solutions to keep the lights on and the industry pumping.” The conference will also feature the latest technological options for dynamic power, delivering system stability, and the operation and control of renewables. Attendees will have the opportunity to meet the world’s foremost technology providers and thought leaders, gain a thorough understanding of the innovative technologies available, and how they can be implemented to realise a balance of clean, affordable electricity that is both reliable and secure. In a comprehensive programme spanning 8 conference tracks across the co-located events, speakers will arrive from all over Europe and the world, including the Keynote Session on 3rd June 2014, currently including Matthias Hartung, Chief Executive Officer, RWE Generation SE & RWE PowerAG, Germany, and Vesa Riihimaki, President, Power Plants & Executive Vice President, Wärtsilä Corporation, Finland. In addition to this, a high-class industry panel will discuss the latest topics surrounding the European Energy Industry as part of the Plenary Panel Discussion on 4th June 2014. The panel will consist of high-level experts from various areas of the industry. The Renewable Energy World Europe and POWER-GEN Europe events will include Technical Tours, one of which has recently been confirmed to the Trianel Lunen Power Station on Monday 2nd June 2014, with further information on additional tours to be announced soon. The Renewable Energy World Europe and POWER-GEN Europe Exhibition is one of the largest exhibit floors for the energy market in the world, enabling attendees to meet, discuss, network and generate business with a vast array of attendees from all sectors, both conventional and alternative. Some of the world’s largest organizations will be taking part, promoting their latest technologies and products including exclusive product launches as part of their exhibits. The exhibition is FREE to attend for those who pre-register for the event and further information on exhibitors can be found at: There are also two additional items as part of the exhibit floor, following on from successes of the 2013 event. These are the highly popular wine tasting experience taking place on all three days of the event from 13:00 until close of play. Mr. Ing. Ernst Holler, CEO of the Elfenhof vineyard will be guiding you through Austria’s many delicate whites and full bodied red wines from the Burgenland region. In addition, the Diplomatic Quarter will return and is a dedicated pavilion that gathers together commercial representatives from embassies around the world including Great Britain, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, South Africa and Austria. Free to visit and no appointments necessary, the Diplomatic Quarter provides organizations that are considering a business venture in another country or region with valuable local advice and support directly from a relevant country representative. A multinational facility, the Diplomatic Quarter provides organisations with the means to plan their next foreign commercial venture from a single point of access ■

+ More Information For the full Preliminary Conference Programme and to download the Pre-Show Guide, detailing the conference, exhibitor list, floor plan, hotel and registration information, as well as Technical Tour please visit: | 73 |

Food & Packaging

Si mo n K nights / Transi t Pac k ag i ng

Specifying Returnable Transit Packaging

Simo n K n ight s

Sales Director- UK/Ireland, Schoeller Allibert

The UK waste management and recycling sector has undergone drastic change since the Landfill Tax was first introduced over 14 years ago. From a focus on how to cope with the increasing volumes of waste to be collected and processed, there has been a shift in emphasis towards one of recycling, smart treatment and recovery of materials for use in many industries. Increasing legislation and regulations demanding the waste management industry to reduce its environmental impact has led to increasing focus on the way that products destined to be recycled are handled and transported. Returnable Transit Packaging (RTP) is already being successfully used in many different industries to reduce the cost and environmental impact of packaging and transporting goods, as well as improving efficiency throughout the supply chain. These durable plastic containers can be used over and over again for hygienic, safe and cost effective transit of products, reducing environmental impact through less vehicle trips and cutting the amount of wasteful one trip packaging. RTP can be used very effectively to transport products that need to be recycled. However, there are some key factors to take into consideration when specifying RTP for use in this sector, as standard containers may not always be fit for purpose due to the nature of the materials being transported and the strict regulations about transporting hazardous goods. It is important that any company using RTP for the first time gets advice from an expert who can ensure the containers used meet the necessary regulations, are suitable for the material being carried and make the most efficient use of vehicle space in order to reduce the number of trips and maximise cost savings.

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This technical paper outlines not only the benefits to the waste management and recycling sector of using RTP but also the main regulations and issues to consider when specifying RTP for different waste products, including electrical and electronic equipment, batteries, vehicles, hazardous waste and animal by-products. Each section also gives recommendations on which types of containers should be used to carry different types of materials.

The benefits of Returnable Transit Packaging (RTP)

With thousands of tonnes of transit packaging being disposed of every year in the UK, companies across many different sectors are switching to returnable multi-trip plastic RTP as they seek to reduce the cost and environmental impact of packaging and transporting goods. Manufactured from durable plastic, RTP containers are specifically designed for multiple trips over an extended life. They offer a rapid return on investment and a lower cost per trip than single trip packaging products. In fact, figures show that our plastic RTP is more carbon efficient than single trip cardboard after just 20 trips, will pay for itself after just 12 trips and has a reusable life of at least 92 trips. Using RTP can also help to reduce a company’s carbon footprint, for example the Product Carbon Footprint of our RTP is 68% less than cardboard – just 26 kgCO2e for each of our Maxinest units. It also enables companies to adhere to the legislative requirements of the Packaging Waste Directive which advocates that packaging should be minimised and designed for recovery and re-use.

EC Packaging and Waste Directive

Businesses with an annual turnover of more than £2m and that handle more than 50 tonnes of packaging a year are required to meet the producer


The international trade in recycled products from a vehicle is huge with ferrous metals going as far afield as China and a thriving scrap metals market in continental Europe. Therefore optimising vehicle fill and reducing the amount of vehicle trips is very important to reduce cost and environmental impact. Trays undergoing the cleaning and washing process.

obligations under the EC Packaging and Waste Directive. This places a legal responsibility on businesses which make or use packaging to ensure a proportion of the packaging they place on the market is recovered and recycled. The packaging supply chain is divided into four activities with a percentage of responsibility allocated to each: -

6% raw material manufacturer – e.g. manufacturer of steel for food cans 9% converter (manufacturer of packaging item) – e.g. manufacturer of food cans from above steel 37% packer / filler – e.g. company that fills the cans with food (food processor) 48% seller – e.g. supermarket

As transit packaging is included in the above legislation, there is a growing economic and environmental argument for the use of RTP as it significantly reduces the amount of waste transit packaging that is generated in this country from single trip containers.

Reducing cost and supporting growth in the waste management market

The key driver for future growth in the European waste management market is the opportunity arising from legislation to transform what has been a landfill-centred industry to one centred on reducing waste, re-using and recycling, material recovery and energy generation. Recycling and Energy from Waste are expected to be the strongest drivers of new investment. As landfill tax continues to rise – already reaching £72 per tonne – and with possible restrictions later this decade on the types of material which can be sent to landfill, the financial savings from both reducing waste and the business opportunities in collecting and recovering this material will each grow significantly in the coming decade.

This means that there is renewed focus on how these products are transported – both to recycling plants at end of life and then on to customers as recyclates. As legislation and targets result in increasing quantities of materials collected for recycling, we expect the use of RTP in this sector to grow between 200 and 300% in the next 10 years as waste management companies move away from single trip packaging. There is also a corporate social responsibility driver because it makes good sense for companies involved in recycling to use environmentally friendly reusable containers themselves, rather than using wasteful single trip packaging. Packaging is particularly important in the waste management industry so there are many factors to consider when specifying RTP, particularly due to the nature of the materials being transported and the need to provide both protection and security to the goods carried. There is also the consideration that you are often carrying items that can be difficult and dangerous to transport and not only do the containers need to meet the necessary regulations but they also need to be able to withstand any potential damage from the materials they are carrying, so that the business gets the full lifetime use and cost savings from the investment. Schoeller Allibert manufactures a wide range of durable RTP containers that are ideal for handling and distribution of both hazardous and nonhazardous solid and liquid wastes destined for treatment, recycling or disposal.

Transporting Hazardous Substances

The type of hazardous material a waste management company is carrying will affect which type of RTP container is suitable and safe to use. There are a number of regulations affecting this area that will affect the specification of RTP:

1. The UN Packing Group has a categorisation for dangerous goods which defines the degree of hazard associated with their transportation. This is ranked as follows: Group I: Very dangerous goods Group II: Goods presenting a medium degree of danger Group III: Goods presenting a minor degree of danger If carrying products within one of these groups, then companies should look for RTP containers that have been approved by the UN. 2. In the UK, the Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 provide controls for wastes harmful to health or the environment or are difficult to handle. They ensure that such wastes are correctly managed from production to final destination for disposal or recovery. Hazardous wastes include the following: fluorescent light bulbs, computer monitors, medicines and tablets, cooking and engine oil, paint, asbestos, aerosols, batteries, gas cylinders etc. 3. The Dangerous Goods legislation governs the movement of materials classified as dangerous. It outlines the methods and controls and classifies the packaging and testing. This covers the various types of boxes, including plastic that are used in transit packaging. It states that boxes must be manufactured from suitable plastics and be adequately resistant to ageing and degradation caused either by the substance or exposure to ultra-violet radiation. For solid plastic boxes, protection against UV radiation should be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. ► | 75 |

Food & Packaging

Si mo n K nights / Transi t Pac k ag i ng

RTP Shop Floor. It also states that solid plastic boxes should have closure devices made of a suitable material of adequate strength and so designed to prevent the box from unintentional opening. There are also strict rules on the size, colour and position of markings on the box.

Specifying RTP hazardous goods



Companies must ensure that any products or materials they transport, which include substances listed by the UN as dangerous goods, are carried in an approved container. This includes lead acid batteries, glass packaged hazardous goods, oily rags and overalls, hospital waste and chemicals. Advice and full details of the regulations can be found on the following websites: HSE (Health & Safety Executive) guidance on the carriage of dangerous goods: UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ADR (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road: adr2011/11contentse Schoeller Allibert manufactures a wide range of UN certified containers for collecting, handling and distribution of hazardous wastes. In particular our solid rigid bulk boxes are ideal for many hazardous applications retaining liquids and solids, such as mercury from fluorescent light tubes and preventing them from entering the water course.

Waste Electrical Equipment (WEEE)



The key piece of legislation affecting this sector is the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment

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(WEEE) Directive which, together with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive, became European Law in February 2003. This Directive imposes the responsibility for the disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment on the manufacturers and distributors. It requires that these companies establish an infrastructure for collecting WEEE, in such a way that users of electrical and electronic equipment from private households should have the possibility of returning WEEE free of charge. Many manufacturers and distributors pay an annual fee for the collection and recycling of associated waste electronic from household waste recycling centres. RTP can be used to collect the equipment from the household recycling centres or businesses by the WEEE compliance scheme operator and taken to the recycling plant for component recovery and separation into raw materials.

Specifying RTP for WEEE

Both Folding Lid Containers (FLCs)and Attached Lid Containers (ALCs) are ideal for collection of items destined for WEEE recycling. FLCs and rigid bulk boxed could be used for the distribution of the recyclate (plastics, metals etc) to the customer.

Waste batteries

The Waste Batteries and Accumulators Regulations 2009 establish a legal framework and scheme for collecting, treating and recycling portable, industrial and vehicle batteries. Battery recycling is a relatively new field for the UK. While we recycle more than 90% of our lead acid batteries – principally those used in industrial applications and in vehicles – just 10% of the portable batteries put onto the market in 2010 are believed to have been

recycled. However, we are likely to see a significant increase in the number of batteries being recycled as the EU Directive set a recycling target of 25% of all batteries sold by 2012 and 45% by 2016. This also states that all industrial and automotive batteries are to be collected for recycling. This means there is a growing need for RTP containers that are suitable for carrying batteries, which are designated as a hazardous substance and need to be handled carefully.

Specifying RTP for WEEE – batteries

Waste batteries are a hazardous substance and must be transported in a UN approved container. Tamper evident security is also an important specification consideration. Schoeller Allibert offers UN approved Solid Geoboxes, which come with lid and straps and are specifically designed to transport waste batteries (usually scrap lead acid batteries). Attached lid containers with tamper evident security are also a good container for transporting waste alkaline batteries.

End of Life Vehicles (ELV)

The EU Directive End of Life Vehicles (ELV) 2000/53/EC requires end of life vehicles and their components to be recycled or reused. As well as setting out design requirements, the Directive outlines measures for collection systems and treating and storing waste vehicles at authorised treatment facilities. Vehicles have to be recycled via an authorized treatment facility (ATF) where, in addition to dismantling the ELV, the plant must also remove hazardous residues before the car passes further down the recycling chain. This includes tyres and all fluids such as engine oil, fuel and antifreeze. Once the ELV has been processed, it may


The international trade in recycled products from a vehicle is huge with ferrous metals going as far afield as China and a thriving scrap metals market in continental Europe. Therefore optimising vehicle fill and reducing the amount of vehicle trips is very important to reduce cost and environmental impact.

then be crushed on site at the ATF and afterwards taken to a shredder facility. Once at the shredder, the ferrous metal and heavy fraction - aluminium, copper and brass - are removed before being left with the light element – the plastics, fibre, internal carpets etc. In the past this would have gone to landfill but there is increasing emphasis on recovering this light element in order to improve recycling rates. The international trade in recycled products from a vehicle is huge with ferrous metals going as far afield as China and a thriving scrap metals market in continental Europe. Therefore optimising vehicle fill and reducing the amount of vehicle trips is very important in this sector to reduce cost and environmental impact. RTP can be used at different stages throughout the recycling process to deal with metal, plastic, fluids, batteries and tyres.

Specifying RTP for ELV

There are many different constituent parts with an ELV, some more hazardous than others. Different types of RTP will need to be used for different elements of transporting ELVs for recycling. Waste batteries are classified as a dangerous product so must be transported in UN approved containers. For example, Schoeller Allibert has a UN approved Solid Geobox with lid and straps. Waste fluids from ELVs are classified as hazardous liquids so again, companies need to choose a container that is UN approved for transporting them by road (ADR), by sea (OMI/IMDG) or by rail (RID). Schoeller Allibert Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) are UN approved for transporting most hazardous liquids by road, sea and rail. Helix tanks can also be used for temporary storage of liquid wastes. Folding Lid

Containers and rigid bulk boxes could be used for the distribution of the recyclate (plastics, metals etc) to the customer and could help to save costs and environmental impact through reduced vehicle trips on international journeys.

Animal by-products

The management of animal by-product waste is governed by the EU Animal By Product Regulations (ABPR), EU Control Regulation 1069/2009 and EU Implementation Regulation 142/2011. Animal by-products must be dealt with in accordance with strict regulations designed to prevent harm to people, animals and the environment. Not all animal products are classified as waste, with hides destined for the leather industry and wool for textiles. Blood used for further processing in the food or pharmaceutical industries is not classified as an ABP but the appropriate hygiene standards and regulations apply.

this sector increase by 200 to 300% in the next decade. Benefits include lower carbon footprint, reduced cost and packaging waste and improved transportation efficiency. However, as this is such a diverse sector, governed by numerous regulations on the transportation of dangerous goods, one size certainly doesn’t fit all when it comes to specifying RTP for the collection and handling of products for recycling. Companies should seek the advice of RTP experts who can ensure the containers used meet the necessary regulations, are suitable for the material being carried and make the most efficient use of vehicle space in order to reduce the number of trips and maximise cost savings ■

Specifying RTP for ABP

Animal by-products must be collected and carried in leakproof, covered containers or vehicles, or sealed new packaging and kept separately from other categories of by-product. Rigid bulk boxes fitted with lids would provide an ideal solution. Companies should also ask their RTP provider about washing and swab testing facilities to ensure compliance with hygiene standards.


Many legislative, environmental and financial factors are driving the increasing use of RTP in the waste management and recycling sectors. Targets to increase the amount of materials sent for recycling are likely to see the use of RTP in

+ More Information Schoeller Allibert is now the world’s largest manufacturer of reusable plastic packaging for materials handling. Headquartered in the Netherlands, it has more than 40 production and sales operations in nearly all European countries, the American continent and Asia. | 77 |

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former Gasworks sites by Dr R u ssel l Tho ma s Technical Director Environment

The gas industry has left a considerable environmental legacy in Britain of over 4000 former gasworks sites, ranging in size from huge city gasworks to small country house gasworks. The environmental concerns on many of these sites have been addressed; however, many former gasworks require further investigation and remediation on some or all parts of the site. â&#x2013;ş | 79 |

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THIS ARTICLE DESCRIBES groundbreaking research developed between Parsons Brinckerhoff and the University of Strathclyde, which matches expertise in forensic chemistry with a detailed historical understanding of former gasworks sites. This research has enabled a discovery that can attribute different tars found on former gasworks to specific gas manufacturing processes.

People do not often realise that gas was once manufactured in Britain rather than extracted from gas fields deep below ground. Whilst natural gas has only been available in Britain for about 40 years, gas manufacturing lasted for a period of about 190 years. The industry was led by Britain from its commercial discovery at the end of the 18th century to the closure of the last coal gasworks in Britain on the Isle of Cumbrae, Scotland, in 1981. These were times of great social, economic and scientific change and the gas industry continually faced new challenges, not least the competition from electricity. It is also generally forgotten that the roots of the gas industry were in the provision of lighting, rather than heating as it is today. Lighting was a problem in the early 19th century and the available methods were limited to candles and oil lamps. Lighting of the ever expanding industrial mills and factories of Britain was difficult and dangerous. Candles and oil lamps only produced a dull light and required continual attention for trimming wicks and replacement. They were also a significant safety hazard as they could be knocked over, leading to the demise of many mills and their workers. The potential for a cheaper and more effective type of lighting in the form of gas was developed by William Murdoch and his employers Boulton and Watt. The benefits of gas lighting in mills was soon realised and its use spread quickly to other factories and then to the public lighting of streets. The changes which occurred over the next 190 years developed a gas industry which could adapt, developing new ways of making, distributing and utilising the gas.

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The early gas produced for lighting was lit in simple burners, the burning gas producing light. To make the gas suitable for lighting, various undesirable components in the gas had to be removed, which represented those fractions of the coal gas which were not fixed into gas permanently or made the gas unsuitable for use. The early gas left an unpleasant odour referred to as the “Soho Stink” after the smell present at the Boulton and Watt Soho factory where gas lighting was developed. This led to the development of “gas purification” with lime to remove the sulphurous components which caused the odour. In addition to gas purification, coal tar and ammoniacal liquor also had to be removed from the gas by condensation and washing otherwise it blocked or corroded the pipes. Each of the by-products could be sold for use by other industries, but has also left an environmental legacy of pollution at many former gasworks sites. The by-product of most interest for this study is coal tar. Coal tar is a brownblack viscous liquid with a specific gravity of about 1.15, making it a Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL). It is mobile, releases vapours, and can provide an ongoing source of contamination in groundwater. The coal tar would contain all the condensable organic fractions of the thermally decomposed coal and is characterised as having a high concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), which are just a few of up to 10,000 individual compounds which may be present in coal tar. The PAH are important as they contain some known carcinogens and are a major risk driver with regard to human health. ►

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Land Management


This extensive composition makes coal tar a difficult and complex substance to study, but one which is of great interest, offering potential for a chemical diversity to exist which is detectable by advanced forensic analysis methods. Given the potential variability in coal tar it was hypothesised that if there were significant alterations in the way that gas was manufactured during its history, then these changes may be reflected in the tars produced. At the outset of this project it was uncertain as to whether it was feasible, especially with coal tars that have been present in the environment for up to 200 years, and whether differences would be significant enough to allow for clear “forensic” identification of multiple sources of tar on a single site. To achieve this, the project had to: • Investigate the development of the different types of gas manufacturing processes used. • Understand the engineering and chemistry of the gas manufacturing processes, so the characteristics of the different tars produced could be assessed. • Develop an analytical method that could identify the complex nature of coal tar, identifying and quantifying a wide range of its constituent compounds. • Analyse coal tar samples taken from different gas-making processes and different gasworks sites. • Publish the work in a peer reviewed journal. A brief description of the evolution of gas manufacturing in Britain is described below.

Horizontal retorts

Returning to the early gas industry, it should be noted that the gas needed to be rich in organic compounds which provided the gas with its illuminating quality; for this reason oil-rich cannel coals proved popular. Early attempts to manufacture gas were restricted by the materials available for manufacturing the retort, which took the brunt of the wear and tear. The horizontal retort became the standard. This was a D-shaped vessel, approximately 6.7m long, 0.55m wide and 0.45m high, in which the coal would be heated in an oxygenfree environment to remove the gas and vapours. The constant heating and cooling of the cast iron retorts led them to break and require regular replacement. There was also a limit on the temperatures to which they could be heated. These restraints and a preference for using cannel-type coal led to a specific type of low-temperature coal tar being produced.

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The cast iron retorts were replaced by fireclay and then later by silica, both of which were more durable and able to withstand higher temperatures. Originally, horizontal retorts were designed so that they were closed at one end with an airtight iron door and ascension pipe (to carry away the gas) at the other, and they would be loaded and emptied by hand. This design was superseded by a retort which had doors on both ends, allowing coal to be pushed into the retort at one end and, once complete, the remaining coke to be pushed out through the back of the retort. This enabled the gas process to be mechanised on a large scale, making it more efficient and economic. The use of gas for lighting predominated into the 20th century, but its application changed following the invention of the gas mantle by Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. He discovered that the oxides of thorium and cerium had the ability to emit light when in a state of incandescence, heated by burning gas, the metals being soaked on a fabric structure placed above the flame. Once the mantle was in popular use, it allowed a leaner gas to be used with less illuminating compounds. Coupled to this, in 1855 Robert Bunsen, a German chemist, invented the atmospheric gas burner known to many as the “Bunsen burner”. This provided a basis for gas to be used for heat-based applications and it became the predominant application for gas in the 20th century. Early retorts were heated directly by radiant heat from simple furnaces beneath the retort, producing relatively low temperatures. Later development work by the Siemens brothers developed the gas producer. The gas producer burnt coal/coke under oxygen-limited conditions, producing a crude gas of carbon monoxide which was channelled to a combustion chamber directly around the retorts, where it was mixed with air and burned. The gas producer coupled with the use of the hot exit gases to heat the cool incoming gases (regenerator) helped increase the temperature of carbonisation and the quantity of gas which could be produced. These higher temperature processes would produce much more thermally degraded coal tars than those produced until the 1880s. These coal tars are more like those produced by high-temperature by-product coke ovens, which are considered to produce the most degraded coal tars.

Vertical retorts

As technology improved, a new type of retort was developed, the vertical retort. As the name suggests, the retort was rotated by 90° so that it was in the vertical plane. Originally developed in Germany, the system was soon adopted at gasworks across the UK. It had great advantages over the




horizontal system as it reduced the labour involved: much of the movement of the coal could be achieved by gravity once the plant was loaded. Like the later horizontal retorts, vertical retorts were heated by a gas producer. As the coal passed down through the vertical retort vessel, it was gradually carbonised until it was removed at the base of the retort as coke. This design led to the coal being gradually carbonised at an increasing temperature as it descended down the retort. The gas and tar produced could escape up through the fuel bed away from the heat. This had the effect of producing a coal tar which had both properties of a low- and high-temperature coal tar, similar to a mixture of the tars produced by the two processes previously described.

became popular in larger British gasworks. These processes produced tar which constituted the fraction of high molecular weight organic compounds which could not be fixed into a gas. The amount and type of tar produced was related to the oil used: the heavier the oil, the greater the amount of tar produced.

Water Gas

As retorts took a long time to start producing gas, they were incapable of rapidly dealing with periods of high gas demand. A solution was a process called water gas, a technology which had been around since the early 19th century, but not perfected into a commercial system until the late 19th century by Lowe. The operation was cyclical and split into two phases, the “Blow” and the “Run” phases. The purpose of the Blow was to store as much heat in the generator fuel (coke) bed as possible. Once sufficiently hot, the system was switched to the Run phase and steam was injected into the generator. This reacted with the incandescent carbon, producing a gas of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The process had to be constantly cycled between the two phases. The water gas produced was a relatively poor quality gas, but it could be enriched by injecting oil into the gas in the carburetter. The water gas process when using coke alone did not produce tar. If it was enriched by oil, however, then tar would be produced from the oil, and the characteristics of the tar produced would reflect the type of oil used. The British gas industry was heavily reliant on coal through most of its history, as Britain had plentiful supplies of gas coals. Its coal stocks were not inexhaustible and the supply of good-quality gas-making coals diminished and became more expensive, causing the industry to consider other feedstocks.

Oil Gas

The first attempts to make gas from oil took place in the early 19th century, but were unsuccessful due to the high cost and limited supply of oil at the time. As the petroleum industry developed in the 20th century and refineries were built in the UK, oil feedstocks such as crude petroleum oils and their derived distillate fractions were present in abundant amounts. These could provide a cheaper and viable alternative to coal. Early types of oil gas plant which had seen popularity on the west coast of the USA were never popular in Britain, but later variants such as the SEGAS and Micro-Simplex processes

The above description demonstrates how the gas industry has evolved, bringing with it an environmental legacy in the form of below-ground pollution from tars.

An Application for Environmental Forensics?

The land ownership issues which exist at former gasworks in Britain are complex. These sites are often now under multiple ownerships and the land use may have become much more sensitive (e.g. residential use). When these factors are combined with the range of gas-making processes used (some described above), the different coal tars formed, their handling, use and disposal, and the potential impacts of other nearby industries (producing similar pollution), it creates a very complex picture. The application of accurate environmental forensic methods could however provide a greater understanding than that currently afforded by standard analytical methods. The methods previously available for analysing coal tar were limited to a small number of substituent compounds, such as PAH, rather than all the individual constituents, as this would have required extensive distillation and fractionation. These methods were unable to analyse the presence of nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen heterocyclic compounds which are important constituents of coal tar. A major challenge has always been to find a fast, efficient and cost-effective method of analysing the main constituents of coal tars. Work was undertaken at the University of Strathclyde by Dr Laura McGregor and Dr Caroline Gauchotte-Lindsay, under the scientific supervision of Prof. Robert Kalin, to develop such an analytical method. The method developed allows for rapid preparation of samples using accelerated solvent extraction, removing the requirement for traditional complex sample fractionation. A scientifically novel method was developed using reverse-phase twodimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC TOFMS) which was capable of analysing and quantifying up to 10,000 compounds from one sample analysis. In the first major research publication on reverse-phase GCxGC (McGregor et al 2011), the team used a polar primary column with a non-polar secondary column for enhanced ► | 83 |

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A graph plotting statistical trends in the chemical analysis data, demonstrating that the coal tars can be grouped and identified based on the method of gas production.

A plot of the data produced by the GCxGC MS analysis of a sample of mixed coal and water gas tar.

resolution of aromatic compounds in coal tar. The two columns allowed the separation to be displayed in two dimensions, enabling greater resolution of the data. The method produced a very large amount of data because of the wide range of different compounds it was able to analyse. In order to interpret the data produced, principal component analysis (PCA) was identified as the most suitable method for data analysis. PCA was used to extract the variations within the large dataset by reducing raw sample data into smaller, uncorrelated variables known as principal components.

Acknowledgements This work was funded and supported by National Grid Property, Parsons Brinckerhoff, EPSRC Grant EP/D013739/2 and Scottish Government GRPE Funding. The project forms part of an ongoing commitment to funding highquality academic research by the organisations involved.

To validate the method, Parsons Brinckerhoff collected 23 samples of coal tar from 14 different former gasworks sites across the UK and one operational coke oven. A detailed review of the site history was undertaken for each site, so that knowledge of the production process was available for comparison with the analytical result. The coal tar samples obtained were primarily from tar tanks, although samples from NAPL plumes and historic spills in soils were also obtained. The samples were analysed by the method described above and the data split into two sets of principal components and plotted as above. There was a perfect grouping of the samples based on the production process used to manufacture the tar. The results of the PC plots of tar grouped the samples as those produced by Vertical Retorts, Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, High Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Coke Ovens and Carburretted Water Gas/Creosote plants. The results showed that the new method, combined with statistics and a thorough knowledge of the historical development of gasworks, makes it possible to identify the original production process that created a tar. This is valuable information for remediation or legal purposes, where there could be a requirement to identify the original point source of multiple plumes of coal tar on a former gasworks which may have been rebuilt many times, subsequently split up, and then sold off as smaller plots of land. This work is still on-going and a wider range of coal tars are now being studied ■

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The Author Dr Russell Thomas is a Technical Director at Parsons Brinckerhoff in Bristol. He is a recognised international expert in the development, operation and environmental issues associated with former gasworks and a member of the Institute of Gas Engineers and Managers Panel for the History of the Gas Industry. Russell manages the research activities of Parsons Brinckerhoff’s Environment business and its collaboration with a number of UK Universities. Reference Laura A. McGregor, Caroline Gauchotte-Lindsay, Niamh Nic Daéid, Russell Thomas and Robert M. Kalin, Multivariate Statistical Methods for the Environmental Forensic Classification of Coal Tars from Former Manufactured Gas Plants, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (7), pp 3744–3752.

+ More Information Photo Credits: National Grid Gas Archive, George Plunkett, Swindon History

Parsons Brinckerhoff has worked at the cutting edge of technology, saving clients millions of pounds and shaping industry practices. Association of Consulting Engineers

CREATE ENHANCE After another busy year, we are ready to grow our team. Visit for details. GLOBAL CONSULTANTS, DESIGNERS, ENGINEERS, PROGRAMME AND CONSTRUCTION MANAGERS

Sustainable Build

Mi ke Smi th / A i r Tightness Testi ng / Par t L

Proving the Future Mi ke Sm it h BSRIA Engineering Director

The rapid adoption of Airtightness testing and the ability of the industry to achieve the right result first time in 89% of tests is one of the success stories of the UK construction industry over the past decade. The BSRIA Compliance team tested over 10,000 dwellings and 720 non-dwellings in 2012 and found the average dwelling airtightness value was 4.89 m3/(hr.m2) envelope area at 50 Pa (against a maximum regulatory value of 10 m3/(hr.m2)). From a standing start in 2006 to today, the builders have grasped the importance of air tightness testing as a proxy for quality of construction and the contribution good airtightness makes to energy efficiency. The testing itself is rigorous, robust and, arguably, now at a very low economic price. It has respectability provided by UKAS accreditation for non-dwellings testing, the training of testers and, in the case of dwelling testing, registered testers through the Airtightness Testing and Measurement Association (part of the British Institute for NonDestructive Testing). The mantra should be â&#x20AC;&#x153;Build tight, ventilate rightâ&#x20AC;?. As fabric standards improve, driven on further by the 2013 Building Regulations, the role of passive and mechanical ventilation systems increases in importance. Unfortunately in the world of unintended consequences, we are seeing dwellings achieving better air tightness values than the designer intended which of course means less air leakage (and associated energy waste), but this

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is only useful if the designed-in ventilation systems can cope with these outcomes. In a nutshell the infrastructure supporting domestic ventilation engineering has not developed at the same pace as the improvement in building airtightness. There is of course significant current activity to help remedy this problem but, as is so often the case, we are now on the back foot with increasing numbers of examples of poor installations and the inevitable questioning of the value of mechanical ventilation solutions. The systems we are talking about are not complex but they are sensitive to errors. What is missing is not so much the technology or science but the widespread creation and adoption of proper codes of practice. Mechanical ventilation (MV) systems and the more complex MV heat recovery (MVHR) systems have to be site tested to ensure they are extracting and supplying appropriate amounts of ventilation. In the course of its compliance testing BSRIA is seeing two main kinds of problems. The first is the performance of the specified equipment in a given situation, i.e. that the fan is correctly selected to match both the actual application and the inherent system losses that the system components will introduce. In simple terms this comes down to understanding the resistance characteristics of ductwork and its routing and the resistance of terminal units both inside and out. There is a widespread misunderstanding that


Fresh Air Intake

Exhaust Air

Exhaust Air

Fresh Air Intake

Natural Ventilation

Recirculation of Old Air We are seeing dwellings achieving better air tightness values than the designer intended resulting in ventilation systems that can't cope with these outcomes. Exhaust air therefore isn't being expelled, which can lead to severe discomfort and health issues.

Effective heat recovery and air circulation systems should balance intake with leakage and exhaustion of air to create a healthy and comfortable environment.

ventilation fan outputs are usually quoted with outputs measured in “free air”. In reality they have to overcome backpressures from fittings. Even where kits are bought we see alternative terminal units used, usually to meet architects demands for aesthetics.

under test and the readings must be corrected (post use) specifically for both the anemometer model and the actual fan under test. More detail on this can be found in BSRIA’s “Domestic Ventilation Systems – a guide to measuring airflow rates – BG46/2013”.

The second is the actual installation of the associated ductwork where there is a very poor understanding of the dramatic effect on performance that can arise from bad workmanship. In a recent case BSRIA found approximately one metre of flexible ductwork that had been stuffed into the cavity wall for a straight through the wall installation that is approximately 300 mm thick. An additional 100 mm dogleg had been introduced on site to match the actual positioning of a porch structure. The result was a lot of fan noise with almost zero movement. The fan, when bench tested with zero back pressure, had a performance of 22 l/s. The designed performance including the ducting was 20 l/s, however the actual performance was 5 l/s.

And all of this is compounded by a lack of thinking regarding operational needs, limited controls, and poor instructions to the user, especially on what maintenance is required to keep performance at its peak.

As part of the “catch up” in dealing with the rapid rise in the use of domestic ventilation we have identified that the act of measuring MVHR performance using published guidelines will give false results if the correct equipment or correction factors are not used. There is an easy remedy but not widely used at present. The automatic volume flow meter with pressure compensation – more commonly known as a “powered diff” – will provide an instantaneous and accurate value. A more common hooded anemometer will impose a back pressure on the terminal, ducting and fan

So, airtightness demands have led to unforeseen consequences and something of a reaction against the use of mechanical ventilation. What then can be done to avoid making the same mistakes on other systems and concepts? With fabric issues now largely dealt with in the Building Regulations it is likely that new focus will fall on the efficiency and operation of the MEP services in dwellings. If modelling and measuring the thermodynamics of a brick wall is difficult imagine how complex a multivalent heating system is going to be! And before being put into use, these complex integrated systems will need commissioning and possibly proving as well.

the market we need to have good practice guidance and proven on-site commissioning and test processes in place. This work is urgent and needs significant central support. With the next revision of Part L expected for 2016 – this time aimed at achieving zero (or nearly) carbon homes – time is not available to embark on a protracted negotiation with innumerable and varied industrial interests. Certainly, industry’s support will be available but only for a properly directed and centrally funded programme. If we fail to put into place a mechanism to improve the on-site verification of performance of new systems we will only have ourselves to blame for the next set of well publicised “failures to launch” and the consequent setback of achieving national aims ■

Photo Credit: Andreas Levers

+ More Information

The Zero Carbon Hub has recognised that we will need to devise new test methods and regimes that, for example, will evaluate how the solar thermal collector performance meets expectations when linked with the ground source heat pump system that serves hot water generation, under-floor heating and thermal storage, in concert with a biomass boiler or room heater. Before regulation stimulates | 87 |

Sustainable Build

Guy Tho mp so n / Sustai nable Conc rete

Concrete Action

on Sustainable Development Guy Thompson, head of sustainability, architecture and housing at MPA The Concrete Centre reports on the launch of the concrete industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 2020 sustainability performance targets and the leadership position in resource eďŹ&#x192;ciency and responsible sourcing.

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The UK concrete industry launched the Concrete Industry Sustainable Construction Strategy back in 2008, and has now published its sixth annual performance report, presenting performance data across a holistic set of indicators including materials, carbon, waste and material efficiency, biodiversity and water, and wellbeing. Industry Performance

Carbon is the dominant metric for many in evaluating sustainability performance and the industry target is to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the manufacture of concrete and constituent materials, e.g. cement, and meet the targets set in sector Climate Change Agreements. Through investment in innovation and efficient production technologies, the industry has reduced the embodied carbon of concrete. The standardised or baseline mix shows a 23% reduction in CO2 from 1990. In addition The Concrete Centre continues to provide tools and guidance to designers so that they can utilise the thermal mass properties of concrete to deliver operational energy efficiency and the associated carbon emissions savings in the use and reuse of our built environment.

Tarmac House, Nottingham – built to level 6 of the Code for Sustainable Homes using concrete and masonry to maximise their thermal efficiency.

Of increasing importance is the sourcing and chain of custody of the goods and products we use in our built environment. ‘Ethical consumerism’ may still be more common in our choice of food or clothing; however, the recent policy from the UK Contractors Group to source responsibly sourced materials demonstrates its relevance to our built environment. The concrete industry has taken a leadership position in this area and has adopted the BES 6001 framework for responsible sourcing. In 2012 89% of concrete produced in the UK was accredited to this standard and 99% of this concrete achieved a ‘Very Good’ or ‘Excellent’ rating. The sustainability spotlight is also now highlighting the significance of resource efficiency, including ► | 89 |

Sustainable Build

Guy Tho mp so n / Sustai nable Conc rete

Underhill House, Cotswolds â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Built entirely of concrete, this is the first house in England to be certified to PassivHaus standards; airtightness and its thermal mass are just two of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s benefits.

In 2012 the concrete industry consumed 62 times more recovered and waste material than the waste it sent to landfill, making the industry a net consumer of waste.

materials and water. Efficiency is also synonymous with cost savings and the manufacturing industries have a culture of innovation in this area. The concrete industry has utilised by-products from other industries, recycled and secondary materials as replacements for virgin materials both in concrete production and as sources of energy. The sixth report shows that the industry has significantly increased its consumption of recovered materials and waste and reduced the amount of waste it landfilled. In 2012 the concrete industry consumed 62 times more recovered and waste material than the waste it sent to landfill, making the industry a net consumer of waste.

Commitment to 2020 and beyond

Following consultation with stakeholders from the construction marketplace, relevant UK government departments as well as the concrete industry and supply chain the industry has now updated the strategy. As well as setting new targets for existing indicators the industry has committed to extending the breadth and depth of its aspirations for improved performance including development of initiatives for low carbon freight and the measurement and management of water usage. | 90 |

One such 2020 commitment is to develop a Material and Resource Efficiency Programme to inform best practice across the life cycle of concrete in the built environment. The REAPs will extend the current reporting and will build on the measures already in place. The concrete industry, as well as recycling its own process waste, is already very active in the use of by-products, secondary materials and material diverted from the waste stream to reduce its demands on primary raw materials. In 2020, our target is to reduce waste to landfill to less than 0.5kg per tonne of concrete produced. This represents a 90% reduction from the 2008 baseline.

Resource Efficiency Action Plans

Supported by WRAP, the British Ready-Mixed Concrete Association (BRMCA), the British Precast Concrete Federation (BPCF) and the Brick Development Association (BDA) has published Resource Efficiency Action Plans (REAPs). The REAPS aim to demonstrate the collective commitment of the heavyweight material industries to increasing the recycling and reuse opportunities of these materials. â&#x2013;ş

this is



This is concrete The reuse of the concrete frame from this post-war development was a key part of both the structural and aesthetic vision. Refurbishing (rather than demolishing and rebuilding) has prevented four football stadia of material entering the waste stream. Building in concrete means a long design life. This is worth talking about.

twitter: @thisisconcrete

Park Hill, Sheffield is nominated for the 2013 RIBA Stirling Prize.

This is Concrete is supported by The Concrete Centre

Sustainable Build

Guy Tho mp so n / Sustai nable Conc rete

White River Place, St Austell – GGBS was used to reduce the ECO2 in the concrete and the beautiful feature in the town centre received an ‘Excellent’ BREEAM rating. The REAPs address manufacturing, logistics and packaging, design for use and reuse, construction process and demolition actions relating to the material. The actions for each supply chain aim to: • Minimise consumption and waste • Minimise waste to landfill • Reduce environmental impacts in production and use • Maximise reuse, recycling and recyclability • Define these in terms of SMART actions/ targets The action plans address the wide scope of resource efficiency including the main impacts of waste, water, carbon (energy use and emissions), materials (primary raw materials and secondary/ recycled materials), biodiversity and health & safety. Stakeholder consultation with groups from across the concrete supply chain enabled each industry working group to identify and prioritise actions. By collaborating the industries were able to share evidence based research and existing best practice and identify practical recommendations, actions and targets for further improvement.

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The framework used to establish the actions applied the impact areas championed by the Green Construction Board “Greening the Industry” campaign to the lifecycle of a construction product as defined in EN 15804. For further information on the concrete industry sustainable construction strategy, to download the performance report and more information and copies of the REAPS visit: A companion document “Concrete Actions” has also been published as part of the concrete industry sustainability campaign ‘This is Concrete’ and can be downloaded from: Andy Spencer, Chair of the Sustainable Concrete Forum responsible for the concrete industry sustainable construction strategy said: “We feel proud of our progress to date but are certainly not complacent about the challenges ahead, particularly in relation to CO2 reduction. Our 2020 commitments reflect our aspiration for continuous improvement both in our industry performance and the extent of our reporting.” ■

+ More Information MPA The Concrete Centre, part of the Mineral Products Association, is the central development organisation specific for the UK cement and concrete industry. Its objective is to assist all those involved in design and construction to realise the full potential of concrete as an adaptable and sustainable construction material. For more information contact: Guy Thompson

Sustainable Build

Mar ti n Passi ngham / Heat R ecover y / Da i k i n

Integration, Integration, Integration

Mar t i n Pa ss ingham

Product Manager, DX, Daikin Changes to Part L of the Building Regulations, due in April, will have a wide impact, demanding a 9% increase in efficiency for non-domestic buildings, compared with the 2010 Regulations. This, combined with the Government’s CRC Energy Efficiency Scheme (formerly known as the Carbon Reduction Commitment) which will see the cost of carbon ‘allowances’ rising by 33% for 2014-15, is providing an extra imperative for building managers to improve energy efficiency. Set against a context of rising energy prices, the business case for reappraising whole-building energy strategies for efficiency savings is clearly growing. As a result, businesses are looking at fully integrated climate control systems incorporating heat recovery to improve energy efficiencies. This is because heat recovery solutions can deliver high levels of comfort, while dramatically lower running costs and carbon emissions in both new and refurbished buildings, driving savings on energy bills and surrendered carbon allowances. Heat recovery systems integrate heating, cooling, ventilation, air curtains and hot water, recovering “free” heat from areas requiring cooling and using it to heat other areas and provide hot water. Daikin’s three-pipe VRV heat recovery systems, for example, are suitable for any size of building, particularly medium to large commercial spaces. They are regularly installed in offices, hotels, restaurants and bars, leisure centres, healthcare environments, shops and public buildings. | 94 |

Daikin uses a three-pipe system because it is a far more efficient way to recover heat. In a twopipe system, gas and liquid refrigerant flow as a mixture, so the condensing temperature has to be high to separate them and recover heat. A threepipe system’s dedicated gas and liquid discharge pipes means heat can be recovered at a lower condensing temperature, which means less energy is used and the system is far more efficient.

up to 10 can be achieved). Compared with previous generations of VRV, the system is up to 15% more efficient in heat recovery operation and up to 30% more so in full load operation. An added benefit is that higher refrigerant temperatures prevent cold draughts. Each of the system’s eight modes can be selected at any time to suit individual building needs: depending on whether efficiency, comfort or reaction to load is the priority.

The latest version of the system, VRV IV, is on average 28% more energy-efficient than its previous incarnation. It is based around the VRV IV heat pump, which has a four-sided heat exchanger that is 50% larger than previous models, which means the inverter scroll compressor uses less power. VRV IV features three revolutionary innovations – Variable Refrigerant Temperature technology, continuous heating during defrost and the VRV configurator.

A VRV IV system operating in “Eco” mode (with the evaporating and condensing temperature varied continuously to maximise efficiency) in a fashion store in Unterhaching, near Munich, Germany, consumed much less energy compared with a previous VRV III system - up to 60% in cooling and an average of 20% in heating.

Variable Refrigerant Temperature technology allows the system to respond to heating or cooling requirements by monitoring the required capacity and weather conditions. Essentially, the innovative technology controls comfort levels by adjusting the amount of refrigerant flowing through each of the components and altering the evaporating and condensing temperatures.

Continuous heating during defrost also improves comfort, avoiding a drop in indoor temperatures during the defrost cycle that can happen with other systems, and making the VRV IV system ideal when specifying monovalent heating applications. A unique heat accumulation element inside the outdoor unit takes heat from the refrigerant, which can be used to defrost the unit, without affecting indoor unit performance. The result is a system that runs more efficiently, keeping occupants comfortable.

This continual adjustment means that dramatically less power is needed to maintain comfort, with resulting higher efficiencies in mixed mode (COPs

As well as efficiency, it is important to consider how flexible a whole building climate control system is to cope with changes in building use, internal layout or


occupant needs. Modular systems such as VRV IV are ideal, as not only can they be scaled to fit the size of building, they can also be adapted to meet future demands. For retrofit projects, they can be installed floor-by-floor to minimise disruption. Installation flexibility is also a prime consideration. Daikinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new single port Branch Selector (BS) box, for example, was developed specifically for difficult to reach areas such as small ceiling voids. The new multi-port BS boxes, with up to 16 ports, are lighter than the previous models and compact, drastically reducing installation time when compared with installing single BS boxes alone. The BS boxes are also quieter, so are perfect for noise sensitive areas. VRV configurator software, introduced with VRV IV, simplifies commissioning, allowing remote configuration of settings across multiple sites, making it much less time-consuming to set up outdoor units. Ongoing maintenance is easier too, thanks to an intuitive graphical interface, allowing engineers to evaluate operational data and errors quickly and accurately. Integrating heat recovery with other building systems using intelligent controls can improve overall efficiency and reduce energy use further. In fact, intelligent control of a heat recovery system is crucial, as this allows monitoring zone-by-zone within a building, ensuring that heating, cooling and ventilation levels are optimised to maximise comfort.

Intelligent controls, such as Daikinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intelligent Touch Manager, use smart technology to provide daily data and future energy projections to deliver more energy efficient climate control by allowing system operations to be adjusted in line with usage patterns. They can be used to integrate climate control seamlessly with other building management systems for easier commissioning and maintenance. Interlocking climate control with other equipment saves energy and increases comfort. For example, interlocking climate control with key card control systems and presence sensors to detect room occupancy allows the automatic change of the setpoint or climate control to be switched off in unoccupied rooms. Systems can also be interlocked with fire alarms, allowing them to perform an emergency shutdown of air conditioning and ventilation units. Intelligent controls allow users to view a comprehensive history of the system to help them optimise settings and operational parameters to maximise energy savings, improve comfort and enable preventative maintenance. Some systems can also be accessed over the internet, enabling users to control one or multiple building systems remotely via a PC. Additionally, energy consumption can be monitored across a range of equipment, including climate control, to pinpoint areas of a building where the most energy savings can be made. Daily and monthly data and energy consumption projections are then provided to monitor performance against targets and previous

years. Some of the very latest systems also allow building managers to calculate energy usage on a room-by-room basis. This, in turn, enables individual billing in multi-tenanted buildings. For building managers and owners looking to achieve the highest levels of energy efficiency while maintaining high levels of comfort, it is well worth considering a whole building solution with heat recovery. Integrating heating, cooling, refrigeration, hot water provision and ventilation is an excellent way to dramatically improve energy efficiency, lower CO2 emissions and save on energy bills and surrendered carbon allowances â&#x2013;

+ More Information | 95 |

Sustainable Build


is the Environmental

Standard of Choice in the Netherlands

Gav in Du n n

Director of BREEAM, BRE

Over 60% of respondents to a survey by Jones Lang LaSalle Netherlands are interested in sustainability certification, with growing awareness of BREEAM as the most comprehensive and widely recognised measure of a building's environmental performance making it the preferred option. Increased productivity through employee health and wellbeing topped the list of important sustainability categories... In a newly published survey carried out by Jones Lang LaSalle Netherlands, the health, comfort and wellbeing of employees with its resulting increase in productivity tops the list of reasons for Dutch organisations wanting to be based in sustainable office accommodation. Occupier Special Sustainability 2013, which follows up on surveys carried out in 2010 and 2008, sees health and wellbeing in the number one spot, with energy efficiency down from first to second place compared to both previous surveys. Sustainable transport also ranked high, moving from seventh place in 2010 to third place on the 2013 leader board. Overall, the survey showed that sustainability continues to be an important consideration for the majority of office occupiers, who are now more appreciative of the advantages that it offers beyond energy savings alone. Carried out across 137 organisations representing 400,000 employees, the first and second most important sustainability measures that participants aspired to were daylight access for visual comfort, and improved internal air quality. These were followed by the ability to measure and reduce energy consumption, flexible office layout options, and good public transport links in the immediate vicinity. In terms of key reasons for office occupiers wanting sustainable accommodation, higher productivity came out on top followed by image benefits, a smaller ecological footprint and lower health-related absenteeism. The final three reasons were pressure from the market/government, personal conviction and lower service costs.

Growing popularity of BREEAM

Although the majority of those surveyed did not know exactly how sustainable their existing accommodation was, over 60% were interested in sustainability certification, with BREEAM the preferred option. In recent years, office occupiers in the Netherlands have become far more aware of BREEAM as the foremost environmental assessment method and rating system for new and existing buildings. Notably, health and wellbeing is one of the nine criteria that make up a BREEAM assessment, including visual and thermal comfort, and indoor air and water quality aspects. ‘The findings in the survey are not a surprise to us’, said Director of BREEAM Gavin Dunn. ‘One of BREEAM’s key criteria is health and wellbeing of occupants so buildings designed to the standard are likely have great indoor environments conducive to increased productivity and comfort. We are pleased that BREEAM is the environmental standard of choice in the Netherlands’. ►

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Gav i n Dunn / BR E E A M


The Lely Campus, Maasluis, has been awarded the BREEAM certification of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Outstandingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, as the most sustainable office and production complex in Europe. Photograph: Samual Ashfield | 97 |

Sustainable Build

Gav i n Dunn / BR E E A M

Samual Ashfield

Sustainable business complex- Lely Campus, Maassluis.

Rising demand for existing sustainable buildings

The survey reveals that office occupiers preferring to move to an existing sustainable office building if they were to relocate rose from 6% in 2010 to 19% in 2013. Demand for sustainable newbuild properties decreased slightly compared to 2010 and 2008, with 60% of respondents favouring making their existing office location more sustainable. The shift in focus to existing buildings, says Jones Lang LaSalle, is a logical consequence of the current market climate, namely an abundance of existing properties and difficulties in obtaining new build premises due to funding restrictions, with sustainable renovations now easier to achieve and requiring less significant investment. Some examples of sustainable renovations are included in the report.

Mixed approach investment



The survey also highlighted that the number of occupiers reporting that they are currently in sustainable offices has doubled to 20% since 2010, and there was a marked increase in the

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number of organisations expecting to be based in sustainable accommodation within two years and already taking concrete steps towards it. In parallel, there was an increase in occupiers who do not have sustainability-related goals, with Jones Lang LaSalle suggesting that this could be because of insufficient perceived benefits or a misalignment with business culture. Additionally, the numbers wanting to be based in sustainable accommodation within 2 to 10 years fell, which, the report suggests, could be due to occupiers having no concrete plans as yet or having attempted to improve sustainability without success. Where rent is concerned, willingness to pay extra for sustainability saw little change compared to 2010, and as per the two previous surveys, around a quarter of all respondents said that they were not prepared to pay for sustainability. Two thirds were ready to pay up to 5% for extra sustainability benefits on top of their normal rental costs, which is slightly higher than in 2010, and those willing to pay more than 5% fell from 12% to 8%. Of the participants seeing sustainability as an unimportant factor, over 25% thought that it was primarily the responsibility of building owners.


Change in location preferences

According to the survey, location preferences have seen a marked change and there is now a major divide between office occupiers' present location type and where they would like to be in the future. For example, of the 59% of respondents currently based at highway locations, only 30% want to be there in the future; and of the 33% currently located at a suburban mono-functional office/business park, only 7% would choose this form of location in the future. Willingness to move increased compared to the 2010 findings, which, Jones Lang LaSalle suggests, could be due to the changes in location preferences. Generally, the report indicates an increasing interest in multimodal hubs, which are easily accessed by public transport and motorways. Given the preference for these location types, the survey maintains that although the importance of access via good public transport links will continue to rise in the future, it does not mean that accessibility by car will become less important, and for many office occupiers this remains an important prerequisite â&#x2013; For more information, contact Linda McKeown, BRE: tel: 01923 664569 | email:

Venco Campus, Awarded the BREEAM Outstanding Certificate in 2013.

The 2013 survey encompassed office occupier organisations in the Netherlands, with each employing over 250 people and almost 40% individually utilising more than 10,000 sq m of office space. The organisations were from 10 different sectors, with the majority operating in commercial services To read the full report: JLL_Occupier_Special_Sustainability_Duurzaamheid_2013.pdf Or alternatively, Scan the QR code to the right. | 99 |

Sustainable Build

Sustai nab i li t y L i ve 2 0 1 4


Live 2014 Sustainability Live is the UK’s ultimate event for energy efficiency, energy recovery, water and wastewater management comprising of NEMEX, ENERGY RECOVERY and IWEX. The event offers the opportunity to compare products and services from a wide range of exhibitors alongside a free-to-attend Keynote and Seminar programme at Birmingham’s NEC from the 1st to 3rd April 2014.

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“Better energy management can enable firms to reduce their energy bills and future-proof their business against long-term price rises and volatility”, says David Copeland, Marketing Director of Sustainability Live. “The Confederation of British Industry (CBI) believes that business activity on the ground can translate to a material impact on UK growth and jobs, supporting a domestic market worth £17.6bn and employing 136,000 people across the country.” Sustainability Live will be launching its first Keynote Stage this year, situated in the heart of the exhibition and featuring expert speakers who will cut through the jargon to debate and discuss the latest sustainability policy and practice affecting business. Over 250 leading companies will showcase their latest innovations and services at Sustainability Live, making it the perfect place to develop new business relationships, and find the best products to suit your organisation’s requirements. Sustainability Live also has an extended and improved CPD accredited seminar programme, featuring panels of leading experts who will put the spotlight on the practical issues and feature the latest advice and case study examples.

NEMEX highlights

The NEMEX @ Sustainability Live has a focus on energy efficiency, knowledge and expertise. The seminars will present a number of compelling case studies that will provide visitors with the opportunity to learn how to make their organisation more energy efficient. One of the highlights at the free-to-attend event, which is being held at Birmingham’s NEC, is a speaker panel session entitled ‘What will it take to keep the lights on?’. Chaired by Ellen Bennett, Editor of Utility Week, the panel includes Tom Greatrex,M.P. Shadow Energy Minister; Lawrence Slade, COO of Energy UK; Gaynor Hartnell, Former Chief Executive of Renewable Energy Association; and Keith McLean, Policy and Research Director at Scottish Southern Energy. Greatrex has previously served as a member on the Energy and Climate Change Select Committee and has been vocal about issues including shale gas and CCS. “It’s great news that the shadow energy minister will be joining our fantastic line up to discuss keeping the lights on. All too often the focus is on scare stories about the lights going off. We want to talk about how politicians, regulators and industry can work together to avoid that scenario”, says Bennett. ► | 101 |

Sustainable Build

Sustai nab i li t y L i ve 2 0 1 4

Sustainability Live 2014 is a free-to-attend event taking place at Birmingham’s NEC, 1 - 3 April. To find out more, or to register for free entry, visit:

NEMEX’s pioneering exhibitors will showcase the latest products and solutions for energy efficiency, including BSI Group, Energy Institute, ND Metering Solutions and Open Energi.


Energy Recovery is centred on EfW, Bioenergy and Anaerobic Digestion. The seminar programme at Energy Recovery 2014 includes a number of compelling case studies that will provide visitors with practical insights on how to develop Waste-to-Energy (WtE) solutions, as well as the options available for turning residual waste into a useable form of energy. One of the highlights at the free-to-attend event is a speaker panel session entitled ‘Resource Revolution: Turning resource efficiency into competitive gain’. It is being chaired by Dustin Benton, head of resource stewardship, Green Alliance, and will feature: Susanne Baker, senior climate and environment policy advisor, EEF (The Manufacturers' Organisation); Dr Liz Goodwin, chief executive, WRAP; Chris Sherwin, head of sustainability, Seymourpowell; and James Walker, head of innovation, Kingfisher Group. Energy recovery’s seminar programme will include over 30 leading industry speakers from across the country in a new 3-day seminar programme within the Energy Recovery Theatre. The exhibition will showcase over 20 companies and organisations, including Siemens, BSI Group, and the Energy Institute.

IWEX highlights

The key event for water and wastewater management, IWEX, will be having a special event to mark the 25th anniversary of the water sector. A speaker panel session entitled ‘The Water Industry: 25 years since privatisation’ featuring Dan Rogerson, parliamentary under secretary of state for water, forestry, rural affairs and resource

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management, Defra, will be the highlight of the event. The panel session will also include exclusive insights from Lord Moynihan, former parliamentary under-secretary of state responsible for water privatisation, Defra; Jonson Cox, Chairman of Ofwat; Sir Ian Byatt, former UK water regulator; and Colin Skellett, executive chairman of Wessex Water. The Water Efficiency for Business session at IWEX will be chaired by Tuval Rockman, Environmental Resources Manager at Sainsbury's. The supermarket has become one of the first organisations to achieve the Carbon Trust Water Standard, which awards organisations that measure, manage and reduce water use year on year. Sainsbury’s achieved its water reduction target in a number of ways, such as eradicating underground leaks, which has saved its stores hundreds of thousands of pounds, and fitting equipment such as pre-rinse spray taps and low-flush toilets across all of its stores. It has also invested in rainwater harvesting for all new stores as standard, as well as retrofitting these units in existing stores.


Taking place alongside Sustainability Live this year are the Environment and Energy Awards and the Water Industry Achievement Awards. The Water Industry Achievement Awards takes place on1st April at Hilton Birmingham Metropole and celebrates and rewards outstanding innovation in the UK water industry. The Environment and Energy Awards take place on 2nd April at the National Motorcycle Museum and is widely regarded as one of the highest accolades for sustainability in the corporate sector. It recognises excellence and innovation in sustainable business practices ■

Timber & Forestry

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K athy A busow / G reen Bui ld i ng / S F I


Green Building

and the Future of

Our Forests

Building materials have a huge impact on the environment. Wood from responsibly managed forests is an excellent choice for any new construction or renovation – residential or commercial – thanks to its desirable aesthetic qualities, numerous environmental characteristics and its easy, adaptable use in construction. Trees sequester and store carbon while producing oxygen, reducing greenhouse gases and improving air quality. Besides clean air, forests provide many other benefits, including clean water, wildlife habitat, valuable products and jobs. One of the best ways to ensure healthy, thriving forests both today and in the future is to promote responsible management of working forests through a proven tool called forest certification. Forest certification programs such as the Sustainable Forestry Initiative® program (SFI®) offer a proof point that the forest has been managed for multiple values – and will be renewed. Standards require that harvested areas are reforested promptly, laws are obeyed, biological diversity is maintained, special sites are considered, wildlife habitat is maintained, and much more. The international Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is an umbrella organization that endorses national forest certification systems that meet its tough criteria and are developed through an open multi-stakeholder process. PEFC-endorsed standards, like SFI, have committed years of effort to developing rigorous forest management standards that are internationally recognized and backed by independent third-party auditing. This ensures we will have healthy forests and customers will have products from responsible sources today and into the future. ► | 105 |

Timber & Forestry

K athy A busow / G reen Bui ld i ng / S F I

K at hy A busow

President & CEO, Sustainable Forestry Initiative Inc. Certification and Green Building

Third-party forest certification’s value as a credible proof point makes it a perfect tool for the burgeoning green building movement. There are a number of green building standards and tools that recognize forest certifications for responsible sourcing of wood products and allow credits for wood certified to standards endorsed by PEFC and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards. BREEAM has recognized both as providing equivalent assurances of legal and sustainable timber since 2007. Other leading rating systems also take an inclusive approach, including Green Star in Australia, Built Green Canada, CASBEE in Japan and two in the United States approved by the American National Standards Institute – the ANSI/ ICC 700-2008: National Green Building Standard for residential construction and the ANSI-GBI 01-

2010 Green Building Assessment Protocol for Commercial Buildings (formerly Green Globes U.S.) for commercial construction. The final verstion of the International Green Construction Code (IgCC), developed by the International Code Council with support from the American Institute of Architects and ASTM International, recognizes SFI, FSC and PEFC. The Central Point of Expertise on Timber Procurement (CPET) also accepts and recognizes SFI, PEFC and FSC chain of custody. In its 2009-2010 Forest Products Annual Market Review, the United Nations stated: “Over the years, many of the issues that previously divided the (certification) systems have become much less distinct. The largest certification systems now generally have the same structural programmatic requirements.”

Martin Abegglen

Giving preference to green building rating tools that recognize all credible forest certification schemes is a great way to make a difference. If you’re looking for certified-forest products for your next project, you can start with comprehensive online databases to find these products and learn more about certificate holders for SFI www.sfiprogram. org/find-sfi-forest-products and PEFC www.pefc. org/certification-services/find-certified

Green Building in Action

We increasingly see certified wood products used as a centerpiece of green buildings. For example, Kingsgate House, a striking new 7-storey residential project in West London, is the first major U.K. construction project to achieve PEFC Project Certification for timber sourcing and supply where PEFC endorsed wood was used. The 43unit residential building contains PEFC-certified cross-laminated timber (CLT) and the solid wood is used in the design as a natural, low carbon and renewable alternative to steel and concrete. The landmark Bridport House in Central London is a groundbreaking, multi-storey residential building made with PEFC-certified CLT. It is the first time CLT has been specified in the UK for an entire multi-storey structure – including the ground floor. The main contractor for Bridport House, Willmott Dixon, had its in-house sustainability consultancy, Re-Thinking, work with the Centre for Sustainable Development at the University of Cambridge to calculate the embodied carbon in the structure. They found that had the building been made with conventional reinforced concrete frame, the materials required would have incurred an additional 892 tonnes of carbon. That’s the equivalent to 12 years of operational energy to heat and light all the dwellings at Bridport House. And if the sequestered carbon in this 1,576m3 timber structure is added to the carbon avoided, the total goes up to 2,113 tonnes of carbon – or 29 years of operational energy. uploads/exhibitor/1908/wlddt6n9rv.pdf These are but two examples of stunning green building projects built with wood certified to a credible standard, verified by an independent third party. Success stories like these are becoming more common, but we still have a long way to go before certified forests and green building become the rule rather than the exception.

Certification Around the World

Let’s take a look at the state of forest certification globally. There are more than 50 certification standards in use around the world – about half, including SFI, are endorsed by PEFC, and the other half are Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards. Both FSC and PEFC-endorsed standards (including SFI) have committed years of effort to developing rigorous forest management standards that are internationally recognized and backed by independent third-party auditing. Recent trends point to promising growth in forest certification. For example, from 2007 to 2013, the number of hectares of forest certified to the SFI Standard in North America increased 75% from 55.8 ► | 106 |



the f uture

Ask for SFI

you c are a bout of our forest s.

Wood from responsibly managed forests is an excellent choice for any new construction or renovation. Builders and architects are turning to products certified to the Sustainable Forestry Initiative速 (SFI速) Standard, endorsed by PEFC, to meet green building requirements. By asking for SFI, you are promoting sustainable forestry, helping to improve forestry practices and encouraging responsible purchasing of forest products. Look and ask for wood certified to the SFI Standard for all your projects. Visit for a list of SFI and PEFC products. Learn more at Internationally endorsed by


Timber & Forestry

million hectares to more than 100 million hectares. Since North America has about half of the world’s certified lands, it is a reliable source of high-quality certified products. Three North American standards have attained PEFC endorsement – in addition to SFI, they include the American Tree Farm System (ATFS) and the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) – and together they make up close to threequarters of all certified lands in Canada and the United States. FSC standards account for the rest. A total of 154 million hectares (380 million acres) are certified to SFI, ATFS and CSA in North America – that’s 60% of all PEFC-certified lands globally – and fibre from these certified lands can be used in products bearing either the SFI or the PEFC onproduct label. The future of our forests depends on the actions we take today. Only by working together can we ensure that our working forests remain healthy and vital ■ | 108 |

K athy A busow / G reen Bui ld i ng / S F I

About the Sustainable Forestry Initiative SFI, which operates in North America, is an independent, nonprofit organization that is solely responsible for maintaining, overseeing and improving the internationally recognized Sustainable Forestry Initiative® (SFI®) program. It is the largest single forestry certification standard in the world, with 100 million hectares (250 million acres) of land certified to SFI. The SFI forest certification standard is based on 14 principles including provisions for forest productivity and health, protection of water resources and biological diversity, managing aesthetics and recreation, protection of ecologically or culturally special sites, compliance with applicable laws and regulations, public involvement in sustainable forestry, and more. SFI works with economic, environmental and social stakeholders to develop and continually improve its standard; the program is currently engaged in its open review process for the 2015-2019 Standard. As part of this review, which happens every five years, SFI invites stakeholders and the public to comment on the existing Standard and then the new draft Standard, both online or at one of a series of workshops throughout North America. SFI is a comprehensive program that promotes responsible forestry in many ways other than through the forest management standard: through our Chain of Custody and certified sourcing labels; by investing in conservation research; and by working directly with communities to promote responsible forestry – for example, our work on the ground has resulted in the training of more than 140,000 resource and logging professionals in responsible best practices.



L ars M책r tensso n / D i esel / Volvo Tr u c k s

A Versatile Engine

| 110 |


L ars Mår tensson

Environmental Director, Volvo Trucks From peanut oil to methane gas. The fuels powering the diesel engine have undergone considerable development during its 119 year long history. So much so that today, even the fuel we traditionally, if somewhat simplistically, refer to as ‘diesel’ is beginning to make way for alternatives with a smaller environmental footprint, such as biogas and DME. Time to examine what it is all about.

One might say that diesel is somewhat misunderstood and has received more than its fair share of criticism from an environmental perspective. Originally the term had nothing to do with any particular type of fuel but instead only described a particular type of engine. For instance, Rudolf Diesel, the inventor of the diesel engine, ran his first engines on peanut oil. For many people, however, the word has become synonymous with fossil diesel oil, which is a rather narrow description since the diesel engine can be run on many different fuels, some of which are renewable. The common factor is that they are ignited via compression instead of via the spark provided by a spark plug. The reason why diesel oil has become synonymous with the diesel engine is that, over the years, that has been the most common fuel used in the diesel engine. However, as society’s demands increase and technology makes significant advances, so too are more and more alternative fuels being developed for use in the diesel engine. “It’s important for us to work with a wide range of alternative fuels and to come up with solutions that reduce our impact on the climate. It is already possible to build efficient diesel engines that ► | 111 |


L ars Mår tensso n / D i esel / Volvo Tr u c k s run on renewable fuels. This can be shown, not least, in our new Volvo FM MethaneDiesel and the bioDME-powered trucks on which we are now conducting field tests. This fuel has the potential for cutting carbon dioxide emissions by 95%”, says Lars Mårtensson, Environmental Director at Volvo Trucks.

The EU, for instance, has both a directive and a CEN standard* – an abbreviation that stands for European Committee for Standardization – to regulate quality requirements for diesel fuel. The USA on the other hand generally adopts the ASTM International standard. Furthermore, many countries also have their own national standards.

One engine – several fuels

According to Anders Röj, fossil diesel fuel offers the best energy efficiency from initial oil extraction to combustion in the engine, known as the “well-towheel” perspective. “Nature has done an excellent preliminary job with its crude oil deep down in the bowels of the earth over millions of years. And in the almost 100 years that oil refineries have been around, the technology has also undergone significant development”, he explains.

Anders Röj is a fuel expert at Volvo Technology. He explains that diesel fuel can actually be made from virtually any organic material just as long as it has flammable properties that make it suitable for the diesel process. “However, some fuels require major or minor modifications of the engine and its peripheral equipment. And, unfortunately, the engine does not always function equally well on all fuels. For instance, biodiesel exhibits poorer stability and cold-weather properties than hydrocarbon-based diesel fuels. When mixed in small quantities with diesel oil, however, biodiesel functions well if its quality is acceptable in other respects.” Since there is such a wide range of alternative fuels, it is a good idea to undertake a thorough review of just what is available. Here is therefore an examination of both existing and future fuels for the diesel engine.

Fossil diesel oil

What we traditionally refer to as diesel oil is a petroleum product consisting of hydrocarbons. To produce diesel fuel, crude oil is first distilled and then refined. In this process the petroleum is filtered and purified to meet the legislative requirements and diesel standard of the particular country in which the fuel is to be sold.


FAME, Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, is the collective name for what we refer to as biodiesel. FAME can be produced from a number of different vegetable or animal oils, such as rapeseed oil (RME), soya oil (SME) and palm oil (PME). It is even possible to run a diesel engine on fuel obtained from used cooking oil or tallow, depending on where in the world the biodiesel is produced. The advantage of FAME fuels is that they give 5060% lower CO2 emissions from “well to wheel” compared with conventional diesel, and are free from sulphur and aromatics. The fuels’ downsides are that they contribute to increased emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Within the EU, it is no longer permitted for diesel fuel to contain more than 7% FAME since, with a higher proportion, NOx emissions will be too high. ►

Diesel fuel can actually be made from virtually any organic material just as long as it has flammable properties that make it suitable for the diesel process. | 112 |


L ars Mår tensso n / D i esel / Volvo Tr u c k s

Diesel oil can also be produced synthetically through gasification of fuels such as black coal and natural gas, creating a fuel that contains a smaller proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons.

“Had FAME not been a bio-component we would probably be very negative to such fuels due to the NOx emissions and quality problems. Now, however, there is political pressure to use renewable fuels, and biodiesel is one of the few biofuels currently available on a commercial scale”, says Anders Röj.

Synthetic diesel

Diesel oil can also be produced synthetically through gasification of fuels such as black coal and natural gas, creating a fuel that contains a smaller proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. There is at present no significant production of synthetic diesel, however, research is currently being conducted into energy-efficient gasification of biomass. If this project is successful synthetic diesel may become a particularly viable fuel in the future. “Emissions of NOx and particulates from synthetic diesel are lower than from fossil diesel oil. However, the energy content per litre of fuel is somewhat lower”, Anders Röj goes on to say.

DME (Dimethyl ether)

One of the synthetic diesel fuels being examined is an ether known as DME, a carbon/hydrogen/ oxygen molecular bond. At present DME is produced from natural gas, but Swedish company Chemrec is running a pilot plant for the production of BioDME in Piteå, where the raw material being used is black liquor, a high-energy by-product of paper pulp manufacture. It gives 95% lower CO2 emissions than diesel fuel and zero emissions of soot. BioDME can also be produced from other biomass sources. “As a diesel fuel, BioDME gives the highest energy output per unit of raw material. It offers five times the driving range per unit of cultivated arable land than biodiesel, for instance”, reveals Anders Röj.

| 114 |

Consequently, BioDME is one of the fuels that Volvo Trucks is focusing on for the future. The company is currently engaged in field tests in Sweden with trucks running on DME.

Methane gas

Natural gas or biogas can be used as vehicle fuel in both compressed and liquid form. It does not ignite like diesel fuel but if fossil or biodiesel is used to assist in the combustion process, it works well. In May 2011 Volvo Trucks launched its new Volvo FM MethaneDiesel, a gas-powered truck designed for regional distribution. It is powered by up to 75% liquefied methane gas with the remainder consisting of diesel oil, with the diesel serving as the above-mentioned “spark plug”. With biogas in the fuel tank, CO2 emissions drop by up to 70% compared with a conventional diesel engine. With fossil-based gas, emissions are cut by 10%. The advantages of renewable fuels for diesel engines: • Obtained from renewable energy sources (biomass). • Cause lower (in some cases much lower) emissions of greenhouse gases compared with fossil diesel fuel. • Usually produce lower particle emissions; some fuels burn with virtually no soot formation (e.g. DME). • Other regulated emissions may also be lower than for fossil diesel fuel ■ *CEN standard EN 590

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The number one road transport and logistics event in Britain, catering for every operatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s business needs, the CV Show has become the leading meeting place for suppliers and operators alike - a true one stop shop for the industry. Located at the NEC, at the heart of the motorway network, the Show is open from 8.30 to 5.30 April 29 - May 1.

For exhibitor details please call +44 (0) 1634 261 262 or email | 115 |

Waste & Recycling

Dr R i c hard Coulto n / L and f i l l Ta x / Tro mmel Fi nes

Dr. R ichard Coulton CEO Siltbuster

This year is likely to see final confirmation of the landfill tax status of ‘trommel fines’ following nearly two years of debate, triggered by the briefing note issued by the HMRC in May 2012. ‘Fines’ are generated at Waste Transfer Sites (WTS) by trommels (large screened cylinders) which separate materials by size, e.g. separating the biodegradable fraction of mixed municipal waste or separating different sizes of crushed stone. Trommels typically strip out all materials below 40mm in diameter – those that cannot be effectively recovered for recycling. The resulting material may well consist largely of soil, but will also often contain significant paper, wood and metal fragments and other miscellaneous items. In any event, it is very hard to argue that these ‘fines’ are in their composition, similar to ‘naturally occurring soil’, a stipulation for eligibility for the lower landfill tax rate of £2.50/tonne, as compared to £80/ tonne charged for ‘non-inert’ waste.


Tax Status of Trommel ‘Fines’

The HMRC’s 2012 briefing note was issued following a number of calls from landfill operators requesting further guidance on the evidence needed to justify charging the lower landfill tax rate set out in the 2011 Landfill Tax (Qualifying Material) Order. As a result of the response from industry, an additional clarification was published by HMRC in June 2012. This was subsequently followed up in September 2013 by publication of a document entitled “landfill tax – draft further guidance on lower rating”, which was due to be revised and reissued following informal consultation, due to end 11 November 2013. Although HMRC has postponed its final publication pending further consultation, this delay can only be seen as a temporary “stay of execution” before HMRC insists on more rigorous compliance with the requirement of the 2011 Order. The 2011 Landfill Tax (Qualifying Materials) Order stipulates that the lower landfill tax rate is only

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Gritbuster Recovers Sand for Aggregate Recycling. applicable to 8 groups of materials, including: • Group 1- Rocks and soils (naturally occurring) • Group 2- Ceramic and concrete (other than concrete plant washings) • Group 3- Minerals (processed or prepared – moulding sand, clay, mineral absorbents, man-made mineral fibres, silica, mica, uncontaminated mineral abrasives) (Other categories include: furnace slags, ash, low activity inorganic compounds such as calcium sulphate, calcium hydroxide and brine – provided it is deposited in a brine cavity.) Further consultation is being sought by HMRC with parties representing the waste management industries, on 3 key issues: • The definition of ‘naturally occurring’ rocks and soils in Group 1 • More objective evidential requirements, including those relating to ‘incidental’ amounts of non-qualifying material in a load that is essentially of qualifying material • Guidance on the conditions that must be met where lower rated waste, used for the purposes of filling existing quarries, qualifies for exemption from landfill tax A lack of clarity on these issues has essentially placed most of the onus on landfill operators to implement this legislation. Within its briefing HMRC stated that if it discovered ‘instances where landfill operators do not hold appropriate evidence to support the lower rate of Landfill Tax, enforced assessments will be made to bring the underdeclared tax into charge. Penalties may also be applicable in such cases’. It also threatened that ‘Landfill site operators who deliberately fail to

correct an under-declaration of Landfill Tax may be liable to a civil penalty for dishonest evasion, a civil penalty for deliberate inaccuracy or criminal prosecution.’ So it is clear that when the HMRC does issue its final revised guidance this year, that there will be no loopholes as exist currently, that allow some unscrupulous waste disposers to take advantage of this lack of clarity. As indicated in the 2013 draft guidance, most trommel fines include a variety of materials derived from a number of different sources and will only be liable for tax at the lower rate if: • The fines comply with the materials categories listed in the 2011 Order (save for a small amount of other material substantially inert material which cannot be easily removed) • The relevant conditions of the 2011 Order are met • Appropriate evidence can be provided to demonstrate eligibility to the lower rate For most trommel fines, the lower rate tax will only be applicable if the producer can demonstrate the materials comprise predominantly of naturally occurring rocks and soil (Group 1 Materials) or glass, ceramics or concrete (Group 2 Materials). Although, as mentioned, the HMRC is still refining its’ definition of “naturally occurring rocks and soil”, it is most likely that the presence of anything other than minor amounts of other contaminants means that the fines will be taxed at the standard rate. For most operators this means that their landfill tax bill for this type of waste will increase

from £2.50/tonne to £80/tonne during 2014 – a 32 fold increase! So an operator producing, for example, 10,000tonnes/year of trommel fines (i.e. 40 tonnes per day) could see their landfill tax bill increase from £25,000/year to £800,000/year during 2014.

So how can this be mitigated?

Further separation of the fines - Assuming trommel fines typically comprise 80% material that, if separated, would qualify for the lower tax rate, simply separating this from the other “nonqualifying material” could dramatically reduce the annual landfill tax bills. Such savings surely mean the industry has little choice but to invest in this additional technology or endeavour to pass the full additional cost onto its customers? Using existing technology - The technology is already out there. Trommel fines can be further treated to remove these “other contaminants” thereby ensuring that the resultant material is comprised predominantly of qualifying materials such as naturally occurring rock/soil, fragments of concrete, brick or other ceramics. As the material has already been sorted by size, the removal of the other contaminants can only be achieved using a combination of magnetic/ eddy current separation (to remove both ferrous and non-ferrous metals) and density separation (to remove fragments of paper, plastic, food waste, etc). Siltbuster has been offering this type of technology to the recycling industry for the past five years ► | 117 |

Waste & Recycling

Dr R i c hard Coulto n / L and f i l l Ta x / Tro mmel Fi nes

(principally for the recovery of naturally occurring minerals from gully and sweeper waste) in the form of our Gritbuster washing systems. The application of this technology to the treatment of trommel fines is therefore a logical next step in its evolution and the company is currently conducting a number of pilot schemes. Whilst the capital outlay is not insignificant, the potential savings in landfill tax will be hugely significant, once HMRC start insisting on rigorous compliance with this legislation. The pilot schemes mentioned also bear this out. An operator producing 10,000tonnes/year of trommel fines (i.e. 40tonnes/day) could see their landfill tax bill increase from £25,000/year to £800,000/year during 2014. Assuming trommel fines typically comprise 80% of material simply separating this from the other “non-qualifying material” could reduce the landfill tax bill to £160,000/year - a tax saving of £640,000/year. The benefits of such an investment have been further enhanced by the publication of the revised WRAP Protocol on the recovery of aggregates from waste. This now allows mineral recovered from the mechanical (and/or biological) treatment of trommel fines and other waste streams to be used in the production of aggregates, thereby allowing a significant proportion of the trommel fines currently being landfilled to be recovered through a quality controlled process and sold for beneficial use as recovered aggregate. HMRC has clearly showed its intent – and all indications are that HMRC will stiffen their position. Like it or not, this tax was introduced as a means of encouraging the diversion of waste from landfill, which has to be beneficial to society as a whole. What now seems likely, during 2014, is the inevitable enforcement of this legislation on the disposal of trommel fines which will undoubtedly encourage the industry to at least further process this material to minimise the landfill tax or, even more beneficially, encourage its recovery as an aggregate. Either way, the waste management industry has no choice but to sharpen up its act with respect to the treatment and disposal of this waste stream and ensure they have robust practices in place to keep landfill disposal costs under control and to comply with the law ■

+ More Information Trommel Fines Processing.

| 118 |

Waste & Recycling

Mark Hal l / Z ero Waste to L and f i l l

Zero Waste To Landfill: A Flawed Target? Mar k Hal l


The concept of Zero Waste to Landfill – changing one's company or organisation's ways of working so that all of its refuse is recycled in one way or another – is eminently achievable under the right circumstances. However, it has to be recognised that there's no utopia where companies are rushing to fulfil this target, because there's just as many organisations that don't care for recycling as there are that do. We've got to go further and look at what Zero Waste To Landfill actually means, as while it is certainly a good thing not to dump your refuse into a big hole in the ground and cover it over, what happens if the alternative is only marginally less desirable? There are even claims that the term has been hijacked by interest groups to mean something else entirely. With legislation and regulations in Scotland pointing their way towards total recycling regimes, questions have to be asked if people are willingly coming along for the ride, or are they being forced – for right or wrong – to get away with the very bare minimum.

No Zero Waste Utopia

Is Zero Waste to Landfill achievable? Can companies, organisations, and even households change their habits so that 100% of their refuse is diverted away from burial? In the most general, | 120 |

broad terms, we can answer in the positive, but enthusiasm for these targets is patchy to say the least, and there's certainly no utopia of people rushing to become Zero Waste companies. Naturally, for businesses, there's the financial incentive of avoiding landfill altogether. Zero landfill means zero landfill tax, and while they would still have to pay to have their refuse removed by commercial waste collection companies, it's through a regime that keeps the company accountant all smiles. But even while current legislation in England and Wales that mean organisations "must take all reasonable steps to prevent and reduce waste", it's very clear to waste management companies like Business Waste that some companies pull their weight while others do not. It's undeniable that enthusiasm for even the most basic of recycling varies from business to business. Take two neighbouring companies on an industrial estate for an example that we see just about every day. Company A presents their waste, sorted to the very last piece. Their general waste bin is the least full of the lot, and it's abundantly clear that a lot of thought has gone into their waste policy. It is – after all – costing them money, and the more they send


While current legislation in England and Wales that mean organisations "must take all reasonable steps to prevent and reduce waste", it's very clear to waste management companies like Business Waste that some companies pull their weight while others do not.

to landfill the more expensive it becomes. It's not unusual, our operators tell us, to meet an employee clutching one piece of waste (usually made of a composite of metals, plastics and looking like a concept model from Robocop) saying they weren't sure which bin to put it in, and can we have some advice please? Company B, on the other hand, aren't all that different to Company A. They present their waste in the hierarchy demanded by regulations, the only difference being that the general waste bin is full to the brim, the lid half-closed like a badly-packed suitcase. The question we ask them (tactfully, of course) as waste collection invoices change hands, is "How would you like to make this more than a little cheaper?" Sometimes the message gets through, but all to often we hear "We can't be doing with this waste of time", before "global warming myth" comes up, and we politely make our excuses. The Company Bs of the world see waste management as a problem they wish they could simply bury in the ground. And they do, quite literally. On any given day there are Company As and Company Bs, and a complete spectrum in between. Asked about Zero Waste To Landfill, the first comment is always "Yes, but how much will it cost me?", and the success on getting the message over depends entirely on convincing company bosses of the long term (financial and environmental) gains balanced against the short-term investment to change ways of working.

The Scottish Way

The Scottish government seems to think that a zero waste policy is an aspiration worth chasing. The implementation of the Waste (Scotland) Regulations of 2012 illustrates that Edinburgh clearly believes that they can become Europe's most resource efficient region. Looking at the context of radical policy-making north of the border, Scotland has proven to be, time and again, the testing ground for just about any sensible legislation that eventually catches the eye of the London parliament and becomes law in the rest of the United Kingdom. We've the Scots to thank (amongst others) for the surcharge on disposable plastic bags which will prevent hundreds of millions of the things being thrown away every year. And if you want to park your Christian Guthier car illegally without being clamped, that's Edinburgh too, and an argument for another specialist journal. â&#x2013;ş

Scotland's phasing in of tighter waste management controls sees an end to all biodegradable waste going to landfill by 2021. | 121 |

Waste & Recycling

Mark Hal l / Z ero Waste to L and f i l l

is no other. Even in the most efficient plant, heat disappears up the chimney, and what campaign groups see as perfectly good resources are sent up in smoke. The Environmental Services Association, on the other hand, disputes claims that energy recovery is used far too freely, saying that the presence of these schemes doesn't dent recycling rates. In fact, ESA's Barry Dennis says energy recovery is only ever used as a last resort for waste that can't be safely recycled or disposed of elsewhere. "Some of our rubbish can and should be recycled... But a significant amount cannot be recycled and it is this residual waste which energy from waste plants are designed to treat", he said last August. The inherent danger with incineration for energy recovery is that while the pendulum is clearly swinging towards this end, it could become a ravenous monster eating up all waste whether recyclable or not. The Scottish regulations clearly put an end to those fears, at least north of the border, as waste collected for recycling must indeed be recycled. However, elsewhere, environmental groups are keeping a close eye on figures, claiming that a profit motive is enough for corners to be cut.

Is 100% Possible?

Even in the most efficient recycling system it is probably not entirely possible to reuse every single resource in the strictest definition of Zero Waste To Landfill. Inevitably, there are still going to be materials that are going to have to be set aside at some point. Whether we send those to landfill or not is open to some discussion, especially when such waste is deemed to be hazardous.

Some companies embrace efficient waste management schemes while others see it as a time-consuming inconvenience. Scotland's phasing in of tighter waste management controls sees an end to all biodegradable waste going to landfill by 2021, and all waste contractors must now provide collection and treatment that offer "high quality recycling". One of the most important aspects of a Zero Landfill and Zero Waste policy and its implications is the new ban on metal, plastic, glass, paper and food going to landfill or incineration if it has been collected separately for recycling. That last point is absolutely vital, and is the difference between a true Zero Waste policy and one that has been co-opted by certain parts of the waste management industry.

Zero Waste And Energy Recovery

The most intense part of the debate over Zero Waste To Landfill is that surrounding what's euphemistically been termed "Energy Recovery", but is, in real terms, burning refuse and converting it into useful heat and electricity. We are, in the main, convinced that energy recovery is a good thing, and has diverted many thousands

| 122 |

of tonnes of waste away from landfill where it could not otherwise have been recycled. However, there are those who say that the use of energy recovery as a first resort rather than a last and selling it as Zero Waste policy are wrong, and openly misleading. Pressure groups such as the Zero Waste International Alliance argue that the term has been hijacked in order to promote incineration schemes when further recycling of resources still remains possible. The groups says that some regions have hit 80% recycling rates without the need for what they see as "deliberate resource destruction" through energy recovery processes. There's specific anger from ZWIA aimed at the Gwyrdd energy recovery project in South Wales, which they describe as "another example of companies and their financiers seeking to grab community waste cash under the guise of waste-toenergy". There are also claims that energy recovery is not the most efficient way to deal with waste. From a purely physical point of view, there's entropy in every system that converts one form of energy to another, and burning business and domestic waste

Yes, when you factor in energy recovery schemes, a 100% Zero Waste To Landfill policy is certainly possible, even if this approach is not what some Zero Waste campaigners have in mind. We have to be pragmatic about what's possible with current technology, and – indeed – what we're able to do with patchy enthusiasm for the concept, both from businesses and people in power. Whatever the rights and wrongs of adopting a Zero Waste policy, it's something that is worth chasing, and chasing hard. is committed to helping companies and organisations reach their recycling targets – no matter how ambitious – by offering free expert advice on how to adjust their ways of working to reduce landfill waste. As with many things in business, it's driven by the bottom line – reducing waste reduces costs, and you don't need much more motivation than that ■

Title Photo: James Stencilowsky

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May 5–9, 2014 World’s Leading Trade Fair for Water, Sewage, Waste and Raw Materials Management

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Waste & Recycling

Estel le Brach liano f f / Veolia Env i ro nnement / Ci rcular Eco no my

What does the future hold? E stel l e Brachlianof f

Executive Vice-President – UK and Northern Europe, Veolia Environnement It sounds unbelievable, but by 2050 it’s estimated that 70% of the world’s population will live in cities. That compares with just over 50% now and has huge implications for society and a company like Veolia Environnement whose core business is based on preserving scarce raw materials, water, energy and utilising waste. By their very density, cities offer the potential for transformation into a sustainable urban living environment. Veolia partnered with the London School of Economics Cities to see what implications this could have. The LSE found that we could follow one of two paths – either a resource efficient collaborative consumption society based on a circular economy or a resource hungry urban sprawl. That’s a stark choice, writes Estelle Brachlianoff, Veolia Environnement Executive Vice-President, UK & Northern Europe.

Building the Circular Economy

In the UK, transformation towards a circular economy remains slow, largely due to our politics and economy being locked into resource-intensive pathways that were dictated by previous technological and industrial revolutions. However, increasing evidence suggests that this does not have to be the case and change can originate from our cities. With the majority of the world’s population now urbanised, cities are at the centre of a resource revolution. City dwellers can lead more sustainable lifestyles through high density living, sharing of goods and services and the reuse and remanufacturing of goods. More importantly, cities have the capacity to re-lock lifestyles into more sustainable and resource-efficient pathways by investing in innovative technologies that can accelerate this transition. As we are all aware on April 1, the final stage of the landfill tax escalator comes into force with rates rising to £80 per tonne. To date this has been the biggest driver for the industry to reach its recycling rate of 45%. But after this big milestone what’s next? To help support us through this transition I have recently launched our new strategy that is based around us becoming a manufacturer – focusing on green products to sell back to the market and green calories to create energy. So what does this mean? We will use the waste as a mine to extract the valuable materials and turn them into new products to help build and shape the circular economy. Part of the changes will be providing bespoke solutions that meet the largest, complex environmental challenges that our customers face and to achieve this shift into new markets we will focus on innovation. The circular economy is perfectly illustrated by the 60,000 tonnes of peat free Pro-Grow compost Veolia manufactured in 2013, a figure we would like to increase year on year. However I believe there is much more the recycling and waste industry can contribute to ensure that the concept of a ‘circular | 124 |


economy’ becomes a reality. But how will we get there? One of the biggest challenges we face is the acceptance of the public of locating waste and resource management facilities in their local areas. As a sector we must continue to engage with residents to ensure they understand the genuine benefits these facilities provide.

What is even more exciting are the additional benefits we can gain from our existing seven facilities which are all designed to allow district heating. Utilising the heat from these facilities creates an important renewable source that has been the basis of the Sheffield District Heating Network we operate which first opened in 1976.

Manufacturing green energy

This was complemented in 2013 with our opening of London’s first energy from waste district heating scheme in partnership with the London Borough of Southwark from our SELCHP facility in Deptford. This now provides 2,500 properties with heat and hot water from the black bag waste they put outside their properties – the circular economy in action!

Producing green calories is one area we continue to focus on with our new strategy. This will help ensure the UK’s energy security as energy from waste has the potential to contribute up to 10% of renewable electricity supplies – about 3% of total electricity demand. We already have a pipeline to open three new Energy Recovery Facilities in Staffordshire, Shropshire and Leeds in each of the next three years, which will bring our total to ten. These facilities feed a green source of energy back to the National Grid from materials that would otherwise be sent straight to landfill.

There are many advantages to this approach. For residents we can provide a sustainable heat source that is not affected by the price of gas. For the UK we are helping towards our renewable energy targets. We are focusing on ► | 125 |

Waste & Recycling

Estel le Brach liano f f / Veolia Env i ro nnement / Ci rcular Eco no my

By 2050 it’s estimated that 70% of the world’s population will live in cities. City dwellers can lead more sustainable lifestyles through high density living, sharing of goods and services and the reuse and remanufacturing of goods.

3D printers are predicted to become widely accessible to anyone and will likely replace mass industries.

adding district heating to more of our facilities so any business in their vicinity interested in reliable green heat should get in touch.

Promoting a diverse workforce

Another area that is particularly relevant to the waste and resource sector is promoting a diverse workforce as it helps bring innovation which is the key to our success! In some sense we are already very diverse – our staff in London speak over ninety languages – but in others the industry remains very traditional. However the logic is impeccable – it’s more efficient in terms of business to have diverse management teams. A study of the Fortune 500 reveals those businesses with the highest representation of women in management represent the highest financial performers and returns on equity of +35%. And with 58% of graduates being female why select from only 42% of the pool? We do need to encourage more women in the industry, particularly at management levels, not least as in the past it may have been considered an unsuitable career. But when it comes to diversity I mean in all areas including ethnicity and also sexuality – to which end we recently became one of the first companies in our sector to join Stonewall. It’s important for me to know that when someone joins Veolia it's to grow their careers and it’s not just a job. We have a responsibility to the people we hire who we want to grow a career through the company. Our ReStart policy Initiative involves schemes like working with the long-term unemployed, Business Action on Homelessness, ex-military and exoffenders. We have made a commitment that by 2014 all employees will be qualified to NVQ Level 2. We are a big part of the communities we work in, ensuring that not only do we help provide a key service but we also offer volunteers that go into the local area and give back. Last year our staff volunteered over 20,000 hours to local projects.

Looking to the future

Although nobody can predict the future we know forward-looking scenarios can act as powerful tools to create urban environments that encourage innovation, reduce environmental impact and improve quality of life. By illustrating the likely effects of remaining locked-in to our current technological, infrastructural and behavioural paths, they also justify the need for decisive action on our most pressing urban sustainability issues. So let’s imagine 2050 and the type of home you may be living in! As this property will be in a city Veolia had to think vertically and based its ideas on new build developments which offer the potential for having these innovations of tomorrow built-in.

The kitchen

Developments in technology and infrastructure will increase the efficiency of waste management and will close the loop in the life cycle of products.

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The kitchen of the future is a homeowners’ dream with no longer the need to empty and take out your bins, but a smart pipe network that will do the hard work for you! When you’ve finished with that old milk bottle you will just pop it into a chute in your kitchen to be collected via a pneumatic underground network and transferred to treatment facilities. This 24/7 waste collection service will reduce the presence of vehicles in the city, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Self-treating domestic effluents by using the processing power of plants and bacteria would be a sustainable, natural solution and would be 100% energy free.

But how will it work? Inside each of these chutes will be an ‘infinicycle’ that will shred the materials into its chemical building blocks. These materials will then be handled by the household nanobots that will be separate these materials into their constituent parts for reuse either back into the household 3D printer or off to Veolia to be remanufactured into new products.

The bedroom

The industrial revolution of the future will take place at home! 3D printers will be accessible to anyone and replace mass industries. Manufacturing will be specific to the need and will avoid mass production reducing the use of materials and energy. Diverse appliances will be available to print from electronics to everyday objects.

These are not pipe dreams and here are some examples of how Veolia is doing this today. In Brussels, Veolia’s technology team are working on the technique to turn sewage sludge into plastic and at Veolia’s facility near Rugby it's recycling street sweepings and extracting precious metals such as palladium and platinum!

The bathroom

Plastic will be made from plant components or from sludge to produce bio plastics. This will significantly reduce the carbon footprint of material production and help us move away from oil reliance. The biopolymers naturally present in organic material such as sludge or plant can be extracted with chemical processes and reused to produce plastic material naturally.

So what does the future hold? With £1bn to invest in UK infrastructure by 2018 we need a planning system that can accommodate them and an innovative approach that anticipates some of the issues we face as a society. We don’t have all the answers, but if we don’t start the conversation today, we will never be ready for tomorrow ■

In 2050 every home will self-treat its domestic effluents by using the processing power of plants and bacteria. It will be a sustainable, natural solution and 100% energy free. Taking creativity from nature, the home will clean its water by filtering using plants and bacteria ready to be used again! Taking a bath will be a totally new experience! Baths will be able to work by using a minimal quantity of water with ultrasonic vibrations to remove dirt. A stress free self-cleaning bathroom will reduce the reliance on the use of water and detergents in the home. The technology takes its cue from the lotus leaf which is highly water repellent, controlling the loss of water and its rough texture stops particles sticking to it. When raindrops fall onto the leaf, it removes all particles and dirt. A similar texture will be in place throughout the room.

These ideas may seem like a world away but we are working on some of these already. Veolia believes the conversation around resource efficiency needs to happen today to ensure we get there in the future. Veolia is leading the resource revolution after it recently launched its new strategy around manufacturing green products and creating green calories.

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Jav i er Car r i l lo d e A l b o r noz Po r tes / Emi li o Co r rea s Val l e


for effective flood management Floods are unavoidable â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but it is possible to minimise their effects. by Jav i er Car r i l lo de A l b or noz Por tes Water Division, Grundfos Pumps Spain

& Em i l i o Cor rea s Val le

Water Division, Grundfos Pumps Spain

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Web: | 129 |


Jav i er Car r i l lo d e A l b o r noz Po r tes / Emi li o Co r rea s Val l e

In 2010, it is estimated that 106 million people worldwide were affected by flooding, and that the cost of flooding to society was USD 40 billion.

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Grundfos has spent 30 years developing innovative and effective ways to control the effects of flooding. Two of these are worth noting: Stormwater tanks with an integrated control system are used for the following purposes: • storage of water to avoid discharging polluted water during the first hours of the storm; • management of the stored water for as long as necessary, preventing build-up of offensive smells and dangerous environmental conditions; • ensuring that, during emptying, the discharged water can be absorbed and the treatment plants are not adversely affected; • ensuring effective cleaning without the need for additional water and without operation by (or even presence of) human operators.

Floodgates with pumps (Pump Gates) are used to prevent flooding

upstream of canals and rivers that then flow into larger rivers, or from the sea where water flowing back into the canals and rivers from the water courses into which they discharge. This is because of a rise in levels due to floods, high tides, for example. Floodgates equipped with pumps prevent contraflow and lower the level of water pouring into recipient water courses in a controlled way, and this is the innovative solution we call Pump Gates.

that each year 150 people die and more than 400,000 are affected as a result. Around 40% of the financial losses due to natural disasters are caused by floods: EUR 4,120 million a year. The bursting of the banks of the rivers Rhine and Elbe in 2002 was the impetus for both the expansion of the European Territorial Strategy and the European Territorial Agenda (2007-2011) (which already included discussion of the risks posed by climate change), and for adoption of the Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks (2007/60/EC). This Directive, along with the Framework Directive on Water (2000), which addresses means of alleviating the negative effects of flooding and droughts through hydrological planning, and Directive 2001/42/EC2, which makes it compulsory to include environmental sustainability reports when evaluating plans and programmes, together form the basis for European legislation in this area. ►


Floods are the most commonly occurring type of natural disaster. They are defined as the inundation of land that is normally above water. They may be the result of a river, stream or watercourse overflowing its banks as a result of torrential rain or melting snow (river flooding), of a rise in sea level caused by a hurricane, storm or exceptional high tide (coastal flooding) or a tidal wave caused by an undersea earthquake (tsunami). Since 2000, figures from the International Disaster Database show that the number of flooding occurrences has more than doubled. In 2010, it is estimated that 106 million people worldwide were affected by flooding, and that the cost of flooding to society was USD 40 billion. Some areas are more vulnerable, such as Korea, China, India, the Philippines and Bangladesh, where these phenomena are cyclical and have major social and economic effects: The floods between May and August 2011 involved a cost to China estimated at almost EUR 4.4 billion. Flooding in Europe also has serious effects. There are around 11 flooding episodes a year, accounting for 26% of all natural disasters, and it is calculated

Share of reported flood events by continent 2000-2009. | 131 |


Jav i er Car r i l lo d e A l b o r noz Po r tes / Emi li o Co r rea s Val l e

Flooding costs Spain EUR 800 million each year.


Within Europe, Spain is one of the countries at greatest risk of flooding with a vulnerability index of 9.44 which is nearly three times greater than the average for the other countries (3.31). This index is calculated as the coefficient of the number of fatalities and the number of people at risk per million inhabitants.

Despite this, the Geological and Mining Institute has estimated that Galicia may suffer losses of EUR 650 million due to flooding over the period from 2004-2033. This year’s “Gong” storm on 20 January 2013 gave rise to some 270 incidents, although fortunately these were minor and nobody was injured.

The damage caused by flooding has altered in interesting ways over the last 60 years: while the number of deaths caused by flooding has decreased sharply (1,359 fatalities from 1950-1970, 416 fatalities between 1970 and 1990 and 109 between 1990 and 2010), economic losses have increased to EUR 800 million today according to estimates by Spain’s Geological and Mining Institute.

In 2011 Augas de Galicia (the Galician Water Board) finished work on the first phase of the Management Plan for Flood Risks: drawing up the Preliminary Study on Flood Risk (EPRI). This study, which was put out to public consultation for three months, was approved by the Governing Council of the Galician Water Board on 19 December 2011. It identified 168 Potential River Flood Risk Areas (ARPSIs) and 39 coastal ARPSIs.

Within Spain itself, Valencia, Andalucía, Cataluña, the Basque Country and Aragón have historically been the worst affected regions. Floods in recent memory include the Vallés region of Cataluña, where 973 people died in September 1962, in Biescas (1996, 87 dead), the Basque Country (1983, 40 dead) and the more recent flooding of 29 September 2012 in Murcia, Almeria and Malaga, in which 10 people died and almost 8,000 needed to be rehoused.

In January 2013, the director of the Galician Water Board, Francisco Menéndez, announced that the Council of Galicia had earmarked a budget of EUR 1.5 million in 2013 for the second phase of the plan, consisting of the mapping of high risk flood areas. Phase Three of the project, set out by the European directive, will focus on drawing up plans for the management of flood risk.

In terms of regulation, the first major law in this area was the Land Law (RD 2/2008) which compelled urban developers to include a map showing areas at risk. This law was complemented by the setting up of the National System for the Mapping of Flood-prone Areas (MARM, 2008), to enable implementation of Directive 2007/60/EC and to Royal Decree 903/2010 which incorporated it into Spanish legislation Some of the Autonomous Communities most affected by flood risk, such as the Basque country, Navarra, the Comunidad Valenciana and Cataluña, have had, since the late 1980s, laws and plans relating to land use that make it obligatory to take these risks into account.


In Galicia, flooding is associated with long periods of heavy rain rather than short-lived and highly intensive storms. Moreover, since most main watercourses in this territory are controlled by dams and reservoirs to produce hydroelectric power, the consequences are limited in terms of duration and extent and are much less severe than in other regions of Spain. | 132 |


The increasing intensity of rain and storms over the last few years, coupled with urban development in coastal and riverside areas, have increased the risk of flooding and the associated damage. Moreover, in most cases flooding is inevitable. Therefore policies should be directed at minimising its harmful effects. This means that the notion of ‘avoiding’ floods should be replaced by that of ‘damage limitation’, learning to live with floods and accepting that the risks they pose cannot be reduced to zero. These policies should include consideration of the whole package, including both structural and non-structural measures. The former include primarily flood control dams, construction and maintenance of dykes and storm reservoirs, zoning of flood-prone areas and so on. Among the latter are good institutional organisation and cooperation, a flood forecast and warning system and emergency evacuation plans in case of flooding. This set of policies and practical measures is called GII, Gestión Integrada de Inundaciones, or Integrated Flood Management.


Grundfos publications on flood control, including design guides for stormwater retention tanks and flood pumping stations can be downloaded free from the website

The second Conference on Flood Risk Management was held in Rotterdam from 20-22 November 2012. Global experts described the advances in the areas of detection, warning, risk analysis, civil protection and infrastructure that have been made over the last few years. At the Rotterdam conference, Grundfos presented some of its new developments in the area of managing and protecting against flood events: Integrated management systems for stormwater retention tanks and floodgates, where pumps are integrated into the flood gate. These are described in the Grundfos design guide, Designing flood pumping stations written by engineers Jim Rise and Mick Eriksen, who also contributed to the previous design guide Design of stormwater tanks that Grundfos released in early 2012. Many of the recommendations made in these books are based on the design standards of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which Grundfos helped draw up as a member of its working committee on design standards for the construction of pumping station intakes.


The damage caused by flooding has altered in interesting ways over the last 60 years: while the number of deaths caused by flooding has decreased sharply (1,359 fatalities from 1950-1970, 416 fatalities between 1970 and 1990 and 109 between 1990 and 2010), economic losses have increased to EUR 800 million today according to estimates by Spain’s Geological and Mining Institute.

Grundfos is the largest pump manufacturer in the world, producing over 16 million units per year. This represented a turnover of just over EUR 3,000 million in 2012. Grundfos is a Danish multinational founded in 1945. It has over 18,000 employees and has production facilities and offices in 50 countries. Since 1975, 87% of its shares have been owned by the Poul Due Jensen Foundation, whose objectives are to consolidate and expand the group and reinvest the profits back into the company. Hence, in 2011, R & D investment rose to over EUR 155 million, nearly 6% of the company’s turnover. In the field of water supply and sanitation, Grundfos has a wide range of pumping equipment for clean water and wastewater, mixers and aeration systems (diffusers and ejectors) and dosing and disinfection systems. Fully owned by Grundfos, the brand Alldos is fully integrated into the company’s water treatment solutions. ► | 133 |


Jav i er Car r i l lo d e A l b o r noz Po r tes / Emi li o Co r rea s Val l e


Stormwater retention tanks are an excellent solution for draining and regulating stormwater flows entering the sewage system. The purpose of these large reservoirs, which are usually buried, is to take the excess rainwater from the sewage network, thus preventing overflows and avoiding excessive discharges so that the treatment plants are not overwhelmed and the water can be treated. Initially these tanks were constructed in the same location as the treatment plants, and used to channel away part of the excess rainwater. These were small containers of less than 1,000 cubic metres, normally equipped with simple vacuum pumps and an overflow for excess water when the tank was full. Later, they were placed within the sewage network itself, before treatment, and their capacity was increased, sometimes up to 400,000m3, as in the case of the tank at Arroyo Fresno, in Madrid, which measures 140 metres wide, 290 meters long, and 22 meters deep, making it the largest in the world. In addition to this, the Plan drawn up in 2008 by Madrid City Council for Improving the Quality of the Waters of the Río Manzanares envisaged construction of 27 similar tanks, with a combined capacity of 1.3 million m3, involving an investment of EUR 105 million. These tanks formerly consisted of a single container and had a solids discharge system at the inlet (grating or screen), a vacuum pumping system and a cleaning mechanism, initially using tippers or containers with floodgates fitted with bottom flaps.

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However, experience during use has shown that the simplicity of this equipment gave rise to problems in operation and maintenance. Having only one container, waste water made the entire surface dirty from the outset, regardless of the volume of water taken in. Discharge pumping systems did not take into account the capacity of the sewage network or the amount of pollution arriving in the purifiers. Furthermore, cleaning systems using valves or flaps were unable to clean the tanks adequately, making it necessary for the use of human operators in very unpleasant and dangerous conditions, as these are confined spaces where poisonous gases develop.

Stormwater tanks with integrated management systems

Grundfos approached these structures with a view to integrated management, and analysed the functions they needed to perform: • They should be able to clarify the water entering them so that when completely full, the discharged water is in an environmentally acceptable state. • While the tank is full, build-up of unpleasant odours and unsanitary conditions need to be avoided, since many such tanks are located within cities and populated areas. • Management needs to be automated and require as little human intervention as possible, given that at the times when they are needed, communications and transport will be affected. • Emptying should be carried out with regard to the capacity of the sewage network and should ensure that polluted water sent to the treatment plant is of acceptable quality. • The cleaning system should be totally effective without needing the intervention of human operators.


Stormwater retention tank at Arroyo Fresno; 400,000m3.

These tanks may be of any shape (rectangular, circular, trapezoid) to fit the shape of the plot of land available, and should take into account all the different phases of the tankâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s operation. On the basis of these requirements, Grundfos has developed solutions for cleaning and stirring the tank through the combined use of pumps and ejectors, and using pumping equipment that can be adapted to the needs of the Wastewater Treatment Plant system of collection and storage. This is all controlled automatically by a PLC and SCADA.

Phase I: Filling Diagram of a rectangular and a circular strmwater tank.

During the first stages of the storm, a certain amount of heavily contaminated water circulates through the sewage collectors and networks. This is water runoff contaminated with substances washed from the streets and sewers by the volume of rainfall. It includes heavy metals, organic and inorganic chemicals (petrol spills, asphalt, cleaning products, etc). During the filling-up phase the aim is to channel the excess water from the sewage system into the stormwater retention tank where it can be stored and treated. It enters by overflowing into a spillway calculated for a specific flow rate and after passing through a separation basin. Since it is not possible to ensure that the tank is filled to capacity, Grundfos recommends dividing it into several compartments, enabling some to be used without using all of them until this becomes necessary. Another aim of stormwater tank design is to use it as a clarifier during the filling phase, so that if it fills up completely the discharge contains as few solids in suspension as possible, as sedimentation should occur within the tank. For this to happen there needs to be minimal mixing and no short-circuit between the water entering and that leaving the tank. â&#x2013;ş

Filling phase of a stormwater tank with several cells. | 135 |


Jav i er Car r i l lo d e A l b o r noz Po r tes / Emi li o Co r rea s Val l e

Therefore mixing devices should be inactive during the filling phase and the design should avoid short-circuits between the inflow and the outflow of the tank.

Phase II: Storage

Stormwater tanks should be capable of storing the wastewater until the sanitation system has the capacity to cope with it. This may take minutes, hours or days. Stored wastewater produces methane, hydrogen sulphide and other potentially inflammable gases, which produce unpleasant odours in residential areas and pose a health threat to workers and maintenance personnel. To avoid this, Grundfos proposes fitting the tanks with jet aeration systems consisting of a pump and an ejector which, through the Venturi effect, introduce air into the bottom of the tank, for oxygenation and producing a degree of mixing.

Storage phase .

Introducing air avoids anaerobiosis of the water and thus prevents the formation of hydrogen sulphide and methane. Mixing prevents heavy sedimentation from forming in the bottom of the tank and makes it easier to clean the bottom and sides of the tank afterwards. This equipment has timer controls to reduce energy consumption in the event that the water has to be stored for long periods.

Phase III: Emptying

For proper emptying it should be noted that the collectors must not be overfilled and the water entering the wastewater treatment system should be as homogeneous as possible in terms of pollution load and flow. To regulate the pollution load, all the remaining stored water should be homogenised. If this is not done, the first water pumped out will be heavily loaded, as it will have been drawn from the bottom of the tank, whereas clarified water will be drawn off last.

Use of a frequency converter to regulate speed of discharge from the tank.

Therefore before operating the discharge pumps the above-mentioned mixing equipment (pumps and ejectors) should be turned on at full power. This will also ensure that the wastewater is better oxygenated before arriving at the collector and the purifier. To regulate the flow, Grundfos recommends using a combination of pumps of various sizes and frequency converters. If this is not done, when the tank is full the slightest difference between the level of water in the tank and that in the drains will necessitate pumping much higher flows than when the level is lower, and will need more pump pressure.

Phase IV: Cleaning

Cleaning the tanks is essential for proper maintenance. Cleaning by operators should be carried out using safety precautions as it involves confined spaces and potentially toxic gases, though it should preferably be done automatically without using clean water.

High-pressure oscillating air/water cleaner with fixed ejector and pump for a hydrodynamic effect.

For complete cleaning of the stormwater tank, Grundfos recommends use of the same pump/ejector combination. Through correct positioning and design of the tank and cells, the jet of water and air produced by the ejector forms a powerful jet that cleans the entire surface of the tank without the need for additional water or intervention of personnel. Through careful hydrodynamic calculations based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations one can estimate the ideal velocity for water leaving the ejector and thus ensure complete cleaning and minimal waste of energy. Grundfos has developed a complete management system for stormwater tanks beginning with their design, usually based on CFD simulations, including the selection of teams ensuring correct operation in different phases, manufacture, installation and start-up, including control systems, electrical control panels, programming and instrumentation. CFD analysis at 25 l/s, 50 l/s and 75 l/s (high to low), on the flat and raised (left-right).

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Pump Gates, integrating flood gates with pump for large flows at low head at Poglar, Indonesia.


One of the major risks of flooding occurs when the water level of a receptor waterway (a large river, or the sea) rises dramatically and begins to flood the secondary or minor waterways that normally flow into it. This produces a flowback which may cause major flooding in areas seemingly not at risk. Grundfos found a solution to this problem in the construction of large floodgates incorporating wall-mounted SRP pumps, which offer advantages of low cost and minimal space requirements, a solution we call a Pump Gate. Installations of this kind are increasingly being used in South-East Asia using the Grundfos KPL series of submersible axial-flow stormwater pumps. These are large motorised floodgates, normally open, located in the secondary channel. When the water level in the channel rises, the floodgates close, preventing counterflow of water upstream. The pumps mounted on the floodgates act to prevent the level of the watercourse in the secondary channel from rising above the water level upstream from the floodgates.


When the water level below the floodgates returns to normal levels the floodgates begin to open once more. This means that the floodgates act as a movable temporary lock with built-in pumps for alleviation. These installations have been used with great success in Spain using Grundfos SRP pumps and can also be used with axial-flow pumps, for example, which make enormous flows possible with very acceptable levels of performance and efficiency. Grundfos KPL submersible axial-flow stormwater pumps can move flows up to 42,000 m3/h at a head of almost 9m, with a hydraulic performance of nearly 86%. These pumps can be fitted with motors up to 1,000kW using a 6,600V supply ■

+ More Information Title photo: Xosema


3 4

5 6

Carrillo de Albornoz, J.; Diseño de un sistema eficiente de gestión de los caudales de tormenta, Revista Infoenviro, no. 81 (February 2013), (Design of an efficient system for managing storm run-off, Infoenviro Review,) pp. 94-100 Berga, L.; Las inundaciones en España (Flooding in Spain). La nueva Directiva Europea de inundaciones, Revista de Obras Públicas, no. 3.520 (April 2011) (The New European Flood Directive, Public Works Review), pp. 7-18 Rise, J., Design tips for flood control pumping stations; GRUNDFOS; November 2012 Various; Design of Storm Tanks. Recommendations and layout. GRUNDFOS; January 2012 Rise, J., Eriksen, M.; Designing flood pumping stations. GRUNDFOS; January 2013 Geological and Mining Institute of Spain. Consorcio de compensación de seguros; Análisis del impacto de los riesgos geológicos en España (Insurance Compensation Consortium; Analysis of the impact of geological risks in Spain) Geological and Mining Institute of Spain; 2004 | 137 |


Gordon Mi l ler / Sustai n Wo rld w i d e / Mi ni mi si ng Flo o d R i sk

Designing Homes and

Photo Credit: Gavin Lynn

Communities to Minimise the Future Risk to Flooding Gordon Miller, Co-Founder of Sustain Worldwide, a leadership organisation, proposes two ways how we, as a nation, might differently consider water. Flooding, as we have seen in swathes across the south of England, has caused mass devastation and affected the lives of thousands of people directly and indirectly. While it is of little comfort to those who have been impacted, architectural innovation has the potential to provide adaptation models for future housing.

G ord on Mi l ler Co-Founder of Sustain Worldwide

Secondly, while it is not suggested it would provide any flood solution, or lessen the future risk to flooding, the energy potential in the groundwater beneath, for example, the nation's capital city could reduce Greater London's commercial and industrial sector energy consumption for space heating and cooling by around 4%. So, to take the first point, can we think and design our homes and communities differently to minimise the future risk to flooding? Robert Barker, a director at Baca Architects, attests that the way forward is to ‘work with water’ rather than try – and fail – to keep water out. In doing so, we will develop more resilient communities rather than just create resilient buildings. In practice this means not only not building anywhere near floodplains (indeed, the Environment Agency will not support residential development on the

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floodplain) but also designing in creative solutions. Examples include large-scale projects, such as The Tidal Lagoon at Littlehampton West Bank, which is designed to relieve pressure on existing defences and properties by diverting storm water into a large inland storage lagoon before releasing it at low tide. The Dutch, who know a thing or two about reclaiming land from the sea, are unsurprisingly at the forefront of thinking and application. At Maasbommel, so-called amphibious homes (which look conventional) are built as a small scale community of 35 houses on solid ground, but they are also designed to float on flood water. Each house is made of lightweight wood, and the concrete base is hollow, which gives it a ship-like buoyancy. The structure has no conventional foundations and is moored to 6 metre posts with fastening rings. The electrical cables, water and sewerage flow through flexible pipes in the mooring piles. On an individual house basis, in Oxfordshire, Baca Architects has designed a house under construction, which is elevated above the peak flood levels on stilts. It has a sustainable drainage system alongside to soak up rainwater. In nearby Marlow, the practice has designed a house to cope with more than two metres of flood water. A more esoteric prototype is the ‘Drinking


Photo Credit: Richard Croft

Policeman’ which is a cross between a sleeping policeman (or speed bump) and a swale, to slow the traffic and the flow of water during a storm. It's combined with green roofs, green walls and a large below ground attenuation tank to create a sustainable drainage system. Such adaptive, architecturally-inspired solutions provide one way of considering water. Another is to harness its power. Dr Mike Lawrence, Lecturer in Low Carbon Design, University of Bath, has researched the energy potential in the groundwater beneath our capital city – it could reduce Greater London's commercial and industrial sector energy consumption for space heating and cooling by around 4%. Dr Lawrence said: "We can compare the potential energy of 499GWh in London's groundwater with the total energy consumption of Greater London's commercial and industrial sector of 50,157 GWh in 2009*. Thus the energy potential in London's groundwater could reduce that sector's energy consumption by around 1%. "As, on average, 25% of the commercial and industrial sector's energy consumption is devoted to space heating and cooling, so the use of the potential energy in groundwater could reduce Greater London's commercial and industrial sector energy consumption for space heating and cooling by around 4%." Groundwater is a proven energy source utilised at the Zetter Hotel, Clerkenwell, Saddler’s Wells Theatre, the Royal Festival Hall, City Hall, and Kings Place. World-class consultant engineers who have designed heating and cooling systems utilising groundwater include Arup, Buro Happold and Richard Rogers + Partners. In Milan, Italy, Studio Planning have designed systems that utilise groundwater for heating and cooling needs in what is currently the highest skyscraper in Italy, a 100,000m2 mixed-use development. Elsewhere in Milan, a 30,000m2 renovation of the former Italian Post Office

headquarters which utilises groundwater was completed in 2010. Giuseppe Medegheni, Studio Planning’s head of design, said: "London has even greater potential than Milan. The aquifer is confined over most of London by a layer of impermeable bedrock exactly like in Milan. Since the 1960s, with the steep decrease of water usage by industry, the water level has started to rise by three meters per year.” Dr Lawrence said: "The use of groundwater is a good idea despite there being a few doubters in the business community. Detractors might contend that the cost of the equipment and the borehole is too expensive; that it is not a common solution and therefore it is perceived a risk to any company; and people don't believe some of the efficiencies quoted. However, it remains a feasible solution." The effective use of groundwater to generate heat and cooling requires heat pump technology. Within the range of heat pumps on the market, Climaveneta's 4-pipe air and water source Integra models are leaders in energy performance due to their simultaneous heating and cooling capability with advanced heat recovery – freely obtained as waste heat from the chilling cycle. Mauro Montello, Sales & Marketing Director, Climaveneta, said: "Research developed in cooperation with Padua University, Faculty of Engineering, on a real building located in Milan, has revealed the energy reduction of an air source Integra system compared to a traditional chiller and boiler is 285MWh, which represents 30% of the building’s total energy consumption. "Water source Integra units, to be applied in ground source systems, provide an additional 10% energy and carbon reduction. Therefore in a traditional building as described in the Padua University study, an HVAC system based on water source Integra units would deliver an energy reduction of 40% and a CO2 emission reduction of 38%." Supporting Climaveneta's contention, in the UK, a paper written by the Department of Engineering

Photo Credit: John Chroston

Systems, London South Bank University, noted on a building by building basis, energy consumption and CO2 emissions per kWh of groundwater cooling are around a minimum of 30% less than that of a vapour (air source) compression system. The cost per kWh of groundwater cooling is 2.5-8 times less than a vapour compression system. The scientific case stands up. What about environmental concerns? Firstly, there is strict environmental legislation, administered by the Environment Agency. Secondly, the only change that is applied to the water drawn is in temperature (between 3/5°C). The amount of water pumped out changes with the building heating and cooling demand. This is only a tiny fraction of the total mass of water available underground. For that reason the temperature change applied to it is imperceptible by the bigger mass. Economically, the successful installation examples make the case despite one extraordinary cost may be the necessity to drill a borehole – cost circa £150k. However, this should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Indeed, a local borehole may already be in existence. The Environment Agency holds a database of borehole sites in the London basin. Maintenance costs are comparable, based on the system installed and not the energy source. The main barrier (the economic one aside), it appears, to wide-scale adoption in London is whether policy is supportive and environmental legislators would grant enough abstraction licences for it to have a significant impact. However, as between 1990 and 2005 approximately only 30% of abstraction licences granted were actually

+ More Information *Most recent available figures. Source DECC | 139 |


To ny Har r i ng to n / Wel sh Water / Co mmuni t y SUDs

A Community Based Approach for Surface Water Removal

To ny Har r ing ton

Director of Environment, Dŵr Cymru Welsh Water

In the previous edition, as Dŵr Cymru’s Director of Environment, I outlined how our company is different to others as we are owned for and on behalf of our customers. I also referred to how we are using innovation, science and better evidence gathering to improve the decisions we make for our customers and the environment, including how we are going to reduce the risks our assets present in terms of flooding. We know climate change is going to impact on us in a number of ways, one of which may well be to increase the risk of flooding of our customers homes. To that end one of our key priorities is adapting our activities to deal with the potential effects of climate change – particularly in relation to the way that we capture and deal with surface water so that our sewers and overflows do not adversely affect our customers and the environment. We cannot continue to expect our ageing infrastructure to drain all the foul and surface water from our growing urban areas in the face of climate change and urban creep, and despite significant investment, the amount of water entering our

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sewer network during heavy rainfall can overwhelm our network leading to pollution of water courses and flooding of our customers’ homes. We have taken the view that the problem of overloaded sewers cannot be resolved simply by building bigger sewers, storage tanks and extending our network – this would be unaffordable for our customers and would not tackle the fundamental problem of too much surface water getting into our network. We believe we are at the forefront of the industry in developing and using innovative, sustainable and cost-efficient schemes at a catchment level that will redirect and slow down the speed at which surface water enters the sewer network. We have called this approach RainScape and have committed to spending around £80m on RainScape schemes from 2015 to 2021. Putting our money where our mouth is I hope emphasizes to all our customers and stakeholders our confidence in this approach to tackle the problem at source of our overloaded sewers.


Stebonheath Primary School, Llanelli – Welsh Water’s RainScape playground. RainScape uses a range of community based techniques including Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) and Water Sensitive Urban Design. These techniques have been developed with inspiration from SuDS schemes in Malmo, Sweden and Portland USA. They include attenuation/ infiltration basins, planters, permeable paving, and swales, all of which can be used alongside more traditional solutions to segregate rainwater from foul sewage. Whilst we are leading the design process for our RainScape schemes, where possible we have worked collaboratively with Welsh Government, Natural Resources Wales and local authorities to develop a partnership approach, particularly as our schemes achieve benefits that extend beyond our own key drivers. We could not deliver this without their support and the support of the communities in which we are retrofitting this infrastructure. I would very much like to take this opportunity to thank our partners and those customers affected by what can be quite disruptive engineering works for their support and patience.

Above: An example of one of our RainScape schemes in Llanelli – Queen Mary’s Walk swale.

The benefits are far ranging and include improving the local landscape; protecting the environment; creating new habitats; helping to keep customer bills low (as these methods are often cheaper than traditional alternatives, if you cost also the benefits to reduce sewage treatment); benefits to the environment etc. These solutions also help our customers to understand the value of the work we do – after all we are owned on behalf of our customers. Our biggest scheme to date is in Llanelli, which has an average of 1049mm of rain a year and which sees almost as much storm water in its network as Swansea – despite the fact that Swansea serves three times the number of properties, and three times the area compared with Llanelli. We are spending £15m on RainScape schemes in Llanelli and Gowerton between now and 2015 and these schemes use a variety of RainScape initiatives. We are projecting that in total the Llanelli schemes will cost £40m and will involve over 70 schemes (up to 2020) – this is much more affordable and sustainable than the £600m it would have cost to build alternative traditional solutions.

One of our flagship projects is Stebonheath Primary School in Llanelli where we have spent almost £500,000 in a surface water removal scheme, which was constructed during the summer holidays in 2013 and followed design input from both the school children and the teachers. The work has transformed the primary school’s playground as it now incorporates a pond, a swale, planters, permeable paving, water butts and an outdoor educational area – features that will help absorb and redirect the surface water which currently runs straight off the playground into the sewer network. This scheme is now helping to remove 3,000m3 of water a year from the sewer network – that is equivalent to 6 million bottles of drinking water. Our scheme in Llanelli also includes a large swale in a playing field (called Queen Mary’s Walk). The project which cost £850,000 captures the water before releasing it into the sewer network. This delays the time it takes for the water to get into the network, therefore helping to prevent the network becoming overloaded and spilling into local water courses. ► | 141 |

Water RainScape will catch, redirect and slow down the speed at which rainwater enters the sewer network.

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To ny Har r i ng to n / Wel sh Water / Co mmuni t y SUDs


Stebonheath Primary School – Swale that has been constructed by Welsh Water in the playground.

We have also developed a RainScape scheme in our drinking water laboratory in Newport. Our £10.4m state of the art water testing laboratory showcases a RainScape scheme by redirecting rainwater from the 25,000sq ft roof into a series of planters designed to clean the water before discharging it into a landscaped pond for attenuation and infiltration. Other schemes have included Trelawney Avenue in Cardiff, which included installing an alternative surface water system to intercept water from the roads, redirecting it into an existing surface water network in a nearby street, and disconnecting a number of properties. This project also included installing water butts for local customers, enabling them to be part of the project and to learn about the importance of reusing water. But building new infrastructure alone is not the whole story here. In an effort to share learning and exchange best practice, we held a seminar in March 2013 featuring world renowned environmentalist, Tony Wong (Chief Executive Officer of the Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities in Melbourne). This was held jointly with the former Environment Agency, Cardiff Council and CIRIA. The high level, invite-only event was very well attended – standing room only. This was an opportunity to launch a feasibility project ‘Greener Grangetown’, which is a jointly funded project between ourselves and Cardiff Council and will look at creating a number of community focused green streets which feature ‘pocket parks’ in the Grangetown area of Cardiff. This will drastically reduce the surface water runoff from the area whilst also enhancing the aesthetic, and we hope property value of the area for our customers. The removal of this water will reduce our pumping and energy cost overheads as well as creating headroom for tens of thousands of new properties and commercial premises to support the growth of the Welsh capital.

Developing these sorts of schemes has not been easy, particularly as this is the first time that a UK water company has embarked on this type of work at this scale. Breaking down the boundaries between stakeholders can be an obstacle to progressing schemes. Due to the complex way that assets and land are owned and managed, we have had to ensure that we work closely with stakeholders and build up a good working relationship based on trust. This has taken time and effort on all sides. The legal implications are particularly complex as statutory powers do not extend to Rainscape solutions, except where they can be defined as a public sewer. In the case of Llanelli, to ensure that this process has been as straightforward as possible, we have set up a ‘facilitation group’ with Carmarthenshire County Council, which has helped us deal with the process of developing and rolling out the schemes in the most efficient and transparent manner. As Director of Environment, I couldn’t be more proud of the company’s commitment to trialling such groundbreaking initiatives at this scale. We now feel that we have the confidence, and increasingly data to support the view that this type of work makes good business sense – by helping to drive down customer bills. Also, we firmly believe that these schemes will create a huge range of other benefits for our customers. One that will help to create an environment that we are proud to hand to future generations ■

+ More Information | 143 |

Misc / Precious Metals

Do nna Si mp so n / Prec i ous Metal s / Fai r t rad e

Gold, and other precious metals, get a good airing in February and March. Valentine’s and Mother's Day provides a unique spot in the year where organisations can push products under these banners, getting exposure where they may not normally find it. But it provides more than that – it can be an opportunity to talk to consumers about the ethical issues surrounding what they are buying, and in the ever-buoyant wedding industry, it’s the perfect time of year to tell the story behind the metal millions are planning to celebrate with. ►

by Don na Si m p so n Press Officer, Fairtrade

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Workers gather at 7:00 am outside the gold mine in Santa Filomena, in the district of Sancos, province of Lucanas, department of Ayacucho, Peru. Photo: Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation | 145 |

Misc / Precious Metals

Do nna Si mp so n / Prec i ous Metal s / Fai r t rad e

After gathering at 7:00 am to attend a safety procedures meeting, miners prepare to enter the gold mine.

Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

The "pallaqueras" (women mineral sorters) work outside the mine going through the stones that have been extracted from the mine, separating the ones with gold from those without. The selection criteria are purely visual.

Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

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This year marks three years since Fairtrade decided to take on the jewellery industry: one notorious for worker exploitation, corruption and horrendous conditions. In those three years, certified gold has been joined by the first ever Fairtrade certified silver and Fairtrade certified platinum – an enormous feat to bring them all to the market helped by the commitment to greater ethical standards from a few dedicated UK jewellers. What the certification has highlighted is both the challenges faced by smallscale artisanal miners across Africa and South America, who work in a poverty-driven industry, and the opportunities there for jewellers to create a more sustainable, ethical and ultimately safer and healthier gold industry.

The First Fairtrade Gold

Fairtrade certified gold was the world’s first independent ethical certification system for gold – incredible to think considering the production methods behind the final product has been, rightly, subjected to criticism for over a century. The certification covers artisanal and small-scale miners (ASM), and means miners must meet standards on safety, worker rights and the environment. Its aim is to enable these miners to improve their livelihoods through responsible and sustainable mining practices, ensuring they receive a guaranteed Fairtrade Minimum Price, a Fairtrade premium payment, and develop long-term business relations with their commercial partners, giving them financial security and empowerment to negotiate the best deals. ASM is labour intensive work, and is relied upon by more than 100 million people world-wide. The mining methods differ depending on geology, for example whether the miners pan for gold in water or carry out hard-rock mining using dynamite and machinery to extract ore. Despite the high value of the final product here in the UK, ASM miners are characterised by high levels of poverty: the industry attracts the most economically weak and vulnerable in society, trapping them into an unfair supply chain cycle. Moreover, they are exploited daily through illegal taxing by landowners and interest rates on finance borrowed in order to extract the gold in the first place. Most mining communities lack basic sanitation, clean and safe drinking water, have poor housing, little or no access to education and healthcare and are financially unstable. In the ASM mines themselves, which produce 10-15% of global gold supplies, yet make up 90% of labour in gold extraction, working conditions are hazardous, with non-existent measures on health and safety. Toxic chemicals – mercury and cyanide – are handled without precaution every day in many of these mines, posing severe risks to miners’, and their families’, health, as well as to the surrounding environment. Amy Ross, who works as part of a wider gold team at the Fairtrade Foundation, sums up the exploitation faced each day by ASM: ‘I was in Uganda in 2013 to visit a 3-year project to improve the social, economic and environmental standards of small-scale gold miners in East Africa through Fairtrade standards. ‘During a week-long workshop with 8 mining groups from Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya, plus our partners in East Africa and internationally, I came to realise the scale of the challenge. As well as working in one of the world’s most dangerous industries, artisanal miners are subject to exploitation and marginalisation by traders and governments alike. In Busia, miners are paying an illegal tax of 60% to land-owners, on top of their government taxes. ‘Perhaps the biggest exploitation is through the traders. It isn’t just the case that miners have little money; what they do have isn’t theirs.

Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

Traders pre-finance their activities 100% - including providing the mercury which is used to extract gold from the ore, causing massive health risks and environmental hazards. After the trader has collected their gold, plus interest, ► | 147 |

The gold mine is at 2450 m of altitude and it sprawls across galleries that reach some 250 m below the ground level. This miner chews coca leaf during his break. Photo: Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

Misc / Precious Metals

Do nna Si mp so n / Prec i ous Metal s / Fai r t rad e

MACDESA's manager, Valerio Condori, shows a small gold nugget outside the company's processing plant near Cuatro Horas in the Chaparra district, province of Caraveli, department of Arequipa, PerĂş

Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

Inocenta Yaumacra Duaz is a "pallaquera".

Eduardo Martino/Fairtrade Foundation

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‘Jewellery is an iconic luxury purchase, yet the way it is normally sourced is the opposite extreme. This needs to change' - Greg Valerio, Fairtrade International gold consultant and founder of CRED Jewellery.

miners are left with barely a subsistence wage in return for risking their lives to produce one of the world’s most loved and valuable products.‘ And so Fairtrade works towards changing this historical link between mining and exploitation, marginalisation and poverty. Fairtrade now has certified mines in Bolivia and Peru, and, following the publication of new standards for Fairtrade gold and precious metals in November, opening up the market to allow more ASM to benefit, is now working with miners in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania to work towards certification. Aristarco Mosquera, of Oro Verde Cooperative in Colombia – a cooperative set up in 2000 to support small-scale artisanal mining by Afro-Colombian communities in the bio-diverse Chocó region – says the Fairtrade certification programme has injected much-needed confidence into a fight for ethical mining: ‘It has given us trust, and confidence. We need this as recognition worldwide. It makes us feel a lot stronger – not only do we have the premium but we also have our ecological premium. We are the only product that has an ecological premium, and that’s what Fairtrade helps to communicate to our customers. ‘It has stunned us – our product has a certain level of recognition and having the mark helps us to go out there and become more present in the market. We know it has also strengthened Fairtrade – it’s allowed them to get experience of certifying something in the mining sector, and take that further – now to Africa to help small-scale miners there.’ With the profound lack of protection for miners in the precious metal industry, the Fairtrade Premium has helped mines in South America invest back into their own workers and communities. Aristarco continued: ‘The first thing for us was that the environment is the human being: when the premium is used for the bettering of life conditions, that human being is capable of continuing to conserve the environment. So that’s the first thing we are using the premium for – for the wellbeing of the people. If there’s no strength in the community, there can be no conservation for the environment.

Photo: CRED Jewellery

‘We have used the premium for improving housing structure; a percentage has gone to health care; some has also gone on learning how to carry out activities with best practice. It is a vital contribution – it has also helped set up a fund so the miners themselves can buy their own gold in order to sell, and they don’t need to depend on intermediaries to subsidise in order to trade.‘ We can see clearly the difference Fairtrade is making to the lives of smallscale and artisanal miners in South America, so what are the challenges ahead? Greg Valerio, Fairtrade International gold consultant and founder of CRED Jewellery, co-founder of Fair Jewellery Action and author of ‘Making Trouble: Fighting for Fair Trade Jewellery’, says: ‘Jewellery is an iconic luxury purchase, yet the way it is normally sourced is the opposite extreme. This needs to change. ‘For me the challenge is to make it culturally unacceptable to sell an item of jewellery that is not independently certified as socially and environmentally responsible. ‘The revised Standards set out in November 2013 create a landmark opportunity for the jewellery industry to show they are willing to do the right thing by sourcing from transparent and traceable supplies of gold. More availability means more sales of Fairtrade gold for miners, helping change lives. ‘The challenge remains that only by working together will we be able to see the true value of gold, transform the livelihoods of communities that have been negatively affected by the injustices currently at work in the gold supply chain.’ ■

+ More Information | 151 |


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Joh n Dr ummo nd / How o n Ear th / Co r p o rate Cu l t u re


John Dr ummond

Chairman, How on Earth / Corporate Culture

Sustainable Behaviour Change:

How to Meet the Challenge In our Motivating Millions research into the views of leaders in sustainability, 94% agreed that behaviour change was important to help their organisation to achieve long-term success. Why? Because we all got the wake-up call from the Great Recession that focusing only on growth, profit and the short-term is too high risk and can threaten the survival of business. One of our clients captured the case for change succinctly: “The stark truth is that if we continue consuming resources at the same rate as we do now, by 2050, globally we will need three times more material resources, and 70% more food, feed and fibre. And in just the next 20 years, we will need 40% more energy and water.” (Liz Goodwin, CEO, WRAP, October 2013) Interestingly, five years on, even the financial services sector is getting it. Check out the repositioning of Lloyds Banking Group in the UK or the recent announcement that Antony Jenkins, the boss of Barclays, is to be the new Chair of Business in the Community. In December, it was even announced that Finance Directors in many leading businesses are now collaborating on sustainable business. The initiative “Accounting for Sustainability (A4S)” aims to put sustainability at the heart of business decision-making and strategy. This is breakthrough stuff. Of course not everyone will agree. In March this year (2014) we’ll pull together all the key reasons to act in a Burning Platform report. It’ll be a factual presentation of best available evidence on contextual issues and their implications for business leaders and consumers. But let’s imagine for now that the case has been made, how do we create a sustainable economy? How do we act individually and collectively in a way that achieves real change?

Three steps to sustainable success

My take, heading up a company that has been a catalyst for measurable change, is that there are three steps a company makes in re-aligning itself towards sustainable success. ► | 153 |


Joh n Dr ummo nd / How o n Ear th / Co r p o rate Cu l t u re

Step one: define the likely and the preferred future. This step helps leaders identify the major external issues that are either significant risks or opportunities for their organisation. They can then define their preferred future operating environment. Step two: define the transformation plan. These are the key actions that take your organisation toward sustainable success. It will always include refreshing your core products and services and collaborative action with others. Step three: engage employees, suppliers and consumers on sustainable behaviour change. This third step is the one that needs to move from the margins to the mainstream if we are genuinely going to create a sustainable economy. The reality is that we are at the earliest stages of implementing a transformation toward sustainable living and that the public sector has been miles ahead of the private sector in leading transformational behaviour change through the championing of the discipline known as social marketing. We found ourselves playing a key role in social marketing in support of the public sector in the first decade of this new century. We worked as the lead research, strategist and creative business in support of WRAP as they started their role to encourage resource efficiency in the UK. Ten years later and they have achieved real change. RecycleNow for example has seen the volume of recycling increase four-fold from 12.5% of all we can recycle to 43%. Food waste has been reduced saving ÂŁ13bn since 2007. And our work in health has also achieved real change. All of it of course has been done in collaboration with others. However, there are lessons in influencing real change that are applicable for any kind of sustainable living project. In the last two years we have been reviewing our own role in a movement that now has real momentum. Our experience in some of the best examples of change at scale led us to the conviction that we could genuinely act as a catalyst for the sustainable economy and share more of our expertise. The result has been the launch of the How on Earth brand in November last year. Under that banner we intend to work collaboratively with others to answer the key question: â&#x20AC;&#x153;How on earth can 10 billion people live sustainably on our shared world?â&#x20AC;? One key action we can take is to share our insight in behaviour change.

The secrets of sustainable behaviour change

Here then are six secrets of sustainable behaviour change that can motivate millions. Secret one: sustainable behaviour change is a process. You only get to the right strategies and interventions over time. If you are starting with an initiative or a solution, good luck. Your chances of success have just diminished dramatically. How on Earth have worked with Anglian Water on a revolutionary project (for the water sector) to change what people put down sinks and loos.

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Secret two: understand the context. When we were working with Anglian Water on a revolutionary project (for the water sector) to change what people


The How on Earth brand launched in November last year. Under that banner we intend to work collaboratively with others to answer the key question: “How on earth can 10 billion people live sustainably on our shared world?” One key action we can take is to share our insight in behaviour change. put down sinks and loos, we spent several weeks defining the problem and the outcome, analyzing the cause of sewer blockages, defining areas where there were repeat blockages and understanding which of the many material streams were causing the blockages. To achieve change you genuinely have to get your hands dirty. Secret three: identify priority audiences and behaviours. In the case of the Anglian Water sewer flooding project, the contextual analysis led to two clear priorities – young families putting sanitary waste down loos and food service establishments putting fats, oils and greases down sinks and loos. Secret four: base your messages on a deep understanding of motivation theory and practice. Over the years we have identified that there are 14 motivators that persuade people to act and, with the right research and insight, you can identify exactly what will persuade people to act (and it is almost never what you expect). We use something called Behaviour and Motivation Analysis (or BAM

analysis) to pin down the right motivator, audience by audience, behaviour by behaviour. Secret five: allow the insight to define your strategies and interventions. An intervention is the point in space and time where the action you seek touches the lives of the target audience. A strategy is a bigger area of action like research, communications, new products and services, infrastructural change or community engagement. The result in the Anglian Water example was a campaign called Keep It Clear with clear strategies, interventions and momentum that took people on a logical journey of change. Secret six: make it easy for individuals to act and for collaborators to pick up and act on your insights. The surprising result in this case was a reduction in sewer blockages by over 50% in the first six weeks – a trend that has now been replicated widely across much of the Anglian Water region. At its simplest, we use a method that spells out OBAMA. Objectives (changing what people think,

feel, believe and do), Behaviours, Audiences, Motivations and Actions. What you chose to do is always last. It works. So what does 2014 hold for sustainable behaviour change? It holds a challenge, especially for Chief Sustainability Officers or heads of sustainability, CSR or sustainable business – to actively engage at CEO/MD level. Our Motivating Millions research showed that they remain the dominant owners of change at scale – 38% compared to 8% for heads of sustainability or marketing. Here is an open offer. We have a network on LinkedIn called The Social Marketing Network. Feel free to check it out and sign up. We plan to build on it significantly in the course of 2014. We also plan to produce three new reports – one on the Burning Platform, one on Transformational Change and one on the latest insights on behaviour, motivation, neuroscience and social marketing. How on Earth are also sponsoring a new award on customer engagement in sustainability, run by Business in the Community as one of their Responsible Business Awards. Please consider applying if you have a suitable project or tuning into best practice as we capture leading-edge projects ■

+ More Information Tel: 0845 607 0000

RecycleNow has seen the volume of recycling increase four-fold from 12.5% of all we can recycle to 43%. Food waste has been reduced saving £13bn since 2007. | 155 |


A nd rew Do no ghue / 4 5 1 R esearc h

The EU Dreams of Renewable-Powered Datacentres with Smart-City Addresses The European Union is putting tens of millions of Euros behind new research projects to investigate the potential use of renewables to power datacentres and finding ways to use smart technologies to improve the efficiency of cities and datacentres.

A ndrew Donoghue

Senior analyst, Datacenter Technologies, 451 Research

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Some of the efficiency technologies in question are already proven, such as redirecting waste heat from datacentres into district heating systems. But others are still emerging, like scheduling datacentre workloads to coincide with the availability of renewable energy. The EU is seeking industry input into these projects to provide oversight and also to collaborate on the commercialisation of the technology and research that results. Exploring the potential synergies between datacentres and smart-cities makes sense given that both types of infrastructure are endeavouring to become smarter. The increasing use of sensors and meters, and the rise of the Internet of things – where all these monitoring devices are given an IP address – should help to accelerate this process. Where renewables fit into this picture is less clear, given that much large-scale renewable production now takes place well away from urban centres. However, smaller-scale on-site generation – through the use of fuel cells (not strictly renewable, however), wind or solar – could increase in urban areas, and it is interesting to consider how these so-called micro-grids could impact both datacentre design and operation, as well as the development of smarter cities. The wiser greybeards in the datacentre industry may be sceptical and bemused

by some of these projects, but the EU is looking into the blue skies. In some areas it has already proved surprisingly prescient.


The term 'smart-city' can be broadly defined as an attempt to integrate intelligent urban transportation, energy and communication networks. Some forecasters think the market for the variety of technologies that fall under the smartcity umbrella could be hundreds of billions or even a trillion dollars by 2020. IBM, one of the main proponents of the technology, believes the market will be worth $30-40bn in the next several years – a conservative estimate that allows for some repurposing and extrapolation of existing projects. The EU is also a believer in the smart-city concept and estimates that approximately 60% of Europeans live in cities, and urban areas are responsible for 70% of energy consumption in the region. It is backing smart-cities research as a key priority in its main R&D initiative and funding a coordinated group of smart-city research projects including six collaborative projects that will investigate the integration between smart-cities and a major user of energy – datacentres.


Part of the remit of the projects will be to understand some of the impediments to colocating datacentres close to cities and sources of renewable energy. For example, certain types of datacentres have to be close to the businesses they serve – for example, financial services – due to constraints around latency (the speed at which data can travel).


These urban datacentres could be integrated with smart-city technologies relatively easily. We are aware of a UK-based financial services datacentre operator that is selling excess energy from standby generators back to the grid, for example. However, there may be concerns about any potential impact on uptime/availability, as well as security implications. An increasing number of facilities – most notably those owned by cloud datacentre operators such as Facebook, Google and Microsoft – are also located close to sources of renewable (or just cheap) energy. However, these renewable energy sources are often in remote locations such as solar arrays, located in desert areas and offshore wind farms. Very few datacentres would currently meet the EU's criteria of being located in a city and close to a source of renewable energy. However, different mechanisms exist for purchasing renewable energy, and it may be within the scope of the projects to investigate the implications of all these approaches.


A variety of technologies and techniques can be defined as contributing to the development of smart-cities. Those most relevant to the datacentre industry include: • Energy saving and demand response, linking energy availability with traffic, temperature and transport. • Reuse of heating and cooling between buildings according to demand. • Reporting on city-wide energy, carbon and water usage employing real-time and nonreal-time data. • Feeding information on water and power availability and usage back to individuals, including their own usage based on smart meters. The EU projects in question will specifically investigate the energy-efficiency benefits (if any) of locating datacentres in, or adjacent to, smart-cities. For example, research areas include diverting waste heat from datacentres into city heating systems. There are already a number of examples of this technique in use such as IT services company,

Tieto, which built a system to allow waste heat from its datacentre in Espoo, Finland, to be redirected to local housing. The EU is also keen for projects to investigate how smart-cities and datacentres can be optimised to make better use of renewable energy. For example, using workload scheduling and management, an application can be scheduled to coincide with a peak period of renewable production. This kind of application/workload focus ties in with a number of emerging trends in the datacentre industry, including the concept of softwaredefined datacentres, and advanced datacentre infrastructure management (DCIM) tools. A number of datacentres are also investigating the potential of on-site energy generation. For example, when eBay wanted to take control of energy costs while reducing its carbon footprint, it came up with a novel design. Its datacentre is powered by biogasfed fuel-cell modules, uses no UPS (uninterruptible power supply) units on IT loads and does not use any chillers. Furthermore, a US research project backed by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Clarkson University, Advanced Micro Devices, HP and GE Global Research is investigating how to develop networks of small-distributed facilities (container-based datacentres are one example) that can be located close to distributed sources of renewables.


The datacentre-specific smart-city projects are made up of consortia including IT suppliers, energy research organisations and universities (451 is also a member of one of the consortia). Here’s an overview of these projects: DOLFIN - Data Centres Optimisation for EnergyEfficient and Environmentally Friendly Internet is investing heavily in smart-grid and smart-city technologies. The project will look to optimise datacentres to use renewable energy. The consortium plans to develop a datacentre management system that is able to manage IT as well as power and cooling systems. There will

Data Centre On-site Renewables

Local Utilities Delivered Energy


Feeding Energy


Weighting System [kWh, CO2, etc.] Weighted Demand

Net Balance

Weighted Supply

Net Zero Energy Data Centres can be achieved using the model above.

Electricity District Heating/Cooling Natural Gas Biomass Other Fuels

also be a software management layer, which will be capable of shifting virtual machines (VMs) according to policies designed to make the best use of intermittent renewable energy supplies. GENiC - Globally Optimised Energy Efficient Datacentres plans to develop software tools to improve the coordination between server cooling, server workload allocation and power supply and storage. However, datacentre uptime will also be an important consideration, and the project will include the development of fault-detection and diagnostics algorithms for datacentre performance monitoring. On-site renewable energy generation will also be investigated, because consortium partner ACCIONA has a renewable (photovoltaic, wind and biomass) micro-grid at its research facilities in Madrid and Seville, Spain. GEYSER - Green Networked Datacentres as Energy Users in Smart-city Environments plans enable the development of datacentres that are 80% powered by renewables, but use less overall energy than traditional facilities. This will be achieved by improving the integration between datacentres and smart energy grids, the consortium states. Partners such as energy and power specialist ABB have expertise in datacentre infrastructure management and in issues such as the use of direct current in datacentres to improve efficiency. GreenDataNet - The project consortium plans to develop software tools that will enable datacentre operators to optimise multiple datacentres to make use of renewable energy. The consortium describes its Remote Smart Energy Management Tool as being akin to DCIM in that it can be deployed across multiple facilities to manage the interaction between IT hardware, software and renewable energy sources. Nissan will also be investigating how its battery technology – developed for electric vehicles – could be used for energy storage. RenewIT project - Along with others in this funding call, will include the development of datacentre energy-monitoring tools with a specific focus on renewable energy. The project will also develop simulation tools to help optimize the design of new facilities to make use of renewable energy sources. Two of the partners, 451 Research and IREC, are part of the consortium of the EC CoolEmAll project, which has also developed energy-efficiencysimulation tools for datacentres. DC4Cities – The project should benefit from work already done by HP Labs in the US on matching datacentres to renewable energy. The Net Zero Datacentre project involved balancing locally supplied renewable energy and supplemental grid power with IT systems and services that are tightly managed to minimize energy consumption. The project also builds on work done by consortium partners in previous EU-funded projects – Fit4Green and All4Green – on the development of energy-efficient service-level agreements ■

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Dav i d Mole / G I S / Map p i ng

Environmental Consulting 2030: The impact of technology and how it will shape our future Dav id Mole

Business Development Director Landmark Information Group In the last ten years we have seen a significant explosion in technological advancements, both from a corporate and a consumer perspective. The impact that this has had on the way in which we do business cannot be underestimated and, for the building and construction industry, the resulting time and cost savings have dramatically changed the way in which the industry operates. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the field of environmental risk assessment. Less than 20 years ago consultants conducting site assessments would have to visit libraries and contact multiple agencies, both by post and in person, in order to request the necessary data, which could then take a number of weeks to arrive. It was often a painstaking, time consuming and inefficient task, as the consultant would have to manually compare numerous, differently scaled maps, typically using lightboxes to overlay the information and gradually build a comprehensive environmental and historical background picture for any given site. Yet technology has revolutionised the process. The advent of the computer era heralded an important step change in our ways of working, and in 1996 helped to facilitate the launch of Landmark Information Group’s Envirocheck service. This was further enhanced in 1999 by the digital scanning of more than 1.4 million historical Ordnance Survey maps, which signified one of the most monumental shifts in the mapping and data industry.

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By the year 2000, both environmental and current mapping data, as well as historical map archives, were all digitally available on CD. Suddenly environmental consultants could instantly create their own reports at the touch of a button. As the growth in internet and email usage increased, in 2002 Landmark Information Group launched its Envirocheck online ordering platform, which encompassed every single Landmark report. It was now possible for an Envirocheck historical map pack to be released and delivered in PDF form, rather than through fax orders and courier services. This further simplified the ordering process and resulted in far greater efficiencies across the industry. By 2008 the Envirocheck Analysis online mapping software was available. Envirocheck Analysis provided a quick and easy way to overlay current and historical maps and aerial photography, and was the first service to provide quick and easy comparison of historical and current land-use in a single place. It delivered dynamic map overlaying, drawing and measuring tools to help streamline the map analysis process, which meant that Phase 1 desk studies could be conducted faster than ever before. It also enabled a far more rigorous approach to be undertaken. Consultants could instantly double the level of depth and detail in their site assessments, going from analysing 10-15 map layers to almost 30 layers at the same time. Conducting the necessary environmental due diligence work is often the last piece of the jigsaw to be completed when a site is being purchased. Environmental consultants can therefore be under

some immense time pressures. However our own data shows that, at 94%, the vast majority of Envirocheck Analysis users now spend less than three hours carrying out map analysis, resulting in average time savings today of 25% when compared with historical manual analysis. When you consider that the fee for a junior environmental consultant could be, at the very minimum, around £50 an hour, the associated cost savings could be huge. Of course, legislative requirements have also had a role to play in terms of the extent to which the industry’s approach to environmental due diligence has been improved and enhanced over the years. From the publication in 2001 of the ‘BS 10175 Investigation of Potentially Contaminated Sites: Code of Practice’ guidance, to 2004’s publication of the ‘Contaminated Land Report 11 – Model Procedures for the Management of Contaminated Land’ guidance, technology and environmental best practice have gone hand in hand. The internet has had an integral role to play in terms of the growing use of technology in business and industry. Although the history of the internet began with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s, the modern internet as we know it only really came into being during the early to mid1980s. Its usage grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s to early 2000s, changing our lives both personally and professionally. In the workplace, having instant access to information opened up new avenues for sharing, reduced paperwork and eliminated many of the problems associated with distance and communication. Today, 51 million


Envirocheck's Analysis tool shows the depth and range possible in the new technologies becoming available. Access to such data is increasingly easy with the rise of mobile telecommunications.

new websites launch every year and a staggering 144 billion emails are sent every day. As all of these developments demonstrate, at Landmark we have consistently been at the cutting edge of environmental and property industry technology. In fact, one of the big themes at our Risky Business conference this year was the role of technology, which saw us drawing on our pioneering heritage in this space. Risky Business is a one day annual symposium focusing on environmental legislation and regulation affecting land and property due diligence. It is aimed at environmental consultants, civil engineers, developers, planning professionals, contractors, land and asset owners, local authorities and contaminated land professionals. With a high profile panel of expert speakers discussing a variety of hot topics, this year’s event offered an exciting launch pad for some of the future technologies that our industry might benefit from in the future. The evolution of mobile technology offers a significant case in point. Although mobile telecommunications have been available in the UK since the mid-1980s they are now ubiquitous. There are nearly 83 million mobile subscriptions in the UK, and in the first quarter of last year 49% of adults used their mobile phones for internet access, up from 39% a year previously. However, mobile telephony is not only vital for the UK’s economic competitiveness and in promoting social inclusion, but is also an essential business tool. Being able to capitalise on the potential that is inherent in today’s rapidly evolving mobile telecoms industry will become an increasingly strong driving force for businesses looking to evolve. From our own perspective, the next step for Landmark will be to enter into the mobile technology sphere, and we are currently exploring how mobile devices can be used for site investigations. We predict that very soon mobile internet usage will overtake desktop usage, and it’s essential that

we are on the front foot and able to respond to the needs of the industry. In 2014, 81% of mobile users will have a smartphone and the global mobile market will grow from $3.4bn in 2010, to an astonishing $22bn by the end of the year. Furthermore, by 2017 wireless data is predicted to rise by 300%, led primarily by video streaming rather than apps. This will have a major impact on the way in which we operate. Typically a desk based environmental assessment will be followed by a site walkover, in which the environmental consultant physically reviews the site and examines the findings from the Phase 1 report in greater detail. This involves vast amounts of manual note-taking, site measurement, photography and audio notes. Once all of this information is captured, additional processes are still required back at the office, whereby consultants are required to match photos to site coordinates and type up their site notes. The introduction of mobile technology will streamline this process and remove the duplication of work involved in capturing data at site and then typing a report in the office. Information captured on site will be exported directly into the site assessment report, and GPS will negate the need to manually match photos to coordinates. This is all incredibly exciting for the industry, but really it’s only the tip of the technology iceberg. Looking ahead, there is the prospect of even deeper and richer technology beyond mobile. Augmented reality, for example, provides a digitally enhanced view of the world in real time, offering the ability to overlay sets of information with other sets of information to complete a fuller picture of one’s surroundings. Its development opens up so many more avenues for technological advancement, even down to the potential for a virtual expert to be made available to accompany junior staff on site investigations. If an experienced colleague based in the office can see what a junior is seeing, and share their experience as the junior colleague physically

does the site walk over, the time and cost savings can only be expected to increase exponentially. Other technologies are also emerging that will help construction projects in the future. We’re increasingly seeing the use of video to improve the efficiency of work completed in the field. The way that video imagery is captured is also changing. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be increasingly common, providing up-to-date, real-time information that will allow environmental consultants to remotely survey locations and thereby save even more time. Indeed, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announced in December 2013 that it had approved six sites for testing UAVs for commercial use. There is also the possibility of using nano satellites to capture and provide high definition images for commercial use. The technological advancements our industry has seen over the last 100 years have been unprecedented. For the building and construction industry, the ability to enhance and streamline the environmental risk assessment process has been significant, not least in terms of responding to the growing raft of environmental legislation, but also the ongoing time and cost savings that can be derived from the way in which improved technology can enable new and innovative working practices. However, technology never stands still. If the industry is to remain productive and financially viable we need to ensure that we continue to adapt in tandem with the times and embrace the opportunities that technology presents us with in the future ■

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Case Studies

Case study Biomass heats up luxury holiday homes An award-winning holiday retreat on the Scottish Borders is seeing the �inancial and carbon saving bene�its of biomass, thanks to a district heating system from Euroheat, and the commercial Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).

Eildon Cottages, in Melrose, is a holiday destination comprising a converted 18th century farmhouse, with six newly built self-catering cottages. Prior to biomass, the farm and holiday cottages were heated by two kerosene boilers.

Simon Holden, co-founder of Euroheat, explained: "Apart from the carbon saving bene�its of switching to biomass, what's really attractive is its money saving credentials. At Eildon, 20 tonnes of pellets a year are required to fuel the system, at a cost of £3,600, less than half the cost of Kerosene. The savings do not end there: thanks to the Renewable Heat Incentive, Eildon receives an annual payment of £7,367, more than covering the pellets. When combined with money saved on the previous fuel, biomass delivers a return of £11,067." The biomass heating system, installed by GreenHeat Renewables, consists of a single 65kW HDG Compact pellet boiler and accumulator. The HDG Compact is designed to burn pellets or wood chips, with optimised combustion technology, which results in high ef�iciency and low fuel consumption. An advanced thermostat controls the boiler temperature, ensuring only the required amount of heat is produced. Pellets are transported to the combustion chamber and automatically ignited, with self-activated cleaning and a large ash container, meaning minimal input from end users.

Pellets were chosen due to the limited space available to install the hopper and restricted access for delivery. They are more expensive compared with logs or chip but offer additional bene�its to end-users, such as taking up less space, a key requirement at Eildon, and creating less waste. Helping to ensure their low carbon credentials, pellets are now easily available from British-based manufacturers throughout the country.

The boiler and hopper are built into an existing outhouse. Internal pipework transfers the heated water to all six-holiday cottages and an underground REHAU Rauthermex pre-insulated pipe then transfers heat to a heat exchanger in the main farm house. This separates the farmhouse from the holiday cottages hydraulically, so, if maintenance work on the distribution system is required on one building, it does not affect the heating in the others. Each individual property has its own standard central heating controls. | 160 |

Contact For more information: Euroheat delivers HETAS approved training courses from its exhibition centre in Bishops Frome near Worcestershire. For more information, visit:

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Case study Emergency response to Tidal Surge Specialist plant hirer Land & Water were contacted by A-Plant and the Environment Agency around midday on Thursday 12th December immediately after the �irst big tidal surge of the winter with an urgent request to supply a very specialist machine to repair �lood defences that had been damaged during the recent storm. Failure to repair the defences could have resulted in a signi�icant risk of �looding in and around Walberswick in Suffolk.

Due to the challenging environment where the �lood defences were damaged the only equipment that could be used to make the repair was an amphibious excavator which could travel over the very soft and �looded local terrain to repair the breached sea wall.

Land & Water's amphibious machine was working on another customer's site at the time of the enquiry and careful discussions were had with the other client who, appreciating the risk to people’s houses, agreed to allow Land & Water to have the machine for the weekend to assist at Walberswick. Wheels were immediately set in motion (quite literally) with the Environment Agency arranging their own emergency crew and associated equipment whilst Land & Water had to collect the Machine on Friday afternoon (the very next day). It then travelled overnight to Walberswick to allow it to be unloaded by 08:00 on Saturday morning. To ensure the works were completed on time, Land & Water supplied both day and night shift operators who at very short notice cancelled all other plans for the weekend. This enabled the machine to work 24 hours a day until late on Sunday when the works were complete. The excavator was quickly cleaned off and loaded back onto overnight transport to be back on the original customer's site for 08:00 on Monday Morning – almost as if it had never been away!

Richard Houghton, Operations Manager at the Environment Agency said: "These �lood defences could not have been repaired without this specialist plant and the Land & Water team behind it. We were impressed with the immediate response we received from them – especially at the point of enquiry – where by thinking outside the box (instead of saying the machine wasn’t available) they found a way to make the machine available. With a fantastic team effort between the Land & Water team and my own team, the job was completed safely, quickly and in a way that was extremely sensitive to the natural environment around us.

For more information | 161 |

Case Studies

Case study Fuel Cell Systems' off-grid power for CCTV Remote off-grid power for CCTV surveillance cameras provides road network security. Introduction

Around 4,300 miles of motorways and trunk roads make up the strategic road network in England. It’s important that key parts of this network are constantly monitored to prevent disruption to the �low of traf�ic that can be caused by bad weather, accidents and breakdowns. Strategically placed CCTV surveillance equipment provides real-time information to Regional Control Centres (RCC) throughout the UK, alerting agencies to trouble spots. Audio and video surveillance has become commonplace because it’s a cost-effective way of protecting assets and people. However, one of the problems that security experts face in deploying stationary or portable CCTV in remote locations is that there is often no access to grid electricity. Having considered all other options, Simulation Systems (SSL) chose a fuel cell as the best solution for maintaining CCTV coverage in areas remote from accessible mains power supplies. SSL asked UPS Systems – and its subsidiary company Fuel Cell Systems (FCS) – to supply a fuel cell solution to ensure its CCTV remained constantly operational.

The requirement

With heightened security measures in place during last year’s Olympic Games, Simulation Systems was asked to provide several off-grid CCTV cameras along strategic road networks and bridges in the UK to help deter potential terrorist threats. A busy junction along the M6 motorway in the West Midlands with over 500 concrete columns supporting several slipways, �lyovers and sections of motorway required monitoring. Located on several supporting pillars beneath �lyovers, the CCTV cameras were unable to use solar PV panels to keep the battery supply topped up due to a lack of direct sunlight. Intermittent wind meant that micro-wind turbines would also prove ineffective. Connection to the grid was prohibitively expensive with costs of £55,000 to £70,000 being quoted. Furthermore, this option came with serious timescale implications as connection could take up to two years.

The solution

UPS Systems and FCS provided an EFOY Pro 2200 fuel cell, which essentially acted as a self-contained battery charger for a single 12-volt battery. It was used to provide power for the CCTV cameras, 3G interface and IT routers. Two 28-litre containers of methanol were also supplied to power the fuel cell. The fuel cell is designed to automatically start up and re-charge the battery to its optimum �loating voltage of 12.5 volts, ensuring it is always kept at full capacity. REMO Live is a diagnostic aid for standby power equipment developed in-house by experts at UPS Systems. With access through a secure web-based platform, REMO Live allows the condition of the battery to be remotely monitored along with temperature and methanol fuel levels.

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Case study (cont) Fuel Cell Systems' off-grid power for CCTV The benefits

The compact and virtually silent-running fuel cell was supplied with its own self-contained methanol fuel supply, allowing the system to be left for well over 10 weeks before replacement fuel was required. This signi�icantly reduced the number of costly �ield maintenance visits required to replace discharged batteries. The CCTV cameras remained in constant operation and provided continuous surveillance for one of the UK’s busiest road junctions. Fuel cells are virtually emission-free and are compact enough to �it easily inside standard sized weatherproof cabinets. With few moving parts, fuel cells require little maintenance. This makes them a more ef�icient and reliable power source with lower lifetime costs than traditional generators. As an alternative to batteries and traditional generators, fuel cell power can provide a reliable off-grid supply for security applications for weeks on end. Fuel cells also offer a much better solution than traditional generators, especially where there is a need for covert installations for undercover surveillance. Fuel cells will produce power 24/7 regardless of the weather conditions (unlike some renewable energy alternatives). This makes them viable for off-grid CCTV surveillance and security applications, as well as standby power. As long as there is an ample supply of fuel, the fuel cells will supply power for as long as it is needed.

Contact For more information about the use of fuel cells for off-grid power for CCTV surveillance equipment, contact | 163 |

Case Studies

Case study Derby Midland Station, Retro�it Tree Pits Derby City Council laid out a plan to modernize the entrance and improve facilities at the Midland Station, a major hub for the Midland Main Line. In addition to other improvements, they wanted to both grow large trees and attenuate water on site. The site had a limited drainage system that served the area poorly and was easily overwhelmed by storms, causing water to escape and �low over the footway and into the highway drainage systems, presenting serious issues for pedestrian and vehicular traf�ic. The design team elected to create a new bus interchange at the main frontage of the station that included a traf�ic island on which 5 Silver Birch trees were planted. Below the ground, the traf�ic island was �illed with a two-layer deep tree pit (soil cell) system that serves as a storage zone for runoff from the station’s roof and surrounding area (see �igure 1). This new drainage system combines existing �lows and runoff to provide attenuation for all proposed storm events while also supplying a regular, natural irrigation supply to the new planting areas on the traf�ic island. Each tree receives 10m3 of soil; the system helps capture water from a 4,000m2 catchment area.

How it works

The site’s existing gullies, pipework and silt-trap/interceptor were decommissioned and a new carrier drain and channel was installed. The new carrier drain is 225mm in diameter, approximately 100m in length, and collects surface water runoff from an impermeable area of approximately 0.22Ha. At its lower end, the carrier drain enters a chamber with a �low control and 500mm silt trap sump just inside the planting area. The ongoing �low is restricted by means of a 100mm pipe that results in a build-up of water within the chamber. A 225mm diameter high-level outlet allows dissipation of the �lows into a slotted pipe, and from here into a dedicated �ilter zone. From there the �lows pass into the two-level soil storage area provided by the tree pit (soil cell) system. A back�ill of angular stone lines the perimeter of the tree pit (soil cell) system, allowing water to pass through the soil and stone to reach a 150mm perforated pipe that provides a controlled outlet from the storage into the existing system where it joins roof runoff from the existing station building.

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Case study Knauf Insulation’s Changing Rooms London based housing association, Guinness South – part of The Guinness Partnership – embarked on an ambitious energy refurbishment program across 80 of its Victorian street properties to improve the thermal performance.

As one of the largest affordable housing and care providers in the country, Guinness South looked to upgrade its tenants’ kitchens and bathrooms on the Mortlake Estate in West London to provide them with modern facilities and warmer homes.

Rolston Dennis, Planned Maintenance Surveyor for Guinness South said: “Although our initial plan was to install new bathroom suites and kitchen units, we recognised the need to upgrade the energy performance overall and thought this was a perfect opportunity to take advantage of reducing our residents’ energy consumption across the board. We needed to ensure that the suppliers we used to upgrade the thermal ef�iciencies of our housing stock would be technically robust enough to support the project. Therefore it was a last minute risk-managed decision by the principal main contractor to bring Knauf Insulation on board as a supplier that would be able to deliver and supply. There were also more practical considerations when it came to choosing the right system as with all our properties occupied by tenants we had to explore a range of insulation systems to �ind one that would minimise disturbance for residents. Knauf Insulation’s system was perfect for this project as it is simple to install and could be �itted on a room-by-room basis. Furthermore, it is very �lexible and has allowed for plumbing, heating, electrical and carpentry contractors to work around each other. As all contractors have been able to coordinate with one another on the project, it has meant that the works carried out have not affected our residents’ well-being and living space – a very important aspect for us.” The simplicity of the ThermoShell IWI system allows a competent tradesman to become an approved installer, and to install and �inish the system using a traditional plaster skim �inish or dry lining techniques. The use of thermally engineered insulated studs (EcoStud) eliminates the thermal bridging issue associated with traditional systems incorporating timber and metal studs. The extruded polystyrene content (XPS) of EcoStuds provide a high level of thermal and moisture resistance, as well as offering a high level of compressive strength. The system incorporates Earthwool® EcoBatts, high performance, water repellent glass mineral wool slabs, that are friction �itted between the EcoStuds to completely �ill the available space and deliver bene�its over other systems that use rigid insulation boards, which have the potential to cause air leakage if they are not cut and installed accurately. Overall, the ThermoShell IWI system is almost 13% more thermally ef�icient than a timber stud system of the same thickness.

Contact For more information please visit | 165 |

Case Studies

Case study Hybrid Energy Harvesting System The Minus 7 hybrid energy harvesting system, that provides economical, all year round heating and hot water, has recently been switched on at a new housing development in Norfolk. Local property developer David Lomax completed the renovation of an 1897-built Victorian school building, creating eight, two-bedroom apartments and is delighted with the results. How The Minus 7 System Works

The Minus 7 hybrid energy harvesting system is made up of an endothermic roo�ing system, a solar energy processor and a large thermal store. The system uses endothermic tile planks with bubble and �lipper seals to form a weather-tight interlocking roo�ing system. The tiles are made from a uniform pro�ile, aluminium extrusion, dressed in a powder-coated, hardwearing �inish. The endothermic tile planks are �looded with a heat transfer �luid which absorbs both ambient heat energy and solar thermal energy. It is classi�ied as a solar-assisted heat pump technology within the National Calculation Method (Standard Assessment Procedure). The identi�ier for this product is: Minus 7 SEP3G10 1/2/3.

An Inexpensive Form of Heating

“When I saw the Minus 7 system at the 2013 Eco-Build show I liked the idea of an inexpensive form of heating. The bene�it of this for a house builder, or landlord such as myself, is that I can charge a higher rate of rent for my properties, but include heating and hot water within the costs to the tenants. My running costs are greatly reduced but the tenants bene�it from set rates and increased levels of comfort. Minus 7 estimate an average weekly cost of £7.00 per week, per apartment, and I’m pleased with that costing”, says Lomax. The tenants moved into the apartments in February 2014. Lomax categorises his development as something similar to a ‘condensed housing estate’.

Capital Expenditure and RHI Payments

“The outlay for the Minus 7 systems including install by the company was £80,000. It’s a large investment but the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) scheme really swayed me to go down that route. Over 20 years the RHI will pay out £100,000 and I’m very happy that this means that the system will pay for itself, which made the decision to use it more simple.”

“When energy savings and the bene�its to the tenants are factored in the payback period is effectively reduced to 12-15 years, as running the Minus 7 system is around 50%-60% cheaper than using a gas boiler”, explains Mark Wozencroft, Managing Director of Minus 7. “The development is now, to an extent, future-proofed against the rising costs of fuel bills. The purpose of the RHI is to support the developer’s capital expenditure on renewable energy systems and make it cost effective to use renewable systems”, says Wozencroft.

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Case study (cont) Hybrid Energy Harvesting System Mini District Heating System

The property has 100m2 of active Minus 7 endothermic tile planks, plus a 20m2 solar fence that is used to top up the system’s solar and endothermic harvesting capacity in extreme weather conditions. “We are effectively running two mini district heating systems; each �loor has a 9kW solar energy processor designated to it together with a 4.5m3 thermal store. The whole development is serviced by a single 3m3 cold store. Each system delivers up to 200kWh/day”, says Wozencroft. The single apartments no longer require conventional gas boilers and the mains gas has been disconnected, reducing maintenance and service charges. The heat from the thermal stores is fed to the building through insulated pipes running underground. As it enters the building it is split into two rings: one for the ground �loor and one for the �irst �loor. Each apartment is �itted with a heat transfer unit (HTU) that extracts heat from the thermal ring main and distributes it through the under�loor heating circuits. The HTU also has a hot water generator. Incoming water, usually at an average temperature of 10°C from the mains, passes through a UV sterilizer, then through a preheat heat exchanger heating it to around 30°C before it passes through an inline immersion heater which heats it to between 40°C-45°C (settable).

“We have sized the system to cope with the very worst times of the middle of the night and the middle of winter, which will enable the system to perform in really cold conditions”, says Wozencroft. “The system provides affordable and sustainable heat with low whole-life cost bene�its and low maintenance costs”, says Wozencroft. “This project demonstrates that renewable energy systems, that can reduce the environmental impact of heating and hot water provision, are economically viable.”

“We developed the Minus 7 system as we wanted to create a visually Contact pleasing renewable energy system for developers that was highly ef�icient For more information please visit and provided low cost heat and hot water for end users. The system is perfect for new developments especially where several dwellings are located in proximity as using the system to service up to four properties at once increases the cost effectiveness for developers.” | 167 |

Case Studies

Case study Food Waste into Energy and Revenue SEaB Energy helps the hospitality and leisure industry turn food waste into energy and revenue.

In November of last year the government-sponsored Waste Resources Action Programme (WRAP) announced that the hospitality industry faces an annual bill in excess of £2.5bn for food waste and warned that this could top £3bn by 2016 unless action is taken. This equates to almost 1.3bn meals wasted annually with an average cost to each outlet of £10,000 each year. The report, one of the most comprehensive produced yet, revealed that 920,000 tonnes of food is wasted each year, with only 46% currently being recycled, sent for Anaerobic Digestion or composted, with an estimated the cost to the industry of £2,800 per tonne. Whilst much can be done to address unavoidable food waste, the catering, hotel and leisure industry is now looking for radical solutions to help address the problem by turning their waste mountain into a valuable income stream. The good news is that there are viable solutions commercially available that will turn this green waste – including grass cuttings from hotel gardens and golf courses – into energy which can then be used on-site or sold back to the grid, thereby creating positive income streams and eliminating waste disposal costs.

Best Western Hotel and the University of Southampton Science Park

One such solution, which has been successfully in operation for 18 months, is employed at the Best Western Chilworth Manor Hotel, a Victorian manor house hotel located in 12 acres on the University of Southampton Science Park (USSP). The hotel comprises 95 bedrooms, a health club and 11 conference meeting rooms suf�icient to cater for up to 160 delegates, whilst the Science Park supports a wide range of organisations in 400,000 square feet of mixed single- and multi-tenant buildings with over 900 individuals employed across 75 organisations. USSP is positioning the Science Park as an exemplar site of cleantech and low carbon technologies and, by partnering with innovative tenants to demonstrate leading edge technologies, will enable it to become a leading regional cleantech cluster.

In May 2012, USSP, having installed energy ef�icient climate control systems in the form of air source heat pumps and heat recovery mechanisms in both new and refurbished buildings, it entered into an Electricity Service Company (ESCo) relationship with SEaB Energy to deploy the company’s innovative, and multi-award winning, Flexibuster™ on-site containerised micro power plant. In a collaborative approach, undertaken between the hotel and USSP, an average of 500kg of kitchen food waste, cooking oil and spent alcoholic drinks are being collected and, together with waste from the grounds, are | 168 |

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Case study (cont) Food Waste into Energy and Revenue processed each day through the Flexibuster™. As a result, the hotel and USSP are now able to take advantage of the energy harvesting potential of food and organic waste produced on the site, which previously had been an untapped resource, whilst at the same time eliminating costs associated with the collection and disposal of their green wastes. Steve Axton, Maintenance Manager, Best Western Hotel Chilworth Manor, couldn’t be more delighted. “SEaB Energy’s Flexibuster™ has been a revelation in the way we now manage our food waste. It ticks all our important recycling and sustainability boxes as well as health, safety and cleanliness”, commented Steve.

Electricity and heat generated from the biogas production is used within the Science Park of�ices and research and development laboratories whilst the liquid digestate is being used as a nutrient-rich fertiliser at a local tur�ing and landscaping company. The 8kW combined heat and power unit (CHP) produces an average of 105 m3/day of biogas based on the estimated annual feedstock which in turn provides approximately 57MW of electricity per annum. Through the generation of energy and the elimination of waste disposal costs, the unit produces net revenues of around £20,000 per annum whilst achieving a payback of just 5 years.

Contact For more information please visit | 169 |

Misc / Environmental Prosecutions Poaching

Hucknall, Nottinghamshire

Nottinghamshire man given £467 penalty for illegal fishing

James Greaves, of Hucknall, Nottinghamshire, has pleaded guilty at Doncaster Magistrates Court to one charge relating to illegal fishing at Bank End Fishery near Doncaster. He was fined £100 and ordered to pay £347 in costs, along with a £20 victim surcharge. On 25 May 2013 Mr Greaves was approached by an Environment Agency Enforcement Officer while fishing at Bank End Fishery and admitted to not having a rod license. In court Mr Greaves pleaded not guilty and claimed he did not know he needed a license to fish. The court advised that this was not an acceptable defense and he subsequently changed his plea to guilty.

Waste Disposal

Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland

Firm and two men face £248,000 bill over illegal waste operations

Environmental Prosecutions Waste Disposal

Leominster, Herefordshire

Leominster man sentenced for illegal waste disposal

Martin Pugh of Leominster, has been sentenced at Worcester Crown Court under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 to one charge relating to the illegal disposal of waste. He pleaded guilty at an earlier hearing. In sentencing, the judge felt the offence was one of a very serious nature with a number of aggravating features. Whilst acknowledging Mr Pugh’s guilty plea, the judge sentenced Mr Pugh to a four month custodial sentence suspended for two years, a community order for 250 hours of unpaid work for twelve months and full award of the prosecution costs of £11,922.09 with a confiscation order of £17,500 to be paid within six months. Failure to pay the due sums would lead to a ten month custodial sentence. Reports carried out by the Environment Agency in partnership with Hereford Community Protection Team alleged that Mr Pugh had been collecting commercial controlled waste through his business, The Cheap Skip Company, and disposing of this waste on site by burning and burying.

Waste Disposal

Walburton, West Sussex

Walburton man given suspended prison sentence and curfew order for running an illegal waste site

A West Sussex man has been prosecuted for running an open illegal landfill site at his premises in Walberton following numerous warnings about his unlawful activities. The prosecution was brought as part of Operation Mosaic, a multi-agency initiative that includes the Environment Agency, the police, local authorities and environmental organisations, which is cracking down on waste crime in the Chichester district and across the Solent. Mr Gary Boucher, who ran the illegal business at Cherry Tree Nursery, Eastergate Lane, Walburton, West Sussex, appeared before Worthing Magistrates Court. He pleaded guilty to 11 offences and was given an eight month prison sentence, suspended for two years. In addition he was given a curfew order to remain indoors between 7pm and 7am to last for 3 months and ordered to pay costs of £800. Mr Boucher was served with a Stop Notice in May 2013, which was the first of its kind to be used in England. The notice required him to cease all waste activity and also to stop burning waste on site, because of the threat of significant harm to human health and the environment. Despite this, the Notice was not complied with as further inspections from Environment Agency officers found further clear evidence of the dumping and burning of waste at the site. When questioned Mr Boucher continued to deny any responsibility. | 170 |

A waste management business and two men in Berwick-upon-Tweed have been ordered to pay a total of £248,000 after being convicted of waste crime offences. Frank Flannigan Junior, 45, of Mansfield Road, Tweedmouth was sentenced at Newcastle Crown Court in relation to the operations of his company DepotHire Ltd. His father Frances Clavering Flannigan, 78, of Etal Road, Berwick-uponTweed, was also sentenced for waste offences during 2008 and 2009. As part of the skip hire business, waste was being stored and sorted at two locations where the legal permits were not in place for such. Frank Flannigan Junior and DepotHire Ltd were also convicted of depositing mixed waste at a farm near Berwick-Upon-Tweed between January 2008 and January 2009. Frank Flannigan Junior, the director of DepotHire Ltd, was fined £12,000 for three waste crime offences. He was also ordered to pay £10,000 costs, and he was ordered to surrender £50,000 in profits under the Proceeds of Crime Act. The court gave him six months to pay, backed up with a jail term of 18 months should he default. The company, DepotHire Ltd, was fined a total of £36,000 for three similar offences. It was also ordered to pay £80,000 in costs, and £50,000 in proceeds of crime. Francis Clavering Flannigan, who used to own the company before he sold it to his son, was handed a 12-month conditional discharge for one offence with an order to pay £10,000 in costs.

Waste Disposal

Goole / Leeds

Brothers handed suspended jail terms for illegal waste operations

Two brothers who ran a Leeds-based recycling company have been handed suspended jail terms for running unauthorised waste operations in the Yorkshire area. Jamie Michael Todd, 33, of America Moor Lane, Morley, and Thomas Todd, 24, of Littlemoor Gardens, Pudsey, must also carry out unpaid work after they each admitted nine waste management offences. The brothers were on 28 January at Leeds Crown Court after an Environment Agency investigation revealed that their company, Leeds Paper Recycling Ltd, was storing waste at two sites without the required environmental permits. Jamie Todd was given a six-month jail term, suspended for 18 months, and ordered to carry out 180 hours of unpaid work; Thomas Todd was handed a four-and-a-half-month jail term, suspended for 18 months, with an order for him to carry out 140 hours of unpaid work. Their illegal operations were discovered in January 2012, when investigating officers found the firm storing waste at the Knostrop Depot industrial park in Old Mill Lane, Hunslet, without legal permission. Leeds Paper Recycling was served with a legal notice requiring that it remove the waste, but the pile continued to grow to an estimated 11,500 bales onsite, attracting thousands of flies and a strong smell. Further investigations revealed that Leeds Paper Recycling was also storing waste illegally at Goole Docks. Here there were an estimated 4,000 bales of waste, containing paper, plastic carpet, metal, wood, drinks bottles containing liquid, and general waste. A liquid run-off from the waste was visible, and there were a lot of flies on the waste. Some bales were ripped or torn, and two had fallen onto the ground. Responsibility for the removal of the waste at Knostrop fell to the landowner, the Canal & River Trust, which subsequently spent £1.4m cleaning up the site, paying for pest control and the removal of 755 loads of waste.

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Waste Disposal

Upton Warren, Worcestershire

£20,000 penalty for illegal burial of waste in Bromsgrove

Terry Jacobs of Redditch and Colin Parsons of Kidderminster have pleaded guilty at Redditch Magistrates Court to one charge each relating to the illegal burial of waste in Upton Warren, Bromsgrove. Parsons, aged 69, was fined £4,000, and ordered to pay £6,000 in costs, with a £15 victim surcharge, for operating a waste facility without an environmental permit. Jacobs, 44, who knowingly permitted the operation of a regulated facility without an environmental permit, was fined £4,000 and ordered to pay £6,000 in costs, with a £15 victim surcharge. Following a call from the public regarding a large scale landfill in July 2011, the Environment Agency investigated the site at West Lodge Farm, Swan Lane, Upton Warren. The site, which lies in a rural area surrounded by agricultural land and buildings, held no authorisations for waste management activities. Terry Jacobs owned the land and had received payment to allow the burial of waste at the site between 1 July and 2 October 2011. During this period, Colin Parsons hired excavating equipment and a wagon to transport waste to the field.

Waste Disposal

Redditch, Worcestershire

Redditch recycling firm fined £100,000 for worker’s death

A Redditch recycling company has been sentenced for safety failings after a worker was killed by a bale of waste weighing more than a tonne. Kenneth Swaby, 43, from Canvey Island, Essex, was struck by the falling bale as he walked past a stack of them, some five metres high, at R&S Recycling Ltd in Beoley. Three of the bales toppled over and one landed directly on top of him, killing him instantly. An investigation by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) established that R&S Recycling failed to properly control the risks to employees working at the site, particularly with regard to the proper storage and safe stacking of waste materials. On this occasion HSE found that the stacks of bales were uneven and too high, with no measures in place to prevent employees approaching them on foot. R&S Recycling Ltd, of Bransons Cross Farm, Beoley, Redditch was fined £100,000 and ordered to pay costs of £57,927 after pleading guilty to a single breach of the Work at Height Regulations 2005.

Oldbury, West Midlands

Tough penalties for illegal waste activities

Ranbir Singh, Reginald Baldwin and Langley Skip Hire (Midlands) Ltd were sentenced at Wolverhampton Crown Court in relation to illegal waste activities in Oldbury, West Midlands. The defendants pleaded guilty at earlier court hearings. A further defendant, Balwant Singh Baghria, is due to be sentenced following consideration of medical evidence. Ranbir Singh, also known as ‘Nick Singh’, aged 41 of Goode Close, Oldbury was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment and disqualified from being a director of a company for 7 years. Reginald Baldwin, aged 71 of North Drive, Sutton Coldfield was sentenced to 6 months imprisonment, suspended for 2 years and disqualified from being a director of a company for 7 years. In addition he was ordered to carry out 200 hours unpaid work in the community. Langley Skip Hire (Midlands) Ltd was fined a total of £100,000. A timetable has also been set in relation to confiscation proceedings under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 in relation to the financial gain made by Ranbir Singh, Balwant Singh Bagrhia and Langley Skip Hire (Midlands) Ltd throughout the offending period. Operating and disposal costs alone are calculated to be in the region of £230,000. Confiscation will be dealt with at a future Court hearing.

Waste Disposal

Health & Safety

West Hanningfield, Essex

Fine after illegal waste sites investigated by the Environment Agency

The tenant of three consecutive illegal waste sites was fined a total of £6,000 and ordered to pay a contribution of £2,000 towards Environment Agency costs by Chelmsford Magistrates Court on 28 January 2014. Trading as ABS Skips and a registered waste carrier, Michael Garry Bowers failed to take appropriate measures to prevent his staff from running an illegal waste site from three separate sites at Temple Farm Industrial Estate in West Hanningfield. Investigations led to a yard full of waste in skips, on the ground, and burning in a metal cage after reports of burning in Ship Road in September 2012. They sent a letter asking for confirmation of when the site was cleared. A month later, an illegal waste site was still being run at Unit 2 of the industrial estate and there were more skips than before, plus more than 20 vehicles, two crates of tiles, metals, tyres and a lead acid battery. Bowers was contacted by letter and asked to stop the activities and to clear the site over the next two weeks. In March 2013 a report of burning led officers to another yard, Temple Firs, where they could see through locked gates that waste was being stored in skips and on the ground. Bowers failed to clear the site in 14 days as previously agreed via email to the Environment Agency who, after formal interview visited a third site, Unit 10, which was being run illegally as a waste site. Most of the site had been cleared before the end of the month. Bowers had already been advised in May 2012 that he would need to obtain an environmental permit for the storage and treatment of waste and had previously been sent a warning letter.

Waste Disposal

Mansfield / Sheffield

Custodial sentence and £330,000 penalty for illegal waste operations

Christopher Theaker of High Oakham Drive, Mansfield, has been sentenced at Sheffield Crown Court to four charges relating to the operation of illegal wood waste facilities in Mansfield and Sheffield without an environmental permit. He pleaded guilty at an earlier Court hearing. The 49-year-old was given a 9-month custodial sentence, ordered to pay £250,000 in confiscation under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002, ordered to pay £80,000 in investigation costs, with a £120 victim surcharge. Between June 2010 and October 2011, Christopher Theaker operated four separate commercial wood waste sites across Sheffield and Mansfield, trading under the company name Theaker Recycling Limited. The sites were at Sheepbridge Lane in Mansfield, Effingham Road and Claywheels Lane in Sheffield and Station Road in Ecclesfield. There were no environmental permits in force at any of the sites that authorised wood storage and wood chipping activities that were being carried out. Exemptions that had been registered to allow certain waste activities to take place were breached. Following warnings, the Environment Agency revoked the exemption and activities ceased shortly afterwards.

Waste Disposal

Bugle, Cornwall

Family ordered to pay back profits from illegal waste site

Eight members of a family from Cornwall have been ordered to repay £365,275 made from an illegal waste operation run from a former smallholding near St Austell. The Buckland family was also ordered to pay a total of £91,934 in fines and costs at a sentencing hearing at Truro Crown Court. Several thousand tonnes of waste were dumped at Rocks Farm, Bugle between 2003 and 2011where it was illegally sorted, burnt, recycled or tipped by the Buckland’s large extended family. The waste was being stored and disposed of within a County Wildlife Site. Additionally, sewage effluent was being discharged to groundwater from septic tanks that served a caravan site at Rocks Farm. Shirley Buckland, Leeroy Buckland, Jason Buckland, Paul Crocker, Shane Buckland, James Crocker, Karl Buckland and Roseanne Buckland had earlier pleaded guilty to waste offences involving the storage, disposal and or recycling of waste at Rocks Farm without a permit. Shirley Buckland also admitted an offence under the Environmental Permitting Regulations 2010 of causing a groundwater discharge of sewage effluent. The largest fine of £12,000 was imposed on Shirley Buckland who was also ordered to pay the highest Proceeds of Crime penalty of £175,000. Leeroy Buckland was ordered to pay back £117,000 from profits made from the family’s illegal waste business. Roseanne Buckland received a conditional discharge and nominal confiscation order of £100. She was also ordered to pay £500 costs. The other defendants were ordered to pay fines varying between £400 - £1,000 and Proceeds of Crime penalties between £5,274 - £20,000. | 171 |

Misc / Product Guide Juniper Systems’ Rugged Handheld Computer Goes Fishing Rugged handheld computers from Juniper Systems are being used to help protect native species of fish in rivers in the US. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources (DWR) is managing an invasive fish removal program. Using a Juniper handheld device loaded with custom fisheries software, field scientists monitored native fish species and removed invasive fish along the Green River, near scenic Dinosaur National Monument. The field crew’s work involved what is called boat electrofishing, in which the researchers ride along in a boat with electrodes protruding into the water. The electrodes send out an electrical current, temporarily stunning the fish, which subsequently float to the surface, where they are netted and inspected. The researchers collect data about each fish before either returning it to the water, in the case of native species, or removing it from the river, in the case of invasive species. This program was implemented because of the detrimental effects invasive fish species can have on local ecosystems. The data collected by the field crew will enter a large repository that is used by biologists to assist with management and policy decisions, fish regulations, and fisheries research. • For more information please contact

Master Lock launches butterfly valve lockout device Master Lock Europe has launched a new Lock Out – Tag Out (LOTO) device designed to quickly and effectively immobilise angled lever butterfly valves commonly found in processing and manufacturing facilities. The S3920 Butterfly Valve Lockout is used in conjunction with the S806 Cable Lockout and features a unique patented design which allows it to fit virtually any kind of valve lever. Fully adjustable from 3cm to 4.5cm, the S3920 provides a single solution to a wide variety of LOTO challenges. To use, the S3920 is simply inserted between the valve lever arms and secured in place using the S806 Cable Lockout and a suitable LOTO padlock, such as the popular Master Lock 410. • For more information please visit

Larson Electronics’ Efficient 18 Watt RGB LED PAR 38 Remote Control Light The Larson Electronics LED18WPAR38-RGB 18 Watt RGB LED PAR 38 Remote Control Light is designed to fit in standard light bulb sockets but provides durability and multicolour adjustability that makes it ideal for industrial and commercial applications. This 18 watt LED light offers 16 colour settings, remote control operation, and the efficiency, durability and long life of LED operation. The diameter of the lens is 5 inches. It can serve as a PAR 38 LED upgrade from standard light bulbs fitting E26 bulb sockets. Utilizing only 18 Watts and designed to operate with 100-277 Volts AC, this lamp provides higher efficiency than traditional incandescent PAR 38 bulbs and is a direct fit replacement. • For more information please visit

Chop-Cloc heating control shortlisted for Ashden Awards Chop-Cloc has been shortlisted for the 2014 UK Ashden Awards. Chop-Cloc was launched to consumers in April 2013 and is already making a significant impact in the UK domestic heating market, saving money, saving energy and reducing CO2 emissions. The device works by inserting 15 to 45 minute off-periods into heating cycles without affecting room temperature. It has been proven to save households an average of 16% on heating bills, with some customers saving as much as 30%. Finalists for each Award category will be announced in early April, with Awards to be presented at a ceremony at the Royal Geographical Society in London on 22 May. • For more information please visit

Product Guide

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Secrets keep safer with new desk side mini-bin Nine out of ten UK businesses have been victims of business fraud or security breaches in the past year, according to a government survey*. A survey of facilities and compliance managers, conducted by recycling bin manufacturer Leafield Environmental, reveals that 70% of respondents said their organisation provides confidential waste bins but only 5% are actually close to their desks. Eight out of 10 (76%) are located in shared recycling zones even though almost half of those questioned (43%) agreed they would be more vigilant and more likely to use a confidential bin if it was placed next to their desk. The new Mini-Meridian Confidential Bin is a new design that comes complete with a lockable lid, a pull along handle and wheels to make it easy to move to central recycling or document shredding zones. • *For more information please visit

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Buoy-Mounted Lidar Provides Cost-Effective Measurement Solution For Offshore Wind Farm Developments Successful trial results of the next generation of multi-purpose buoys tailored for the renewable energy industry have led to recent orders from operators in the wind energy sector. Dutch energy company Eneco has purchased Fugro’s new wind LiDAR buoy whilst a Japanese company is to deploy their buoy close to a floating power generation system. Fugro recently developed an accurate and cost-effective alternative to the traditional method of wind profile measurements for offshore wind farms. In January 2014 Fugro’s SEAWATCH wind LiDAR buoy was deployed 75km off the coast of Ijmuiden in The Netherlands where wind data will be compared with data from three levels on a met mast at the site, together with data from a LiDAR mounted on the mast. This testing will enhance a field trial which took place off the coast of Norway in spring 2012. The testing and results will be verified by DNV GL Energy, the world's largest independent renewable energy consultancy. • For more information please visit

‘Drop-in-place’ actuators New Class O Armaflex Launched Honey, I shrunk the CHP facilitate marine turbine damper ENER-G downsizes its 50kW upgrade in three days The new AF/Armaflex Class O brand thermal system SS Cape Isabel is a 655ft, 15,000-ton roll on/roll off cargo ship based at Long Beach and operated by the US Military Sealift Command. Launched in 1976, the ship is powered by two steam turbines. The ship’s two turbine intake radial vane dampers were equipped with pneumatic controllers, which had become obsolete. The old actuators did not respond quickly and accurately to signals from the control system, resulting in potentially inefficient combustion and undesirable emissions. Replacing the actuators was necessary to increase efficiency, reduce maintenance and the associated costs that could result from unplanned shutdowns. The equipment selected to upgrade the old actuators was Rotork Type K damper drives, which provide a direct ‘drop-in-place’ replacement that exactly matches the existing damper drive footprint and output shaft location. Duplication of the existing drive’s dimensions simplifies the installation, enabling the upgrade to be swiftly completed in a matter of hours. • For more information please visit

insulation, incorporating a full range of elastomeric tubes, self seal tubes, coils, tape, flat sheet, selfadhesive sheets, continuous sheet (rolls) and preinsulated pipe supports, is now available with all the products providing the same technical values for the first time. The new range from technical insulation manufacturer Armacell is suitable for refrigeration and air conditioning, chilled water, process lines and heating and ventilation pipe and ductwork applications, with products available from January 2014. These replace the previous Class O Armaflex range, with the new AF/Armaflex Class O tube and sheet product codes now prefixed with AF-CO for ease of identification. The closed cell structure of Armaflex has established the product as the leading insulation for refrigerated and chilled water pipe work, providing a built-in vapour barrier for superior condensation control. The low thermal conductivity value ensures excellent energy saving performance to improve the efficiency and prolong the lifespan of building services equipment. The product also comes with Microban® antimicrobial protection to further safeguard against condensation and bacteria causing indoor air quality problems. • For more information please visit

ENER-G has shrunk its 50kW combined heat and power (CHP) unit by 30% - making it the smallest and lightest unit in its fleet. The new E50 gas fired CHP packs the same power, 90% efficiency and reliability of its predecessor, while matching previous ease of service and maintenance, and quietness of operation. E50 is designed to meet the demands of sustainable cities, where space is at a premium and noise control is an issue. This is fuelling a growth market for smaller footprint, acoustically insulated packaged CHP systems that can meet BREEAM targets, achieve compliance with sustainable building codes and gain acceptance with planning authorities. Typical applications for the E50 are small hotels, mixed-use developments and small district heating schemes. The new E50 system is available under ENER-G’s Discount Energy Purchase scheme, where there is no purchase, installation or operational cost to the customer. Payment is recovered through the purchase of the generated heat and electricity at a guaranteed rate. • For more information please visit | 173 |

Misc / Product Guide Customised valve actuation – when standard products are not the answer The overriding majority of valve actuation applications in today’s industries are fulfilled with standard products. In some cases an actuator may need to be modified to suit specific operating requirements, but here again a solution based on a standard product can usually be found. There are occasions, however, when the physical and operational demands of an application rule out anything other than an entirely customised approach to the problem. The long-standing experience of Rotork-Hiller in the fluid power and motion control industries has been mostly built on the provision of actuators for critical and vital applications calling for the design and manufacture of solutions to suit customers’ individual requirements. Unlike other manufacturers therefore, customised valve actuation is the cornerstone of the company’s activity. Among many examples, an actuator recently built in compliance with customer specifications serves as a practical illustration of this activity. The specification called for a self-contained electro-hydraulic modulating actuator to operate a three-way globe bypass valve within a reactor water chemical clean-up system. This was a non-safety related application, but the specification also dictated a strict weight limitation and a maximum overall dimension envelope. Rotork-Hiller engineers put together a package incorporating all the requirements, including a number of components manufactured uniquely for the application. Meetings with the customer and design reviews enabled modifications to be made during the production process until the compact final package was completed. • For more information please visit

Changing the Economics of Leakage Location with Permanent Monitoring The new next-generation version of HWM’s PermaNet leak detection and monitoring system represents a more compact, more efficient and more cost-effective way to combat water leakage. Permanently-deployed Permalog+ leak noise loggers listen for the noise made by water leaking from pipes all day, every day, transmitting their data wirelessly back to a web server. It is an infinitely scalable system that saves time, man-hours and fuel – and enables a faster response to reduce leakage runtime and minimise water loss volume. Working with ALMOS LEAK software, GPS and GPRS data telemetry lets leakage teams constantly monitor their network status for instant response to incidents: logger location and data is overlaid on Google mapping, with leak alerts and data showing live onscreen in addition to being sent by email or SMS. Historical data is always available for a more thorough analysis of current or potential issues. This allows for easier, better and more economical control of problem areas. • For more information please visit

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GreenbuildEXPO 7th & 8th May 2014 Manchester Central

SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS & REFURBISHMENT EVENT Sustainable buildings make sense on so many levels, with advantages including lower running costs, less burden upon the environment and improved health for occupants Find out more on the 7th & 8th May at GreenbuildEXPO Sponsored & supported by:


More than 100 FREE to attend seminars register now other highlights for 2014 include: Green Deal and ECO debates Retrofit zone Funding options Training Sustainable cities Heat networks Renewable Heat Incentive Solar thermal/heat pumps/CHP/biomass PassivHaus Energy saving/water saving Rainwater harvesting Energy management

For more information visit:

...serious about sustainability

Profile for Environment Industry Magazine

Environment Industry Magazine - Issue 30  

UK's Leading Business to Business Environmental Publication

Environment Industry Magazine - Issue 30  

UK's Leading Business to Business Environmental Publication