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Issue 25

ISSN 2043-0140

Distribution

Assessment Information Listed as Near Threatened since although the species is common within its restricted range, and its populations appear to be stable, its Extent of Occurrence is less than 20,000 km2, and the extent and quality of its habitat are possibly declining, thus making the species close to qualifying for Vulnerable. Geographic Range This species is endemic to Gojjam Province, northern Ethiopia, at altitudes of 2,000-2,700m.

Ethiopia

Habitat and Ecology It is confined to montane grassland. Breeding activity is particularly associated with the banks of small streams, in which larval development occurs. The eggs are laid in nests on land near the water. Data collected from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

Š Malcolm Largen

In memory of Dr. Derek Yalden


INTRODUCTION

from t h e

EDITOR It has been an amazing three months since the last issue of Environment Industry Magazine, culminating in some really exciting news; Environment Industry Magazine is now officially published by BlooGlobe Limited, our address has stayed the same. Please change any record accordingly. Technically speaking this is only a name change but we see it as a change of ethos for the company and an opportunity to grow a fantastic brand behind the most respected publication in the environmental sector. Environment Industry Magazine is now four years old and has an exceptional audience of environmental professionals that is growing stronger issue by issue. The past three months have been about implementing systems and resources to ensure that this “new start” is a massive success, the next few months will be spent improving Environment Industry Magazine and increasing its profile to give our readers an even better product. Part of this includes restructuring our email system making it easier for our readers and stakeholders to communicate with us. From now on if you want to contact us call 0161 3410157 to speak to the news desk or send emails and press releases:For News and appointments please send to news@environmentmagazine.co.uk For editorials and case studies send to editorial@environmentmagazine.co.uk For event listings please send to events@environmentmagazine.co.uk For any other editorial queries - send to editor@environmentmagazine.co.uk or to contact the editor directly 0161 34101579 On a different note I would like to dedicate this issue of Environment Industry Magazine to Dr. Derek Yalden, one of the most one of the outstanding zoologists of his generation who passed away earlier this year. I had the great honour of studying British Mammals under Dr. Yalden as a mature student around 10 years ago, at the time I barely realised how much of an impact he had on our understanding of the zoological world. Dr. Yalden has been described by Peter Marren as zoological polymath in his insightful and

touching obituary of Dr. Derek Yalden in the Independent. (http://www.independent. co.uk/news/obituaries/doctor-derek-yaldenzoologist-acclaimed-as-one-of-the-finest-of-hisgeneration-8527168.html) It was only later when I was looking for someone to write about reintroducing extinct species back in to the UK for the magazine that I re-contacted Dr. Yalden. I looked further into his remarkable career and realised that I had studied under by one of the most influential and important people in the world of zoology, tantamount to studying physics under Einstein. Dr. Yalden agreed to write for the magazine and I have republished his editorial “Reintroducing Vertebrates” as our Famous Last Words section, at the end of the magazine. If you were wondering why I insist on referring to Derek as Dr. Yalden, it is because the first time I spoke to Dr. Yalden as a student, I impertinently called him by his first name; he turned to me and said “I worked hard to get my Ph.D. unlike the ones that are given out like sweets nowadays. Would you please have some respect and use my title in the lectures? I think I have earned it.” My studies in Dr. Yalden’s class were fascinating. I spent much time with him, pre and post lecture, discussing a wide range of subjects such as place name origins, pre ice age flora and fauna of the UK and post ice age recolonisation of the world. Dr. Yalden was a brilliant and intelligent man with a sweeping knowledge of the natural world and my life and thoughts are still affected by my conversations with him. When planning this magazine I felt that Dr. Yalden would not be happy with his portrait on the cover of the magazine but that he would approve of the use of a photo of Leptopelis yaldeni, an Ethiopian grassland forest tree frog that was named in his honour by Malcolm Largen. (I thank Malcolm for providing the image on the cover). In July there will be a memorial event to celebrate the life and achievements of Derek Yalden, please contact Pat Morris at p.morris5@btinternet.com direct for further details. Derek William Yalden, zoologist: born Surrey 1940 - died Forest of Dean, 2013

Alex Stacey Managing Editor

Environment Magazine Limited, 254a Bury New Road, Whitefield, Manchester, M45 8QN

Alex Stacey Tel: 0161 3410158 Fax: 0161 7668997 Email: alex@environmentmagazine.co.uk

Every effort is made to verify all information published, but Environment Industry Magazine cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions or for any losses that may arise as a result. Opinions expressed in articles do not necessarily reflect those of Environment Magazine Limited. Environment Industry Magazine welcomes contributions for publication. Submissions are accepted on the basis of full assignment of copyright to Environment Magazine Limited unless otherwise agreed in advance and in writing. We reserve the right to edit items for reasons of space, clarity or legality.


6 News 6 - 29

News

30 - 31

Tales from the Watercooler

32

Book Review

33

Jason Drew Column

34

Steve Grant Column

36 Agriculture Food & Packaging Sustainable African agricultural intensification - Sir Gordon Conway and Katy Wilson

Contents

38 - 39

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40 Air Quality 42 - 44

Emissions monitoring - Antti Heikkil채

46 - 47

EfW seek customised lime-based APCr solutions - James Ng

48 Conservation 50 - 53

Ban on selling invasive non-native aquatic plants - Trevor Renals

54 - 55

Commercial forestry practices can improve biodiversity - Richard Hands

56 - 58

Isle of May gets civil engineering makeover as part of tourism plans - Euan Ferguson

60 Energy 62 - 63

Energy: The Next Generation - Frans Van Den Heuvel

64 - 66

2030: an energy and economic landscape ripe for UK businesses? - Wayne Mitchell

68 - 71

All-Energy 2013

72 - 73

Enzygo comments on the energy potential of fracking in the UK - Peter Cumberlidge

74 Environmental Remediation 76 - 78

Tax Relief funds 1,500 new homes - Tom Rendle


80 Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering 82 - 83

Passivhaus standard Vs Code for Sustainable Homes - Andrew Eagles

84 - 86

BREEAM, Passivhaus and the Code? No competition - Richard Hardy

116 Water Advanced Inlet Diffuser and Overflow Weir Technology for Settling Tanks - Tony Dee & Bill Foster

118 - 119

88 Timber & Forestry 96 - 98

Are you ‘EUTR Compliant’? or ‘There is no such thing as ‘EUTR compliant’ timber’! - John Park

100 Transport 101 - 103

Plotting a route to greener skies - Ian Jopson

120 Miscellany 121

Prosecutions

122

Policy: Changing landscape of business environmental reporting Nick Blyth

123 - 125

Regulation and Compliance: Chinese Environmental Law Developments in 2013 - Paul Davies & Mr. Xiaoke(Oliver) Zhang

126 - 127

Product Guide

128 - 129

Case Study One: Bowmer & Kirkland ISO 14001 Environmental Management certification

130

104 Waste & Recycling 106 - 108

Embracing the Sustainability Challenge – Mario Abreu

110 - 112

The Salvage Code of Practice - Roger West

114 - 115

15 Years of Evolutionary Revolution in Waste to Resources - Peter Jones

131 132 133 134 - 135

137 - 138

S t u d i e s

Carbon Negative Window Frames: Fiction or Reality? - Dr. Pablo van der Lugt & Dr. Joost Vogtländer

C a s e

90 - 94

Case Study Two: World Leading Accoya® Wood Rises to the Challenge Case Study Three: Oceans ESU Case Study Four: Natural boost for AD plant efficiency is unveiled Case Study Five: Showering Landfill Savings Case Study Six: Large interlocking concrete blocks as optimal solution for storage of bulk material Famous Last Words: Reintroducing Vertebrates - Derek William Yalden ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |5|


News 6 - 29

News

30 - 31

Tales from the Watercooler

32

Book Review

33

Jason Drew Column

34

Steve Grant Column

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |6| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Highest recycling rates in Austria and Germany – but UK and Ireland show fastest increase Austria, Germany and Belgium recycled the largest proportion of municipal waste in Europe in 2010. Although some countries have rapidly increased recycling rates, Europe is still wasting vast quantities of valuable resources by sending them to landfill, and many countries risk falling short of legally binding recycling targets. Overall 35% of municipal waste was recycled in Europe in 2010, a significant improvement on 23% in 2001. But many countries will find it extremely difficult to meet EU-mandated targets to recycle 50% of household and similar waste by 2020. The information comes from a new report from the European Environment Agency (EEA) which looks at the management of municipal solid waste, mainly consisting of household waste, in 27 EU Member States, Croatia, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Although five countries have already achieved the target, most others will need to make extraordinary efforts to achieve this before the deadline. For example, at present Bulgaria and Romania seem to recycle small proportions of municipal waste, so in order to meet the target by 2020 they must increase recycling by more than 4 percentage points per year during this decade – something which no country managed to do between 2001 and 2010. The United Kingdom increased the share of municipal waste recycling from 12 to 39% between 2001 and 2010, while Ireland raised recycling rates from 11 to 36% over the same period. Slovenia, Poland and Hungary have also dramatically improved recycling rates since joining the EU. Recycling rates are highest in Austria, with 63%, followed by Germany (62%), Belgium (58%), the Netherlands (51%) and Switzerland (51%). The EEA report is particularly relevant, given that municipal waste is primarily a public sector responsibility and the current economic situation in many EU Member States demands an added focus on how to achieve policy goals most cost-effectively. The report supports European Commission efforts to help EU Member States improve their waste management performance. The document will be launched at a seminar in Brussels on policy instruments and infrastructure to improve municipal waste management. Other findings •

Europe is successfully moving up the ‘waste management hierarchy’, albeit more slowly than required by legislation, the report says. The amount of waste sent to landfill has decreased since 2001, while Europe has increased the amount of waste incinerated, composted and recycled. Recycling can reduce greenhouse gases and save valuable resources. This is because recycled materials replace virgin materials. From a life-cycle perspective, changing municipal waste treatment between 2001 and 2010 has successfully cut greenhouse gas emissions from municipal waste by 56%, or 38 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent in the EU, Norway and Switzerland, the report says. Preventing waste in the first place is the first priority of EU waste legislation. The municipal waste generated by each EU citizen fell by 3.6% between 2001 and 2010. However, this may be due to the economic downturn – waste generation per capita was quite stable between 2001 and 2007.

Municipal waste produced by the average Slovakian increased by 39% between 2001 and 2010, while Norwegians and Croatians increased annual municipal waste by 30 and 25% respectively. At the other end of the scale, several countries reduced the amount of waste they generated – including Bulgaria (18% reduction), Estonia (17%), Slovenia (12%) and the UK (12%).

Norway, Ireland and Poland reduced the proportion of municipal waste going to landfill most between 2001 and 2010.

Improved recycling rates are primarily due to trends in recycling of materials, with less progress in bio-waste recycling.

Countries that successfully reduced waste sent to landfill and increased recycling usually used a range of national and regional instruments. These included landfill bans on biodegradable waste or municipal waste that has not been pretreated, mandatory separate collection of municipal waste fractions, economic instruments such as landfill and incineration taxes, and waste collection fees incentivising recycling.

Roads could help rather than harm the environment, say experts Two leading ecologists say a rapid proliferation of roads across the planet is causing irreparable damage to nature, but properly planned roads could actually help the environment. “Loggers, miners and other road builders are putting roads almost everywhere, including places they simply shouldn’t go, such as wilderness areas,” said Professor Andrew Balmford of the University of Cambridge, UK. “Some of these roads are causing environmental disasters.” “The current situation is largely chaos,” said Professor William Laurance of James Cook University in Cairns, Australia. “Roads are going almost everywhere and often open a Pandora’s Box of environmental problems. “Just look at the Amazon rainforest,” said Laurance. “Over 95% of all forest destruction and wildfires occur within 10 kilometers of roads, and there’s now 100,000 kilometers of roads crisscrossing the Amazon.” But the researchers say it doesn’t have to be like this. “Roads are like real estate,” said Laurance. “It’s ‘location, location, location’. In the right places, roads can actually help protect nature.” The secret, say the scientists, is to plan roads carefully, keeping them out of wilderness areas and concentrating them in areas that are bestsuited for farming and development. “In such areas,” said Balmford, “roads can improve farming, making it much easier to move crops to market and import fertilizers. This can increase farm profits, improve the livelihoods of rural residents, enhance food security and draw migrants away from vulnerable wilderness areas.” This will be crucial in the future, say the scientists, given that global farming production will need to double in the coming decades to feed up to 10 billion people. Writing in the journal Nature, the researchers say a global mapping program is needed, to advise on where to put roads, where to avoid new roads and where to close down existing roads that are causing severe environmental damage. “It’s all about being proactive,” said Laurance. “Ultimately, local decision-makers will decide where to put roads. But by working together, development experts, agriculturalists and ecologists could provide badly needed guidelines on where to build good roads rather than bad roads.” ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |7|


Crewe CNG Filling Station Officially Opened Local MP Edward Timpson marked the official launch of Crewe CNG Filling Station. The environmental and economic benefits of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) fuel technology have captured the imagination of local authorities and fleet operators in Crewe. This flagship station also provides a live and relevant test-case for other public sites across the UK. The importance of this event was highlighted by the attendance of high profile guests, including Brit European, GIST, Mercedes Benz, Iveco and Scania, Clean Air Power and DfT staff. Dual-fuel technology has made CNG fuel accessible to fleet operators. This is because a dual fuel engine retains the efficiency of diesel-engine

technology, whilst also taking advantage of the lower CO2, lower cost natural gas. Future projections of oil and gas prices suggest that CNG will become increasingly cheaper relative to diesel in the coming years. With the UK Government focussed on meeting carbon reduction targets, fuel duty is likely to stay favourable for CNG for quite some time. A fleet operator in Crewe could expect to make 30% savings on fuel costs per mile. In addition to this, a dual fuel engine can reduce CO2 output by as much as 50% with the use of Green Gas Certificates. All of this is achieved whilst retaining equivalent performance to that seen in diesel vehicles.

Largest seizure of Critically Endangered ploughshare tortoises ever made Fifty-four live ploughshare tortoises smuggled out of Madagascar have been seized by Thai authorities in Bangkok just a day after the global wildlife trade conference, CITES, closed its conference there. Smuggled through Ivato Airport in Antananarivo in baggage registered to a 25-year old Malagasy woman, the tortoises were flown via Nairobi to Bangkok International Airport where the bag was to be left on the luggage carousel and picked up by a local contact. It was at this point that the Royal Thai authorities swooped and arrested a 38-year old Thai man and the woman. The world’s attention was on Thailand as the global wildlife trade convention, CITES, held its annual conference of parties in the capital, Bangkok. Thailand is under great pressure as it is seen as one of the hubs for the illegal movement of wildlife around the world. Thai authorities have struggled to curb the trade which is globally worth more now than the illegal drugs market. Smuggling wildlife is seen as highly lucrative with relatively low risks and penalties for those caught. Corruption also remains a constant pressure. Several of Madagascar’s most threatened species are under intense pressure from the illegal wildlife trade and none more so than the ploughshare tortoise. Prized as a pet for its rarity and its golden domed shell, this stunning tortoise is restricted to one corner of Madagascar. There could be fewer than 400 adult tortoises left in the wild and so a shipment of 54 animals, even though they are mostly juveniles, represents a significant number. Durrell has battled for the last 25 years to save this species from extinction. Working to protect its habitat, to support communities to become guardians of the tortoise and to set up a highly successful captive breeding programme in partnership with international partners – the project now faces its greatest challenge: to fight this illegal trade. “We are very proud of the great strides that have been made over the years to ensure this species didn’t go extinct from threats to its habitat,” says Richard Lewis, Director of Durrell’s Madagascar Programme, “but the rise of the illegal trade and the smuggling of countless animals into the markets of South-East Asia and beyond now poses the single greatest risk to the species. It cannot sustain this pressure and so we have to find a way of reducing this threat.”

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Honeywell’s UOP adsorbents clean 100 million gallons of radiationcontaminated water at Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant Novel UOP IONSIV adsorbents removed radioactive ions to below detectable levels following the 2011 natural disasters Honeywell has announced that its advanced adsorbent materials have successfully been used to clean nearly 100 million gallons of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan.

Car CO2: mapping the route to 95g and beyond To reduce the CO2 emissions of new cars sold in the EU to 95g/km by 2020, from 130g today, clean-car innovation should be encouraged by giving "super-credit" weightings to each maker's cleaner cars and setting more ambitious longer-term reduction targets, said the European Parliament Environment Committee on Wednesday. Environmental performance testing methods should also be made more realistic, as a matter of urgency, it added. MEPs approved a draft law setting out rules for achieving the 95g target (rapporteur Thomas Ulmer, EPP, DE), by 47 votes to 17 with 1 abstention, but also added indicative targets for post-2020 CO2 emissions: a range of 68 to 78g from 2025. These emission limits are the average maximum allowed for car makers registered in the EU. Makers producing fewer than 1,000 cars a year should be exempt from the legislation, say MEPs. Car makers would therefore have to produce, in addition to older, heavier or polluting models, enough cleaner ones to achieve a balance of 95g in 2020, on pain of penalties. "Super-credit" weightings To achieve this, makers could use "super credits", which assign a favourable weighting to cars that emit less than 50g of CO2. Within each manufacturer's balance, each of these extra clean cars would count as 3.5 cars in 2013, falling to 1.3 from 2020 to 2023 and 1 from 2024 for cars emitting less than 35g CO2. Any increase in the emissions target for each manufacturer deriving from the “super-credits” calculation would be capped at 2g. MEPs also say it should not be possible to transfer any unused super-credits from one year to another. Towards more reliable testing procedures The committee notes that recent studies show that manufacturers have exploited weaknesses in today's procedure for testing cars' environmental performance, with the result that official consumption and emission figures are far from those achieved in everyday driving conditions. MEPs therefore say that the new UN-defined World Light Duty Test Procedure (WLTP) should replace today's procedure in EU law "as a matter of urgency", and if possible by 2017, on the grounds that the WLTP better reflects the real conditions in which cars are used. Next steps Mr Ulmer will now lead negotiations with EU ministers, after the committee backed a proposal to open negotiations by 46 votes to 17, with 2 abstentions.

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Honeywell’s Selective Media adsorbents have been used by Toshiba Corp. and Shaw Global Services LLC as part of the Simplified Active Water Retrieve and Recovery System (SARRY), which is being used to treat wastewater that was contaminated after the earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March 2011. Honeywell’s UOP material has been used in the system since August 2011 and has reduced cesium to below detectable levels. “Our products were chosen for their superior ability to remove large amounts of radioactive materials, including cesium from seawater, which is challenging. So far, our products’ performance has exceeded expectations,” said Mike Millard, vice president and general manager of Honeywell’s UOP Catalysts, Adsorbents and Specialties business unit. “UOP is proud of the contribution our IONSIV adsorbents have made toward reducing the radiation risk in Japan and helping the area recover from this devastating event. We are committed to partnering with those on-site to continue removing radioactive contaminants from all water sources.”

The Green Investment Bank – now open for business! Heralded as the first bank of its kind, the Green Investment Bank is now open for business. The Bank has a war chest of £3bn to invest over the next three years in projects which will assist the Government in achieving its sustainability targets. The Bank is mandated to invest at least 80% of its funds in the following sectors: •

offshore wind;

waste recycling and energy from waste;

non-domestic energy efficiency; and

support for the Government’s Green deal.

The Bank may invest its remaining funds in ‘non-priority’ areas - biofuels, biomass, carbon capture and storage, marine energy and renewable heat. The Bank is working towards what it describes as a ‘double bottom line’. First and foremost, the Bank is required to operate as a commercial organisation and to turn a profit. Second, the Bank is required to have a ‘Green Impact’ through the investments it makes. ‘Green Impact’ is at the heart of the Bank’s investment strategy and potential investments will be assessed against the following criteria: •

the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions;

the advancement of efficiency in the use of natural resources;

the protection or enhancement of the natural environment;

the protection or enhancement of biodiversity; and

the promotion of environmental sustainability.

The ‘double bottom line’ is the most interesting facet of the Green Investment Bank. But at the same time, the Bank is unequivocal that it is a commercial organisation and not in the business of funding projects that are otherwise unable to obtain financing in the market. Additionally, the Bank’s clear preference is to invest in projects alongside private sector capital. Its function is not to fund the unbankable, but to support robust projects suffering from a funding shortfall – the final push to get them over the line.


Ill-advised Tourism ‘Adventure’ Threatens Kenyan Whale Sharks Born Free Foundation and International marine experts are outraged Widespread opposition between the company Seaquarium Ltd in Kenya and wildlife conservation groups and marine scientists is mounting related to a proposal to begin catching wild migrating whale sharks for public display in a marine enclosure off the southern Kenyan coast, ostensibly for the purposes of “tourism and conservation”. Whale sharks are the largest fish on the planet and, while their huge size and gaping-mouthed appearance can be terrifying, these docile plankton feeders pose no threat to man and are fully protected under various international wildlife laws and conventions. A plan proposed by Seaquarium Ltd to capture wild whale sharks and transfer them to a shallow 600m diameter enclosure, and charge tourists to swim with these sea leviathans, has marine biologists and other wildlife conservation groups up in arms. The situation has come to a climax as the closing date for public comment on the project’s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) comes to an end this week. The EIA is rich in references to the anticipated, and much exaggerated

financial benefits of the project, an undisclosed proportion of which they claim will be shared with local communities to encourage them to protect whale sharks. However, internationally recognised marine scientists, including Dr David Obura who has extensively studied the marine ecosystems of Kenya, feel that critical questions remain concerning the risks associated with capturing wild whale sharks – the welfare of these highly migratory animals when in captivity, and the dubious conservation and research claims of the project’s proponents. According to Dr. Obura, “The conservation arguments for this project do not add up. There is no evidence to suggest whale sharks are being actively hunted, or that numbers are declining as a result. I am concerned that the welfare of these incredible creatures is the last thing on the mind of Seaquarium. You cannot tell me that such a sensitive species which is known to migrate more than 3,000km in a year, and dive down to 1,000m, can be happily confined to a shallow netted pond in the sea, with no possible escape from tourist stress, no ability to feed naturally, nor seek out the natural conditions that suit it at different times of the year, nor socialize.” “We know very little about whale shark reproduction, and the claims that the project will

HEFCE announces plans to invest £5,000,000 in higher education sustainability NUS will run a £5million Students’ Green Fund NUS has been awarded £5m by HEFCE for a Students’ Green Fund, the four key themes of which will be student participation, partnership, impact and legacy. The funding will help students to engage with their universities and colleges on sustainable development, and to ensure that sustainability remains a priority with institutions. NUS will run a single-round bidding competition in summer 2013, to allocate the funding. The funded projects will then receive the funding over two full academic years (2013-14 and 2014-15).

also be used for captive breeding are therefore highly spurious as well. No captive whale sharks have ever mated, in over 20 years of trials in other countries. This project is flawed from top to bottom,” Dr. Obura explained. With wild and increasingly ethically-regulated encounters with free-living whale sharks available at a number of sites on the East African coast, the tourism argument for this does not stack up. Nonetheless, apparently without the endorsement of Kenya’s Wildlife Service, Seaquarium has already constructed the enclosure and plans to start trapping wild whale sharks to stock it. Aaron Nicholas, Conservation Manager, Born Free Foundation, stated: “We hope that this project will go no further and that Kenya will retain its pre-eminent position in Africa as a country that does not exploit its wildlife, with a focus on the truly wild experience that draws millions of tourists each year to its parks and waters to the benefit of millions of people nation-wide. Furthermore, if the people behind this flawed and deeply misguided project really cared about the future of whale sharks they could support field-based conservation measures, including working with fishing communities and enhancing the capacity of Kenya’s marine protection agency to make a real difference for this species in the wild – where it belongs.”

The Students’ Green Fund will encourage local collaborative sustainability initiatives through students’ unions, putting students in the driving seat for sustainability engagement initiatives, as well as supporting them in their role as agents for change. NUS are determined to create a social norm of sustainability in institutions. The ground work laid by initiatives such as Student Switch Off in university dormitories, the sustainable food programme, Student Eats, and Green Impact, will be strengthened by the Students’ Green Fund. HEFCE recently signed up to NUS’ national environmental accreditation and awards scheme - Green Impact. Run by trained students, Green Impact uses a series of online workbooks to help staff achieve a range of green targets. These include increasing recycling of food and drink packaging, reducing energy use, sourcing sustainable products, and promoting the use of public transport. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |11|


HMG Paints has Prodrive all covered HMG Paints, the UK’s largest independent paints manufacturer, has become a technical partner of Prodrive Motorsport and will supply all its paints and coatings for its Aston Martin Racing and MINI World Rally teams. HMG Paints not only specialises in coatings for automotive use, but also supplies paint and a variety of protective coatings to a wide variety of industries. Coatings supplied by the Manchester based company have been painted on fleets of commercial buses, protected the British Starchaser rocket and have been used by film studios on a number of movies.

partner, on a number of projects to ensure superb colour quality and the effective coating of these surfaces.

Prodrive uses hundreds of litres of paint every year on its race and rally cars on a variety of surfaces, including carbon fibre composite, aluminium, steel, and plastics.

The experienced paint technicians at HMG Paints will also be working alongside Prodrive on a number of other coatings projects. “We are working to significantly enhance the appearance of the cars using unique pigments, producing even more vibrant and eye-catching colours,” said Steve Crossman, Business Development Director at HMG. “Together, we are also developing new heat management coatings for the vehicle interior and exterior, and an advanced lotus effect treatment that will reduce the amount of mud and dirt that clings to the car during a race.”

HMG Paints has over 80 years’ experience of developing and manufacturing highly specialised coatings for all substrates and will be fully utilising the modern research and development facilities located in Manchester. Prodrive will be working alongside HMG Paints, as a technical

Landmark Insulation Training Agreement for NAPIT Members Following a landmark agreement with worldwide insulation specialists, Knauf Insulation, NAPIT members are now able to access a 50% discount on both internal and external solid wall insulation courses. NAPIT secured this offer in anticipation of significant growth prospects in the insulation sector, ensuring its members stay one step ahead in Britain’s increasingly competitive energy-efficiency market. Internal and external wall insulation is ideal for hard to treat properties, particularly those built before 1920 which cannot be insulated with cavity wall insulation. According to one report from the Office of National Statistics, these properties account for around one fifth of British housing.

“It was important to us to have a partner who could match the exact colours demanded by our sponsors,” said Richard Taylor, Prodrive Business Development Director. “We will also be working with HMG on a weight reduction program that will minimise our paint and coatings usage, as ultimately every gram we can shave off the weight of the car gives us a performance advantage.”

Wall insulation is also one of the most effective means of improving the energy efficiency of our homes. According to the Energy Saving Trust, around a third of all heat that escapes from an un-insulated home escapes through our walls. Internal and external wall insulation is also eligible for both the Green Deal and the Energy Company Obligation (ECO), policies which give consumers access to significant financial incentives to make their homes more energy efficient. The Knauf Internal and External Wall Insulation courses are now available on the NAPIT Training website. They are operated by Knauf Insulation and must be booked directly via the contact details provided on the website offer page. For more information, visit: www.napittraining.co.uk/knauf-internal-and-external-wall-insulationcourses-offer.aspx To make your insulation work eligible for Green Deal finance, you must be a member of a Green Deal Certification Scheme.

+ For More Information To become a member of NAPIT’s Green Deal Certification Scheme, visit: www.napit.org.uk/greendeal.asp

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |13|


Timbermat Ltd is Addressing Concern for the Environment with SFI Certification As the new European Union Timber Regulations (EUTR) start taking effect, ground protection solution expert, Timbermat Ltd, is committed to meeting the highest standards that help to protect the environment by giving reassurance that it only uses wood for its temporary roadways and temporary walkways that is certified by the worldwide standard, the Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI). The SFI programme recognises the importance of addressing illegal logging through certification, regulation and partnership initiatives, and the new EUTR were introduced on March 3 2013 to help combat the placing of illegally produced wood products into the EU market.”Responsibly sourcing our wood is a top priority for us at Timbermat Ltd and our customers are particularly discerning, many wanting assurances that the timber products they buy or hire meet the highest standards of environmental responsibility. In today’s market, which is increasingly driven by sustainability, we are pleased to be able to offer a wide range of sustainable timber products,” said Timbermat’s Managing Director, John Roberts. Buyers who source products bearing the internationally recognised SFI label can be confident that measures have been taken to avoid illegal timber in the supply chain. While forest certification is not accepted as automatic proof of EUTR compliance, SFI certification can be utilized as a tool to meet EUTR requirements. Since 1992, Timbermat has successfully grown into one of Great Britain’s largest suppliers of temporary access solutions carrying probably the largest stock of certified mats. Its wooden ground protection mats are properly tested and certified and meet the new EU regulations. Timbermat Ltd is FSC Certified and the company’s importer is FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), PEFC (Programme for endorsement of Forest Certification) and SFI registered.”Our extensive research means we only work with reputable companies who are environmentally-conscious - from the planting of a tree to dividing it up for timber”, added Mr Roberts.

Crossrail extends Mouchel contract

Drax Biomass Funding Secured Drax has announced that it has agreed a £75m amortising loan facility maturing in June 2018 with Friends Life, underpinned by a guarantee from HM Treasury issued under the Infrastructure UK Guarantee Scheme. Adam Davidson, Director in the Renewables, Energy & Resources Group at Walker Morris, said: "It is great news to see one of our key energy clients securing some of the first Government guaranteed funding for such an important project, both from an energy security point of view as well as assisting the UK in meeting its climate change targets. Hopefully, more schemes in the sector will be able to unlock funding by getting guarantees under the Infrastructure UK Guarantee Scheme, allowing the current stalemate in project development to be resolved."

The Environment Land Services team, within international infrastructure and business services Group Mouchel, has been awarded a two-year contract extension from Crossrail.

As anticipated, this loan facility replaces £50m of the £100m amortising loan facility agreed with the UK Green Investment Bank, which was signed in December 2012.

Mouchel began land referencing work for the preparation of the Hybrid Bill in 2002 and it has continued to support Crossrail through the Hybrid Bill submission to parliament, the parliamentary select committee procedures and additional provisions to the Bill. The team is now working on the land acquisition required to deliver the scheme. Though parliamentary powers will expire in July 2013, this contract extension means that Mouchel will continue to support Crossrail in land acquisition matters during the construction of the tunnels and railway.

This facility enhances the financing structure executed last year by providing additional liquidity to the Group, securing HM Treasury support for plans to convert three generating units from coal to biomass and ensuring a smoother profile of debt maturities across the structure. Furthermore, the all-in cost of the new loan facility is very competitive.

Crossrail is a £14.8bn project that will provide London and the south-east with a world-class, high-capacity affordable railway, ease congestion on London’s public transport system, provide better access to the capital and generate significant employment opportunities.

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The amended funding programme now includes the following: •

£190m (gross) proceeds from an equity placing in October 2012

£100m amortising term loan facility agreed with the Prudential/ M&G UK Companies Financing Fund in July 2012

£50m amortising term loan facility agreed with the UK Green Investment Bank

£75m amortising term loan facility agreed with Friends Life, underpinned by a guarantee from HM Treasury

£400m revolving credit facility maturing in April 2016


UK Energy Innovation Awards 2013 Winners Unveiled LEADING figures from across the energy sector descended on Manchester for a glittering ceremony at the Radisson Blu Edwardian Hotel to honour pioneering technologies in the industry. The UK Energy Innovation Awards 2013, created by the Cheshire-based Energy Innovation Centre, celebrated the very best innovative companies working to deliver a low carbon, sustainable and energy efficient future.

CHECK CREDENTIALS - TRUSTMARK WARNS CONSUMERS TO BE VIGILANT OF HOME IMPROVEMENT FRAUDSTERS TrustMark, the Government endorsed quality mark signposting consumers to tradesmen, has welcomed Action Fraud’s warning about doorstep fraudsters using the Green Deal to con homeowners, and is urging consumers to be wary of uninvited tradesmen and always check the credentials of any firm to ensure they are approved and reputable. Liz Male, Chairman of TrustMark said: “I would advise homeowners who are thinking of having any work carried out on their home to only use reputable firms they know or that can be properly checked out. We know that the Government’s Green Deal, which supports energy efficient improvements, can only be delivered by approved green deal advisors and installers so consumers need to be wary of people dropping in on them and offering special deals or telling them that their property is unsafe and needs urgent work. “Doorstep selling and telephone cold calls need be handled particularly carefully. Never be pressurised into making a decision on the spot - there’s nothing that can’t wait until you have had time to do some checks. There will be many homes that will need essential repairs before any energy saving measures can be effectively installed so our advice to all customers is to check the ID of any Green Deal firm, don’t be tempted to ask an installer to do extra property repair work just because they are already in your home, and always insist on using a TrustMark-registered tradesman for any home repair, maintenance or improvement work.” For further information or if you have any queries about the Green Deal, call the Energy Saving Advice Service on 0300 123 1234.

The ceremony was hosted by comedian and TV writer Jason Cook and saw key figures such as Sandy Sheard, head of future electricity networks, Department of Energy and Climate Change, chief executive officer of Northern Gas Networks, Mark Horsley, managing director of SSE, Mark Mathieson, chief executive officer of Electricity North West, Steve Johnson and director of UKTI, Clive Drinkwater gather to recognise leading technologies in the energy industry. Manchesterbased company Out There Events supported the Energy Innovation Centre in staging the awards.

The results: Best Energy Network Improvement GridON Ltd (Israel) Best Innovation Implemented or adopted by a Contractor Morrison Utility Services (Hertfordshire) on behalf of- Pipe Restoration Services (USA) New Energy Innovation Start Up – sponsored by The North West Fund for Energy and Environmental HTIP Limited (Suffolk) Best Innovation Contributing To Customer Quality and Reliability Of Supply Kelvatek Ltd (Northern Ireland) Best International Trade Award– sponsored by UKTI (UK Trade & Investment) Invertek Drives Limited (Powys) Best Asset Security Innovation Nortech Management Ltd (Pershore) Best Network Safety Improvement Smart Document Solutions Ltd (Cheshire) Environmental Impact Award – sponsored by Earth Capital Partners Scotia Gas Networks (Perth) and JV Energen (Dorset) Best Smart Grid Technology – sponsored by EA Technology Selex ES Ltd on behalf of GridKey (Essex)

+ For More Information www.trustmark.org.uk/green-deal/

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Best University Technology Oxems (Oxford Electromagnetic Solutions Limited) (Ipswich) Best High Growth Company Kelvatek Ltd (Northern Ireland)

+ For More Information www.energyinnovationcentre.com


FUGRO’S INVOLVEMENT WITH RECORD BREAKING WIND FARM

WORLD

Fugro congratulates the London Array project team on completion of the first 630MW phase of the Thames estuary development. The project, jointly owned by DONG Energy, Masdar and E.ON, has set a new world record for the largest offshore wind farm, according to the World Record Academy. “Fugro has played various roles throughout the project so far, so it is something of a world record for us too,” explains Tony Hodgson, Global Business Development Manager for Fugro Renewable Services. “We have been involved at all stages, from early feasibility studies through design, consent and development and we continue to play an active role now during operations. “Our first task, in 2004, was to install the 70m high met mast using the jack-up Excalibur. From summer 2007 until spring 2008, we undertook the largest geophysical and geotechnical site survey ever performed for a UK wind farm, at the time, for both the turbine foundations and elements of the cable route using Excalibur and the vessel Fugro Commander. We also carried out some preliminary UXO clearance surveys for the jack-up and vessel locations. Our environmental team performed pre-construction environmental surveys and our geophysical specialists performed detailed studies across the site and cable routes in addition to further UXO surveys.”

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Balfour Beatty turns to next generation to take them to next level International infrastructure group Balfour Beatty revealed today that it is turning to the next generation to help transform its performance in areas such as recycling, carbon emissions and diversity into sector leading. In a ground-breaking new approach, the group has appointed a 'Next Generation Stakeholder Panel' of eight under 25 year olds including representatives from the Prince’s Trust, National Apprenticeships Service, the University of Edinburgh and the UK Youth Council, to independently scrutinise and steer its activities on sustainability.

Cambridge Conservation Campus launched An insightful lecture by Sir David Attenborough in the University of Cambridge Senate House has marked the launch of the Cambridge Conservation Campus, which will become the hub for the world’s largest conservation cluster, the Cambridge Conservation Initiative (CCI). CCI is a new and pioneering partnership formed between leading conservation organisations and the University of Cambridge. It seeks to transform the global understanding and conservation of biodiversity, to secure a sustainable future for all life on earth. Its aim is to create an international centre of interdisciplinary collaboration and outreach that will transform conservation research, policy and practice for the benefit of biodiversity and humanity. The Conservation Campus will be located in central Cambridge, bringing together more than 500 professional conservationists from eight conservation organisations, with plans being considered by the City Council for a £59m refurbishment of the Arup Building on the University’s New Museums Site. The Campus will provide a series of shared spaces, facilities and meeting areas for the global conservation community, designed to encourage effective collaboration. Speaking of the Conservation Campus, David Attenborough said: “The world’s biodiversity urgently needs research-driven, innovative and practical solutions for its conservation. By coming together on the Conservation Campus, CCI partners will be better able to integrate their distinct and complementary strengths to tackle the complex challenges facing the natural world in exciting new ways.” In his lecture he looked back over the development of the conservation movement, from Charles Waterton who created the world’s first nature reserve in Yorkshire in 1826 onwards. He warned that the world was facing a real crisis with the human population now over 7 billion, and said that the creation of the Cambridge Conservation Initiative was “crucially important”.

The news comes as Balfour Beatty publishes its Annual Sustainability Report detailing its performance on resource efficiency, community engagement and governance. The report shows that approaches such as colour coding waste, computer tracking and state-of-the-art 3-D computer modelling has helped reduce the amount of construction waste they send to landfill in the UK by almost 80% in four years. Chris Whitehead, Group Head of Sustainability at Balfour Beatty said: “Companies like ours that design, build and manage major infrastructure projects such as roads, railways and power stations can have a big impact on the environment and the communities we work in around the world. Not least because of the amount of resources we use and the number of people we employ. As a result, small changes to the way we do things can make a real difference. And some of the positive changes we have made over the past year are not so small.” “Although today’s report shows that we are making real progress and delivering some great results, such as building the Olympics aquatics centre with more than half of the materials coming from recycled sources, we need to stay focussed on sustainability in order to remain competitive. The Next Generation Stakeholder Panel, which we believe is the first of its kind anywhere, will help us do that. They have been candid in their observations so far on our performance and have brought fresh thinking to bear on our business.” Highlights of Balfour Beatty's Sustainability 2012 Report include: •

Achieving a 50% reduction in waste to landfill since 2010

Reducing UK CO2 * emissions between 2010 and 2012 by 33%

Reducing direct UK water consumption by 22%

Guest of honour at the lecture by the renowned naturalist was the former Chancellor of the University, HRH Prince Philip the Duke of Edinburgh, who until 1996 was President of the World Wildlife Fund.

Constructing the world’s largest solar powered community of nearly 4,500 military homes at Fort Bliss in the US

Members of the Cambridge Conservation Initiative are:

In the US, rolling out a smart grid programme to 20,000 family members in 5,000 military homes to help them make better decisions about energy consumption

Helping London 2012 to be the greenest Games yet, with more than half of the materials used to build the aquatics centre coming from recycled sources. This saved the project more than £1m

Building Hong Kong's first Zero Carbon Building

The value of green buildings and renewable energy projects completed increased 27% to £3.3bn between 2011 and 2012

Installing new LED lighting in 170 Marks & Spencer stores will help them reduce their non-merchandise lighting bills by 60%

Raising more than £3m for charity in the UK over past three years

CCI Executive Director Dr Mike Rands said: “The Campus will drive a massive step change in our collaborations and in our worldwide impacts. It will enhance our convening power and ability to engage new audiences worldwide.”

BirdLife International http://www.birdlife.org/

British Trust for Ornithology http://www.bto.org/

Cambridge Conservation Forum http://www.cambridgeconservationforum.org. uk/

Fauna & Flora International http://www.fauna-flora.org/

International Union for Conservation of Nature http://www.iucn.org/

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds http://www.rspb.org.uk/

TRAFFIC http://www.traffic.org/

Tropical Biology Association http://www.tropical-biology.org/

UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre http://www.unep-wcmc.org/

The University of Cambridge Departments of Zoology, Geography, Plant Sciences and Land Economy together with Cambridge Judge Business School and Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership.

http://www.cam.ac.uk

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Big Screen Production for Biomass Experts GP Green Recycling GP Green Recycling is probably one of the largest producers of biomass from waste in Scotland and generates around 1,800 cubic metres of biomass every week from their state-of-the-art facilities in Blantyre. The ever-increasing scale of the GP operation has necessitated additional production capacity and, to achieve this, owner Jim Gilchrist once again called in Blue Machinery

Scotland who recommended changing from a flatbed screener to a trommel drum-screen configuration for cost-effective and efficient screening of material to the various different sizings required. GP now uses an “array” of Doppstadt machines in their production line. A Fuchs MHL 320 materials handler (also purchased from Blue) feeds the incoming waste stream into a slow-speed pre-shredder, which discharges into a Doppstadt AK-435 mobile shredder which then feeds the reduced size

Finalists announced for leading green energy prize Building a sustainable energy revolution - finalists announced for the 2013 Ashden Awards 26 finalists for this year’s Ashden Awards, the UK’s leading green energy awards, have been announced ahead of an awards ceremony at the Royal Geographical Society in London on 20 June 2013. Finalists include organisations that are inventing new ways of making our buildings more energy efficient, market towns that are showing local residents how to take back control of their energy, and a charity that’s training the foot soldiers of the sustainable energy revolution. Sarah Butler-Sloss, Founder Director of Ashden, said: “Some say sustainable energy is a luxury we can’t afford. But it’s a huge opportunity. From Cumbria to Cornwall, our 2013 finalists are showing that what’s good for the planet is also good for people, good for business, and good for the economy. Together they are helping build a sustainable energy revolution.” A total of 14 winners will be announced at the ceremony at the Royal Geographical Society in London on 20 June, with prizes to be awarded of £10,000 - £20,000. Finalists for the UK Ashden Awards are:

UK Awards finalists Sustainable Energy Academy/United House The Sustainable Energy Academy (SEA) has teamed up with social housing contractor and developer United House to offer a safe, lowfuss measurement and installation process that allows solid-walled properties to be rapidly insulated. Using laser scanning and other standard building trade technologies in a novel way, costs are reduced by at least a fifth. |20| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Monodraught Ltd: COOL-PHASE® Cooling and ventilating commercial buildings is a major money- and energy-drainer. Buckinghamshire- based Monodraught’s COOLPHASE® low-energy cooling and ventilation system reduces the running costs of buildings and creates a fresh and healthy indoor environment, while energy consumption is reduced by up to 90% compared to conventional cooling systems. National Energy Action, Newcastle National Energy Action has set the quality benchmark for training in the kind of jobs that will be increasingly in demand as we make progress towards our low-carbon future. Offering short courses and tailored training in renewable energy and energy efficiency advice and working with leading accreditation organisations such as City & Guilds, the Newcastle-based charity has played a pioneering role in professionalising the energy advice sector. Wadebridge Renewable Energy Network, Wadebridge, Cornwall This co-operatively owned social enterprise has rapidly galvanised residents and businesses in the 8,000-strong Cornish market town to get involved in generating their own energy – and saving energy. With one in ten people in Wadebridge now members of WREN and small businesses from bike shops to laundrettes installing renewable energy, the town provides a shining example of how people can take back control of their energy, increase self-reliance and tackle climate change – and save money to boot.

shredded material into the first of two new Doppstadt SM-620 trommels, which is equipped with two screen sizes (12mm at the front of the drum and 10mm at the end) to produce and stockpile 10mm compost material. This, in turn, feeds the oversize to the second SM-620 with an 80mm drum screen where 10mm-80mm is screened off for biomass, with any oversize being recirculated for further processing.

Breathing Buildings Limited, Cambridge Cold draughts in heated buildings contribute to rising fuel bills as occupants rush to turn up their heating. Cambridge University spinoff Breathing Buildings has solved the problem by expertly designing a natural ventilation system that minimises energy use and improves air quality inside buildings. OVESCO, Lewes, East Sussex The community energy company Ouse Valley Energy Services Co. (OVESCO) is offering local residents the chance to invest in a naturally abundant local resource: the sun. So far it has installed community-owned solar PV installations on the roofs of a school, a farm, a nursery – and the town’s local brewery. With a minimum threshold for investment of just £250, nearly 250 proud local share-owners now stand to benefit financially from their investments, while developing a deeper relationship with their energy use. KiWi Power Ltd Around a tenth of the UK’s electricity capacity comes from highly polluting and expensive ‘peaking power stations’, used by National Grid to ensure blackouts don’t happen during times of peak energy demand. KiWi Power works with clients to enable them to benefit from a National Grid scheme which pays companies to turn down non-essential power during spikes in demand. This helps reduce strain on the national electricity supply while potentially reducing CO2 emissions by reducing the use of carbon-intensive peaking power stations. Follow #Ashden13 on twitter to keep up with information about this year’s Ashden Awards, which will be webcast on green.tv from 7pm on 20 June. The Ashden Conference: ‘Are we on the brink of a sustainable energy revolution?’ is on 19 June; tickets are now on sale.


SLR provides sustainability advice to Port of Melbourne Corporation Leading international environmental firm, SLR Consulting, has been appointed by Port of Melbourne Corporation (PoMC) in Australia to provide expert advice as part of the port’s three year sustainability programme. PoMC manages over 500 hectares of port land and more than 100,000 hectares of declared port waters, including 45 nautical miles of commercial channels. Its Sustainability Framework identifies four priority strategies (Decisions & Guidelines; Leadership & Engagement; Culture & Behaviour; Knowledge & Capability) to measure its future performance and manage its operations in an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable way. SLR’s scope involves providing specialist sustainability advice on a range of matters including sustainable procurement approaches, developing sustainable performance metrics and reporting frameworks, assessment and auditing processes and peer review of a strategic air emission program.

Supreme Court rules UK Government is breaking air pollution laws The Supreme Court has declared that the Government is failing in its legal duty to protect people from the harmful effects of air pollution. This landmark decision in ClientEarth’s case is a departure from the judgements of the lower courts and paves the way for the European Commission to take legal action against the UK. Air pollution causes 29,000 early deaths a year in the UK – more than obesity and alcohol combined. Air pollution causes heart attacks, strokes, respiratory disease, and children living near busy roads have been shown to grow up with underdeveloped lungs. ClientEarth’s case concerns 16 cities and regions (including London, Manchester, Birmingham and Glasgow) which government plans show will suffer from illegal levels of nitrogen dioxide, a toxic gas, until as late as 2020 or 2025. The Supreme Court confirmed that because the Government is in breach of the EU Air Quality Directive “the way is open to immediate enforcement action at national or European level”. However, before deciding whether to take further action to enforce the law, it has referred a number of legal questions to the Court of Justice of the European Union. James Thornton, ClientEarth CEO, said: “This historic ruling marks a turning point in the fight for clean air and will pile the pressure on Owen Paterson. Faced with court action on two fronts, he must now come up with an ambitious plan to protect people from carcinogenic diesel fumes. Until now, his only policy has been lobbying in Europe to try and weaken air pollution laws.” “The Supreme Court recognised that this case has broader implications for EU environmental law. The Government can’t flout environmental law with impunity. If the Government breaks the law, citizens can demand justice and the courts must act.”

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TITAN Refloats Grounded Vessel England’s Protected Farne Islands

from

Salvage Job Completed without Damage to Environment Despite Challenging Sea and Weather Conditions TITAN Salvage has successfully refloated the 262-foot containership M/V Danio from its stricken position on England’s Northumberland coast despite challenging sea and weather conditions. Danio, which was carrying a load of timber and en route to Belgium from Scotland, ran aground at Farne Islands, an environmentally sensitive area, in early March. The onset of severe weather conditions prevented an immediate attempt to tow the Danio from the coastline. Because the Farne Islands – home to thousands of puffins and grey seals, as well as more than 20 bird species – is classified as a site of Special Scientific Interest (SSI), TITAN took extra precautions to safeguard the environment. The company’s Jason Bennett, commercial director, and his team of salvors took quick action to establish safety of the vessel, immediately deploy a tugboat and prepare for a controlled and safe re-floating operation. Danio was ballasted down to the rocky sea bottom while the TITAN team repaired damage to the vessel’s skeg and other areas, which required cement boxing, shoring and patching before the vessel could be refloated and towed away. Portable pumps were also installed and used during re-float and transit to safety. Salvage Master Mark Loughlin, of C Waves, a Londonbased independent maritime and engineering consultancy contracted by the TITAN alliance, transferred to Danio after initial assessment and remained on board alongside the crew throughout the operation. He was joined by TITAN's salvage team, which worked in difficult conditions to ensure that the ship remained secure in the deteriorating weather conditions, which were marked by high seas and swells (up to seven meters), freezing rain and gale-force winds. During a brief window of suitable tides, Danio was successfully refloated without incident with the assistance of the TITAN-chartered tugboat Lomax.


JCB MARKS MILLIONTH MACHINE MILESTONE IN COLOURFUL STYLE HUNDREDS of JCB employees joined in the celebrations to mark the production of the company’s one millionth machine – enough diggers to stretch from the UK to Australia. The landmark is being marked in vivid style with the whole of the glass frontage of the World HQ at Rocester, Staffordshire, UK, being encased in a graphic wrap marking the achievement. The picture covers an area of more than 900m² and a total of 207 windows have each been individually covered with a section of the print – evolving like a giant jigsaw puzzle over a total of 50 hours as five people pieced it together. Nestled behind the glass in the reception area is the actual one millionth machine, a 22 tonne JS220 tracked excavator in shimmering silver. JCB Chairman Sir Anthony Bamford said: “It’s taken JCB more than 67 years to produce its millionth machine. Incredibly, one third of those machines have been produced in the last six years. Reaching the million milestone is the result of a huge effort by the JCB team past and present and it’s an achievement everyone can be justifiably proud of. Given our continuing growth, JCB’s two millionth machine will be produced in considerably less time.”

MINISTERS TO HEED CIWEM’S CALL FOR NEW ACTIVE TRANSPORT BODY TO TRANSFORM URBAN LIVING A cross-departmental Government body focused on active travel would be welcomed, says CIWEM. Good for the environment, the economy and our wellbeing, an Office for Active Travel that supports cycling and walking would benefit us all. In its policy position statement, ‘Active Transport’ published last week, the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM) called on Government to “sponsor the development of an active transport knowledge repository, advisory and professional development centre”. News has emerged that Ministers are to heed this call, respond to the weight of opinion of other groups, and commit to establish an ‘Office for Active Travel’. CIWEM welcomes the discussions surrounding a Government Office for Active Travel. As the largest chartered professional body and charity for an integrated approach to the environment and the public realm, CIWEM is keen to see our streets and shared outdoor spaces as places that suit all forms of transport for all. The Institution wants to see Britain’s towns, cityscapes, and their essential transport networks contributing to the well-being and health of all users, while improving the surrounding environment.

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SeaRobotics Delivers 5.7-m USV to NATO

Polythene UK unveil 100% recyclable, carbon positive material

Workhorse USV ships in 20-ft container

Polythene UK, the multi award winning broker of Polythene films and bags, based in Oxfordshire, has today unveiled a new 100% recyclable, carbon positive material, called Polyair.

SeaRobotics Corporation has delivered an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) in their 5.7-m hull series to the NATO's Center for Marine Research and Experimentation (CMRE). This general purpose USV will be utilized to improve payload capacity and efficiency of the impressive, fully autonomous mine neutralization system developed at CMRE. With over 350kg of payload, the ability to be configured as an allelectric or as a diesel-electric hybrid system and the ability to reach speeds in excess of 5m/sec, the 5.7-m system will excel in numerous applications. Enhancing its role in mine neutralization operations or many other tasks, the system can ship worldwide in a standard 20-ft container. The engineered boat trailer doubles as a shipping cart and allows transport of the exceptionally stable USV at a reduced beam on the road or in a container. The Searobotics product line of USVs includes both 5.7-m and 11-m vessels, both of which can be used in arctic operations. SeaRobotics specializes in smart vessels that are remotely or autonomously operated as well as autonomous ship hull grooming systems. Its clients include major military and commercial organizations, both U.S. and foreign. SeaRobotics' marine survey software interfaces with most data acquisition hardware, software, and sensing systems to produce multispectral, DGPS-stamped data for survey, research, or surveillance efforts. Applications for SeaRobotics vessels range from bathymetric and hydrographic surveys to coastal, harbour, and riverine surveillance. SeaRobotics surface vehicles range from small, modular, man-portable systems to large, longendurance workhorse vehicles survey and surveillance systems.

The new Polyair material is bio-based. Made from sugar cane it’s the process of photosynthesis as the plant grows that makes this product carbon positive. The sugar cane actively captures CO2 from the atmosphere, while at the same time releasing oxygen – making this material not just green, but proactively green. For every 1 tonne of the new Polyair manufactured this means that 2.5 tonnes of CO2 will have been captured from the atmosphere.

Changes needed to 21st Century house design A fundamental review of housing design is needed if the UK is to produce successful low carbon homes of the future, a new guide by the NHBC Foundation advises. With new homes containing more technology than ever before, the housebuilding industry faces unprecedented challenges to build homes that achieve zero carbon performance whilst providing a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. There are concerns that new technology may not be delivering to its full potential and the drive to conserve energy could inadvertently invite other problems such as overheating and poor indoor air quality. The NHBC Foundation guide Designing homes for the 21st Century – lessons for low energy design explores the challenges of designing zero carbon homes and helps identify the processes needed to achieve cost effective and practical design. It finds that current design and procurement practices need to change if these are to be addressed. Neil Smith, Group Research and Innovation Manager, NHBC, said: "The challenges we face in designing homes fit for the 21st Century are clear. We need homes that achieve zero carbon performance whilst providing a comfortable and healthy indoor environment. In recent decades, the design of new homes has adapted to incorporate new features and new technologies through gradual evolution. But there are now questions about whether this is the right approach or whether we need a more fundamental review of housing design. This guide is intended to help designers and house-builders understand the need for holistic design which does not rely on a ‘business as usual approach’ with additional technologies bolted on."

+ For More Information SeaRobotics’ containerized 5.7-m USV to the NATO CMRE

80% of Businesses Don’t Recycle and Don't Care Firms filling landfill sites and resorting to illegal activity to get rid of their rubbish Many businesses have not got the message on recycling and send most, if not all, of their rubbish to landfill, a study by one of the UK's leading waste and recycling experts has found. According to BusinessWaste.co.uk, up to 80% of companies have no green policy in place and do not separate recyclable waste from non-recyclable. Many businesses, the study found, will not even sort paper, food and glass waste, despite the practice being widespread in domestic waste collections. "It reflects very badly upon us as a nation," said BusinessWaste.co.uk Jonathan Ratcliffe, Recycling Manager. "Other countries have forged ahead with commercial recycling, but a high proportion of UK companies seemingly can't be bothered and contribute to the 228m tons of waste we produce every year. Landfill is both wasteful and expensive," said Jonathan, "and businesses are hitting

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www.nhbcfoundation.org/21stCenturyhomes

themselves in the bank balance because of their inability or unwillingness to recycle. It's not a great step implementing a green policy, and it saves money almost from the start. At £72 per ton going to landfill, it soon adds up for companies that don't recycle.” BusinessWaste.co.uk found that the most common things businesses don’t recycling are: Paper and cardboard, Plastics, Electrical waste and old computers, Printer cartridges and Green waste for composting. The survey also found that some companies are prepared to break the law in order to reduce or eliminate their waste-handling costs. "We're well aware that some companies will still flytip in this day-and-age," said Jonathan, "but we've found some smaller businesses prepared to admit that they dispose of their waste at the household tip while posing as a member of the public. It's a dangerous game - companies that breach their waste management duty of care face unlimited fines if they get caught." Fortunately, the government is incentivising green policies and recycling through tax breaks for energy efficiency, and the landfill tax which penalises organisations that do not recycle their waste.


Eco Expo Asia continues to offer great green business potential in Asia

Growing environmental issues and strong government investment highlights unique market opportunities

Growing environmental issues and strong government investment highlights unique market opportunities

As countries across Asia continue to witness unprecedented economic growth, the region’s respective nations keep facing major challenges to the environment. Industry professionals and government officials have started to see the impact of these challenges, and have begun forming initiatives that offer a greener future to companies and individuals. Governments across South East Asia for example have created policies and programmes that aim to save between USD 15 – 43bn in power by 2020. While in the Chinese mainland, the government has pledged to invest USD 481.9bn in various green projects under the 12th Five-Year period.

Recognised as Asia’s leading green-tech exhibition, Eco Expo Asia will take place once again this fall at AsiaWorld-Expo in Hong Kong from 28–31 October. Developed with a strong commitment to the regional growth of green business, the annual show is organised by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd and the Hong Kong Trade Development Council, with co-organisation by the Environment Bureau of the Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Each year, the fair aims to highlight the latest breakthroughs in green products, services and technologies for use in a range of industries. It is also designed as a central meeting point for enterprises, governments and academic professionals to share, acquire and implement green solutions that offer economic and social benefits. This is made possible through the support and assistance of Hong Kong, Chinese mainland and South East Asian government departments as well as more than 30 local and international trade associations and government agencies. The 2013 show will focus on the four major areas of Waste Management and Recycling, Green Building Services and Solutions, Energy Efficiency & Energy and Eco-friendly Products. Currently, exhibitors from Canada, Chinese mainland, Czech Republic, Hong Kong, South Korea and Thailand have signed up to capture the region’s numerous green business opportunities. The eighth edition will host a number of renowned international greentech suppliers, including one of the industry’s biggest brands, Bayer MaterialScience. As a global leader in the green building sector, Bayer MaterialScience is planning to introduce its EcoCommercial Building Programme to green building professionals at the fair. Commenting on the programme’s track record, Dr Michael Voigt, Head of the EcoCommercial Building – Center of Excellence China noted: “The EcoCommercial Building Programme has already proven its success worldwide. The construction process itself involves the complete recycling of natural resources and the avoidance of waste, air, water and soil pollution.” |26| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

For Hong Kong, the two biggest environmental issues are waste management and energy consumption in buildings. While the region’s government is making considerable efforts to reduce total disposable municipal waste to less than 1 million tonnes by 2014, the region is greatly in need of new technologies at the industrial, governmental and individual levels. Strong demand can also be found for innovative solutions that can provide green efficiency in buildings, as approximately 90% of Hong Kong’s total electricity consumption is contributed by properties. For suppliers with innovative and novel solutions, market opportunities are growing year after year. And Eco Expo Asia continues to position itself as the regional platform for these suppliers to promote their latest solutions.

+ For More Information ecoexpo@hongkong.messefrankfurt.com exhibitions@hktdc.org, visit www.ecoexpoasia.com


JRHT appoints David Wilson Homes as developer to complete landmark Derwenthorpe housing scheme The Joseph Rowntree Housing Trust (JRHT) has appointed David Wilson Homes (DWH) as the developer for the remaining phases of its landmark housing scheme at Derwenthorpe in York. DWH, who were chosen as the developers for phase one, were appointed after a competitive tender process, and will build phases two, three and four for the £100m scheme. The remaining phases will see 425 new family homes built 253 available for sale and 172 available for shared ownership and affordable rent. Work has begun immediately, helping provide much-needed housing for the city and its residents. Just three homes in phase one are left to sell - DWH sold nearly all of them within a year of the first family moving in from April 2012.

BASF receives European Water Stewardship certificate BASF is the first chemical company to achieve gold-level certification according to the European Water Stewardship (EWS) standard for its production site in Tarragona, Spain. In order to attain this certificate, auditors of third party certification body TÜV NORD INTEGRA assessed the entire water management performance of BASF’s production site, from extraction of water at its source to its reintroduction in downstream water bodies. The European standard was developed by governments, businesses and NGOs under the leadership of the independent organization European Water Partnership (EWP) and became effective at the end of 2011.

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The application of the EWS standard aims to lower the quantity of water used by companies and farms while simultaneously safeguarding the integrity of local ecosystems within the vicinity of the site. The assessment includes more than 50 indicators, addressing the four principles of water stewardship: sustainable water abstraction, ensuring good water status, protection of high conservation areas and equitable water governance. Amongst others, the assessment requires a water recycling strategy and a cohesive crisis management strategy to be in place. “The Tarragona site fulfills the required criteria and receives the gold certification,” said Friedrich Barth, Vice-Chairman of the EWP. The production site is certified for a period of three years, during which water management on-

site is inspected annually. Bart Maes, General Manager of TÜV NORD INTEGRA congratulated BASF as international company with awareness of the utmost importance for water as a restricted resource of the future. BASF uses water as a coolant, solvent and cleaning agent, as well as directly in chemical production. The company has implemented the standard in order to promote its global water goals. By 2020, BASF wants to reduce the withdrawal of drinking water from supply sources for production by half compared with 2010. The emissions to water of organic substances and nitrogen are to be reduced by 80% the emissions of heavy metals by 60%, compared with 2002.


WiSe boost to UK's National Whale and Dolphin Watch

cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoise) - the largest and longest running of any in Europe.

A new link-up is set to see more marine wildlife watching boat operators than ever before take part in this year's UK National Whale and Dolphin Watch (NWDW).

Research Director Dr Peter Evans says: "As ocean waters warm we are anticipating changes in the species we see, and their distribution, as they, in turn, follow changes in distribution of their prey. By collecting more data at sea we will be able to spot early trends in distribution and abundance.

The partnership between Sea Watch Foundation, a national UK marine research and education charity, and WiSe (Wildlife Safe), which trains and accredits operators of marine wildlife tours, comes at a time when warming coastal waters mean changes in species numbers and distribution are predicted. National Whale and Dolphin Watch run by Sea Watch from July 27- August 3 collects data from land and sea around the UK to create a snapshot of the numbers and distribution of the many species of whales, dolphins and porpoises in the UK . Sea Watch Sightings Officer Danielle Gibas says: " The more data we receive during that period the more complete the snapshot around the UK. We would expect to record between 10-12 different species of whales, dolphins and porpoises, but every year there are also rare visitors to our shores, and the more eyes we have to the sea, the more we get to know about them. The data helps us to identify trends year on year."

"It is only by having a full understanding of the species around the coast that we can work with Government and other policy makers to develop truly effective conservation plans." The WiSe Scheme trains and accredits operators of registered passenger and charter vessels that offer marine wildlife tours, working with operators of service and support boats that may interact with marine wildlife, and liaises with organisations and members of the public interested in marine wildlife, especially those that actively use our coastal waters. WiSe Project Director Colin Speedie says: "Passengers choosing WiSe accredited operators for wildlife watching tours can be sure they enjoy wildlife without disturbing and endangering it. WiSE operators will also be actively contributing to scientific research.

The new agreement also means joint training events are being held to better equip more WiSe boat operators to provide Sea Watch scientists with reliable and detailed data throughout the year. Details of the training events are available via www.wisescheme.org and www. seawatchfoundation.org.uk. Those contributing data regularly will become part of a nationwide network of volunteers providing information to Sea Watch’s national computer sightings database of

+ For More Information www.seawatchfoundation.org.uk

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |29|


Tales from the Watercooler

AMEY ACHIEVES CHAMPION INVESTORS IN PEOPLE STATUS Keighley Laboratories Achieves Nadcap Merit Accreditation The Technical Services division of Keighley Laboratories has achieved world-class Nadcap accreditation for a Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL), a status recognised by the majority of global aerospace primes as a mark of quality assurance excellence. The West Yorkshire Company also gained coveted Merit grade, which rewards superior performance in Nadcap audits and reduces subsequent audit frequency. As one of the few Nadcap-accredited MTL facilities in the UK, Keighley Labs has been successfully assessed for the evaluation of aerospace welds, tensile, impact and bend testing, metallographic and micro indentation hardness procedures, and specimen preparation and machining. Combined with UKAS accredited testing and certification to many international standards and Civil Aviation Authority approval of in-house weld specimen supervisors, this confirms the company as a centre of excellence for weld testing, at a time when there is a Europewide shortage of the necessary expertise.

BSS INDUSTRIAL APPOINTS NEW HEATING AND RENEWABLES PRODUCT GROUP MANAGER BSS Industrial has appointed Vikki Horn as its new Heating and Renewables Product Group Manager, emphasising the growing importance of energy efficient products within industrial markets. Vikki, who joined the leading distributor in 1995 as a sales trainee, focused on bracketry and site support in her last role as Product Manager. Vikki is now tasked with developing the current range of BOSS products as well as working with key suppliers to expand the number of efficient heating solutions on offer.

UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has appointed Mark Aston as its new Technical Director Mark has over 25 years’ experience in developing profitable products from innovative technology. He has held senior director roles in engineering companies operating in the electro-optical and bespoke engineering market sectors, including traditional and solid-state lighting technologies. His role in Hanovia will be to implement new technology and product development programmes as well as consolidate planning for continuous improvement of Hanovia’s unique range of UV treatment products. Mark has a BSc (Hons) in Physics and Astrophysics, a DSc in Optical Physics and is a Chartered Physicist and Honorary Research Fellow of University College, London.

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Leading public and regulated services provider Amey has gained Investors in People (IiP) Champion status - just six months after it achieved Gold accreditation - for going above and beyond in the way it develops, supports and motivates its employees. The Champion programme recognises organisations that lead by example in the way they manage their people, as well as promoting the values and principles of IiP to other organisations. As an IiP Champion, Amey will work closely with its supply chain and other businesses in the sector, acting as a mentor, to provide advice and share people management best practice. The aim will be to help other companies drive continuous improvement and achieve IiP Gold. Amey is the only company in its sector to have been awarded Investors in People Gold, and subsequently Champion accreditation, across the whole of its business. Amey was praised and presented with Gold accreditation for its achievements across five core areas including:•

A culture of positivity

Effective TUPE management

Strong internal values that are genuinely lived and understood

Approach to health and safety - including its Target Zero programme

The Apprenticeship programme which includes partnering with the Duke of Edinburgh and committing to employing 2% of the workforce as Apprentices was recognised to be outstanding

JAGUAR LAND ROVER RECEIVES PLATINUM BIG TICK AWARD FOR OUTSTANDING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Jaguar Land Rover has been recognised with the highest ranking in Business in the Community’s (BITC) annual benchmark of responsible business management, the Corporate Responsibility Index (CR Index). Jaguar Land Rover has achieved a Platinum Big Tick, a new banding in the Index for 2013 designed to challenge leading companies on topics such as their long-term planning and the unique contribution their business can make to create transformational change and a sustainable economy. This is the fifth consecutive year Jaguar Land Rover has achieved an improved rating since it first participated in the CR Index in 2009. The announcement was made during BITC's Responsible Business Week, a UK-wide initiative introduced to raise public awareness of the powerful, positive role of business in society. As a result of its high score in the Platinum Big Tick Band, Jaguar Land Rover is now one of five companies to be shortlisted in the Responsible Business of the Year category in Business in the Community’s prestigious Responsible Business Awards. Winners will be announced at the awards gala dinner event on 2 July 2013 in London.


SILTBUSTER PROCESS SOLUTIONS APPOINTS NEW MANAGING DIRECTOR Siltbuster Group has appointed Paul Lewis as Managing Director of its SPS (Siltbuster Process Solutions) business, a new role created following considerable business growth. The appointment will enable SPS to realise its full potential in the water and waste water effluent treatment market. SPS has over the past 4 years been providing complete, high quality, cost effective and tailored mobile or permanent water treatment solutions to clients such as Premier Foods, Heinz, Chivas Brothers and Welsh Water. It works with the municipal, industrial, food and drink, agricultural and metaliferous water sectors to improve their waste water treatment processes, reduce related business costs and plan their effluent treatment strategies.

BBA CERTIFICATION PRESENTED TO KNAUF INSULATION Knauf Insulation’s rock mineral wool, ThermoShell® External Wall Insulation (EWI) system has received the prestigious BBA (British Board of Agrément) certification. BBA is the UK’s major authority, offering approval and inspection services to manufacturers, installers, construction products and systems. BBA certification is only awarded after systems or products have successfully passed a broad assessment involving laboratory testing, on-site evaluations and inspections of production. Knauf Insulation is pleased to announce that its ThermoShell EWI Rock Plus system has met all the requirements set out by the BBA under the European Technical Approval Guideline (ETAG) 004. The ThermoShell EWI system is a cost effective solid wall insulation solution ideal for a wide range of buildings, including low-rise residential properties, commercial buildings and buildings which are more severely exposed to the elements.

BURGES SALMON’S ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT TEAM MAKE UP TALENTED DUO Leading UK law firm Burges Salmon has made up two new partners from within its award winning energy and environment team this year. The promotion of two of Burges Salmon’s talented energy and environment lawyers - James Phillips and Nick Churchward - reflects continued growth in the firm’s energy and environment-related work and a growing client base spanning renewable energy, nuclear, waste, chemicals and oil and gas. James joined Burges Salmon as a trainee in 2001 and now provides regulatory and commercial law advice to developers, utilities, funders and government bodies across a wide range of projects in the renewable energy, nuclear and oil and gas sectors. He is also an experienced environmental law specialist, regularly applying those skills to the permitting and decommissioning of onshore and offshore installations. His clients include International Nuclear Services, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Seagreen and Meygen, putting James at the heart of some of the most exciting and innovative projects taking place in the UK today.

THE H&M CONSCIOUS FOUNDATION RECEIVES A DONATION OF SEK 500 MILLION FROM THE STEFAN PERSSON FAMILY The H&M Conscious Foundation, which was established in 2007 in conjunction with H&M’s 60th anniversary, is receiving a donation of SEK 500 million from the Stefan Persson family. The donation will now enable the charitable foundation to help even more people in need around the world. There will be a particular focus on initiatives that help achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for example, promoting children’s health and right to education. The donation to the foundation is aimed at bringing about improvements in the wider community, while H&M’s operations will continue to work actively to bring about improvements throughout the value chain. “The donation from our family will enable the H&M Conscious Foundation to carry out more initiatives on a greater scale in order to change and improve the lives of people in countries where H&M is present. We hope and believe that our donation will make a noticeable difference to many people and will help bring about lasting improvements,” says H&M’s CEO KarlJohan Persson.

Simon Alderson elected to chair BSIA’s Vacant Property Security Group Members of The British Security Industry Association (BSIA), the industry voice for security products and services, have elected Simon Alderson to chair its newly created Vacant Property Security Group. Simon is the Commercial Director for the vacant property specialists, VPS, one of the BSIA’s member companies. The Vacant Property Security Group has initially been working to create a Code of Practice for vacant property protection. The code of practice is for businesses that provide security measures and services introduced when a property is at an increased risk of criminal attack because of a change of circumstances in its occupancy. A typical vacant property, also known as a void or empty property, is a building that has been occupied but is temporarily not in use prior to a new owner or tenant moving in. Buildings that are temporarily unoccupied are more vulnerable to arson, burglary and vandalism. The code will cover the business arrangements and the need to have a clear agreement regarding responsibilities.

Nick is an energy projects specialist focused on the waste and environmental sectors advising funders, developers, local authorities and large energy users. Nick joined Burges Salmon in 2007 and is ranked in Chambers as a leading individual in the renewables space. His specialisms include advising on energy supply and power purchase agreements and he has pioneered the development of direct PPA structures. Nick's clients include Estover Energy, New Earth Solutions, Wessex Water/GENeco and Marks & Spencer plc who he has advised on its award winning Plan A direct PPA programme.

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |31|


Book Review When Dr Terry McKinley returns by chance to the Welsh village of his childhood holidays, to take part in the annual fishing competition, he arrives to find the competition cancelled and the river void of fish. Suspicions fall on a local factory up stream, but what at first seems like a straightforward industrial spillage quickly becomes more ominous and the consequences of Terry’s discovery have major global implications. Due to the incompetence of the government and a need to keep his discovery secret, Terry and his colleague Dr Maggie Ferris are apparently the only ones who can save the world. Author Stanley Salmons has produced a masterpiece in the well-established and increasingly important environmental fiction genre. A real breath of stale urine, NH3 is one of the most potent and riveting books I have had the pleasure to read for a long time. I was instantly intrigued by the unorthodox title and felt compelled to open the book and start reading. I then spent every chance I had over the following days engrossed in this gripping book. This fast paced, exciting novel has everything to keep the reader engaged: murder, intrigue and romance all set against the formidable backdrop of a global creeping death. The storyline is convincing and self-assured and at times the narratives are terrifyingly familiar. The news is filled with stories and phenomena that parallel the scenarios outlined by Salmons, giving this book a real vivid reality. Salmons obviously has a detailed understanding of the science behind this book but he does not use it to baffle or patronise the reader; he makes even the most complex situation comprehensible. His characters are well defined and believable and the world he has built up around them feels authentic. I feel like I’ve been in that village pub full of unwelcoming and suspicious locals. Alex Stacey Editor, Environment Industry Magazine

Jewson – committed to waste minimisation, working with Biffa Jewson is the UK's leading supplier of sustainable timber and building materials, with a national network of over 600 branches. In 2006, Biffa approached Jewson with a proposal to meet the company’s waste management requirements through a new streamlined national service. Biffa’s team worked closely with Jewson Head Office and Regional Managers to design a staged process to bring waste management costs under control. “Before Biffa approached Jewson we had projected significant increase in our waste management costs. With Biffa’s help, the company is now making considerable savings and is recycling more and more each year.” Over the last six years Biffa has worked with Jewson to make extensive savings through a combination of reducing landfill taxes and recycling rebates. The Biffa approach to delivering more

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By rationalising the management of waste under just one supplier and implementing a successful recycling scheme, Biffa has delivered extensive savings for Jewson.

Biffa Corporate Account Managers work closely with Jewson Head Office and Branches to ensure that improved waste management practices are replicated throughout the company.

Our contract managers develop close partnerships with our customers to truly tailor-made services.

Our customers are provided with a full set of documents to ensure sites meet strict legal requirements.


JASON DREW COLUMN

Save the rhinos To save the rhino we must stop the hand wringing do-good conservation nonsense and get busy finding 21st century solutions to the problem. We need to re-start trade in rhino horns, save human lives, create jobs and let capitalists save the rhino from otherwise certain extinction. Let me explain. The CITES blanket solution of banning trade in endangered species is archaic and born out of the 20th century antagonism between capitalists and environmentalists. The industrial revolution is over and the sustainability revolution has begun – conservationists and business need to work together to deliver a permanent solution to the issue. If they do not the rhino will be extinct within 20 years from now, and the only people to blame will be the conservationists and governments whose thinking is stuck in the past. It is estimated that in 1970 there were 60,000 rhinos in Africa and today there are nearer 20,000 - mostly as a result of habitation loss fuelled by the ban in their trade as their natural habitat is turned to more profitable cropland. The ban has been in place for over 30 years during which the main beneficiaries have been criminal poaching organisations. More rhinos were killed in the last 18 months than in the last decade. At the current rate, deaths will outstrip births by 2016, and yet we persist with policies that do not and will not work. Rhinos mainly exist in privately owned and national game reserves. Having a rhino attracts more visitors to a reserve so it has a tourist value. Rhino are regularly traded at annual wildlife auctions and fetch somewhere in the region of $30-40,000. Their value is falling as the danger of owning one increases. Every year over fifty game rangers are killed protecting endangered species. The problem is that rhino are worth more dead than alive – so a poacher will spend more time and resources trying to kill one for its horn than an owner can justify in trying to protect it. The price of a rhino horn on the

black market has stayed fairly stable at about $440,000 – over ten times the value of a live one. This market anomaly is created by governments and conservation groups in their misguided attempt to save the species. The price of rhino horn is a function of supply and demand. As the number of rhino decreases the price of the horns will increase. With normal goods this would dampen demand - however with rare things from diamonds to artworks, sky-high prices can make them seem even more attractive. With an increasingly wealthy Asian market the logical conclusion of extending the current ban on the trade in rhino horn is the animal’s extinction. Rhinos are in fact relatively easy to breed – all they need is plenty of space to be happy and mate. With some 20,000 rhinos in South Africa natural deaths could provide over 600 horns a year. Private rhino breeders could provide more by regular horn “harvesting”. This would also protect and increase natural habitat. A government regulated selling organisation could take a percentage of the revenue and plough it back into their conservation in the wild, and consumer education in Asia. Advertising that ridiculed consumers as munches of worthless toe nails might do the trick. That is after all what the horn is - creatine. This may over time reduce demand whilst financing their conservation and ensuring their survival. The South African government, as guardian of most of the world’s rhinos, is a key stakeholder. Visiting Africa to see the big four would be a major blow to its vital tourism industry. SA supports the restarting of the controlled trade in horns. It is the likes of the WWF, the Born Free Foundation and Governments without a vested interest in the survival of the rhino who oppose it - and will be to blame for the rhino’s extinction. Lets get busy repairing the future. Jason J Drew ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |33|


STEVE GRANT COLUMN

The birds and the bees? It's not difficult to see a point in the not-too-distant future where phrases such as 'the birds and the bees' or 'plenty more fish in the sea' will be consigned to history – and people such as Richard Benyon (Minister for Natural Environment & Fisheries) and Owen Paterson (SoS for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) will have had a lot to do with it. Minister Benyon was expected to deliver on a Prime Ministerial pledge to create marine conservation zones around our beleagured islands, and plans were drawn up for a network of 127 zones that would provide safe havens for fish and wildlife to the point where numbers – including commercial fishing stocks – would start to improve. Readers of this worthy periodical will already know that the situation is critical, and there is an undeniable need for such a strategy backed and underlined with overwhelming scientific evidence, including the clear conclusions of the government's own advisory panel which followed an £8M, two year research and consultation process. However Benyon has decided on creating only 37 MCZ's on the grounds that - wait for it – there is not sufficient scientific evidence. 86 scientists, including 31 professors, four Fellows of the Royal Society and five of the scientists who served on the Government's advisory panel, have put their name to an open letter accusing the government of 'falling far short' of their pledge. It quickly turned into a slanging match. Benyon was quoted in the Independent as saying "Rather than jumping on the bandwagon and lobbying Government, I'd ask these scientists to focus their attention on gathering more evidence so we can designate more sites in future." It beggars belief – and just as the reasonable man on the Clapham omnibus scratched his head wondering where the 'conserve' part of conservatism went, he learned that Owen Paterson had promised pesticide companies that he was going to intensify his efforts to block the ban on those pesticides identified as being responsible for the startling decline in bee populations. Whilst Cameron made comments such as 'we mucst protect our bee populations, or very serious consequences will follow', minister Paterson wrote to Syngentia stating that he was "extremely disappointed" by the European Commission's proposed ban. He said that "the UK has been very active" in opposing it and "our efforts will continue and intensify in the coming days". There is little doubt that neonicotinoid pesticides – which act as nerve agents – have a direct causal

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effect on the high losses amongst bee populations and other insects responsible for pollinating around 75% of all crops. Indeed, the evidence is such that even the Germans, home of pesticide giant Bayer, put their hands up, as did Bulgaria – not a nation well known for a positive approach to the environment. The efforts of companies such as Bayer and Syngentia are the stuff of screenplays. The European Food Safety Authority carried out an evaluation which was welcomed by the the European Crop Protection Association (sic) of which Bayer & Syngentia are members. However as the EFSA prepared to issue a report damning neonicotinoids, the manufacturers rounded on it, snarling and with teeth bared. Syngentia demanded changes to the press release on the grounds that it would harm their reputation, and threatedned legal action. The EFSA told them where to go, and Syngentia's lawyers demanded all documents, including email and handwritten notes. In a clear move to intimidate individual people, it told them that they were considering taking action against named 'defendants'. It appears to have come to nothing so far, but one can imagine the fear and discomfort felt by the people involved who were guilty of the sin of carrying out their task honestly and openly. In the event, the ban was successful with 15 countries backing the proposal, 8 against (including the UK) and four abstaining. It will be in place for two years whilst further in-depth evaluation is carried out. The USA – where the decline in bee populations is now catastrophic -– have quickly stated that they will not be banning the insecticides, stating that there is not enough scientific evidence. It strikes me that nations prepared to go to war on little more than rumour and the flimsiest of evidence demand impossibly stringent data to protect fish and bees, even though the fact of their decline isare there for all to see. Not enough evidence for MPZ's? Not enough evidence to ban neonicotinoids? If the conclusions provided by the bodies convened by governments themselves is not enough, then how much is enough?


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging 38 - 39

Sustainable African agricultural intensification - Sir Gordon Conway and Katy Wilson

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |36| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Sustainable African agricultural intensification Sir Gordon Conway Professor of International Development at Imperial College, London Katy Wilson, Editorial Officer, Imperial College London

Agriculture is both a victim of the massive environmental changes the world is experiencing - climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation and pollution - and a culprit. On the one hand, agriculture is reliant upon the world’s natural systems be they soil, water or climatic, and our ability to produce food is thus affected by their modification. While on the other, agriculture is responsible for many of these changes, depleting soil fertility, polluting waterways and emitting greenhouse gases. What we need is an approach to agricultural production that is simultaneously productive, resilient to shocks and stresses as well as minimally impactful, and one that even contributes to environmental services such as fostering healthy soils, water purification and carbon sequestration. In short, we need “Sustainable Intensification”. The global community has witnessed over the past fifty years an agricultural ‘Green Revolution’ across many regions of the world. This intensification process has seen food production increase exponentially – feeding billions of additional people around the world – typically in step with a significant increase of external inputs such as fertilisers, a significant emitter of agricultural greenhouse gases. In Africa, however, the picture is very different. Crop yields have not increased significantly in 50 years. Only 4% of African farmland is irrigated. The carbon footprint of African smallholder farmers, who produce the majority of the continent’s food, is low, and problems of eutrophication and other forms of agricultural pollution are less prevalent than elsewhere in the world. Nearly 23% of the African population is classified as hungry and 40% of children under five years old are stunted due to malnutrition. In addition, the region’s population is expected to almost double by 2050. Based on present trends, the current African food production system would only be able to meet 13% of the continent’s food needs in 2050. Africa, more so than anywhere else, holds significant potential for increasing food production and reducing hunger. But current systems of agricultural intensification are insufficient at simultaneously addressing food security and environmental needs. A report authored by the Montpellier Panel, outlines a new system of agriculture, one that allows smallholder farmers to grow and sell more food, that is resilient to changes in natural systems and one that contributes to the planet’s sustaining |38| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


ecosystem services. Authored by a group of eminent experts in the fields of agriculture, sustainable development, trade and policy, the report outlines how Sustainable Intensification can be made relevant to smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Maize yields have been boosted, while at the same time decomposition of the tree’s leaves into the soil sequesters carbon. It is these win-win examples Sustainable Intensification encompasses.

Entitled Sustainable Intensification: A New Paradigm for African Agriculture, the report redefines Sustainable Intensification as “producing more outputs with more efficient use of all inputs – on a durable basis – while reducing environmental damage and building resilience, natural capital and the flow of environmental services”.

If Sustainable Intensification is to meet both current and future food and resource needs we will need to utilise existing methods, such as zai and Faidherbia, as well as develop new game-changing technologies.

termites during the dry months. The termites in turn create an extensive network of underground tunnels beneath the holes and bring up nutrients from the deeper soils. When the rainy season finally arrives, rainwater is captured in the zais which are sown with sorghum or millet seed. Farmers have consistently reported greatly increased yields using this technique.

Intensification. In particular, farmers must have access to fair and efficient markets and be part of remunerative value chains. Farmers’ cooperative associations can assist smallholder producers in marketing their products and receiving higher prices by helping to centralize access to credit and stocks, offering better quality of storage facilities and increasing farmers’ bargaining power.

Another example of ecological intensification is that of Faidherbia albida, a leguminous tree which curiously sheds its leaves in the wet season, thereby providing a natural nutrient source to crops planted underneath while allowing for sunlight to pass through during the growing season.

Despite promising cases, many examples of Sustainable Intensification in Africa are small in scale and scope, and geographically isolated. What we need now is to link, combine and take to scale existing proven technologies, processes and systems while investing in new solutions for the future. ■

An on-going project, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa

“producing (WEMA) partnership, aims to develop some 15 new And while this may seem a tall order, the report lays out drought-tolerant maize varieties, which will be more outputs promising examples of Sustainable Intensification marketed royalty-free to smallholder farmers in in action under the headings ecological Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and with more efficient use intensification, genetic intensification and Tanzania. Developed through conventional socio-economic intensification, many of which marker-assisted selection and of all inputs – on a durable breeding, are the brainchild of the very smallholders at genetic engineering, the next phase of the the frontline of food insecurity. project is developing maize varieties also basis – while reducing resistant to pests such as stem borers, which For instance, some 200 million sub-Saharan pose a greater threat to agricultural environmental damage and may Africans face serious water shortages. productivity under a changing climate. Among these are farmers living in the dry, sunbuilding resilience, natural Some have criticised older definitions of baked, encrusted soils of northwest Burkina Faso. In response to water scarcity, they have Sustainable Intensification because of their capital and the flow pioneered a novel method of conserving water highly technological focus but in this new report, on their farms by digging medium-sized holes socio-economic factors are equally emphasised. of environmental called zai (or water pockets) in rows across the Technological measures must be coupled with fields during the dry season. Each zai is allowed to fill the development of an enabling environment services” with leaves and farmers then add manure, which attracts conducive to the generation and adoption of Sustainable

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |39|


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality 42 - 44

Emissions monitoring - Antti Heikkil채

46 - 47

EfW seek customised lime-based APCr solutions - James Ng

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |40| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


² O N

Antti Heikkilä, Gasmet

Emissions Monitoring Why FTIR? Multiparameter gas analysis with FTIR (Fourier transform infra-red) has become extremely popular for the analysis of emissions, industrial processes and ambient air. However, the capital cost of FTIR is relatively high, so in this article, Antti Heikkilä from Finnish FTIR instrument manufacturer Gasmet, explains why this technology is more effective, easier to use and has a lower lifetime cost than other options. Emissions monitoring Historically, continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) were used to control combustion processes by monitoring emissions of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. However, the role of CEMS has been considerably expanded to encompass the measurement of pollutant gases to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These regulations are continually evolving; some emission limit values have been lowered and new compounds have been added to the list of requirements for certain processes. Every time a new compound is added to the list, process operators with traditional analyzers have to purchase a new monitor, so there is a major financial incentive to employ multiparameter technology such as FTIR, because no further capital cost is necessary.

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Other applications for FTIR Most of the applications mentioned above involve the analysis of hot wet gases. However, Gasmet has developed a unique portable version of the FTIR analyser that has been designed specifically for ambient monitoring. This instrument (Gasmet DX-4040) is able to produce laboratory levels of accuracy in the field, for almost any gas. The portable ambient FTIR costs more than most portable gas detectors, but with a library containing thousands of compounds it brings laboratory grade analysis into the field and has proved very successful in a variety of applications. For example, the Environment Agency in England has purchased multiple units for the multi-agency air quality cell that was established in 2009 to provide a rapid response to major incidents such as chemical leaks, fires and explosions. SEPA has purchased units for a similar purpose in Scotland, as have regulatory bodies in many other countries around the world.

Multiparameter analysers are generally more expensive than single parameter analysers. However, the cost comparison moves in favour of multiparameter as more gases are measured because the purchase cost of several individual analysers is likely to exceed the cost of a single FTIR analyser. In addition, the cost of ownership for FTIR is much lower because it does not need expensive re-calibration and the requirement for consumables is minimal. Gasmet’s FTIR CEMS simply require a point calibration with Nitrogen (background), which just takes a few minutes and is required once per day. Water vapour calibration is performed after every major maintenance operation and at least once per year. However, under normal circumstances no other calibration is required, which contrasts greatly with the army of span gas bottles that are required with most other monitoring systems. The Gasmet CEMS is typically configured for the measurement of H2O, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, N2O, HCl, HF, NH3, O2 and TOC. However, users can also select from a library of several thousand other species. Many process operators have chosen multiparameter FTIR because it provides them with the option to add further gases at a later stage – 'future proofing' their monitoring capability. The accuracy of CEMS is particularly important for environmental protection and because monitoring results have major financial implications for process control and abatement efficiency. Rigorous performance requirements for these systems are therefore specified by formal certification systems such as TÜV and MCERTS – Gasmet CEMS are certified to these standards and also fulfil the requirements of the QAL 1 performance test according to EN 14181 and EN ISO 14956. |44| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

In addition to fixed CEMS that monitor gases extracted from individual stacks, Gasmet has also developed transportable FTIR CEMS that employ exactly the same measurement technology in a format that can be easily transported from site to site. Benefitting from the same certification, these systems are most commonly employed by test houses to check the performance of installed systems. A variety of factors affect the choice of analyser, but the regulatory requirement is of course the most significant. A coal fired power station for example, may only be required to monitor SO2, NOx and CO emissions, whereas a municipal waste incineration plant will have to monitor other parameters such as organic compounds, HCl, HF, etc. FTIR is ideal for process operators that need to: 1) Analyse multiple components, or 2) Analyse hot/wet gas 3) Analyse any gas in complicated gas mixtures Gasmet has developed an enormous library of reference spectra, each of which contains both quantitative and qualitative information about the components, which means that users are able to analyse their own samples retrospectively if a new parameter becomes of interest. The flexibility of FTIR to analyse new gases without the need for new hardware is particularly advantageous for manufactured products and processes which often change and necessitate an adjustment to the monitoring strategy. A further benefit of continuous process monitoring is that it provides an opportunity for feedback control of the process and/or the creation of alarms.

This ability to detect unknown gases has resulted in the use of FTIR in a wide variety of applications. For example, entry to freight containers at ports represents a significant hazard to staff responsible for inspection, stuffing or destuffing because of the large number of airborne chemicals that can be present. It is therefore necessary to examine containers before entry and FTIR gas analysis has dramatically improved the speed and effectiveness with which containers are assessed, because this technology enables the simultaneous measurement of the 50 gases of most concern. As governments respond to the challenge of climate change, it has become necessary to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in order to establish an accurate inventory and so that the effectiveness of mitigation and reduction actions can be measured. As a result, the facility to add GHGs to the parameters monitored by a CEMS is extremely useful and almost cost-free. However, other applications have emerged, such as the measurement of GHG emissions from farm animals. Globally, livestock are responsible for about 15% of GHG emissions so many researchers have employed Gasmet FTIR analysers to measure the emissions from cattle. In other similar applications researchers have employed FTIR to measure GHG flux in soils. From Gasmet’s perspective it appears that the applications for FTIR are almost limitless, because the company’s staff are constantly surprised and fascinated by the new enquires that are received every day from all over the world. However, the choice of analyser for process, ambient or stack monitoring is dictated by a wide range of factors that can have a substantial effect on the cost, so it is often helpful to obtain expert advice before making an investment in monitoring technology. For this reason Gasmet invests heavily in technical support, which is provided through its own offices and via a worldwide network of highly trained distributors. ■

+ For More Information

www.gasmet.fi


James Ng, Sorbacal Product Manager, Lhoist UK

EfW seek customised lime-based APCr solutions

The Energy from Waste (EfW) sector is forecast for significant growth over the next decade and beyond due to the pressure to increase recovery rates for non-municipal waste streams, new research reveals. This is underpinned by the EU Landfill Directive target for 2013 which necessitates an increase in waste recovery rates and a major increase in infrastructure investment.

Buxton-based Sorbacal plant

Growth is predicted to stabilise in the short term before accelerating once more to meet key 2020 targets. Large numbers of EfW combustion and incineration plants are subsequently in the development pipeline, including eight new EfW plants to be built in the next two years and at least 23 more planned for the next five years. This expansion and convergence with the energy sector, via EfW power generation, continues to attract new players into the UK waste management industry. Over the medium to longer term, key EU targets for landfill diversion and renewable energy mean that, regardless of the economic situation, central government, local authorities and businesses must address waste reduction and recycling objectives. To compound the issue, and to reduce land filling capacity in the UK, Landfill Tax will increase by |46| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

ÂŁ8 per tonne, up to arguably an unsustainable ÂŁ80 per tonne by 2015. This all adds up to significant increases in the disposal of large volumes of residual waste, namely Air Pollution Control Residue (APCr). APC residue is fine powder and the by-product of cleaning up flue gases from high temperature processes. They are generated by EfW facilities, combined heat and power (CHP) plants, glass production, paper recycling and bio-energy plants e.g. straw, wood and chicken litter fuelled power plants. The powder consists mostly of alkaline salts plus traces of heavy metals and dioxins and consequently APCr is classified as hazardous waste. It must therefore be pre-treated and neutralised before being disposed of in an appropriately permitted landfill site.

eight new EfW plants to be built in the next two years and at least 23 more planned for the next five years


Mined lime As the volume of APCr grows more successful technological solutions are being developed, to replace the traditional methods of gas scrubbing which use sodium-based sorbent. Sodium-based APCr has presented specific problems for companies engaged in hazardous waste treatment as a large percentage of the residue is water soluble and causes problems for landfill disposal. This is due to the production of higher concentrations of leachates which often need further treatments. As a result, there is now a trend to move back to lime-based reagents, which have been found to be more efficient and costeffective from a treatment and disposal perspective. Most of the EfW plants in development are therefore now focusing on using lime as their gas scrubbing reagents, fundamentally because Calcium-based APCr is less soluble and the residues from its subsequent treatment are better suited to emerging recycling technologies. This significantly decreases the volume of waste and therefore reduces disposal and haulage costs.

Lime-based APCr contains minerals that are extensively used within the construction and concrete products industries

One such product is Sorbacal from the world’s leading producer of lime products, Buxton-based Lhoist UK. Sorbacal is a range of Calcium-based reagents, which focus on the optimisation of lime usage whilst ensuring compliance of the acid gas emissions limits. This is dependent on the type of flue gas treatment process, and the Lhoist team offers in-depth technical guidance. Lime-based APCr contains minerals that are extensively used within the construction and concrete products industries. Soluble chloride species produced during the abatement of combustion gases however present a specific barrier to the potential reuse of the residues. Recent developments within the waste management industries have led to the establishment of commercial facilities designed to remove the chloride from the residues and produce aggregates suitable for reuse. Other recycling methods, based on various technologies such as vitrification and re-carbonatation, allow Calcium-based products to be processed by UK based companies and sold in different markets such as building and civil engineering. Thus, the use of tailored, recycling solutions for the disposal of APCr, along with optimisation of combustion processes using fine-tuned Sorbacal products, can significantly reduce costs for both lime purchase and disposal of the residues. The process therefore maintains emission levels but uses less, but specialised, lime and therefore reduces costs and the environmental footprint. â–

+ For More Information

www.sorbacal.co.uk

jamesng@lhoist.com

Buxton-based Sorbacal plant ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |47|


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation 50 - 53

Ban on selling invasive non-native aquatic plants - Trevor Renals

54 - 55

Commercial forestry practices can improve biodiversity - Richard Hands

56 - 58

Isle of May gets civil engineering makeover as part of tourism plans - Euan Ferguson

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |48| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Trevor Renals

Ban on selling invasive non-native aquatic plants On 29th January 2013, the Defra announced their intention to ban the sale of five invasive non-native aquatic plants from April 2014. The plants are: • Water primrose Ludwigia grandiflora. L. peploides and L.uruguayensis; • Floating pennywort Hydrocotyle ranunculoides; • Parrot’s feather Myriophyllum aquaticum; • Australian swamp stonecrop Crassula helmsii; • Water fern Azolla filiculoides. |50| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

New regulation restricting trade is hardly a popular move at present, so what provoked this response? The proposal first surfaced in the ‘Review of Non-Native Species Policy’, completed by Defra in 2003. The horticultural trade successfully argued for a voluntary code instead, which gave rise to the ‘Horticulture Code of Practice’. The code achieved limited recognition by the industry, although a relaunch in 2011, coupled with the ‘be plant wise’ campaign in 2010, did reduce the availability of the most damaging aquatic invasive plants within the trade. In that same year, Defra also published ‘The Economic Cost of Non-Native Species to the British Economy’, which revealed the true cost that these plants, and other non-native invasive species, were having on GB. The report identified that one of the five, floating pennywort, cost GB over £25m per annum alone. The cost to the trade is likely to be minimal. Few people specifically seek out these species for their ponds, and many who have had previous experience of these plants specifically seek to avoid them! They are often invasive in gardens, as well as in the wild, which is why they have so often been dumped, or ‘released’, into the


environment. It makes better economic sense to sell relatively expensive, slower-growing species. So, why choose these five species? The selection dates back to the Defra consultation on the review to Schedule 9 to the Wildlife & Countryside Act 1981 and the ban on sale of non-native species, which took place between 8 November 2007 and 31 January 2008. The consultation demonstrated strong support for the proposed additions to animal and plant species listed in Schedule 9. There was also strong support for a ban on sale, with between 70.4% and 91.1% of responses favouring a ban on the listed animals and between 74.5% and 87.2% support for the listed plants. The justification for a ban on sale was reinforced in May 2009, when market research revealed that 79% of aquatic plant retailers had sold one or more potentially invasive species from a list of seven plants surveyed (Wildlife Management and Invasive NonNative Species – report of research findings among the general public, anglers and the horticultural retail trade). There was good evidence of impact by these plants, based on risk assessments commissioned by the Non-Native Species Secretariat, and a growing acceptance within the trade that the continued sale of these species could not be justified.

Australian swamp Crassula helmsii

stonecrop

Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii) was introduced from Tasmania to Britain in 1911. It was first sold as an ‘oxygenating plant’ in 1927. The first occurrence in the wild was reported in Essex in 1956. In recent years,

it has spread much more rapidly due to the increased availability of the plant at garden centres and aquatic nurseries. It is now widespread across the UK. It is sometimes referred to as Tillaea recurva, Tillaea helmsii, or New Zealand pigmy weed. The plant is easily dispersed and, although not always sold by suppliers, it is often found as a ‘contaminant’ with other water plants, or growing on the compost of potted aquatic plants. Introductions to new sites are associated with a wide range of human, water-based activities, and awareness and education programmes can dramatically reduce transport of the plant between sites. Local dispersal is aided by the high viability of small fragments, which can be carried on mud to new sites. The success of Crassula lies mainly in its ability to colonise virtually any suitable static to veryslow-flowing freshwater habitat across a wide range of water chemistry. It has vigorous, yearround growth, and can grow equally well either on damp ground or in water up to 3m deep.

Parrot’s feather aquaticum

Myriophyllum

Parrot’s feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) is a native of lowland central South America. It was first found in Britain in 1960 and has now spread extensively, particularly in southern England. It grows in ponds, reservoirs, gravel pits, streams, canals and ditches, particularly in nutrient-enriched water. Only female plants are established in the UK and it therefore spreads by vegetative means only. The stems are brittle and the plant propagates by growth from small stem or leaf fragments. The plant can form a dense mat across deep mud and water, which can create the impression of firm ground and present a hazard to children or animals. ►

Few people specifically seek out these species for their ponds, and many who have had previous experience of these plants specifically seek to avoid them!

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |51|


Floating pennywort ranunculoides

Hydrocotyle

Floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) is native to America. It was first brought to Britain in the 1980s as a plant for tropical aquaria and garden ponds, and was first noted in the wild in Essex in 1991. Floating pennywort grows in the shallow margins of slow-flowing nutrient-rich water bodies (particularly ditches, slow flowing dykes and lakes), and forms dense interwoven mats of vegetation. These quickly cover the water surface interfering with both the ecology and amenity uses of the water body, and create a hazard to children and animals. These mats grow up to 15m from the bank in a single season, with stem growth rates of up to 20cm per day. Floating pennywort can double its wet weight in as little as three days.

Creeping water primrose Ludwigia grandiflora Creeping water primrose has recently been sold in the UK as a pond and aquarium plant. It is traded under a variety of names, including primrose willow and Jussiaea. Its correct taxonomic attribution is equally confused and Ludwigia grandiflora, L. hexapetala and L. peploides are among the names that have been applied to it. Creeping water primrose is a perennial plant that emerges in spring and extends across water and mud, producing round or oval leaves. The stems extend vertically over summer and produce a distinctive yellow flower, approximately 3cm across, in July–September. |52| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Creeping water primrose thrives in ponds, lakes, watercourses, wetlands and wet meadows. It has currently been recorded from twenty-one sites in the wild.


Creeping water primrose thrives in ponds, lakes, watercourses, wetlands and wet meadows. It has currently been recorded from twenty-one sites in the wild. All of these infestations are either being managed, or are believed to have been eradicated. Whilst it has only caused minimal damage to our habitats so far, we know from the situation in France, Holland and Belgium that this plant has the potential to cause serious damage to our aquatic environment. An economic study estimated that Ludwigia could cost the UK over £150m per annum if it were allowed to establish. Whilst it is unlikely that you will find creeping water primrose in the wild, it is very important that any sites at which it is found are reported promptly so that control can be undertaken. This plant is known to be widespread in ornamental gardens and therefore likely to

occasionally appear in the wild if it escapes from ponds or is disposed of inappropriately.

Water fern Azolla filiculoides Azolla is believed to be the only floating fern in the UK. It looks similar to duckweed, but it is comprised of fronds with a crinkled edge, rather than smooth flat oval or round leaves. The fronds also turn red in autumn, or when the plant becomes stressed. This plant can form a dense carpet that creates a hazard for children and animals. Dense mats also cause deoxygenation problems for submerged plants and fish. Azolla is a common contaminant of the water baths used to contain aquatic plants at garden centres. It contaminates plants and their compost, thus resulting in the unwitting introduction of this species to new ponds.

After April 2014, a person will be guilty of an offence if he ‘sells, offers or exposes for sale, or has in his possession or transports for the purposes of sale’ any of the five plants. It will also be an offence ‘to publish or cause to be published any advertisement likely to be understood as conveying that he buys or sells, or intends to buy or sell’ the five listed plants. Offences should be reported to the relevant Police Wildlife Crime Officer. If you encounter these plants growing in the wild, an easy way to record their presence is by means of the PlantTracker mobile phone application, which is free to download from the Nature Locator website. This app allows you to submit geo-located images of a variety of nonnative species for verification and recording. This information can then be used to support national control programmes and research into management. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |53|


Richard Hands, ACE UK CEO

Commercial forestry practices can improve biodiversity An RSPB study has confirmed that certified forestry practices can help improve biodiversity in commercial forests, explains Richard Hands, CEO of the Alliance for Beverage Cartons and the Environment (ACE) UK As consumers, we’re faced with so many environmental messages about the products we buy that we could be forgiven for not seeing the proverbial “wood for the trees”. One of the roles of manufacturers and retailers is to help us make the right choices. For the beverage carton industry, this choice is wood. Our cartons are mainly made from wood fibre, a renewable material. We believe that using renewable materials is preferable to using non-renewable ones, where possible, and that ultimately society’s future depends on its ability to harness renewable resources. Of course, sourcing from nature brings with it a high degree of responsibility – a responsibility that we take very seriously. The wood fibre used by ACE UK’s members – Tetra Pak, Elopak and SIG Combibloc – to make beverage cartons in Europe comes mostly from forests in the Nordic countries. Increasingly, these commercial woodlands are independently certified and managed according to sustainable forestry standards, which our suppliers practise with passion. Additionally, all the mills that produce our paperboard have certified traceability systems in place. Our industry takes great care to minimise its footprint, and that of its products, but it continually looks for improvement and encourages the same throughout the supply chain. |54| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The beverage carton industry’s commitment to environmental responsibility lies behind our decision to commission the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) to undertake a desk-based study to establish the effects of certified forestry practices on biodiversity in forests in Britain and Ireland. We were keen to gather together an accurate picture of the commercial forestry’s contribution to biodiversity, as well as an understanding of how it can be improved.

The research In Britain, basic standards of sustainable forestry are maintained in all forests by the UK Forest Standard. Higher levels of sustainable management practice are certified by two bodies: Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes (PEFC) – both of which use the UK Woodland Assurance Standard (UKWAS) for their audits. By systematically reviewing 83 relevant published UK sources, the study looked at the specific sustainable forest management and planning practices, set out by UKWAS, and their impacts on biodiversity. The RSPB’s objective was to review the effects of forest design and management techniques typically carried out in certified forests in Britain and Ireland on species richness, community composition and species abundance. The review process enabled the RSPB to draw conclusions about specific forestry practices.

Clearfelling and coppicing Clearfell – removal of all trees from an area chosen for harvesting – and replant as a forest cycle increases biodiversity in forests by providing temporary open space. This leads to either an increase in number of species, or their abundance. Young replanted stands in particular provide a distinct set of species that are not found in forests or open non-forested habitats.


In a coppiced wood, young tree stems are repeatedly cut down to near ground level, which encourages multiple new shoots to emerge from the stump. After a number of years these can be harvested and the process repeated. Like clearfell, coppice systems provide temporary open spaces within forests. However, because they are cut on a much shorter cycle and the area cut at one time is smaller the result is a greater proportion of young age classes present in the forest and a smaller scale of variation in forest structure. The evidence, therefore, is that coppicing generally has a positive effect on both plants and birds.

Tree species The impact of the selection of tree species on biodiversity is complex as each species often has a particular range of invertebrates associated with it. The density of canopy foliage, which affects light levels on the ground, and chemical composition of the litter layer, also has an impact on the biodiversity associated with plantations of individual tree species. Mixtures of tree species do not add any value to biodiversity, other than that associated with the individual tree species.

Open space Providing open space to enhance forests for biodiversity is the area with the most associated research. What this research shows is that the presence of small open spaces within forests has a positive effect on all groups of biodiversity apart from mosses and woodland plants. The size of this effect is influenced by the amount of light reaching the ground within these small open spaces, therefore wider roads and rides, as well as larger glades, are recommended to maximise biodiversity gains. The shape of open space has less effect than its size.

Habitat restoration Another well-studied practice is habitat restoration, which aims to bring land back to its original habitat prior to afforestation. Removing tree cover has a positive effect on ground flora, with more species and greater cover of species associated with the desired restoration habitat than prior to conifer removal. Where comparisons are made with habitats that have not been afforested, the restored areas are poorer in target species than unmodified habitats.

Specialist enhancement Few studies record the effect of management aimed at enhancing specialist forest biodiversity. Removal of non-native trees from semi-natural woodlands that had been converted to plantation succeeds in increasing abundance of ancient woodland ground flora species. Maintenance of broadleaves within conifer plantations retains some species associated with broadleaf forest within large areas of conifer plantation. A single study found that there is greater diversity of bird species in conifer stands retained beyond age of economic maturity. There are no studies recording the effect of increasing dead wood volumes.

Afforestation Afforestation of open land is the forest practice that has had the largest impact on biodiversity, as it often results in conversion of an open semi-

natural habitat to managed forest. A consistent message from studies across a number of plant and animal groups is that many specialist species of open habitats that were afforested are lost and replaced by generalist or widespread forest species. For most groups this results in fewer species in the forest than the original habitats. Another effect is that the open habitats have distinct communities dependent on the particular habitat such as bog, grassland or heathland. The communities of forested habitats meanwhile are more similar between sites than those of the original open habitats. Afforestation has had negative effects on most taxa and based on the habitats most commonly afforested in the twentieth century there are few positive effects recorded. A crucial point to note at this stage is that most studies of afforestation were carried out prior to the introduction of forest certification standards. Afforestation carried out under current standards is much less likely to occur on habitats of high conservation value.

Implications for sustainable forest management The research showed that forestry practices, such as clearfelling and replanting, coppicing and even widening roads and enlarging glades, can all have a positive effect on biodiversity in commercial forests. It is also clear that these positive effects would not be present if forests were planted as large monocultures and left unmanaged. In terms of ensuring forests are managed sustainably, there are three key implications that emerge: •

Firstly, new plantations should avoid planting on habitats considered to be of high conservation value. Where these have been afforested in the past, removal and the reinstatement of previous habitats should be considered. •

Secondly, some open habitat species can be sustained within forests by providing sufficient open space through wide roads, rides and glades. • Thirdly, policy guidelines are favouring changing from largescale clearfell towards more selective harvesting to maintain greater tree cover where appropriate.

Conclusion At a time of i n c r e a s i n g demands for natural resources, such as wood and wood products, it is important that we leave space for biodiversity within forests. In managed forests, producing raw materials for industry, we can use our knowledge of the effects of management to maximise the value of these sensitive ecosystems. We hope that the findings of this study will be useful to forest practitioners and those who procure forest products in the UK and beyond. By scrutinising our own business practices, the beverage carton industry helps retailers and manufacturers to assure consumers that paper-based packaging using sustainably-sourced fibre is a responsible choice, which means that forests, and the species that depend on them, will thrive. Doing so successfully will ensure that forests remain a renewable resource for generations to come. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |55|


Euan Ferguson, Managing Director of Hatrick Bruce

Isle of May gets civil engineering makeover as part of tourism plans Working on environmentally sensitive sites such as nature reserves is always an engineering challenge. It is even more so when that reserve is on a island in the Firth of Forth, access is required during the rough winter weather and tides have to be factored into any work. Specialist civil engineering firm Hatrick Bruce, part of the Fife-based allservices Purvis Group, has played a leading role in demolition works on one of Scotland’s most inaccessible and environmentally sensitive nature reserves on the Isle of May. The Isle of May lies about 7 – 8 kilometres offshore, south-east of Kilrenny in the Firth of Forth and just off the coast from North Berwick. The island is an important research centre for breeding seabirds such as puffins, guillemots and razorbills, as well as the grey seals that pup here in autumn. The contract with Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH), which manages the island, has involved a military-style approach to planning in order to bring heavy plant onto the island to demolish and crush a large concrete structure that dated back before World War1 and had been found, after extensive surveys, to be structurally beyond repair. It is all part of SNH’s plans for its new visitor centre. The island is a national nature reserve and attracts over 9,000 visitors every year to what is a site of world importance for seabird colonies. In this type of work, environmental and wildlife requirements have to take precedence over engineering: engineering has to fit in with the rhythm and ebb and flow of nature, and rightly so. It means that great emphasis is placed on past experience of project delivery on designated sites and on the ability to demonstrate innovative sustainable practices. Communication with wildlife experts is also key to the process and has to be evidenced |56| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

in tendering documents. Meeting health and safety criteria and providing value for money are of course central considerations too, but they have to be seen in the wider context of an engineering company’s environmental approach and experience and how they are applied to a particular locality. Work undertaken on the Isle of May had to be slotted into two possible ‘windows’ between breeding seasons. The period from March to August and into September is the season for seabirds to breed and raise their young, whilst the period from mid October to mid December is the seal breeding season, and a time when the harbour is covered with seals which can be seen pupping even on the jetty itself. The period identified for work was January through to early to mid March. This is one of the most tempestuous times of the year in Scottish weather, and, as we all know, this year has been no exception. Briggs Marine were commissioned to bring in heavy plant and equipment that included a 20 tonne excavator, hydraulic breaker and crushing units, dumper and twin skin fuel bowser by barge, a very delicate operation given the extremely difficult landing and access facilities. Access to the harbour is available only during very high tides and when the wind is from a westerly direction. That is in itself restrictive enough, but it also has to be combined with times when the water swell is relatively light. Getting all these conditions in harmony and at a time of year when there were no


Environmental and wildlife requirements have to take precedence over engineering: engineering has to fit in with the rhythm and ebb and flow of nature, and rightly so. seals congregating in the harbour was no mean feat. In this context, being ‘local’ is also of prime importance: it’s about understanding the conditions on islands and in remote locations in Scotland. Hatrick Bruce are used to working in some of the most inhospitable environments. In Scotland, these conditions can be found even within a few miles of major population centres such as Edinburgh, Glasgow or Stirling. Engineering operations have to take account of this and be flexible and responsive in terms of manpower, equipment and timings. Working on the Isle of May meant that the right high-tide conditions came around for only three days in every fortnight. High-tide conditions alone were still, however, not enough: the swell had to be less than 2 metres, and the wind had to be from a westerly direction. Loading the barge was a 3-day operation in itself, involving loading equipment by crane that included a 21 tonne excavator. This was done in a non-tidal dock in Burntisland, with operators and other personnel going out to the island separately by a ribbed vessel similar to a lifeboat. Apart from meeting the logistical challenges, the whole operation had above all to work around the island’s wildlife and the raft of designations that protect it. There are designations for coastal grassland and thrift and sea campion that grow within metres of the demolition site. Gulls and terns nest within 20 to 30 metres, with terns nesting on either side of the access track.

Consideration also had to be given to what was going on below ground where there were puffin burrows, all very much in use. Each burrow takes the birds one breeding season to excavate; so it was vitally important to avoid any disturbance here too. In practical terms, it meant that the footprint of the site had to be minimised, with all work and associated activity being carried out in narrow confines. A large part of the work over the four-day project period involved demolishing and crushing a building that was originally a coal store for the whole island. The coal was also needed for the island’s coal-fired steam engines, housed elsewhere on the island, which generated electricity for the first electric lighthouse in Scotland. The coal store was subsequently used as a tractor store for the island’s old Ferguson grey tractor. SNH carried out extensive surveys of the building before its demolition, which clearly showed that the building, although structurally sound, was well beyond any economic repair having weathered over 100 years of exposure in a harsh sea-salt environment. The results of the surveys removed any possibility of incorporating the building into the new development. The building was a combination of concrete, ductile iron, iron columns and steel roof beams with a barrel-vaulted roof. Demolition was carried out progressively, starting at the entrance and moving through the building so that waste materials could be processed systematically. Care was taken to remove valuable and attractive granite setts from the floor for re-use ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |57|


Specialist equipment brought in included a crusher used to process circa 300 tonnes of concrete from the tractor shed to create hardcore for the new visitor centre. elsewhere. Careful progress was the watchword of operations generally – in terms of wildlife, the nature of the building and proximity to other services. The building was very close to the island’s waste water treatment plant and all associated pipework had to be protected. Specialist equipment brought in included a crusher used to process circa 300 tonnes of concrete from the tractor shed to create hardcore for the new visitor centre. This was a project where the choice of equipment was critically important and brand new equipment was used to minimise the risk of any breakdowns and leaks of oil and hydraulic fluid: a leak of a gallon of hydraulic fluid can spread out over an acre of water. All fuel and liquids were transported and stored in double-skinned containers, and spill-kits provided additional back-up. Purvis Group’s low-loader fleet was used for delivering all materials and plant to the dockside as part of the 3-day operation to get plant on the island. Various attempts had to be made before the right weather and tide conditions were met for the right length of time. Hatrick Bruce are fast becoming leaders in reverse demolition projects for new construction developments. This meant that no additional quarried aggregates were shipped in and brought on-site, and no waste demolition materials were shipped off the island, with the exception of aluminium and wrought iron. The crushed building was processed to provide the right grades of hardcore for the new visitor centre and for footpaths on the island. This represented a positive environmental impact and an economic benefit as well in the form of no waste disposal costs and no new material costs. Crushing had also to be carried out in such a way as to minimise dust, again by creating the right grade of aggregate. The choice of equipment was central to creating the right product: aggregate had to be no larger than 70mm and all the concrete was double-processed. |58| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Working in an island environment involves adopting a different mindset. It is not possible to ‘get rid’ of waste, and machinery cannot simply be called in at a moment’s notice as it can on the mainland. In ‘island thinking’, the first port of call is to ask if there is anything on the island that can be used to do something else. This was the starting point for the recycling of the tractor shed and it led to almost all materials from the building being re-used on the island. It was the Group’s expertise in working in marine and wildlife environments, its understanding of local conditions and its ability to adapt to the environment in all senses that led to it being selected to carry out the work on the island The Isle of May story encapsulates, I believe, the need for engineers to understand the complexities of the environment and local infrastructure. Environmental engineering is not just about technical expertise, but about working with a client’s local staff and with their knowledge base. Communication and understanding are at a particular premium in such work, and the little things matter. Detail is everything: from getting logistics right, to protecting species and habitats scrupulously through sustainable and careful practices. On the final day of the contract, I felt particular pride to see one of the Purvis team wash down the jetty even as we were leaving, using the crane bucket to scoop seawater. It is this level of commitment that is needed in this work where environment dictates the engineering and not the other way around. ■


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy 62 - 63

Energy: The Next Generation - Frans Van Den Heuvel

64 - 66

2030: an energy and economic landscape ripe for UK businesses? - Wayne Mitchell

68 - 71

All-Energy 2013

72 - 73

Enzygo comments on the energy potential of fracking in the UK - Peter Cumberlidge

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |60| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Solar PV New build

Frans Van Den Heuvel, CEO, Solarcentury

The energy debate is now so often full of doom and gloom. With bills going up dramatically, it is easy to feel powerless. Now the time is here for consumers to take control of their energy. â–ş

Energy: The Next Generation Solar PV old build By that, I mean nature is an asset. How dependent are you on its resources? How much do you consume? Whether one runs a country, a company or a family, we all must manage our relationships with energy, fuel, water and waste. Our success, our wealth and competitiveness depend upon it. Sustainability is not news, neither is energy getting expensive but it only seems to be hitting home now.

Let us remind ourselves that energy powers our society and modernising energy modernises us. How else do we get to the slick, digital lives that we are promised in sci-fi? We leap forward with the next generation of energy, our catalyst for modernity. So while there is anger about bills and fear about climate change, these are the pains of growth in a new direction. We are the fortunate ones to be involved in the third industrial revolution. The next generation of energy is bringing about a paradigm shift. It alters the way we view ownership. It is no longer just about financial and social capital but also, natural capital. |62| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

The paradigm shift does not stop with our attitude. In fact, this is where it begins. What greatly alters is our role as energy consumers. We become both energy producers and consumers, or what I like to call Prosumers. This is truly modern. Traditionally, our energy producers were utility companies. Traditionally, our energy retailers were utilities. But now the man on the street is producing and retailing energy as he feeds it into the grid. It is happening now in the UK - there are solar panels on roofs, both residential and commercial. Energy has begun the process of decentralisation. Next is the transition to smart grids and energy storage in the home and car. You will be a producer, a retailer and a storage unit for electricity; you are truly decentralised.


This we know already. But what I see for the future is a kind of energy internet, a synergy amongst prosumers. One business has a big roof so installs many panels to be the local producer, the neighbouring factory has highenergy use from all of its equipment and so has additional consumption requirements. And the local electric cars act as a storage unit, a battery for the community. This requires local optimisation of production, consumption and storage behind the electricity meters, at customer level. A Distributed Network Operator (DNO) manages the midand low-voltage grid, avoiding congestion. Once we produce 15-20% of our electricity locally, the grid in regions like Europe and the US will become unstable due to congestion. IT technology, creating a smarter grid, can prevent it becoming unstable, saving billions in grid extensions investments for DNO’s. In addition, it will enable the Transmission System Operators (TSO) to balance the grid more effectively as consumers will automatically use or store electricity that would otherwise be surplus and sold at a loss. Of course, for this to happen the right regulatory framework needs to be put in place. We are bombarded with the idea that the shift to renewables will cripple our economy. However, so far this has not happened in the UK. The UK has increased its share of renewables in electricity from 5.0% to 9.4% since 2007. According to OFGEM, the Feed-inTariff (FiTs) subsidies have so far added less than £1 per annum per home. The Renewable Obligations (ROC) has added £21 per annum per home. These figures are for all renewable technologies. Whereas we have seen an average increase of £100 per home in energy bills just this year, mainly due to exposure to volatile energy markets. The price of fossil fuels is only moving in one direction - up.

We all must manage our relationships with energy, fuel, water and waste. Our success, our wealth and competitiveness depend upon it.

If we look to the experience in Germany, we can see they have 20% renewable electricity at a cost of £34.50 per annum per home. The impact of local generation of energy through solar PV (photovoltaic) has been overwhelmingly positive. The Germans have installed over 32GW of solar PV. This contributes energy during daylight hours when there is greatest demand for electricity (known as the peakload). Normally, this is when electricity is most expensive. However, the peak-load price of electricity has fallen from 58€/MWh to 44€/ MWh, a fall of nearly 25% since 2008 because of the impact of decentralised PV and wind, benefitting consumers and businesses. The solar industry is also credited with creating over 100.000 jobs in Germany. I envisage a new network of prosumers. How will we, our appliances and our cars interact with each other and the grid? Much has been promised and much confusion surround smart grids and what they can deliver and how they change our lives. But really what is being rolled out now is only a fraction of what is needed. It is the difference between an old-fashioned landline telephone and an iphone. The former is attached to the home and offers no insight into the user. What happens behind the landline, nobody knows? On the other hand, the mobile has become a vital channel for collecting data on users. With this data, companies can offer solutions, offer new products and services, making peoples lives better. The smartphone is one of the most important pieces of technology in our lives and helps drive and sustain business in the 21st century. This is what is needed with the grid, not just the dumb ‘smart’ meter that is being offered now. These reveal nothing about the behaviour of the house, the appliances consuming the energy or the people in charge. We need to know what happens behind the meter so we can offer advice on how to act, how to save energy, how to be efficient. Then, we can buy energy off the grid when it is cheapest not just when we

use it. With this information, we make our lives better. We modernise. Sure, we have lost some of the old ways of doing things with the digital revolution but it has created much growth and many jobs for the young generation. And so, we must open up the untapped market behind the meter and let business and innovation flourish there. The mood is set now for change. The next frontier is grid parity, which is already hitting parts of Europe. For solar PV, what is important is the intensity of light (irradiation) as opposed to temperature of the sun. It does not need to be hot, it just needs to be light to generate PV power. Different parts of Europe and the UK have different levels of light intensity. The more intense the light, the more energy is produced and the more money the solar panel generates. At present the cost of generating solar PV energy is more expensive than gas in the UK, which it competes with for the peak-load market. However the price of a PV install has plummeted in the last two years, and as the price of the panel drops, it reaches grid parity (the same price as gas or less), starting with areas with highest irradiation and the most expensive conventional energy. According to the McKinsey report, Darkest Before Dawn, solar PV will reach grid parity for the UK around 2014 in many residential and commercial circumstances. PV has already reached parity in some developed markets, including parts of California, Spain, Italy, Australia and The Netherlands. In 2011, global power investments totalled 203GW of electricity, almost 50% of which is renewable. This percentage is substantially higher if we consider only European investments. This staggering trend confirms that an energy transition is taking place. The next generation is all around us. A beautiful sunrise after a long dark night. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |63|


2030: an energy and economic landscape ripe for UK businesses?

Wayne Mitchell, Industrial & Commercial Markets Sales & Marketing Director, npower

For businesses dealing with today’s challenges, 2030 can seem a long way off. However, as Wayne Mitchell, Industrial & Commercial Markets Sales & Marketing Director at npower discusses, UK businesses should act now to prepare for 2030, as we explore three potential scenarios each with very different consequences. npower commissioned The London School of Economics to produce a report looking at the future of energy and the economy for UK businesses, and what the potential operating landscape may look like by 2030. It revealed some interesting scenarios, highlighting the importance for organisations to take action now to protect themselves from the potential risks associated with energy.

A fragile future The npower Future Report, ‘Energy and the economy: The 2030 outlook for UK businesses’, investigates both economic and energy related factors from a global, European and UK perspective. It reveals three potential scenarios UK businesses could be facing by 2030, and the fragile future of the UK energy industry if the investment needs are not met. With the crucial role energy plays in the operation of businesses across the UK, any changes in the market can have a significant impact, so it is important to assess what those changes may be and how companies may be affected. To better appreciate the scenarios, it is important to understand the context. Firstly, the report takes into account an uncertain economic future. This includes factors such as the fast growth in emerging economies, which is likely to continue as they catch up with developed countries. However, as their incomes rise, their growth will begin to slow. Furthermore, as Europe’s population ages, its economic growth rate could slow, perhaps to 1.4% per annum by 2030. It also acknowledges that Europe’s future will be influenced by many choices on regulation of financial markets, labour and competition.

The report then considers the changing energy situation. The global rate of growth in electricity demand has been falling for four decades but electricity consumption is still set to double between 2010 and 2035. The price of gas in Europe remains both higher and more uncertain than in the US, pending policy decisions on allowing the production of gas from European reserves. Gas, however, will displace coal in Europe because it is lower carbon per unit energy. Despite this, a much more rapid expansion in renewable power is expected. Finally, The London School of Economics took into account evolving environmental concerns. The UK has committed itself to cutting gas emissions by 50% by 2025. Therefore, electricity generation will have to be carbon-free within 15 years. Even though the UK has tied its hands through legislation, investors remain nervous, since political signals are mixed and future administrations could untie the knot. We will see other countries, including emerging markets, passing climate legislation, but an international agreement may remain elusive for some time. By the 2020s, observed climate signals, for example the melting of the Arctic summer ice, could be strong enough to visualise the risks of climate change and trigger an international response. In light of this, the report examines the three potential scenarios and their implications. From continued austerity to a sidelining of carbon emissions reduction targets in favour of cheaper energy sources to power the UK and businesses, the report shows how a number of factors will shape what 2030 will mean for UK plc. ►

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Scenario 1: Hitting the target The first of the report’s scenarios is the projected plan for the UK’s energy market. However, it requires a high degree of political cohesion and direction, supporting record levels of investment in the industry (up to £330bn by 2030) and driving down carbon emissions. This scenario is made possible by a recovering Eurozone and UK economy; more trade integration; specialisation; a focus on green growth and productivity gains; and recovered financial institutions. This scenario also sees the EU remain a market leader in low-carbon technology. Here, we see the power industry in 2013 serviced by a substantial offshore services sector, building and maintaining offshore wind turbines and carbon dioxide piplelines and platforms. It is onshore, domestic shale gas production that has made a significant contribution to the UK energy supply. This is echoed across many northern European countries, although most of Europe’s gas remains imported.

Scenario 2: Gas is key

Short-term price gains by relying too heavily on gas power are followed by environmental problems from missed carbon targets in the second scenario presented in the report. The presence of gas-fired capacity slows down needed structural change, and necessitates costly action when carbon constraints bite. This scenario depends less on what happens economically in the Eurozone and internationally. However, there will be less committed political action in Europe on carbon emissions reduction, fewer productivity gains and more fractured trade patterns. The Eurozone will still eventually recover, but the momentum is with Asia, which is catching up with Europe in productivity and growth. The investment required to deliver this scenario is much lower than for ‘Hitting the target’. This scenario shows a dash for conventional plant during the 2010s and for a decade the greening of the power sector is a lower priority than economic growth and competitiveness. This direction changes sharply in the early 2020s, after the economy has recovered and the Eurozone has stabilised, in response to committed international agreement to tackle global warming, creating a galvanised political will in the UK to address climate change. The result is a programme to retrofit the relatively new gas-fired power stations with carbon capture and storage which, by the end of the 2020s, has converted up to a quarter of the conventional plant.

Scenario 3: Austerity reigns The third scenario is less optimistic about the economic and technology outlook. Confidence and therefore investment are low, but less is needed due to ongoing Eurosclerosis and continued stagnation in the UK. The grid ages and upgrades are not driven by a need to accommodate renewable energy. Some technologies like carbon capture and storage (CCS) and shale gas fail technologically or otherwise are not delivered. In the meantime, the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China) countries motor ahead. Here, the lowest cost options are pursued, with carbon prices remaining in place at a low level, ensuring that new coalfired power stations are being built but being insufficient to support any low-carbon technologies, including nuclear power. The investment total for this scenario is around £50bn below the ‘Gas is key’ scenario, at around £130bn.

A balancing act

So what action can businesses take now?

The report reflects upon the need for a balanced focus on economic growth and investment in the energy infrastructure to deliver a low carbon and strong UK economy. For this to happen, it reports that up to £330bn investment in the UK energy market infrastructure is required to secure supply, hit carbon emissions reduction targets and protect the UK economy by 2030.

There are several steps businesses can take to mitigate their risk:

Even a slight change of emphasis in policy, a weakening economic picture or a preference for cheaper energy sources over low carbon energy generation could result in very different operating environments for UK businesses. In addition, the report reveals how the long-held figure of £200bn of investment by 2020 – recognised as being key to a secure energy future – may be significantly short of the amount required by 2030. This is essential to ensure UK businesses have the best conditions for them to operate within and allow for maximum competition. In light of this, it is crucial that the UK energy industry, Government and businesses work collaboratively to ensure this level of investment is secured and foundations are set for economic and environmental prosperity by 2030. Action must be taken now to secure this investment and everyone has a role to play in this.

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1.

Managing energy well and making it a strategic issue is vital. By ensuring board level support for energy management and procurement and including energy in business planning, companies can be sure it will receive the levels of investment and focus required.

2.

Organisations should have a focus on energy efficiency and make good use of selfgeneration energy technologies. This will enable businesses to not only reduce energy use and associated costs through an effective energy management programme, but it will also mean they can take advantage of potential savings and revenue generation through self-generation. For example - companies can benefit from selling back surplus energy they produce to the grid.

3.

UK businesses should also follow policy developments and understand the implications for them. Linked to this is the need for organisations to take action and help protect against future energy risk by joining the call for a level playing field across the energy industry to help attract investment, and being ready to commit decarbonising the energy supply.

The npower Future Report clearly shows there is still uncertainty as to what the future will bring for UK businesses, but to ensure they can remain competitive and protect themselves from risk, there is a need to act now. ■

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Full report available at http://bit.ly/FutureReport


All-Energy 2013 – It’s the place to be! •

It’s unmissable

It’s the AGM of the renewable energy world

It’s where busy people come to do business

For two days every year, Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre plays host to All-Energy, the UK’s largest renewable energy exhibition and conference. This year’s event, which also focuses on all-important business energy efficiency, takes place on Wednesday 23 and Thursday 24 May. Registration to all component parts of the show – exhibition, conference and Giant Networking Evening – is free to all with a business/professional interest in renewable and sustainable energy, and increasing their organisation’s energy efficiency. Register at www.all-energy.co.uk. Last year’s show was a true record breaker; indeed, every show in the series (first event held in 2001) has been bigger in every way than its predecessor. All-Energy 2012 attracted 8,322 people from 49 countries to its major exhibition with 580 exhibiting companies from 19 countries and over 300 presentations in the conference and seminar programmes. This year’s exhibition is physically larger than last year’s and the scene is set for those records to tumble yet again.

Exhibition features Sector-specific trails were introduced for the 2012 event. These proved a win:win for visitors and exhibitors alike – exhibitors saw who they most needed to, and visitors could pre-plan their visit by using the information on the web, and pick up a useful trail guide on arrival to help steer them to their “must visit” stands. This year there are a dozen trails to be followed - bioenergy, energy efficiency, hydropower, investment, jobs, low carbon transport, offshore maintenance, offshore wind, onshore wind, renewable heat, solar power, and wave and tidal. There’s a new and invaluable feature this year, The Energy Hub - sponsored by The Crown Estate at this year’s All-Energy. “I am particularly delighted to be |68| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

able to announce an important new feature, The Energy Hub, sponsored by The Crown Estate,” says Jonathan Heastie, Exhibition Director, Global Group Renewables and Alternative Energy of Reed Exhibitions Ltd, organisers of All-Energy. “This is a centrally placed business lounge on the exhibition floor where the key stakeholders in the renewable energy industry will be able to network and conduct business meetings. We are similarly appreciative that The Crown Estate is once again sponsoring the offshore wind stream of the conference, which will run throughout the two days, and also the offshore wind trail around the exhibition.” There is even more information on the All-Energy website this year than ever before – exhibitors can load videos, product brochures and as much useful information as they want to help visitors pre-plan their time at the show in advance of their two busy days in Aberdeen.

World-class conference The 2013 event will get off to a flying start on 22 May, with keynote addresses by the Rt Hon Edward Davey MP, Secretary of State, at the UK’s Department of Energy & Climate Change and Fergus Ewing MSP, the Scottish Government’s Minister for Energy, Enterprise and Tourism, Lady Susan Rice CBE, Managing Director, Lloyds Banking Group Scotland, Huub den Rooijen, Head of Offshore Wind Energy, The Crown Estate, and Benj Sykes, UK Country Manager, Wind Power, DONG Energy, A second plenary session opening Day 2 will look at The Future of Energy, and newly introduced lunchtime sessions feature Strathclyde University’s Professor Sir Jim McDonald on the first day and an Energy Market Reform Question Time on Day 2. Throughout the rest of the time, the conference divides into nine sessions, with topics coming under the conference spotlight encompassing all relevant topics from offshore and onshore wind to carbon capture and storage; wave and tidal to geothermal; energy efficiency to renewables for farmers and for communities; hydrogen and fuel cells (including a full day organised by H2FC (Hydrogen and Fuel Cells) Supergen) to the grid; bioenergy to funding; and much more. Adding all the sessions together there will be over 85 hours-worth of conference sessions.


The full programme is on the All-Energy website; all the conference sessions are free to attend without any booking necessary. There will also be on-exhibition-floor seminar areas, sponsored by ABB, devoted to offshore wind innovative technology; wave and tidal; and business energy efficiency technology and case histories. These will run throughout the show. Additionally on Tuesday 22 May there is an interesting programme of associated events, details on the conference area of the AllEnergy website.

Endurance Wind Power will be introducing the X-29 225kW Wind Turbine to the UK market. An E-3120 nacelle will be on their stand - the E-3120 50kW turbine is their flag ship product and the largest fleet in its size class. They will also highlight ERIC – Endurance Remote Interface Center – with demonstrations of their online interface that allows their turbine owners to view the electrical production of their turbines in real time.

GNB Industrial Power (UK) Limited will demonstrate their innovative Modular Energy Management System for both on and off grid applications. This battery storage system is modular in design and based on a twenty foot sea container which acts as a compact and low cost battery room - the ‘Energy Module’ and a ten foot container for the AC/DC converter and AC grid connection - the ‘Power Module’.

Houlder, highlighting their marine design consultancy, offshore projects and engineering and marine equipment capabilities, will feature their award-winning personnel access system already operating on UK wind farms, and an innovative pair of gripper arms that support the installation of offshore wind turbines by keeping foundation piles in place as they are driven into the seabed.

Industrial and Power Association - The IPA will be combining with a number of imember organisations to present a real mix of what it takes to develop an energy project in the current UK and international marketplace. They will have a legal team, consultants, engineers and suppliers from their membership available on the stand to talk about visitor and exhibitor’s particular needs.

JSP Ltd will focus on three products – the Evolution helmet range, Forceflex spectacles, and the Force8™ twin cartridge half mask. JSP is Europe’s leading independent manufacturer of industrial head protection and “above the neck” Personal Protective Equipment.

Konesko AS is exhibiting their “TUGE 10 HV” small wind turbine, 10kW on-grid upwind solution. It has an 18 or 22m tubular hydraulic lift tower, permanent magnet synchronous generator, lots of safety features and an eye-catching design. This marks the launch of the Konesko turbine to the UK market. They are looking for distributors!

In response to the emerging demand from their customers, and in association with their partner Auriga Energy Ltd, Linnet Technology Limited has developed a hydrogen fuel cell backup system - the AurigaGen. This, minus the hydrogen fuel cell, will feature on their stand. ►

What can you expect to see? All-Energy 2013 will feature 580 or more exhibitors from up to 20 countries showing a wide range of products and services relevant to all sectors of the renewable and sustainable energy industry. Many exhibitors will take advantage of the ability to use the All-Energy website to load their brochures, photographs, press releases and videos in order to produce a “virtual exhibit”. The organiser’s own “What They’re Showing” preview, which is regularly updated on the website, gives a flavour of what can be expected. As we went to press information had only just started to come in. Closer to the time it assumes tsunami proportions and the online preview runs for tens of pages, helping visitors pre-plan their visit alongside the ‘trail’ information. Let’s whet your appetite with some of those early submissions: •

Acksen Ltd, the manufacturer of the Electrocorder Data Logger product suite, will launch the addition of a number of new test and measurement data loggers for the renewables market. These new DC data loggers will record patterns of directional flow of energy, onsite solar irradiance, charging circuits, photovoltaic cells, DC motors and much more.

Carbon8Lighting will have a wide range of Carbon8Lighting fittings on display including the latest LED floodlights, low bay lights, their latest 2013 high bay lights, plus movement and light (photo) sensor control systems for factories/warehouses, as well as lights for offices and all forms of business. The majority of their customers are businesses upgrading from existing fittings to LED technology, with many seeing a return on investment periods of less than 9 months.

Consuta Training has recently been approved by Germanischer Lloyd for their latest course on Blade Inspection and Repair, and will feature a section of repairs on blades. They are currently the only provider of blade inspection and repair training for the wind industry.

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |69|


Northern Power Systems, a leading manufacturer of distributed wind turbines, will be exhibiting a full-size turbine nacelle on their stand. Measuring 2 x 2.3 x 4m, this will give visitors the opportunity to see Northern Power’s pioneering direct drive technology up close.

nühasu GmbH - The nühaus POD System provides the main components for the Zero Waste Scotland, Resource Efficient House at the BRE @ Ravenscraig. They manufacture offsite, under factory controlled conditions, to deliver a super energy efficient dwelling, which minimises waste during construction, maximises performance in terms of build quality, speed of construction and life time cost.

REpower UK’s aim is to provide customers with the optimal wind power plant for every location. They will particularly feature their 3.XM and 6M turbines, and also exhibit their MM82 and MM92 models.

RUD Chains Ltd, a leading manufacturer of chain components and systems, will showcase their latest innovation, RFID Radio Frequency Identification Technology, as well as their extensive range of lifting and lashing applications.

Tech27 Systems Ltd will highlight their DMS – Deck Management System. DMS can significantly reduce operation costs, improve deck space utilisation and supply vessel usage.

What makes All-Energy so special? All-Energy is where the sectors of which the renewable energy industry is comprised have the opportunity to speak with one voice. It’s where all renewables come under the conference spotlight, and are represented in the major exhibition. Annually, it promotes the advancement of renewable energy, and associated clean technology, in all its forms (with that ‘dark horse’ energy efficiency added to the mix) by engaging the political, business, industry, finance communities and academia to drive innovation, business and investment opportunities in response to the growing need for sustainable energy.

Networking is key All-Energy’s Giant Networking Evening is legendary. Held the first evening of the show, visitors and exhibitors alike are invited to follow the sound of the bagpipes played by Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group’s Renewables Champion, Iain Todd, to the Boyd Orr Hall within Aberdeen Exhibition and Conference Centre where a reception takes place and ‘bowl food’ is served. |70| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Barriers are broken down by a range of fun attractions - a cash bar operates, and as the Giant Networking Evening comes to an end, coaches are on hand to return up to a thousand participants to their hotels, and to Aberdeen city centre.

Be there! Each year All-Energy provides an unparalleled opportunity to see the latest cutting edge solutions, hear about policy and technology developments, source new partners and suppliers, participate in networking events and keep up-to-date with this rapidly evolving and increasingly important sector. You miss it at your peril! All-Energy is held in association with RenewableUK, Scottish Renewables, AREG – Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group, and UKTI – UK Trade and Investment, with The Society for Underwater Technology as its learned society patron. It is supported by nearly 30 government departments, development agencies, professional bodies and trade associations. www. all-energy.co.uk. ■


Floorplan

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www.all-energy.co.uk

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Peter Cumberlidge, Director, Enzygo

Enzygo comments on the energy potential of fracking in the UK

Peter Cumberlidge, Director at Enzygo, one of the UK’s leading environmental consultancies, believes that fracking could be the silver bullet to help solve many of the UK’s current energy issues.At Enzygo we are convinced that fracking has the potential to deliver a cheap and secure long-term supply of unconventional gas that would enable the UK to be self-sustainable for perhaps at least a century.

seismic activity that might require reassessment or suspension of operations. In order to safeguard our natural resources and ensure their sustainable management, operators will also be required to obtain a licence from the Environment Agency to abstract water for use in the drilling process.

Enzygo, in its role as a specialist, multidisciplinary environmental consultancy, has already successfully secured for clients the only two UK fracking licences, both from the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), for sites in Dumfries & Galloway. These were, however, put on hold whilst the Government pondered its decision on giving the green light to the hydraulic fracking market following the attribution of seismic activity to fracking operations in Blackpool in 2011. Following research conducted on behalf of the Department for Energy and Climate Control, and subsequent consultation with the Environment Agency, on 13 December 2012 the Secretary of State announced that exploratory hydraulic fracturing for shale gas could resume in the UK.

Although we must of course be mindful of environmental concerns, our experience and specialism in this sector means that any permits and licences that we obtain can only bring economic benefit to the country. We recognise that producing shale gas is a comparatively extensive industrial process with a relatively large environmental footprint. It is vital, therefore, that any serious hazards, including the potential for air pollution and for contamination of surface and ground water, are successfully addressed and that any fugitive greenhouse gas emissions are minimised both at the point of production and throughout the whole supply chain.

Regulatory requirements for operators seeking to obtain a Licence / Permit for fracking must also give due consideration to associated seismicity risks. The Regulators require a review of the information available for the area on seismic risk and any faults, a risk assessment, seismic monitoring before, during and after the fracturing process and the implementation of a “traffic light” system to help identify any unusual

The opportunity that fracking of onshore gas reserves now affords the UK is hard to ignore, particularly when you consider that increasingly, as a nation, we have less control over the supply and price of our gas. In 2011, for the first time since large scale gas extraction began, UK imports exceeded production. Recent Government policy announcements in the 2012 Autumn Statement and in the new Gas Generation Strategy, indicate a continuing strong role for domestic gas production and support for on-shore shale gas extraction. Certainly there is a requirement for further research into the carbon footprint and climate risks associated with not only the extraction but also the use of shale gas. Similarly, it is vitally important to identify categorically any pathways of groundwater contamination by chemicals used in the extraction process. Any evidence available from the practices prevalent in the US has been anecdotal to date but would certainly suggest that there are risks, particularly associated with the construction of the drilling wells and the prevention of accidents on the surface, that require particular attention. In the UK the Government has noted that hydraulic fracturing, water injection and lateral drilling, whether individually or in combination with each other, are all familiar technologies that DECC and other regulators have been dealing robustly with for many years. Drilling for gas, whether shale or any other type of gas, is a complex operation that requires careful and consistent regulation. Providing it is fully regulated and our blueprint for extraction is followed, then fracking should create no further risks than the extraction of other minerals. Despite the environmental concerns raised over the last few months, fracking in the UK is already far more regulated than it is in the US and the negative comparisons being made are, in our opinion, unjustified. There is no doubt some of the experience in the US has demonstrated the harm that can be done without proper environmental safety procedures and regulation but should not be the case in the UK with the correct controls and regulation. At Enzygo we believe that the permitting and licensing processes applicable in the UK today demand the highest standards for site safety and environmental management and control. Furthermore,

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technological advancements in the field mean that fracking development in the UK can utilise state-of-the-art fracking techniques which offer both safer and more tightly controlled processes. In the United States, regulatory control of fracking has historically been more relaxed and open to exploitation, not least because individual land owners in the US have guaranteed rights to minerals beneath their land. In contrast, the situation in the UK is far more regulated, whereby the mineral rights are owned by the Crown and can only be accessed through the granting of licences. The concept of fracking began nearly 200 years ago in the United States, yet the US Environmental Protection Agency has only recently commissioned detailed studies to assess the cumulative environmental impact of such operations in response to increased public concern. Fracking here has been widely used in the drilling of many types of minerals including the extraction of conventional and unconventional gas and oil fields, as well as hydrothermal wells to extract hydrocarbons. In many regions of the US, underground injection is the most common method of disposing contaminated drilling fluids or other substances from unconventional gas extraction operations. Although the re-injection of fluids can be an acceptable form of disposal, if not tightly controlled this could have serious consequences and the potential to contaminate groundwater reserves below the surface. A major factor contributing to Enzygo’s successful applications has been down to our proposal to use the nitrogen foam fracking method. Typically, fracking involves the use of large quantities of hydraulic fracture fluids which contain a number of different chemicals that are included to improve the efficiency of the operation. Foam fracking, on the other hand, not only uses fewer chemicals but also uses two-thirds less fluid which means the operation has far less environmental impact. Enzygo’s applications have also included site specific operational plans which provide for micro-seismic monitoring to be undertaken during the fracturing operations to give an image record of the fracture geometry and to “calibrate” the fracture growth model. This provides complete control and the ability to cease fracking immediately if seismic activity were to rise above normal fracking levels. Our applications have proposed to dispose of spent fracture fluids by containing the liquid in above-ground tanks to be sent off for onwards disposal. Our applications, therefore, do not include underground re-injection of spent fluids. The Government has recently commissioned the British Geological Survey to estimate the amount of shale gas available in the UK, although this is unlikely to reflect the reserves that can be economically recovered. However, in a real life example of where the potential gas resource benefits of fracking have been quantified, it has been estimated that the reserve at Bowland Shale, Lancashire, would alone reduce our demand on gas imports by as much as 27%, leading to an average, and unignorable, £3.3bn per annum of the UK’s trade balance being transferred from debit to credit. Over the course of the next 16 years it is estimated that up to 800 wells in Lancashire alone might be drilled, which would be sufficient to extract shale gas around 10 times more than the gas discovered under the North Sea.

At the peak of its demand, the UK requires a supply of 60GW of power; yet, over the next year, nearly 12GW of production is to close, the majority of which has historically been supplied by old, coal-fired power stations. As UK residents, our pockets continue to be squeezed by escalating prices of gas, electricity and fuel; our US counterparts, however, have experienced a reduction in the price of their gas by around 70% since the widespread introduction of fracking shales in 2008. So far our focus has been mainly on shale gas extraction, but we recognise that the UK also has rich seams of coal bed methane (CBM) which is far easier to extract as it sits closer to the Earth’s surface. There are already advanced plans for the extraction of CBM in the Falkirk and Stirling areas in Scotland. Many of the UK’s current energy issues are down to its over-reliance on the supply of gas from mainland Europe which is far from secure and has been prone to dramatic increases in price. Shale gas, as well as CBM, goes a long way to solving these issues, making us more resilient to market fluctuations, helping our industries to be more competitive and benefitting us as consumers. Furthermore, any extracted gas can be pumped directly into the existing gas distribution network thus making it a highly efficient source of energy. Unconventional gas resources, that include shale gas, are now considered to be as large as conventional resources. The International Energy Agency’s “World Energy Outlook special report on gas” in 2011 described a “golden age of gas” scenario in which natural gas overtakes coal by 2030, increasing to 25% of the global energy mix by 2035.

About Enzygo Enzygo Limited is a specialist environmental consultancy with established experience and a clear understanding of the elements required for the delivery of all forms of waste management and major infrastructure development. Enzygo specializes in hydrological risk assessment and flood protection, landscape impact assessment, landscape management and environmental co-ordination, waste contract procurement, waste treatment technologies, property and site selection / assessment, waste and mineral planning, permitting and regulation and environmental impact assessment co-ordination. The company, with offices in Gloucestershire and Sheffield, was founded in 2008 by Kevin Parr, Peter Cumberlidge and Matt Travis, who between them have over 50 years’ experience in the environmental sector. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |73|


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation 76 - 78

Tax Relief funds 1,500 new homes - Tom Rendle

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |74| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Tax Relief funds 1,500 new homes Tom Rendle, Fiscal Incentives, Europe, Davis Langdon

Public subsidy for the supply side of house building remains constrained so the focus will necessarily shift to those incentives that do exist so that viability can be improved and more development can take place. Land Remediation Tax Relief (LRR) is one such incentive and can still play a key role in unlocking development on brownfield sites. House builders have completed a period of restructuring and are now far better placed to consider strategic land development and the development of more complex brownfield sites that were previously too challenging due to the scarcity and significant cost of capital. The prospects for the sector have also been enhanced with the introduction by George Osborne of what some are calling a “game-changing” move to boost house buyer’s mortgage availability. The signs are there that the house building sector and others could soon return to good health.

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Whilst planning reforms appear to afford greater opportunity for Greenfield development, the case for brownfield remains strong. The primary, supporting, social and services infrastructure is often partially or wholly already in place, transport links established and communities formed. Brownfield development can remove blight and bring underused or derelict assets back into use. It is generally a good thing and received a further boost when it was recently announced that the conversion of commercial buildings into residential would fall within the permitted development rules. However, with the removal of Landfill Tax Exemption (LTE), LRR is now the primary Government tool to incentivise any Brownfield development. So, what is the tax relief worth? The cash benefit of the tax relief depends on the circumstances in which the expenditure is incurred and the tax rate of the claimant. For a developer who is incurring expenditure as “work in progress” then the benefit is equal to 50% of the cost of qualifying expenditure multiplied by their corporation tax rate. The relief is claimed in the year end in which they sell the completed house/ land/ building. For an entity that is planning to hold the completed development as an investment the rules are slightly different and allow the relief to be claimed in the year the expenditure is actually incurred, and is equal to 150% of the qualifying expenditure multiplied by their tax rate. This can therefore provide significant early cash flow into a project. In both situations there is also an ability for loss making companies to surrender the tax relief for a oneoff credit payment equal to 16% of the relief surrendered.

The original intentions of the legislation when introduced in 2001 are perhaps now more relevant in today’s market. LRR was introduced amidst a rising property market when speculative development was more likely to occur regardless of site conditions. The legislation was introduced to influence the redevelopment of brownfield and contaminated land. Contamination was seen as a significant cost barrier to bringing land back into use and hence the relief was introduced to both reduce this barrier and incentivise developers to consider more difficult sites. The take-up of this tax relief was initially slow and where it was being claimed it was often viewed as a reward taken at corporate level rather than affecting the decision to invest. However, with greater sensitivity over viability issues we may start to see the tax relief being featured in the appraisal itself so it starts to operate as intended – an incentive, rather than a reward. As LTE has now been completely phased out, the only tax relief that can be used in relation to redeveloping and remediating brownfield and derelict sites, including conversion of commercial buildings, is LRR. This can prove to be the differentiator between a financially viable and unviable site. Over seven million tonnes of waste each year were being exempted from Landfill Tax in England alone prior to the removal of the exemption. This has and will have a major impact on the remediation industry going forward, forcing greater consideration of on-site treatment and in-situ remediation solutions. The LRR scheme which provides a tax relief on any costs incurred on qualifying land remediation expenditure is in the long run designed to yield benefits roughly equal to those lost through

the withdrawal of LTE, although in reality this remains to be seen. It survived threatened withdrawal back 2011 after significant lobbying from the sector and concerns from government that it would be sending out the wrong messages about brownfield development at a time when the new planning guidelines were just being announced. LRR is only available if the entity is a corporation taxpayer who was not the original polluter of the site. However, with much remediation undertaken by polluters or public authorities who cannot benefit from tax relief benefits, careful consideration needs to be made to ensure that the tax relief benefit gets realised so that its impact can be felt as intended. Provided the expenditure is incurred by an entity that is entitled to claim there are still a number of challenges that will need to be overcome. Firstly, it is necessary to determine whether the site is deemed to be ‘Contaminated Land’. For the purposes of this legislation ‘Contaminated Land’ is actually a legal definition and denotes land which is deemed to be posing unacceptable risk to human health or controlled waters in its current use, in accordance with Part 2A of the Environmental Protection Act. Local authorities are required to assess land condition and are the only body capable of determining this status. They may issue a Remediation Notice requiring clean up to the original polluter or current occupier but this is clearly not a requirement in order to claim the tax relief. Linked to this is the fact that contractor references to “Remediation” does not always infer qualifying expenditure, and certain items ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |77|


of works may not be claimable under the LRR legislation. The most common example of this is where there is a geotechnical requirement to improve ground bearing capacity as opposed to dealing with environmental issues associated with the site or removing something that was not previously used in an ‘industrial’ activity. For instance former landfills are very common in this category. Many have environmental issues but equally the challenges can relate to the geotechnical characteristics demanding ground improvements rather than remediation of contamination. Conversely though, sites not deemed to be contaminated (or requiring remediation) in the strictest sense, may involve work or activities which will qualify for relief such as placing a Radon membrane in a new dwelling foundation. Also, there are other issues of eligibility such as Subsidies. The subsidy rule dictates that the claimant must not be in receipt of a subsidy for the cost of the remediation works. A grant is a subsidy as is a direct reimbursement of costs. The proceeds from the disposal of a property are not a subsidy. So a developer selling a remediated site under a purchase contract is not in receipt of a subsidy. Where the claimant buys a contaminated site HMRC require evidence that the net price paid, irrespective of how it is arrived at, represents the Open Market Value (OMV) of the site in its unremediated state. Ideally you need a separate third party valuation stating that the net price paid is the OMV of an un-remediated site, but this is not particularly practical or possible. It would certainly be advantageous to make some reference in the contract to the effect that both parties agree that the net price paid is the OMV of the un-remediated site. In the absence of such a valuation/ clarification in the contract the assumption is that the net agreed price is the OMV of a dirty site on the basis that it is an arms length transaction. |78| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Whilst the issues can at times be complex and the process of claiming cumbersome, the cumulative benefits for those actively engaged in the sector can be very significant. However, many potential claimants do not have a systematic approach to collating data and preparing claims for LRR. At best it is left as an end of year exercise relying on over-stretched non-specialist surveyors to have a full understanding of the complex taxation, entitlement and eligibility criteria when preparing the claim. Consequently, claims are often incomplete, lack consistency in approach and are rarely reconciled back to the company’s formal accounting records. Not only does this result in missed tax relief, but perhaps more significantly it exposes the company to a potential impact on their risk rating with HMRC in the event that a claim cannot be substantiated upon enquiry.

For those who have yet to realise the full potential of the tax relief there remains the potential to make retrospective claims on remediation expenditure incurred on sites that have been sold in any of the last four accounting periods irrespective of whether a previous claim has been made on a site. The significance and potential impact of the LRR legislation will vary considerably from site to site, but what is absolutely clear is that the cumulative benefit is hugely significant to the sector as a whole. Since its inception in 2001, the house builder sector alone is approaching the £1bn expenditure figure on qualifying LRR items generating a sum of money capable of developing over 1,500 homes in today’s market. So, quite clearly something to be taken seriously. ■


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering 82 - 83

Passivhaus standard Vs Code for Sustainable Homes - Andrew Eagles

84 - 86

BREEAM, Passivhaus and the Code? No competition - Richard Hardy

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |80| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Šlimpertsacadamy.com


Andrew Eagles, Managing Director, Sustainable Homes

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Passivhaus standard Code for Sustainable Homes for Sustainable Homes. We see a great number of architects, planners, builders and designers on our courses and at conferences. We see a variety of views on these standards. This article assesses the merits of Passivhaus and the Code for Sustainable Homes and, for a bit of fun, pits them against each other. Ding Ding, round one.

First – the basics Passivhaus buildings provide a high level of occupant comfort while using very little energy for heating and cooling. Creating this standard requires: •

a maximum space heating and cooling demand of less than 15 kWh/ m2/year or a maximum heating and cooling load of 10W/m2.

a maximum total primary energy demand of 120 kWh/m2/year.

an air change rate of no more than 0.6 air changes per hour @ 50 Pa.

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Implications - The annual heating bill for a four bed 1,300sq ft house designed to Passivhaus standards can be as low as £63 per year. The Code for Sustainable Homes incentivises a high environmental performance across a multitude of different environmental issues. Energy is the most heavily weighted section - other sections include, water efficiency, waste, pollution, management on site, health and well being. Both standards are intended to reduce energy loss in the building. There are four important distinctions: a) Beyond energy use Passivhaus does not cover other environmental issues. b) The Code allows a variety of performances. Where a house is 25% more energy efficient than Building Regulations and they meet other requirements, Code level four is achieved. Where 100% better than building regulations, and other requirements are met, Code level five will be achieved. Passivhaus is absolute, either the standard is met or not.


the way. Their Wimbish scheme (pictured) won the UK Passivhaus Residential Award 2012. They are going on to build 20% of their schemes to Passivhaus. We need to take the sector with us as we move toward Passivhaus. This means, for instance, helping them build to high insulation levels, high airtightness and adequate ventilation levels. Here is where I get a little bit frustrated. The Code for Sustainable Homes is doing this. In the latest amendment to the Code for Sustainable Homes, an additional five credits were allocated to the energy category. This deals with how the fabric performs. By significantly incentivising the fabric first approach the code is slowly moving the sector towards a Passivhaus type solution. Further future building regulations are pointing to even higher energy efficiency requirements. The Code for Sustainable Homes further encourages a Passivhaus type approach through the fabric efficiency performance requirements at level six. The requirements are to gain a high level of fabric energy efficiency (a heat loss parameter of 0.8W/ m2K). This drives many of the central principles of Passivhaus standard (fabric first).It would be a shame to ignore the benefits the other remaining parts of the Code bring us. During my stay at Greenwatt Way, a code level six property, I noticed some real benefits from other elements to the standard. A great urban drain off design, that doubled as a play area. Tremendous sound insulation so I did not hear the nearby airport. A very secure property, so I felt safe. And responsible sourcing of materials. That felt good also. I recognise the Code for Sustainable Homes has the bureaucracy of any quality assurance scheme but maybe this can be streamlined. I am not sure how, without reducing the validity of the checking system but I would welcome some thoughts on this.

c) The Code for Sustainable Homes allows the use of renewables to achieve low carbon thresholds. Passivhaus does not. d) The Code for Sustainable Homes is required for homes built with funding through the Affordable Homes Programme. This will continue through to 2015. There may be changes after this following the Government standards review. Sustainable Homes, the company I work for, has been around for 15 years. Lately we’ve noticed a strong interest in the Passivhaus standard. This is a positive thing. Our staff here have always championed the fabric first approach. A potentially damaging addition to these comments is the minority who are bad-mouthing the code standard and the misconception of placing a preference of Passivhaus over the code for sustainable homes. Maybe it is in our makeup to place one against another but I am not sure the two standards cancel one another out. But people often talk as if they do. I have a few issues with this: Passivhaus is a brilliant concept. Building homes to super low carbon standards is a brilliant concept. We should further this. A touch of realism is also needed. Many people and businesses in the sector do not know how to design or complete a system which achieves Passivhaus standards yet. In 2010 over 100,000 homes were built. Thus far less than 60 schemes have been built to the standard in the UK. Though I should say that a number of our clients and partners have plans to build more. This is great. We want more Passivhaus homes. Our parent company Hastoe for instance is leading

It may also be that 34 subsections are too many. If so, which section do you think should be transferred to Building Regulation now or maybe even left out? What do you think? So improvements are needed sure and yes new kids on the block are funky and exciting but let’s not forget what old uncle Code is bringing us. Some examples are: •

homes with better noise insulation – this means parents get better sleep

assigned recycling spaces – this makes it easier for you to fit your recycling in

homes are more secure

builders are likely to be quieter and considerate while building

a significant reduction in the amount of unsustainably sourced timber and materials

Passivhaus and the Code support one another. They are not in competition. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |83|


BREEAM, Passivhaus and the Code? No competition Richard Hardy, Director of Sustainability, Building Research Establishment

There has been some speculation about the differences and similarities between BREEAM and the Code for Sustainable Homes on the one hand, and Passivhaus on the other. However they are, in fact, working together to deliver highly sustainable buildings in the UK, explains BRE Global’s Richard Hardy. The Passivhaus standard for energy efficiency in buildings has been generating a good deal of interest amongst the design community in the UK’s sustainable construction sector, and not without good cause – it has proved to be a very effective means of reducing energy use in buildings. This has led to some discussion about how this relatively ‘new kid on the UK block’ compares with the well established BREEAM schemes – and the associated Code for Sustainable Homes (CSH) run by the Department for Communities and Local Government. However any idea of competition between BREEAM/ CSH and Passivhaus misses the point. The differences between the two systems are such that they do not compete because they are not covering the same ground. In fact they have already demonstrated, on a number of UK projects, their ability to work together to help develop highly successful and sustainable buildings.

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How BREEAM and Passivhaus differ The key differences fall in two main areas: Scope – Passivhaus focuses on energy efficiency, whereas BREEAM and CSH are overarching sustainability tools covering a full range of issues – in addition to energy they set standards in categories that include waste, materials, water, transport, health, land-use, ecology and pollution. BREEAM, of course, now covers new construction, refurbishment and existing buildings – what’s more there is a scheme for communities and neighbourhood development, so BREEAM is also addressing the wider issues of sustainability for a community.

The key to the relationship between Passivhaus and BREEAM/ CSH is not how they compete, but how they work together and complement each other.

Approach – Passivhaus takes a solution-based approach – it sets out a tried and tested solution to the challenges of achieving very high levels of energy efficiency. While flexible in respect of the design and materials used to deliver this, Passivhaus is quite prescriptive in terms of the way that the building is constructed and operated.

BREEAM/CSH, on the other hand, takes an impact based approach – it sets the standards required to achieve a range of ratings and assesses the building’s success in reaching these. Its focus is not generally on the solutions used, but their impact on the building’s sustainability. It is worth noting, however, that BREEAM promotes the principle of minimising demand ahead of the specification of efficiency measure and low carbon technologies. The use of new and innovative techniques and approaches is also encouraged. How they work together The key to the relationship between Passivhaus and BREEAM/CSH is not how they compete, but how they work together and complement each other. For example, BREEAM/CSH sets targets and provides recognition for sustainable buildings, and Passivhaus can provide a very effective means for a building to meet the energy and carbon elements of those BREEAM requirements. Of all the BREEAM/CSH categories, the sub-sections on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are among the most heavily weighted. But Passivhaus has already proven itself on several UK projects to be a cost-effective means of delivering a ‘fabric first’ approach for an energy efficient means of delivering high BREEAM ratings and the higher levels of the Code. Conversely, a Passivhaus that also addresses the wider sustainability issues in BREEAM or CSH can benefit from achieving a rating under one or other of these schemes.

About Passivhaus, BREEAM and the CSH Passivhaus Developed in Germany in the 1990s, Passivhaus is the fastest growing energy performance standard in the world with 30,000 buildings realised to date, the majority of those since 2000, including a relatively small but growing number in the UK. The core of the Passivhaus approach is the dramatic reduction of space heating and cooling – in essence it reduces these requirements to the point where a traditional heating or cooling system is no longer needed. This is done without compromising occupant comfort or relying on renewable energy technologies. Meeting the Passivhaus Standard in the UK typically involves: •

very high levels of insulation

windows with insulated frames and high performance glazing

solar shading

an airtight building fabric

thermal bridge-free construction

a whole-house mechanical ventilation system with highly efficient heat recovery

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Passivhaus’ strength lies to a large degree in the simplicity of this approach: construct a building with excellent thermal performance, exceptional airtightness and mechanical ventilation. But Passivhaus buildings must be put together with meticulous attention to detail – and occupants should have some understanding and sympathy for Passivhaus goals – if they are to achieve their full energy efficiency potential.

BREEAM BREEAM is the most widely used method of assessing and improving the sustainability of buildings in the UK and around the world. There are BREEAM rated buildings in more than 50 countries, and it is increasingly being adapted to develop national schemes, for example, in the Netherlands, Spain, Norway and Sweden. More than 250,000 buildings have been BREEAM certified, with over a million registered for assessment. 2012 was a record year for BREEAM, with the highest number of certifications and registrations in any one year since the scheme began in 1990. BREEAM addresses a wide range of environmental and sustainability issues and sets the standard for best practice in new and in-use buildings, including refurbishment projects. It enables developers, designers and occupiers to demonstrate the environmental credentials of their buildings through a widely recognised measure of environmental performance. Key to BREEAM’s success is a continual process of updating and improvement – often based on feedback from users – to streamline the scheme and keep pace with the latest technical developments and regulatory requirements. BREEAM helps to drive the process of improving built environment sustainability by keeping just ahead of current good practice and legislation. While managed and developed by BRE Global, BREEAM’s assessments are carried out by independent, licensed assessors. A building is assessed at design stage and this is then verified post construction when the final certificate is issued. Buildings are rated either Pass, Good, Very Good, Excellent or, for exemplar buildings, Outstanding.

Code for Sustainable Homes The CSH is an environmental assessment method for rating and certifying the performance of new homes. It was based on BRE Global’s Ecohomes scheme – the BREEAM scheme for new homes. Owned by the Department for Communities and Local Government, CSH was introduced in 2007 to drive a step-change in sustainable home building practice for new dwellings. It covers nine categories of sustainable design: energy and CO2 emissions, water, materials, surface water run-off, waste, pollution, health and wellbeing, management and ecology. CSH assesses new homes in levels 1-6 of increasing sustainability. It is closely linked with the direction of travel of the Building Regulations in relation to carbon emissions and energy use in homes. By 2016 all new dwellings in England should achieve CSH level 6 for CO2 emissions - that is carbon neutral (zero carbon). BRE Global act as advisors on issues related to maintenance and development of the technical contents of the CSH standard and manage implementation of the scheme under contract to the Department of Communities and Local Government (DCLG). We are also one of the organisations who provide training and licensing of CSH assessors. It is also worth noting that the UK Government is currently reviewing sustainability standards for housing - it is not clear at the moment how this will impact on the CSH and Passivhaus, and whether this will lead to any significant changes in the standards or their application.

The Way Forward It is clear that Passivhaus and BREEAM/CSH are not in any way mutually exclusive. On the contrary, they can work together to deliver greater sustainability in buildings of all types and in all locations. ■

+ For More Information

www.breeam.org

www.passivhaustrust.org.uk |86| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry 90 - 94

Carbon Negative Window Frames: Fiction or Reality? - Dr. Pablo van der Lugt & Dr. Joost Vogtländer

96 - 98

Are you ‘EUTR Compliant’? or ‘There is no such thing as ‘EUTR compliant’ timber’! John Park

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |88| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Dr. Pablo van der Lugt & Dr. Joost Vogtländer, Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Design for Sustainability, the Netherlands

The Potential Role of Wood Acetylation in Climate Change Mitigation Carbon Negative Window Frames: Fiction or Reality? Introduction – Role of Forests and Wood on Global warming There are various strategies for climate change mitigation either by reducing the causes of CO2 emissions (e.g. higher energy efficiency, better insulation, using renewable energy, etc) or by increasing the sinks (carbon sequestration), in which forests and forest products play a major role. During growth, trees absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, while producing oxygen in return, and store this in their tissue and soil, and after harvest in durable wood products throughout their lifespan. As such, forests and wood products play an important role (both negative as positive) in the global

carbon cycle through deforestation, forest conservation, afforestation (planting of trees on soils that have not supported forests in the recent past) and increasing application of wood in durable (construction) products. Although afforestation in temperate regions is a positive development, for the world as a whole, carbon stocks in forest biomass still decreased by an estimated 0.5Gigatons due to deforestation in (sub)tropical regions worldwide between 2005 and 2010 (see also figure 1), where a region of over 8 million hectares was deforested (Source: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010).

Figure 1: Trends in carbon storage in forests from 1990-2010 (source: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010) |90| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Wood Modification for Improved Sustainability Combined with the conversion of forests to agricultural land or for development of infrastructure, one of the main causes of deforestation in tropical regions is (illegal) logging of tropical hardwood from rainforests, which is high in demand worldwide because of its superior performance over softwood in terms of durability, hardness and sometimes dimensional stability. Although the amount of sustainable sourced and certified tropical hardwood on the market is increasing - due in part to new legal requirements like the European Timber Regulation becoming obligatory in March 2013 and the expanded Lacey Act in the USA - demand is still considerably higher than supply, and sustainable and durable alternatives are needed to reduce pressure on endangered sources.

A promising route enabling legally and sustainably sourced - but poor performance - temperate wood species to be used in high performance applications is through large scale non toxic wood modification. Acetylation is the leading known method. Through the acetylation process the unstable hydroxyl (OH) groups in wood are replaced by a wood’s naturally occurring and more stable acetyl groups, through which the dimensional stability and durability of the treated wood species significantly increases. Acetylated wood has been developed to commercial scale by the UK based company Accsys Technologies under the brand name Accoya® wood. Through the optimized process, Accoya® is guaranteed to have an excellent performance in terms of durability (class 1 according to EN 350) and stability, making it a promising alternative in exterior applications where tropical hardwood is typically used such as joinery, decking, cladding, as well as structural applications.

Figure 2: Accoya® wood used for cladding, decking and structural beams in boathouse in Horning, Norfolk, UK

Carbon Footprint for Accoya® Wood Cradle to Gate Assessment In a carbon footprint assessment, the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the life cycle of a material can be measured, and compared to alternative products in terms of kg CO2 equivalent (CO2e). Recently a carbon footprint, following the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Protocol of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and World

Resource Institute (WRI) was executed by independent consulting firm Verco (2012) for Accoya® based on a cradle to gate scenario, thus until the factory gate. This includes sourcing, harvesting and processing of the input timber, as well as all energy and raw material consumption in the acetylation plant of Accsys Technologies in Arnhem, the Netherlands. Figure 3 presents the results in cubic meters Accoya® including several other material alternatives. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |91|


Figure 3: the greenhouse gas emissions of several building materials per cubic meter based on a cradle to gate scenario (Verco 2012, University of Bath 2011, Ecoinvent 2012)

on a cradleto-gate basis, Accoya’s carbon footprint significantly outperforms most other commonly used building materials

The graph above shows that, on a cradle-to-gate basis, Accoya’s carbon footprint significantly outperforms most other commonly used building materials such as concrete, PVC, MDF, plywood as well as a range of tropical hardwoods such as Azobe and Red Meranti, even when sourced from sustainable managed plantations. Logically, because of the shorter transport distance, the Accoya® scenarios based on continental sourced wood perform better than the intercontinental scenarios. However, a cradle-to-gate analysis does not cover the in-use and end of life phase of the product. For the materials illustrated above, in-use emissions are likely to be centred around i) material properties such as density or strength, which dictate the volume of material required, ii) durability of the material which influences lifespan, iii) maintenance procedures and frequency, iv) carbon sequestration properties of renewable materials, and v) Disposal and recycling routes available. Therefore, to avoid comparing ‘apples with oranges’, for a complete “cradle till grave” assessment the carbon footprint results per cubic meter from the graph need to be ‘translated’ to an application example to include the in-use and end of life phase related aspects mentioned above. This subsequent analysis was performed by Delft University of Technology (2013), who also executed the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Accoya® wood in 2010.

Cradle to Grave Assessment Just as in the 2010 LCA study, an application, a window frame, was chosen in which Accoya® has been compared with non-renewable materials (metals, plastics). For details of the functional unit and the calculation please refer to the report itself, downloadable via http://www.accoya. com/downloads. In order for the comparison to be fair, all alternatives in this application have to meet the same functional requirements. The assessment includes End of Life considerations and the effect of carbon sequestration over a 100 year timeframe following leading standards in carbon footprint and LCA (ILCD, PAS 2050: 2011 and the EN norm under development EN16449). These methods allow for the carbon sequestered in the wood to be included as a negative CO2 value with respect to the emissions, which can be deducted from the total fossil CO2 emissions. A higher negative CO2e value is allocated if the life span of the wood in-use is longer, which is beneficial for acetylated wood due to the predicted longer useful life. The two co-products of the product system, waste wood (from saw mills, planing, profiling, etc) and acetic acid from the acetylation process, are dealt with by the so-called “system expansion” and “credits” for “substitution” in line with ISO 14044. For acetic acid this means that the GHG emissions resulting from the “avoided acetic acid production elsewhere” is subtracted from the total GHG emissions of Accoya®. For the wood waste it is assumed that 100% is incinerated for energy production, applying the Lower Heating Value of the waste material. For the Western European situation this is a plausible assumption. This energy output from biomass substitutes heat from oil, leading to a “carbon credit” for the avoided use of oil. The results of the cradle to grave window frame comparison are presented in the graphs as follows, first per process step (figure 4) then for the total emissions (figure 5).

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Figures 4 & 5: Greenhouse gas emissions for a window frame in various material alternatives

From the graphs several conclusions can be made: •

Because of the limited emissions during production in case of sustainable sourcing, and credits that can be earned through carbon sequestration (especially in case of a long lifespan) and incineration for electricity in the End of Life phase, all wood products, including Accoya®, are CO2 negative over the full life cycle. The best performing alternative is Accoya® made from locally sourced species (in this case Scots Pine).

The non renewable materials PVC, steel and aluminium perform considerably worse than sustainably sourced wood, especially because of the high embodied energy (emissions during production). Although through recycling aluminium, PVC and steel earn some credits back, this does not outweigh the high emissions during production.

In the case of tropical hardwood from rain forests (deforestation) the picture totally shifts and wood is the worst performing alternative (see unsustainably sourced Meranti). This shows the importance of conservation of tropical rainforests as they act as important carbon sinks.

The eco-burden of transport and maintenance (coatings) of the window frames appears to be negligible in the total context.

Note that another recent LCA study on window frames in the UK executed on behalf of the Wood Window Alliance (Menzies, 2013) provides similar results as the study executed by the Delft University of Technology, presented in this paper. From the results it is obvious that the credit for temporary carbon sequestration has a large impact on the outcome. It is important to note here that there is still a lot of discussion going on in working groups of LCA and carbon footprint methodology (most notably PAS 2050, ILCD and WRI/WBCSD GHG protocol) on how to exactly allocate credits for temporary storage of biogenic carbon in wood products. Nevertheless, if the temporary carbon sequestration credit would be neglected and only the credit for energy production in End-of-Life would apply, the results would slightly change, with most of the wood alternatives (except Accoya® made from Radiata Pine), still carbon negative (see figure). ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |93|


Figure 6: Greenhouse gas emissions for a window frame in various material alternatives excluding credit for temporary carbon sequestration

Discussion It should be noted that several environmental issues cannot be caught by a carbon footprint. Although the scope of a LCA is a lot broader than the carbon footprint, and also includes several other eco-indicators besides GHG emissions (global warming effect), such as acidification, euthrophication, smog, dust, toxicity, depletion, land-use and waste, in both instruments the issue of social sustainability is not included. Land-use change is incorporated in LCA indicators like Recipe and eco-costs. It is strongly related to the harvesting of tropical hardwood. For example, globally FSC certified tropical hardwood is partly sourced from plantations (40%), but the rest is still coming from natural forests (harvested with Reduced Impact Harvesting), having a negative impact on biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Yield of land is another specific aspect of sustainability, not included in a carbon footprint, which is related to the fact that land is becoming scarce, especially when current materials (metals, fossil fuels) will be replaced by renewable materials like wood and crops for biomass. The high growing speed of species suitable to produce AccoyaÂŽ such as Radiata Pine is an environmental competitive advantage over regular wood species, and in particular slow growing tropical hardwood species. Therefore, the annual yield is another aspect of sustainability which should to be taken into account in addition to the carbon footprint performance results presented earlier. This does put the results of the carbon footprint in another perspective by looking at a global level. One of the striking conclusions of the cradle to grave carbon footprint comparison is that when sourced from tropical rainforests, wood is the worst performing alternative. This shows the importance of conservation of (tropical) forests as they act as important carbon sinks, and the need to search for (rapidly) renewable alternatives from abundantly available sustainable managed sources. |94| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Figure 7: Annual yield for various wood species in cubic meters produced per hectare per year

Acetylation seems to be the right solution as it enables an abundantly available resource (legally sourced timber from temperate regions) to substitute tropical hardwood, and due to the improved performance characteristics (durability, stability) even materials such as plastics, metals and concrete. Therefore on a global level AccoyaÂŽ may help in further reducing greenhouse gas emissions directly on a product level through temporary carbon sequestration in products but more importantly on a global level by substitution of carbon intensive materials such as hardwood from tropical rain forests, plastics, concrete and metals. Furthermore, it provides a powerful drive for reforestation as softwood species can now serve as input for high performance wood. â–


Are you ‘EUTR Compliant’? or ‘There is no such thing as ‘EUTR compliant’ timber’! The

EU

Timber

Regulation

(EU) No 995/2010 came into force on 3 March 2013. The Regulation makes it an offence to place illegal timber or timber products on the EU market, and places obligations on those who first place such products on the market, as well as those trading further down the supply chain. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/timber_regulation.htm |96| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

EUTR Article 5 sets out the requirement for: Obligation of traceability Traders shall, throughout the supply chain, be able to identify: (a) the operators or the traders who have supplied the timber and timber products; and (b) where applicable, the traders to whom they have supplied timber and timber products. You can be reasonably confident that at some time in the next short while you will see timber and timber products coming onto the market being offered as being ‘EUTR Compliant’. Do you, as a trader or an end-user, know what that means? In the first instance it means that any operator (EUTR Article 2 (c) ‘operator’ means any natural or legal person that places timber or timber products on the market) offering such ‘EUTR Compliant’ timber does not understand the EUTR. And if they have got that wrong, how likely is it that they have also got other aspects of their EUTR due diligence obligations wrong? The EUTR is system-based and not product-based; it is the operator who must comply with the ‘system’ requirements, i.e. their obligations under the EUTR to put in place a ‘due diligence system', so it is the operator who is ‘EUTR Compliant’ (or not!) and not the wood they are selling after placing it on the market. In simple terms there is no such thing as ‘EUTR Compliant’ timber or timber products. Conversely there is ‘EUTR non-compliant’ timber – in other words, timber from trees which have been illegally logged which is, of course, what the EUTR has been put in place to address. As a trader (EUTR Article 2 (d) ‘trader’ means any natural or legal person who, in the course of a commercial activity, sells or buys on the internal


market timber or timber products already placed on the internal market) you also have an obligation under the EUTR, as identified in Article 5, which should not be too onerous as it is general business practice to keep records of who you buy from and who you sell to. The EUTR now requires traders to keep that information for at least five years. For operators, the requirements of the EUTR apply with regard to timber and timber products they will be placing on the market as from 3 March 2013; it is not required to be applied with regard to timber and timber products already on the market. For a trader or end-user there should be no discernible difference between pre- and post-3 March 2013 timber and timber products, i.e. the timber and timber products should not be marked in any way as EUTR compliant, or EUTR anything! Operators may choose to identify themselves as being EUTR compliant, which may prove to be a useful piece of information for customers seeking a reliable supply of legally harvested timber. Contractual documents, which as a matter of course pre-3 March 2013 would have contained details of quantity, customary trade names or common name of tree species, have all now, when referring to post3 March 2013 timber and timber products, to include that information together with, where applicable (to avoid ambiguity and misidentification), the full scientific name of tree species. It will no longer be acceptable to identify products simply as ‘wood’ or ‘timber’ or consignments as an unidentified ‘mixed species’ group; all potential varieties within a species group must be named. Legality of harvest refers, in essence, to harvesting in accordance with the legislation of the country where the timber was harvested. It is the operator who is responsible for ensuring that the timber and timber products they place on the market have been harvested legally which, as from 3 March 2013, should be all timber and timber products entering the EU! Rather than saying ‘if the EUTR works’ - as there will always be those who, for whatever reason, will make more of an effort to circumvent it than they will to comply with it – let us say once all operators are carrying out appropriate ‘due diligence’ they will be doing as much as they can to reduce the risk of illegal timber being placed on the market. It is reducing that risk which is at the heart of the EUTR. Risk assessment, using whatever information is available to them, is part of the due diligence obligations of an operator. A trader is not required to carry out such due diligence – EUTR Article 5 requires that “Traders shall keep the information referred to in the first paragraph (Article 5 (a)) for at least five years and shall provide that information to competent authorities if they so request”. The Competent Authority (CA) in each EU Member State is the EUTR enforcing authority; in the UK it is the National Measurement Office (NMO). As part of their own obligations under the EUTR, a CA is required to carry out checks to verify if operators are complying with their EUTR obligations during which those obligations for traceability will also be followed up on. Whether or not the CA will question the use of such inappropriate claims as ‘EUTR Compliant’ when used in relation to timber and timber products or if an operator or trader has applied it to the timber and timber products they are selling remains to be seen! At no stage along the supply chain is there any requirement at any time for anyone to supply or request what would amount in some cases to small mountains of paperwork, prior to each shipment, attesting to the legality of harvest or concession of harvest. Neither is it appropriate, it is certainly not an EUTR requirement, for operators to demand from their suppliers signed affidavits stating that all the wood they are exporting

Case Furniture – Spyder Range – Wood Awards 2012 Shortlisted

has been legally harvested and that if it is found to have been illegally harvested the suppliers themselves will take the blame and foot the bill! This is evidence that operators have clearly misunderstood their EUTR obligations as ‘passing the buck’ in that way does not constitute a ‘due diligence system’ and even if the wood they import is 100% legally harvested, if they don’t have in place an appropriate, fully functioning and regularly maintained due diligence system they risk prosecution. It is a misguided assumption made by many that timber and timber products are the main focus of the EUTR. Illegal logging and timber and timber products thereof are the reason for the EUTR but they are not the main focus of the EUTR; the main focus of the EUTR is the operators. The operators are the conduit by which timber is placed on the EU market – no operators, no wood; it has long been recognised, hence the system-based EUTR, that some of them were not entirely honest and above board. In the past some will have taken the wood … no questions asked. Now, they are obliged to ask the questions. It is called a ‘due diligence system’. How some of them have come to misunderstand the EUTR so comprehensively can only be guessed at. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |97|


When an operator comes to be inspected by their CA, the CA will not be inspecting the wood, they will be inspecting the operator’s due diligence system – they will be paying no attention at all to the wood. If a CA gets word, for example, from ‘on the ground’ operatives from an environmental group that they have evidence that a consignment is suspected as being illegally logged then the CA’s attention will turn to the wood but they will only take action in that regard if the evidence is incontrovertible. In that situation the culpability of the operator will doubtless be taken into consideration by the CA – without a fully functioning and regularly maintained due diligence system clearly evidencing that the operator has done as much as they possibly could to ascertain negligible risk of illegal logging, the penalties imposed may be more severe. But, even if the CA cannot prove illegality of harvest, if the operator does not have an appropriate due diligence system in place they will still face prosecution. Whether any Member State will be as harsh as giving out prison sentences remains to be seen. Each Member State is required to lay down the rules on penalties applicable (EUTR Article 19) which must be “effective, proportionate and dissuasive …”. A signed contract from a supplier, no matter how comprehensive, does not constitute a due diligence system and will not render an operator immune from prosecution, |98| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

whether the wood is legally harvested or not. The veracity of any information provided by an exporter to an operator will be an issue the operator must address in their due diligence system – another example of assessment of risk. If there is any element of doubt, if the risk is potentially not ‘negligible’, the operator is required to have in place risk mitigation procedures. In such situations one option is don’t touch it; find an alternative source for which the risk of illegal logging is negligible. The EUTR has been put in place for a reason; that reason is the illegal cutting down of trees. There is a lot of it about and someone, somewhere, is selling the timber from that illegal logging. The operator has to be able to identify, by way of their due diligence system which has to incorporate “measures and procedures providing access to”, the required information and the resources they have used in order to demonstrate ‘negligible risk’ associated with their timber imports. If the operator, based only on their own due diligence system (and not based on someone else’s word or ‘guarantee’!) is not able to determine negligible risk of illegal logging of the trees from which the timber or timber products they are placing on the market originates they are strongly advised to find another source that they can be confident does constitute negligible risk. ■


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport 101 - 103

Plotting a route to greener skies - Ian Jopson

Waste & Recycling

Water

Miscellany |100| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Ian Jopson, NATS Head of Environment and Community Affairs

Plotting a route to greener skies Gone are the days when the aviation industry could simply shrug its shoulders and accept that flying was a dirty business. Everyone who works in aviation has a responsibility, and an opportunity, to act now to minimise the impact that aviation is having on our environment. That is the path to sustainable growth – in both meanings of the word. Within NATS, as a provider of air traffic management services for the UK and around the world, we have been taking that challenge especially seriously. In 2008 we launched an environmental strategy as a way of helping us focus our efforts in implementing smarter and more responsive ways to cut emissions. Our programme focuses on initiatives to minimise our environmental footprint by working with the rest of the industry to deliver improvements to airport, airline and air traffic procedures, airspace modifications and innovative use of new technologies. Our strategic environmental target is to reduce air traffic related CO2 emissions by an average of 10% per-flight by 2020, with an interim target to achieve an average 4% per-flight reduction by 2015. This is a huge challenge, but one that we’re meeting head on.

The role of air traffic control Air traffic control has an important part to play in flight efficiency – and that means a central role for our controllers. Air traffic controllers that provide direct route and smooth climbs and descents save both carbon and fuel. This enables us to not only help the airlines to improve their environmental footprint and save money, but also to increase our operational efficiency. With that in mind, we now have an extensive training and awareness programme to ensure that our air traffic controllers consider the environment in everything they do, and this has achieved significant savings in fuel and emissions. The UK’s airspace is made up of an invisible, overlapping network of airways and routes which has been built up over decades. Because of its legacy nature, this means it isn’t always as efficient as it could be and that is why we continually look at ways to improve it. Since 2009 we have made operational and procedural changes in air traffic flows in the UK which have delivered savings estimated at 330,000 tonnes of CO2 and £75m of fuel for airlines. Most of the changes take the form of relatively simple modifications - from more direct routes to procedure changes. For example, with increased access to military airspace in Wales, we’ve been able to provide more fuel efficient routes for aircraft flying to and from Ireland and North America – bringing savings of 300 tonnes of fuel (1,000 tonnes of CO2) a year. A new route through military airspace in the south-west of England for weekend and night-time flights is saving around 150 tonnes of fuel and 480 tonnes of CO2 a year. In the longer term, central to our environmental goals are two major airspace initiatives. These once in a generation programmes will modernise airspace around London and major cities in northern England – where traffic levels are highest, route interactions most complex and the impact on flight efficiency is greatest. Successful modernisation of this critical airspace can significantly save fuel burn and CO2 emissions, equivalent to around 5% of our entire 2020 target.

Airports - unit environment action plans Beyond airspace, we have established local environment action plans for the 16 airport air traffic control units where NATS provides the air traffic

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |101|


control service, including Heathrow, Gatwick, Manchester and Edinburgh. These include targets to improve the efficiency of aircraft arrivals and departures by increasing the number of continuous climb departures and continuous descent approaches. By improving the climb and descent profiles of the aircraft under our control, aiming where possible to eliminate periods of level flight, we can save fuel and cut carbon. Put simply, a flight that makes a continuous descent or climb burns less fuel and emits less carbon, so maximising these is one of our key aims. Other elements of our work at airports include ways to improve ground taxiing efficiency or to influence arrival and departure routes to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions still further. A great example is that a fourengined 747 which turns two of those engines off while taxiing saves 120kg of fuel.

Investing in technology The speed of technological development in the air traffic management industry is faster than ever. Tools and precision navigation techniques now allow aircraft to fly closer to their optimum route, profile and speed. At NATS this has seen the introduction of a new generation of advanced controller support tools that became fully operational at our Swanwick control centre in November 2011. iFACTS, based on Trajectory Prediction and Medium Term Conflict Detection, provides decision-making support and helps our air traffic controllers to better manage their routine workload, increasing the amount of traffic they can comfortably handle. It works by effectively giving the controller an early indication of future possible conflicts, meaning they can quite literally see into the future and predict aircraft positions, heights and headings up to 18 minutes ahead of time. In doing this it improves our environmental capability in various ways by allowing the controller to deliver more direct routes and to check better climb profiles so an aircraft reaches cruising levels sooner and with fewer step climbs. Having greater accuracy of aircraft separations over 18-minute periods also enabled the controller to allocate flights more closely to their fuel optimum levels, while fewer and more efficient heading or route changes means aircraft can climb, descend or pass at the optimum flight level, reducing excess mileage, fuel burn and CO2 emissions.

Our strategic target is also supported by an incentivised flight efficiency measurement for our en-route services – known as the ‘3D inefficiency score’ (3Di). There is no equivalent measurement for environmental performance anywhere in the world. We developed 3Di in collaboration with a number of airlines (including British Airways, Virgin, BMi, Aer Lingus, Ryanair, EasyJet, Flybe) and IATA (Iternational Air Transport Association) and the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). It has taken nearly three years of research and development, analysing 1 billion radar data points and the flight tracks from every aircraft since January 2010 and further large samples of operations every year going back to 2006. These have enabled us to establish an average efficiency rating for vertical and horizontal trajectories – how smooth a climb and descent, and how direct a route we can provide for each flight. We first deployed 3Di on 1 January 2012, making us the world’s first air traffic management company to be incentivised on its environmental performance. Our regulator’s initial analysis shows we could save around 600,000 tonnes of CO2 before 2015, saving our customers £120m in fuel costs. Adding to our string of world firsts, the Flight Profile Monitor (FPM) tool we developed is helping us to track aircraft performance at any phase of flight from ground to cruise, to determine where and why there is inefficiency. By tracking performance we provide the basis for our airport units to drive improvements. This way we can help save fuel, reduce emissions and potentially reduce noise exposure. In its trial during 2012 at Edinburgh Airport, Flight Profile Monitor helped us to work with the airlines and airport to deliver a 20% rise in the number of continuous decent approaches being achieved. That equates to savings of at least 800 tonnes of CO2 and 250 tonnes fuel - worth £165,000 per year to airlines. We’ve made great strides in our environmental programme over the last few years, and this is just a taste of the work that we’ve pioneered. We’ve got the right plans in place and the commitment from right across NATS to continue our progress and meet our overall goals, and 2013 is already a busy and exciting year. ►

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Savings on the ground as well as in the air Our environment programme isn’t only focused on the skies. Employees’ commuting habits are often considered ‘out of scope’ of company environmental plans, but at NATS, we have reduced our commuting footprint by 25% since 2008. As well as reducing emissions, saving fuel, and improving health, these have helped reduce congestion and free up valuable parking space. Quarterly traffic surveys provide useful information on travel habits and transport user groups mean employees have a say in NATS’ travel plan. We have provided some attractive incentives: •

A Cycle to Work Salary Sacrifice Scheme: Over the last four years 10% of employees have taken part in this scheme.

Car Sharing: Employees at major sites who share cars at least three days a week are allocated a parking space. If someone’s companion has to leave early, we pay the taxi fare home.

Cycle and walk to work days: We encourage these, incentivised by raffles or a free breakfast.

Salary Sacrifice Bus Scheme: We provide a shuttle bus service between our Hampshire and neighbouring train stations, and this scheme reduces the cost significantly. In addition, we provide loans for rail season tickets and motorbike purchase and promote connectivity away from the office.

As well as promoting these initiatives internally NATS sits on the National Business Travel Network steering group, helping to encourage other businesses to adopt sustainable travel practices. ■

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |103|


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling 106 - 108

Embracing the Sustainability Challenge – Mario Abreu

110 - 112

The Salvage Code of Practice - Roger West

114 - 115

15 Years of Evolutionary Revolution in Waste to Resources - Peter Jones

Water

Miscellany |104| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Mario Abreu, Director of Sustainable Resources and Recycling, Tetra Pak

Embracing the Sustainability Challenge As the world’s population grows and a new middle class is emerging in fast developing markets, demand for consumer products is increasing. In turn, there is a commensurate rise in demand for packaging to keep these products - particularly food and beverages - safe and healthy. This presents companies such as ours with a challenge: How to meet growing demand while dealing with pressures on natural resources. At Tetra Pak® we have embraced the challenge and are committed to delivering environmentally sustainable processing and packaging solutions. This is so critical to our future success - and that of our customers and suppliers - that we have made Environmental Excellence one of four strategic priorities, along with growth, innovation and performance.

Respecting the environment has been a hallmark of the company since its founding. Sixty years later, we have become the world’s largest food processing and packaging company, playing a key role in the supply chain for reducing CO2 emissions, water use and waste, and increasing the recycling rate and the renewable content of our packages. Using on average of about 73% material from renewable resources, beverage cartons already have a strong environmental performance. But we can and need to achieve a lot more. In 2011 we set ambitious 10-year targets for our ‘three pillars’ that increase the company’s environmental sustainability and deliver business value to us and our customers: reducing environmental footprint, developing sustainable products and increasing recycling. Yet, we are not satisfied with setting the boundaries only around our own “gates”. Our ambitions embrace the full value chain, thus expanding responsibility for our products across the lifecycle. |106| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

1.

We have set a target to cap climate impact across the value chain at 2010 levels by 2020, while growing the business. We are early movers to set a full value chain target (scope 1, 2 & 3 targets according to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol) and have collaborated with the World Resources Institute and other organisations to establish a baseline and metrics to track and measure the total value chain climate goal. We will report the full scope of the target starting 2013.

2.

As one of the top purchasers of paperboard in the world, securing sustainable wood supply is critical. We aim to have 100% of our paperboard supply Forest Stewardship Council™ (FSC™) certified. Furthermore, we offer customers the FSC label on pack to facilitate active consumer choice. To engage customers around the world, 26.4 billion Tetra Pak packages in 39 countries carried the FSC label in 2012 - a 40% increase over 2011. We promote responsible forest management in other ways too, such as working closely with WWF and others to facilitate FSC certification for forest smallholders.

3.

Recycling of used beverage cartons maximises valuable raw materials and avoids waste. We are on the path to double the global recycling rate for used beverage cartons by the end of the decade. In 2012 alone, global recycling of Tetra Pak cartons increased by 10%. Some 3.6 billion more Tetra Pak packages were recycled in 2012 compared to 2011. That translates into eliminating more than 581,000 tonnes of waste, and providing materials for a host of new products.


Tetra Pak has a responsibility to drive recycling rates higher RECYCLING MEANS COLLABORATION Given the scale of our operations, Tetra Pak has a responsibility to drive recycling rates higher. Recycling as an activity has multiple stakeholders, and we cooperate at every level with government agencies, suppliers, waste collectors, academics, retailers, customers and consumers. Across the globe, we provide infrastructure and seed investment to enable collection and recycling programmes, and work hard to facilitate competitive and efficient recycling technology. Part of our role is to help foster sustainable business models for collection and recycling. This is critical particularly where the recycling market is immature, such as in the developing world, or where major infrastructure challenges exist, such as limited transportation networks in rural areas. Asia, as the world’s population and economic ‘power house’, presents an exciting recycling opportunity when you consider market size. India was until recently the world’s biggest consumer of milk, but China’s consumption rose by 40% between 2009 and 2013. So by 2014, packaged milk will outsell loose milk for the first time in the Asia-Pacific region, rising to a 70:30 split from today’s 50:50. That’s a lot more packaging to recycle! The good news is, China has accelerated recycling of packaging from almost zero to over 18% in 2012.

RECYCLING NEEDS INNOVATION There is a saying that, ‘Waste is a resource in the wrong place’, but technology is turning this situation around. There are currently over 100 paper mills worldwide across 60 countries that recycle used beverage cartons and scores that recycle polymers and aluminium. Tetra Pak supports mills by providing technical expertise to carry out trials and verify the feasibility of specific types of recycling. Our Recycling Expert Team has helped carry out an average of 40 trials per year since 2002. Certain paper mills stand out as champions of beverage carton recycling, such as PNM in Germany, Klabin Piracicaba in Brazil, and Stora Enso in Spain. More sophisticated technologies are now coming on-line for recycling the polymer and aluminium components of our cartons, about which we actively investigate and share information. These include pyrolysis and gasification, whereby heat is used to separate the polymers from the aluminium (PolyAl)

so the aluminium can be recycled further and used as a material on its own. Mechanical recycling uses agglomeration and densification to allow PolyAl to be recycled either as a multi-material compound, or separated into components for further material recycling. Chemical recycling involves delamination or solvent-separation to transform the PolyAl into separate material streams by breaking the bonds between the materials, or dissolving the polymers.

BOOSTING RENEWABILITY Consider a Tetra Pak carton with its six-layer construction. Approximately 73% of the product by weight consists of paperboard derived from virgin renewable material to guarantee carton integrity and strength. Let’s examine the sustainability of the main material: paperboard. All the paperboard we purchase is from known and legal sources – 38% from forests with Forest Stewardship Council certification. FSC certification is considered the world’s toughest forest management standard, guaranteeing responsible planting and felling practices which take into account local flora and fauna as well as the ownership rights and socio-cultural needs of the forest’s inhabitants. Our ultimate goal is to increase

the supply of FSC-certified paperboard used in our packages to 100%. Why is this important? Aside from the fact that forests are home to 80% of the planet’s biodiversity and 300 million people, sustainable management of forests guarantees our future supplies. This makes sound business sense, especially considering the fact that about 5% of global pulp production is used for paperboard, and demand for it is set to increase by around 2% every year to 2025. Boosting environmental sustainability is good for our business. This win-win situation is one that others are taking advantage of: a recent MIT report identified 31% of companies saying that sustainability was boosting their profits. Yet, for us, making sure we take a holistic approach to sustainability is key. We are looking towards creating a package that is 100% renewable. In fact, we believe renewability is the ‘next frontier’ in sustainability. By increasing the renewable content of our packages and ensuring responsible supply, we can help reduce the strain on global resources, and ensure precious resources are there for the long-term. Earlier this year, we were the first company to release onto the market carton caps made from bio-based plastic sourced from sugar cane. The cane is fermented to produce ethylene, which is in turn polymerised to ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |107|


In order to cap our carbon emissions at 2010 levels by 2020, we focus on reducing carbon impact across the entire value chain.

produce HDPE - high density polyethylene. The chemical composition of the bio-based plastic is identical to its fossil fuel equivalent. The source material, however, sugar cane, is 100% renewable. Using a bio-based cap on our Tetra Brik Aseptic 1000 Square package increases its renewable content by 8.5%, meaning a 2.4% reduction in the package’s CO2 impact based on internal assessment.

THE CARBON CHALLENGE In order to cap our carbon emissions at 2010 levels by 2020, we focus on reducing carbon impact across the entire value chain. Between 2005 and 2010, our climate goal was only related to our own operations, but now we examine CO2 impact of the material we purchase and the equipment we sell to customers, right through to every activity including how waste is managed. We use many measures to calculate impact, including the certification schemes of our raw materials, Design for Environment methodologies, manufacturing certification, and the Master Pillar concept designed by the Japan Institute Of Plant Maintenance. A recent example in terms of product design is our Tetra Brik Aseptic Edge carton with its LightCap 30 closure: its angled top and cap position |108| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

increase stacking efficiency by 4% compared to the same package fitted with our SlimCap, helping to make logistics more efficient and thus reduce CO2 emissions. We also use life cycle assessment (LCA) as a key tool in evaluating CO2 impact. Two years ago, a meta-analysis of LCA data on beverage packaging concluded that in the vast majority of cases, beverage cartons were attributed the lowest global warming potential versus alternative types of packaging - partly because of its main material component being paperboard. We are aware that our goal of developing a 100% renewable package is a complex task, and it must not be achieved ‘at any cost’, but we are confident that the strategy and targets we’ve launched are viable from a business perspective.

EDUCATION IS KEY Education helps promote the benefits of environmental sustainability to our suppliers, our customers and to consumers: A recent survey highlighted that 77% of consumers in Europe, Latin America and North America said they have bought certain products over others

because the packaging was better for the environment. Moreover, consumers will pay for environmental benefits: A McKinsey & Co 2012 survey of a thousand consumers in Europe and the USA found 80% willing to pay a 5% premium for more sustainable packaging options. Consumers are not the only stakeholders who look for more information to be able to make active choices. Tetra Pak’s environmental survey conducted by Euromonitor found 83% of food manufacturers and retailers surveyed said they considered environmental impact when choosing beverage packaging.

CONCLUSION At Tetra Pak, we pursue continuous innovation in order to add customer value through competitive costs, unbeatable functionality and environmental performance. Recycling is one of three ways we are increasing the environmental sustainability of our products. The approach we take is holistic and looks at our operations, those of our suppliers, and the entire life cycle of our packages – not just what happens at the end of their life. We believe that doing what’s right for the environment is linked to doing what’s right for our business and the business of our customers. ■


Roger West, Secretary General British Vehicle Salvage Federation

The Salvage Code of Practice

The Salvage Code of Practice was introduced in 1995 and the first version of the guidelines were issued in mid 1998 to assist inspecting engineers in the correct categorisation of vehicle salvage. The BVSF strongly supports the code but have in recent months called for it to be updated. The details of requested updates cannot at this stage be advised as they are confidential. In early 2003 the VIC scheme was started - this scheme is currently under review following a public consultation late last year. The result is due shortly. This scheme required cars and some light vans that were categorised as either A, B or C (explained below) to undergo an identity check before the re-issue of a V5c (registration document). This action was expected to assist in the reduction of the vehicle crime, “ringing”. It should be noted that very few vehicles have been uncovered as “suspect” perhaps realistically into CAT B single figures despite the many hundreds of thousands Severely damaged vehicles of vehicles being checked, thus placing a major with very heavy damage, but ones financial burden on salvage dealers and which do contain some economically consumers alike, and it is hoped viable parts which may be resold. Sadly, as in that the VIC scheme will be the case of the Cat A vehicles above a V5c can still radically altered or even be applied for. This category could equally apply to an old discontinued later very low value vehicle beyond any form of viable repair. this year.

The c o d e ef fectively offers advice as to how to categorise vehicle salvage including stolen recovered vehicles and was expected to assist in the removal of dangerously repaired vehicles from the road, and to a degree to detect and deter insurance fraud. It should be noted that the code is entirely voluntary and seeks to apply best practice. Four categories of vehicle salvage are outlined in the code. The inspecting engineer, whether independent or employed directly by an insurer, has to consider in which of the available four “levels” of salvage categorisation the particular vehicle being inspected belongs. The definitions of each of the four Categories are as follows:

CAT A Very severely damaged vehicles with little or no salvageable parts remaining, the value of the remains being only scrap metal. As an example this may apply to total burn outs but could equally apply to very heavily impact damaged vehicles as well. It should be noted that despite this description it is still possible to apply for a V5c in these cases which the BVSF struggle to comprehend and is working tirelessly with the DVLA to stop.

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The code of practice dictates that “Salvage Disposers should use best endeavours to ensure that Cat A and B vehicles do not reappear on the road”.

CAT C A repairable vehicle where the retail repair cost exceeds the pre-accident value of the vehicle. It should be noted that non-original or recycled parts, often known as “green parts”, may well reduce the repair cost of a Cat C vehicle to a viable figure. These vehicles can and do re-appear on the roads and are the subject of the VIC scheme as detailed above. The VIC is NOT a check on the repair quality, merely confirming that a vehicle is what it purports to be by crossmatching identity numbers etc. The cost for a VIC is rather ridiculously a similar figure to an MOT but only takes 5-7 minutes as witnessed personally.

CAT D A repairable vehicle whereby the retail value of repairs do not exceed the retail value of the vehicle. The insurance term for this is often called a “Constructive Total Loss”, the insurance industry treating the vehicle as a loss due to other factors. Perhaps a considerable parts delay or an owner expressing distress with regard to having the vehicle back, or this could be a new for old policy with the affected vehicle being under one year old and in the hands of the original owner. Turning now to the actions of the Salvage Agent in relation to the treatment and/or disposal of the Salvage/Vehicle. ►


CAT A The vehicle, if applicable (cars, light vans and some 3 wheelers), must be treated in accordance with the End of Life (ELV) vehicle regulations, depoluted in the correct manner and if described within these regulations then issued with a Certificate of Destruction, must be crushed, the VIN plate removed and securely disposed of. All Registration plates removed and destroyed. CAT B...As above for Category A but allowing for a time delay, once any re-usable parts have been removed. It should be noted at this stage that the BVSF and MVDA have jointly investigated the potential for re-using fully tested undeployed air bags which currently are statemented within the code as “Not to be resold”. The report on this investigation is due out shortly, CAT C and CAT D…These vehicles can be re-sold. However if a company chooses to break them for their component parts then they must be treated as ELV’s above. The decision made by the inspecting engineer: 1.

Upon inspecting the damaged vehicle, the inspecting engineer must make the decision “are the repairs required to indemnify the owner/ keeper of the vehicle of a value to consider settlement with the owner/ keeper on a loss basis”. (Total Loss or Constructive Total Loss). 2. The most important question and one which sometimes could easily cause mis-categorisation: CAN/ SHOULD the vehicle be repaired ? Almost anything, given sufficient time “COULD” be repaired but “SHOULD” it, and it is these 2 words that need consideration together. If the answer to question 2 is a categoric YES then the categorisation should rest on a full estimate of the repair costs and this will place the vehicle in either CAT C or D as described previously.

However, if the answer to question 2 is NO then a decision must be made upon the inspection of the vehicle remains as to whether there are any economically salvageable parts remaining. If there are then it must be a B and if there are not then A. The inspecting engineer must apply best practice and safety considerations when deciding whether a vehicle may be sold for repair, destruction or stripped for re-usable parts. It is the inspecting engineer who categorises a vehicle not the salvage dealer. The value of the salvage return to an insurer is obviously affected by the Categories, CAT A being basically worthless and CAT D being the most valuable. I believe that it is here that the risk of misinterpretation of the code is considerable. Likewise a salvage dealer will recoup more money from a D rather than a B, but he has little say in the categorisation process and more often than not feels pressurised to accept the Category decision, even if he feels it is wrong rather than rocking the boat and perhaps even risking his contract with the insurer. The FINAL decision on the Category is the INSURERS. Salvage Buyers have applied best practice in the past and deliberately broken a Cat C or even Cat D vehicle if they are concerned that the vehicle is not fit for viable repair, thus reducing the risk of a vehicle being returned to the road that should not be. Following a personal investigation, and it must be stressed that this has not been instigated by any member of the BVSF, I am sad to say that I am seeing what I perceive to be cases of serious miscategorisation. A case in point recently seen was a vehicle categorised as C, whereas in reality it should have been an A. Whether this is the fault of technology and rather than inspecting vehicles in the flesh they are being inspected by images, or whether engineers decisions are being pressurised I know not. What I do know is that something has to be done about it sooner rather than later. I have spoken to representatives from the Association of British Insurers and they are keen to be advised of cases that I have found. ■

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Peter Jones, OBE, Director, Ecolateral

15 Years of Evolutionary Revolution in

Waste to Resources

As one who has spent a working lifetime in a range of utterly distinct industry sectors (first industrial gases, and then pallet hire, welding and parcels distribution) the waste industry takes the biscuit for pace and scale of transition. Unusually government intervention has been effective and focussed as a driver for change. Before the Control of Pollution Act impacted in the early 1980’s the Regulatory and technological barriers were low, permitting a plethora of solutions from the highly advanced ideas in Birmingham and Manchester to the downright primitive in Southampton. For the 15 years or so before the Millennium, from diversity came order - in the form of mass burn and landfill. Taking stock of the 15 years since the landfill tax introduction in 1997 we can but marvel at the return to diversity

Activity Landfill Collection of Commercial/Industrial Municipal- Household Management Recycling Incineration Composting Exports Anaerobic Digestion Material Recovery Facilities Total

and turmoil. The precise numbers are open to challenge, in part due the continuing absence of any on-line data capture system (unusual in such a regulated sector) other than Municipal Waste Dataflow (originally sponsored by a private sector initiative) and HMRC landfill returns. The following data ignores the share of non “waste” operators in paper/card and ferrous scrap and attempts to demonstrate the scale of the transition. Comparing 1997 and 2013 shows substantial shifts in the end life material movements of scrap organic and carbon based wastes (excluding construction aggregates) in millions of tonnes.

1997 80 80 29 1 3 1 194

"Unusually government intervention has been effective and focussed as a driver for change"

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2013 24 40 24 16 6 4 1 4 25 144

Translating these substantial shifts into gross added value demonstrates how the umbrella of the 1997 tax has vacuumed in a plethora of new entrants tempted by the appeal of higher charge rates as a minimum fee base as deep burial moved from £7 per tonne to over £100. Correspondingly waste producers also moved to divert material from the established exit routes and operators if they failed to adapt in offering alternative exit routes.


ACTIVTY Landfill Treasury as Tax Collection (Ind & Comm) Municipal Services Collection Recycling (Gross) Incineration Composting Exports Anaerobic Digestion MRFs Landfill Gas to Energy Total

1997 GVA(£m) 620 320 1400 60 300 200 200 3100

On the face of it a healthy doubling in sector value (net of tax take by HMRC) but in reality a picture of woe for those failing to adapt to new market drivers. In tonnage terms the obvious reductions in landfill inputs have ended the glorious years of the great cash cow of the nineties when sites were acquired at eye watering prices but still ended up covering purchase prices in one year of earnings after less than a decade of operation. Energy from gas consistently rose to 2008 but is now probably plummeting on the back of falling biogenic material diversion from 2004 and declining yields on historic as well as operational cells. Industrial and commercial logistics have been hollowed out by the intervention of Supermarket and other conventional logistics operators performing backloading take back , fast accelerating as co-located digestion facilities open next to Regional Distribution hubs. After long gestation reduction programmes in packaging and product design triggered by the Courtauld Agreements and Corporate Social Responsibility objectives have top sliced available tonnages. Municipal falling tonnages may be about to correct upwards as home deliveries for both food and non-food proliferate but there are other underlying drags on GVA as recession forces multiple cooperation schemes to drive economies of scale. Those upward swings may also be offset as Ocado and other parcels operators seek to access lucrative packaging arisings in an otherwise bleak, low margin business. £1bn has been added in the form of waste to energy and a further £1bn in the form of material separation. Contemporary with current attempts to secure quality standards in this area is the enlarged importance of intermediate quality control activities on the “throat” of waste management as it shifts

2012 GVA(£m) 400 1600 200 1440 1000 800 800 40 170 1000 350 7800

from being the solution to a problem to an agent for material reuse. In 1997 as much as 80% of gross value added in the sector could be classed as a cost of disposal. Today as little as 10% can be regarded in the same light. It is almost as if the sector is riding a see-saw swinging from a front loaded disposal fee model to a back loaded income stream from recyclates , electricity and soils. The physical investment has correspondingly altered - from landfills, trucks, depots, buildings and specific process technologies. Those shifts are hinted at in recent exhibitions and their stand profiles - the financials explain why...as well as hinting at what is to come, as possible income streams from heat, transport fuels, fuel and industrial gases are added to the mix. The only certainty in the numbers is that they are open to challenge, and the sooner an integrated data capture system, based on electronic duty of care, is implemented the sooner will it trigger a wave of investment from a community demanding greater transparency and knowledge of the underpinning trends. Until 2010 the backdrop of rising commodity and energy prices augured well for resource recovery. Today perhaps one has to be less sanguine. Falling gas prices, the moderation of Chinese and Indian sub-continent growth and the end of the EU love affair with high traded carbon prices as an important instrument for driving sustainability may signal the end of the beginning for the Green Agenda. However the appearance of a second reminder last week from Professor David McKay that the planet will go its own way regardless suggests that the waste to resources transition has a while to run yet, raising the spectre of continuing turbulence for those prepared to hang on in. ■ ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |115|


News

Agriculture, Food & Packaging

Air Quality

Conservation

Energy

Environmental Remediation

Sustainable Build & Civil Engineering

Timber & Forestry

Transport

Waste & Recycling

Water 118 - 119

Advanced Inlet Diffuser and Overflow Weir Technology for Settling Tanks - Tony Dee, WRc plc and Bill Foster, Fostec

Miscellany |116| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Advanced Inlet Diffuser and Overflow Weir Technology for Settling Tanks Tony Dee, WRc plc & Bill Foster, Fostec

Introduction

Despite the extensive use Figure 1: (Above) Voluflow inlet converter retrofitted under the return sludge sump (chamber) of an activated sludge final settlement tank fitted with a suction lift scraper system. The Voluflow rectangular peripheral weir is 6m long, positioned at the opposite side of the 17.9m diameter tank from the Voluflow inlet converter mouth

of settling tanks within the Water Industry as a low energy means of separating particulate matter in the treatment of wastewater, it is commonly recognised that many settling tanks are not particularly efficient owing to the constraints of traditional design practice.

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The basis for settling tank design is the concept of discrete particles settling under still conditions. It was shown by Hazen in 1904 that the performance of an ideal tank will be independent of depth, if there is no interaction between the particles. Hazen proposed the concept of discrete particles settling in an ideal tank under quiescent conditions and showed theoretically that such particles will only reach the tank floor if their settling velocity exceeds the ratio of the flowrate to plan area of the tank. This ratio is termed the surface loading rate (upward flow velocity) and together with hydraulic retention time continues to be widely used by the UK Water Industry for design. Settling tanks are not markedly inefficient in terms of solids removal over the long retention time, which is normally provided for wastewater. Most of the readily settleable matter is usually removed. During the settling of sewage solids, there is a tendency for flocculent particles to aggregate and solids settling rates to increase. From studies undertaken by WRc into the settling properties of solids in wastewater, settling rate is markedly increased by gentle agitation. Enhanced settling rates allow significantly lower solids concentration to be obtained in a given time or a similar solids removal to be achieved in a much shorter time. Designing settling tanks to


promote flocculation is therefore beneficial, enabling the size of tanks to be reduced significantly without affecting performance greatly. From the results of tracer studies at WRc, considerable longitudinal mixing occurs in settling tanks. Combining residence time distribution curves found from tracer studies undertaken on full-scale tanks with settling curves of suspended solids during column tests gives predicted average percentage removals which tie in with observed readings. Resident time distribution is an important parameter for sizing settling tanks. The pattern of flow in a rectangular settling tank was investigated by WRc using two small probes: a simple vane, which is free to rotate and take the same direction as the horizontal flow component, and a hot wire instrument to measure the local average velocity. Measurements of a large number of points showed the flow in one half of the rectangular settling tank was reversed towards the inlet and the flows on the other side of the tank, where the direction of flow was mainly away from the inlet, were higher than average. The hydraulic characteristics of the tank were improved by installing a passive transverse baffle fitted with slots to equalise the flow velocities across the tank and to establish a condition closer to plug flow.

ranging from 35mg/l to 210mg/l were consistently reduced to between 13mg/l and 72mg/l, or about one third of their pre-Voluflow concentrations. Also, sludge blanket lifting and sludge solids overflow, which regularly caused blockage of the downstream sand filters, stopped happening. Pharmaceuticals: A new build 4m diameter Voluflow unit supplied to a pharmaceutical facility also brought about dramatic improvements in performance. It was installed to replace a same-size conventional radial-flow settling tank where the weir overflow solids regularly fouled the tertiary filter stage. From startup of the Voluflow, the weir overflow quality improved significantly and then continued getting better. The Voluflow unit also made it possible to reduce the excessive solids concentrations in the aeration tanks over a period of months from over 10,000mg/l down to the design value of around 4,000mg/l.

The Voluflow unit also made it possible to reduce the excessive solids concentrations in the aeration tanks over a period of months from over 10,000mg/l down to the design value of around 4,000mg/l.

For a circular settling tank, an excellent example of a passive baffled inlet is the Voluflow Inlet Converter with its associated short weir. The Voluflow system was patented, developed and successfully applied at a number of industrial and municipal wastewater treatment works by Fostech Limited over the past decade; one was a new build tank and the others were retrofits. More recently, WRc has been working with a number of UK Water and Sewerage Companies concerning possible future installations. An overview of this technology is given below.

Voluflow Technology The conventional diffuser drum of a circular tank is replaced by a speciallybaffled inlet flow converter which is fixed at the centre of the settling tank and is clear of moving parts such as scrapers. The conventional full peripheral weir is replaced by a self-cleaning, flat-topped weir and weir channel, along a short part of the tank periphery. Influent enters the Voluflow inlet converter where the fast vertical influent flows are first stilled and redirected so as to provide uniform horizontal cross flows at all levels through the tank. These cross flows emerge from the outlet of the inlet converter at a slow rate and enter the main tank body without causing any disturbance of the settled sludge zone or clarified surface layers. The cross flows are directed first away from the short weir and then back towards it, round both sides of the inlet converter. Throughout the bulk volume of the tank, the horizontal flow velocities are slow and uniform at all levels. This is closer to the perfect conditions defined by Hazen a century ago, but rarely achieved since then in any conventional settlement tank. The dynamic cross flow conditions in a Voluflow tank also encourage particle collision and faster settling rates. In Voluflow tanks, sludge is deposited nearer to the centre than in conventional settling tanks, is more concentrated, and easier to plough to the centre sludge well. In the supernatant zone, clarified effluent flows towards a much shortened, rectangular weir. Compared with conventional design settlement tanks, Voluflow tanks can operate at significantly higher surface loadings, without causing short-circuiting or risking the sludge blanket lifting and solids overflowing into the weir channel.

Dairy: In the case of a 7m diameter activated sludge settling tank at a Northern Ireland dairy, the original peak influent rate to the tank could be nearly doubled without any occurrence of sludge blanket lifting/solids overflow. An improvement in weir overflow quality was also maintained at the higher weir overflow rates and scum arisings reduced significantly. In sharp contrast, before retrofitting the Voluflow, an increase in the influent rate of only 25% had been enough to seriously increase the effluent suspended solids, brought about by scouring and sludge solids passing into the overflow weir. Because of the success with the Voluflow installations at that site, the conventional settling tanks are no longer under pressure to operate at high flow rates.

Municipal wastewater treatment The most recent success has been with a Voluflow inlet converter and 6m long, flat-topped peripheral weir installed in one of a pair of new 12m diameter activated sludge final settling tanks at a Northern Ireland Water wastewater treatment works near Belfast. A combined sample of treated effluent taken from the mixed overflow from both tanks is taken automatically, and in the last year, 90% of the suspended solids results were below 10mg/l, sometimes as low as 1mg/l to 3mg/l. The biggest tank retrofitted so far is 22m diameter tank, at United Utilities PLC, Hyde wastewater treatment works; larger tanks are considered feasible. A Voluflow weir assembly with its weir channel and scum board is considerably shorter than a conventional full peripheral weir, and is significantly cheaper, easier and safer to build and install level, and simpler to clean and maintain during routine operation. The short weir, channel and scum board can also be shielded from light to prevent algal growth. These factors, together with the reduced footprint of a Voluflow unit, make new build as well as retrofits potentially attractive for upgrading municipal wastewater treatment works. Tests have yet to be carried out at municipal wastewater treatment works to assess fully the performance capability of Voluflow technology fitted in tanks operating at high surface loadings. This is the next step which is required to exploit this technology in municipal wastewater treatment applications. This technology is a candidate for further evaluation and testing under WRc’s National Innovation Accelerator for Water to facilitate easier entry for innovative technologies and solutions within the Water Industry. Hazen, (2004) On sedimentation, Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 53, 45-71 (1904). â–

Industrial wastewater treatment Voluflow technology has been installed on settling tanks to reduce the concentration of suspended solids in settled effluent from the overflow weir, even at high surface loading rates. Maltings: After retrofitting a Voluflow unit five years ago inside a 17m diameter activated sludge settling tank, suspended solids levels previously

+ For More Information Contact Bill Foster who pioneered, patented, developed and commercialized Voluflow Technology at http://www.fostech.co.uk/ or Tony Dee at http://www.wrcplc.co.uk/

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Water

Miscellany Prosecutions

122

Policy: Changing landscape of business environmental reporting - Nick Blyth

123 - 125

Regulation and Compliance: Chinese Environmental Law Developments in 2013 - Paul Davies & Mr. Xiaoke(Oliver) Zhang

126 - 127

Product Guide

128 - 129

Case Study One: Bowmer & Kirkland ISO 14001 Environmental Management certification

130 131 132 133 134 - 135 137 - 138

Case Studies

121

Case Study Two: World Leading Accoya速 Wood Rises to the Challenge Case Study Three: Oceans ESU Case Study Four: Natural boost for AD plant efficiency is unveiled Case Study Five: Showering Landfill Savings Case Study Six: Large interlocking concrete blocks as optimal solution for storage of bulk material Famous Last Words: Reintroducing Vertebrates - Derek William Yalden

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Water company fined for failing to report problem at sewage works Waste carrier dumped and burnt tyres at illegal site

South West Water has been ordered to pay £8,637 in fines and costs for failing to alert the Environment Agency to a serious problem at its Ivybridge sewage treatment works.

A waste carrier has been ordered to carry out 80 hours of unpaid work after admitting depositing shredded tyres and burning waste at a site which did not have a permit.

On January 16, 2012 the Agency received complaints from members of the public about a discoloured and foul-smelling discharge coming from the treatment works.

He was also ordered to pay a £250 contribution to costs.

South West Water had earlier contacted the Agency to report a problem with a pipeline at the site. The company said the fault had been repaired by January 12 and that it hadn’t resulted in a significant deterioration in the quality of effluent discharged into the River Erme. This was checked and confirmed by the Environment Agency.

Luke Holmes admitted the charges at Northampton Magistrates Court on 25 January 2013 and was sentenced today (16 April) following an investigation by the Environment Agency. Sarah Nicholson, prosecuting, told the court that Holmes had taken a number of loads of shredded tyres from a nearby shredding site on Tweed Road and had dumped them on land at Chapel Lane, Hackleton, Northamptonshire. The investigation started after a call to the Environment Agency’s national incident helpline. Officers visited the Chapel Lane site and found approximately 60 mounds of shredded tyres covering an area of 30m x 30m.

Environmental Prosecutions

They also found old oil drums, white goods, an old trampoline, wooden pallets and several whole tyres. On two occasions there was evidence of recent burning.

Prison sentence for ‘cantankerous’ land owner Land owner Roger Frederick Phipps has been sentenced to 8months imprisonment and ordered to carry out 180 hours unpaid work for allowing an illegal waste site to be run on his farm for years. He was also fined £15,000 for breaching two planning enforcement notices. The prison sentence was suspended for 2 years and Phipps has been ordered to remove the waste from the farm in four stages by 30 Jan 2014. He was also told to pay a contribution of £20,000 towards prosecution costs. Michelins Farm, Rayleigh did not have a waste permit nor planning permission to operate the site, Chelmsford Crown Court heard today (Tues). The site was run without an environmental permit from April 200811. Mr Mark Watson, prosecuting for the Environment Agency and Rochford District Council, said two enforcement notices had been served by the council on Phipps in 2002 for breaches of planning control at Michelins Farm.

North Lincolnshire company fined £5,000 for scrapping vehicles on unauthorised land Yesterday, Belle Vue Trucks Limited pleaded guilty at Scunthorpe Magistrates’ Court to one charge of operating a waste facility when there was no environmental permit in force. The company was fined £5,000, ordered to pay £3,244.75 in prosecution costs, along with a £15 victim surcharge. The charge was brought by the Environment Agency under the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010. Belle Vue Trucks Limited carried out vehicle dismantling activities on land at Common Farm, North Lincolnshire between May and June 2011.

Two men receive maximum ban for illegal elver fishing Two Bridgwater men have both been banned for five years after being caught illegally fishing for elvers on the River Tone in Somerset. David Roberts and Mark Newbury were also ordered to pay a total of £4,000 in fines and costs after being convicted at the end of a two day trial at Taunton Crown Court. Describing the pair as ‘thoroughly dishonest’, the judge warned the men to expect much heavier fines if they ever appeared before him again. The pair were seen getting out of a Citroen estate car at Hook Bridge on April 6, 2012 accompanied by a third man who later pleaded guilty to illegal fishing. Unknown to the defendants, Agency bailiffs were keeping the bridge under surveillance. The bailiffs watched as Roberts and the third man removed fishing equipment from the car and started fishing. At one point, Mark Newbury, removed a large searchlight from the vehicle and shone it’s beam across the fields. Bailiffs gained the impression he was acting as a look-out. As the bailiffs approached the bridge, Roberts and his accomplice abandoned their nets and ran away. The second elver fisherman was soon caught, but Roberts ran into a field and escaped in the darkness. However, he later returned to Hook Bridge cold and soaking wet. Roberts denied he’d been fishing and said he’d been out for a walk. When asked why he was wet he said he’d ‘been catching a duck'. Newbury denied involvement and claimed he had been walking his dog. All three men later left in the Citroen estate. ‘Illegal fishing damages eel stocks, harms the environment and is unfair to law-abiding fishermen. We won’t hesitate to prosecute offenders,’ said Richard Dearnley for the Environment Agency.

llegal waste site operator to pay 115,000GBP Undercover surveillance by the Environment Agency helped to expose the activities of a married couple running an illegal waste site. Nicholas Simon Panks was ordered at Norwich Crown Court to hand over £108,000 proceeds from his illegal activity under the Proceeds of Crime Act and to carry out 120 hours of unpaid work in the community. He was also ordered to pay £7,821 costs to the Environment Agency.

Prosecuting for the Environment Agency, Kiran Cassini told the Court that on 11 May 2011, an officer from North Lincolnshire Council attended the site following a complaint about noise. At the rear of the site the officer saw 5 or 6 men working in an area where there were disassembled vehicles and other vehicles loaded with metal. There were also tyres and vehicle parts and an accumulation of oil on the ground. The officer spoke with the males who indicated that they were “scrapping vehicles” and that they worked for “Belle Vue”. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |121|


Policy Nick Blyth, Policy & Practice Lead Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment

Changing landscape of business environmental reporting The trend for leading companies to demonstrate responsibility through corporate environmental reporting is becoming established practice. In 2010 nearly 60% of environment and sustainability professionals said their organisation reported carbon (GHG) emissions publicly, with a further 30% reporting internally. The same group confirmed there had been a steady year on year uptake in GHG reporting since 2001, across all main sectors and particularly led by large corporates (IEMA survey of 1079 professionals). Companies such as Marks and Spencer are now publicly declaring the achievement of significant financial savings from such environmental programmes for example through reduced energy, fuel use, waste and packaging. The business rationale is clear with reported environment programmes returning real benefits in corporate reputation, competitiveness and cost reduction.

What is driving environmental reporting today? Some well-known drivers are continuing to fuel corporate environmental reporting from financial savings from energy and resource efficiency, through to reputational benefits from publicly reported achievements (for example meeting a corporate carbon target or commitment to local communities). Today’s companies are now responding to an increasing and broader range of drivers including critical ‘dependencies’ and direct business value from the natural environment. Global corporates with longer term business commitments are operationally and socially con-cerned about water scarcity, energy insecurity, demand for critical rare materials in the production of consumer goods and increasing extreme weather events as a consequence of our changing climate. Some are starting to manage and report on such critical environmental dependencies. As the final Report to Government from the ‘business led’ Ecosystems Market Task Force states “A new way of looking at nature is currently being pioneered by companies. They recognize that nature is a provider of vital resources and services, and that its value needs to be accounted for in both their day to day operations, as well as in investment decisions”.

What is the UK Government’s role ? Government legislation and guidance has a role to play in requiring and incentivising reporting and also in providing consistent policy for businesses (a level playing field). Some companies are already required to make disclosures of environmental information, for example, under the Companies Act 2006, the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Energy Efficiency Scheme, EU ETS and under environmental permits. The corporate reporting landscape is further developing with a new requirement for mandatory GHG reporting, revised guidance in environmental KPI reporting and changes in narrative reporting under the Companies Act (2013). The Government will shortly confirm regulations for mandatory Greenhouse Gas reporting for all UK quoted companies, requiring 1,100 of the UK’s largest businesses to publicly report annual GHG emissions. Mandatory GHG reporting will help companies to deliver tangible business benefits with around 70% of professionals surveyed by IEMA saying reporting will deliver cost savings, and 77% that it will secure net environmental benefits (2011 IEMA survey). Although, non-listed large companies and SMEs will all initially be outside the scope of the regulations, many will increasingly be asked to provide data by larger supply-chain client companies. Preparing for GHG accounting and reporting will enable companies to engage with clients and stakeholders and at the same time commence their own programmes to save energy, reduce car-bon and achieve cost savings. Also important will be planned changes to company reporting requirements under the Compa-nies Act. Current draft reporting regulations indicate a requirement for a Strategic Report, which should incorporate “a fair review of a company’s business”. This Strategic Report must include “a description of the principal risks and uncertainties facing a company”. For quoted companies the strategic report must, “to the extent necessary for an understanding of the development, per-formance or position of the company’s business, include information about environmental issues (and also social, community and human rights issues), including the use of KPIs”. The regulations will be laid in Parliament in May 2013. ¹ Final report - ‘business led’ Ecosystems Market Task Force - http://www.defra.gov.uk/ecosystemmarkets/work/publications-reports/

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What role should regulation take in the future to progress company environmental reporting? It is possible to view the direction of current Government changes to company environ-mental reporting as a less prescriptive regulatory approach, with more responsibility placed upon companies and an emphasis on ‘transparent disclosure’ against requirements. The mandatory requirement for GHG reporting will, for example, not require a single set methodology to be fol-lowed. Instead the focus will be on companies being required to be transparent, and disclose the method they choose to use. Regulations will specify the GHGs to be reported and will clearly outline requirements upon companies. They will not however require an additional specific veri-fication or audit of data. However, many companies are likely to voluntarily ensure verification in order to give confidence in their reported data and protect their corporate reputation. The contrast in approach to the highly structured CRC scheme is noticeable, although clearly both have respective merits. A framework with minimum requirements and a level playing field for compliance is clearly an important driver and widely seen by professionals as critical to progress. Examples of legislation triggering action can be cited from the business response to Producer Responsibility (Packaging Waste) Regulations in 2007 through to the recent (and final) reported public league table of the Carbon Reduction Commitment, where the 2,097 CRC participants achieved a total reduction of 7.63% (4.64MtCO2) in reported carbon emissions (compared to 2010/11). Developments such as mandatory GHG reporting will set minimum requirements, but will not be subject to the rules and requirements of formal schemes such as the CRC. In this situation the level of environmental and business progress from reporting will be influenced by the company’s own values and also by the level of active stakeholder interest in the published report. Some companies will be forced to commence reporting, and for existing reporters the requirement will raise the profile on GHG management. Supply chain pressure will in turn require further com-panies to choose to report in the short term. Mandatory GHG reporting will be reviewed and potentially extended as a requirement to all large companies in 2016. GHG guidance develop-ments internationally will also be important as companies increasingly operate across territories. For example the World Resources Institute’s GHG Protocol ‘green power’ accounting guidance (http://www. ghgprotocol.org/feature/ghg-protocol-power-accounting-guidelines) due in late 2013 will be important, informing how emissions from consumed electricity are accounted for. Recent WRI proposals indicate this may now more closely compliment UK reporting methods, although potential does exist still for conflicting approaches. Looking to the future, leading companies will be considering how to manage and report on a broader range of significant ‘environmental dependencies’ across a number of sustainability con-cerns - covering carbon and energy, water use and stewardship, resource use and materials, and important interactions with ecosystem services and biodiversity. National legislation such as the UK’s mandatory GHG reporting requirement will continue to be valuable in driving the growth of corporate environmental reporting. Given the complex international structure of many busi-nesses, national reporting will need to be complemented by harmonised and effective interna-tional guidance and standards, helping to ensure consistency in approach between businesses and across countries. ■ Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment - is the UK’s leading environmental professional membership body. IEMA is dedicated to creating a sustainable future through environmental skills, knowledge and thought leadership. IEMA is an independent and international, not for profit membership organisation that represents 15,000 environment professionals.


Regulation and Compliance

Paul Davies, Partner at Macfarlanes

Mr. Xiaoke(Oliver) Zhang, senior associate at Jun He

Chinese Environmental Law Developments in 2013 Introduction Chinese Premier, Li Keqiang pledged at his inaugural press conference that his government would employ an “iron fist” to tackle the increasingly topical issue of pollution in China. This not only marks the highest-level public statement on pollution in China, but also reflects the increasing politicisation and tempo of Chinese environmental law. The rapid expansion of the Chinese economy has, as in other parts of the world, come at a cost and the government is now confronting a changing and challenging landscape in environmental regulation. Given the unprecedented comments made by the new Premier, what developments can we expect in Chinese environmental law in 2013? This article seeks to address the topical issues of air quality, carbon emissions, Environmental Liability Insurance (ELI), contaminated land and corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices in China. Air Pollution Top of the political agenda is the widely publicised issue of air pollution. Vehicle emissions, construction dust, atmospheric conditions and, in particular, the increased burning of coal during the winter months have all combined to generate smog that frequently blankets large parts of China. In January of this year, it was reported that particulate matter (PM2.5), the finest and most harmful to human health, exceeded 990 micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m3) in Beijing compared to the World Health Organisation’s (WHO’s) air quality guideline value of 25µg /m3. According to a 2012 report by the Asian Development Bank, seven of the most polluted cities in the world are in China. This represents a difficult challenge for the new administration to tackle. Parallels have been drawn by commentators, including those in the Chinese media, to London’s Great Smog of 1952, which is estimated to have killed as many as 12,000 people (4,000 people during the smog, with a further 8,000 estimated to have died in the following months). The London smog led to the introduction of the UK’s Clean Air Acts.

According to a 2012 report by the Asian Development Bank, seven of the most polluted cities in the world are in China.

China’s focus on economic growth is difficult to reconcile with an improvement in air quality. However, there are clear financial benefits in the reduction of air pollution, including a decrease in the costs of treating related illnesses. In 2007, the World Bank published a study on the cost of pollution in China, which indicated that the economic burden of air pollution in relation to health impacts could be as much as 3.8% of GDP. This in itself is a direct incentive to improve air quality – but how will the Chinese government achieve such a challenging goal? The effectiveness of the ad-hoc measures currently employed for tackling air pollution need to be carefully considered. During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, certain classes of vehicle were temporarily banned and manufacturing activities were significantly reduced. However, the recently reported “formalising” of such measures, will not go far enough, as this will only provide a short-term solution. Comprehensive standards need to be applied across the country and more importantly, appropriately and efficiently enforced. Further information on these air pollution measures are expected during the course of 2013. The Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) has already announced the implementation of an air quality monitoring ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |123|


Carbon Tax

China’s consumption of coal being nearly as much as the rest of the world combined

According to reports in the Chinese media, a document compiled by the Ministry of Finance and the Budget Committee of the Standing Committee indicates that China is considering levying a tax on certain products that heavily utilise resources and cause pollution. At present, there is uncertainty as to the exact detail of such a tax, but it could potentially affect a wide range of products. Given that the tax appears to be at a research stage, it is unclear when any further details may be released, but this is certainly a development to monitor during the course of 2013.

Environmental Liability Insurance (ELI) China’s rapid economic expansion has not only impacted air quality, as illustrated by the Bohai Bay oil spill in 2011. This was in fact a series of oil spills, beginning on 4 June in an oil field jointly owned by ConocoPhilips and China National Offshore Oil Corporation. China subsequently issued its largest fine for pollution caused by an oil spill: Rmb1.7bn ($269m). Although not as large a spill as Deepwater Horizon, the devastating effect of such an oil spill has been well publicised and highlights the challenges faced at Bohai Bay. It is perhaps no coincidence, therefore, that on 21 January 2013, MEP and the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC) issued Guidance on the experimental implementation of ELI (the Guidance).

network across 190 Chinese cities. Moreover, the statement made by Li Keqiang that China “will show even greater resolve and take more vigorous efforts to clean up such [air] pollution”, emphasises the prominence of air quality on the new government’s agenda.

Emissions Trading China is also the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases. According to figures published by the US Energy Information Administration (US EIA), China’s consumption of coal is nearly as much as the rest of the world combined. As a result of increasing international and domestic pressure, in 2011, the State Council and National Development and Reform Commission announced the potential development of a “carbon emissions quota trading system” during the current 12th Five-year Plan (Carbon Emissions Trading Notice). By the end of 2012, pilot carbon emissions quota trading systems had developed in seven municipalities and provinces - Beijing, Chongqing, Guangdong, Hubei, Shanghai, Shenzhen and Tianjin. Carbon emissions quota trading systems typically seek to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in energy intensive industries, by the: 1.

use of carbon emissions reporting and capping;

2.

allocation and trading of carbon allowances or credits; and

3.

effective enforcement and penalties.

The rules of each of the seven pilot emissions trading systems will differ, in order to allow China to experiment with different emission trading schemes. For example, the Beijing scheme will cover all companies with emissions over 10,000 tonnes of CO2, whilst the Chongqing pilot will only include companies from six industry sectors. According to a report prepared by Climate Bridge, although the pilot emissions trading systems will only cover a fraction of China’s total emissions, in aggregate they will make up the world’s second largest emission trading scheme. A nationwide system is expected to be implemented in 2015-2016. The pilot schemes are expected to cover 700 million tonnes of CO2 by 2014, compared with 2.1 billion tonnes in Europe under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). It has been emphasised by the Chinese government that these pilot emissions trading systems are an experimental step on the road to reducing carbon emissions. However, businesses based in China should begin to familiarise themselves with the schemes as quickly as possible, as this is likely to become an essential feature of environmental legal compliance, particularly in high-emitting industries. Trading is expected to be launched in three of the municipalities and provinces, Shanghai, Guangdong and Shenzen in 2013. Further detail on each of the pilot schemes is expected during the course of this year. |124| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

In practice, such official guidance documents are the legal basis by which various government agencies put relevant matters into practice. Formal guidance and opinions are, therefore, a useful tool for the relevant government agency to use, as they provide a flexible means by which new initiatives can be trialled. According to the Guidance, corporations from a range of industries will either be required to obtain ELI or will be “encouraged” to do so. The use of the word “encouraged” introduces the potential for flexibility in the trial, rather than the imposition of a mandatory requirement. Those companies that are required to obtain ELI are primarily in the heavy metals industry, and companies that are “encouraged” to obtain ELI are those in industries that present a high environmental risk, such as the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries. The Guidance also outlines: 1.

the claims and costs for which ELI policies are required to provide cover;

2.

the way in which insurance premiums should be administered; and

3.

guidance in relation to the provision of risk assessments and the administration of claims. This is, of course, a specialist area and it is conceivable that such Guidance may need significant amendment once ELI is better understood. However, there is no fixed format with which such Guidance has to comply, and given it has no binding legal effect the content can be amended to reflect any developments in the ELI industry.

Land Transfers and Contaminated Land Liability Another key development in Chinese environmental law happened at the end of 2012, with the circulation of the Notice of “Environmental and Safety Issues on the Development and Utilisation of Industrial Land” by the MEP, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Ministry of National Land and Resources and the Ministry of Housing and Urban and Rural Development (the Contaminated Land Notice). The way in which land is transferred in China, particularly in relation to businesses, is different to the sale of land in the UK. Land situated in urban areas principally belongs to the state and is either transferred to private businesses by way of a purchase of a right to use the land (a user right), or “allocated” for public use. Land allocated for public use is typically held by State Owned Enterprises (SOEs), government agencies or the military and is usually transferred at a significantly lower cost than the transfer of a user right to a private entity, or even for free in certain limited circumstances. Notwithstanding the differences in property ownership between China and the UK, the principles conveyed under the Contaminated Land Notice are not dissimilar with those of the UK Contaminated Land and planning regimes. The overall objectives of both contaminated land regimes are similar, in that they seek to ensure that contamination is remediated and that the polluter pays.


the position of the responsible party. Here, again there are some interesting similarities with the UK Contaminated Land Regime.

The Chinese government is preparing to tackle the wide spectrum of environmental challenges that rapid industrial growth has generated

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Finally, in light of the developments discussed above and the increasing competition in China’s marketplace both from domestic businesses and foreign multinationals, it is no surprise that there is an increasing focus on CSR. Concerns about supply chain management, the emergence of NGOs in China and the application of multinational policies have begun to transform the practices of businesses in China, particularly with regard to environmental and health & safety issues. Encouraging companies to improve their CSR practices in China may be seen as a difficult challenge, particularly as CSR is often associated with voluntary standards. However, managing reputational risk to businesses is becoming increasingly important. Further progress in relation to CSR practices in China is expected to continue in 2013.

Conclusion

The Contaminated Land Notice first sets out how investigations into contaminated land should be conducted, in particular by outlining the responsibilities of the various local authorities. The industrial and economic authorities are required to provide a list of corporate entities that are being suspended, relocated, closed or are insolvent, to the local authorities in charge of environmental protection, national land and resources, and urban and rural planning. The environmental protection authority, together with the authorities in charge of industry and the economy and urban and rural planning (the Relevant Authorities) are then required to investigate the condition of the land being vacated as a result of the suspension, relocation, closure or insolvency of those corporate entities. The Relevant Authorities are also required to perform a risk assessment, establish a database for the contaminated land and share such information with the responsible local land authorities. In essence, this is similar to the UK Contaminated Land Regime, that places a duty on local authorities to identify contaminated land in their area.

The high-level public comments made by Li Keqiang indicate that the Chinese government is preparing to tackle the wide spectrum of environmental challenges that rapid industrial growth has generated. The key issue for entities based in China will be to monitor developments in order to understand and respond to the impact of such new legislation. Whilst 2013 will see significant developments in Chinese environmental law, one of the fundamental issues for the new administration will be how to ensure proper adherence to and enforcement of existing and proposed new laws and standards. ■

Planning and contaminated land are also considered under the Contaminated Land Notice. Local land and urban and rural planning authorities are required to plan the apportionment of land in their applicable area, according to the “state general land use plan” and the “urban-rural master plan”. Proportions of land are zoned for certain uses, for example, industrial use or residential use. Pursuant to the Contaminated Land Notice, the local land and rural and urban planning authorities should “properly plan” the use of contaminated land and follow strict rules when granting consent to any development applications. For example, seriously contaminated land that has the potential to significantly harm human health and has not been remediated or does not meet certain standards after remediation cannot be used for the development of housing, schools or hospitals. Moreover, the Contaminated Land Notice requires strict control of the transfer of contaminated land. Environmental investigations and risk assessments must be carried out, before any transfer of a user right or allocation of contaminated land takes place. Following an investigation, the “responsible party” (see below) should be identified and a remediation plan established. Redevelopment of contaminated land is also subject to the requirements of environmental investigations, risk assessments and preventative and remedial measures. Although there is no direct comparison with the UK planning regime, there are similarities, in that once contaminated land is identified, it is the planning regime that is the primary mechanism for ensuring the remediation of contaminated land to a standard sufficient for the proposed end use. Most significantly, the Contaminated Land Notice also states that subsequent to undertaking such environmental investigations and risk assessments, the “responsible party” must be identified and a remediation plan must be produced. The responsible party is identified based on the “polluter pays” principle and it is the responsible party that is responsible for paying for the environmental investigation, risk assessment and remediation. If, however, the entity that has caused the pollution ceases to exist, the local government assumes ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |125|


Product Guide Standing room only at FTIR workshop The Quantitech workshop on FTIR gas analysis at AQE 2013 was completely full, with many attendees forced to stand outside the entrance. Commenting on the appeal of this event, Quantitech’s Dominic Duggan said: “FTIR can measure almost any gas in almost any application, so anyone with an interest in three or more gases will need to know about FTIR.” About half of the workshop attendees were UK based, with the remainder coming from all over the world, and each attendee was provided with an orange to peel during the workshop, so that real-time air analysis could be demonstrated. Quantitech’s second workshop on new sampling technologies for dioxins, particulates, mercury and heavy metals was equally well attended, with especially high levels of interest shown in the G4 automatic isokinetic sampler.

Pakscan wireless valve control is “perfect fit” for tank farm automation In 2011, an operating division of Martin Midstream Partners (MMLP) began building a single product tank farm at the Port of Corpus Christi, Texas, consisting of six 100,000 barrel tanks and four booster pumps to serve nearby truck and ship loading terminals. Originally, the facility was designed for a single hydrocarbon product. The terminal’s original specifications did not require any automated valves to isolate the individual storage tanks. During construction, MMLP decided to upgrade and introduce the capability to handle a second product, which necessitated the requirement of isolating the tanks to avoid cross-contamination. To achieve this, MMLP specified Rotork electric valve actuation under centralised control. The explosion proof Rotork IQ non-intrusive intelligent actuators are monitored and controlled by a Rotork Pakscan P3 digital system, designed specifically for valve actuation duties and the environments associated with hazardous area petrochemical plants and storage areas. The Rotork system incorporates all appropriate interlocks which safeguard the integrity of the terminal operations.

G2M Technologies signs exclusive deal with Tough Tracker G2M Technologies Ltd, the UK innovations company, has signed a deal to exclusively distribute Tough Tracker to the UK market. Tough Tracker is the world’s first virtually indestructible satellite tracking device for the protection of assets. The device is designed to be fitted in the most demanding outdoor environments to the exterior of assets that are liable to suffer physical contact during their working life, such as skips, containers, trailers and plant. It can even be welded directly to the asset to become an integral part of its structure. The patented design includes an armoured outer shell made of an impactresistant composite, stronger than steel, which is used in the manufacture of Formula One cars. All the electronics are encased within this material forming a complete IP 68 rated seal. “We have been involved in the Global tracking sector for over fifteen years but we have never seen anything like Tough Tracker” said Andrew Tillman, Director of G2M technologies. “There are lots of devices that are marketed as asset security products but they are all manufactured in flimsy plastic housings. Tough Tracker is the first asset-tracking device that is actually fit for purpose. We have a video on our website of it being hit with a sledgehammer and after hundreds of hits it has barely a mark on it.” |126| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Armacell UK brings self seal pipe insulation production to Oldham The self-adhesive tube version of leading elastomeric pipe insulation product Class O Armaflex is now being manufactured and supplied directly from Armacell’s UK plant in Oldham. New production lines and expertise have been brought in-house for applying the self-adhesive strips and tapes to ensure greater control over quality, stock levels and lead-times for future supplies. Bringing the production to Oldham has also led to an increase in the local production team by four in order to carry out the new processes. The Class O Armaflex Self Seal pipe insulation product is fully slit longitudinally along the length of each tube, with two strips of double sided self-adhesive tape preapplied to both of the slit surfaces. The product is specifically designed to provide high performance insulation where fast, secure installation is required.

SeaZone HydroView Charts are now available and downloadable on-line To view data for free and select data for instant download, please set up an account at SeaZone Direct.com; https://seazone-market.weogeo.com/register Offering worldwide coverage, SeaZone HydroView Charts are digitised and geo-referenced paper charts for GIS display, human interpretation and contextual mapping. These raster map layers enable quick use background mapping for a range of applications on the desktop and internet where the importance is speed and cost. HydroView Charts can be combined with your own datasets to make the display and dissemination of maps within reports or over the Internet simple and effective. SeaZone HydroView Charts are based on scanned and geocoded images of Admiralty Charts and are available for immediate use in Geographic Information Systems, without the need for additional software, add-ons or plug-ins, resulting in gains in time and performance.

© HydroView Chart - British Crown Copyright, 2012. All rights reserved

Clariant presents the EcoTain® life cycle for safer and more environmentally-friendly paints Clariant, a world leader in specialty chemicals, introduces the EcoTain® life cycle and labelling system to clearly identify its products offering “sustainable excellence at every step” to the paints and coatings sector. The EcoTain life cycle and label developed by Clariant is driven by the commitment to protect human, environmental and ecological health without compromising on performance and efficiency. The EcoTain claim “sustainable excellence at every step” is a promise that every product carrying the EcoTain label delivers advantages and benefits at each of its four life cycle steps: sustainable design; responsible process; safe & efficient use; and eco-integration. EcoTain products for paints and coatings are developed primarily for water-borne architectural paints and cover every step of the customer value chain. They include emulsifiers for emulsion polymerization (Emulsogen®), dispersing agents and humectants for pigment pastes (Dispersogen® and Polyglykol), and wetting agents (Genapol®) for paint formulations.

New particulate monitors will improve understanding of health effects Globally, fine dust particles have been the focus of much greater attention in recent months as their role in deaths related to poor air quality becomes better understood. However, knowledge of the relationship between airborne particles and health effects is limited by the information that can be obtained by monitoring technologies. Jim Mills, a particulate monitoring specialist from Air Monitors Ltd, believes that ambient dust monitoring technology has taken a major step forward with the development of a new Fine Dust Analysis System (FIDAS) which offers additional information on both particle size distribution from 0.18 – 30 microns and on particle number in each size range. It also provides continuous real-time simultaneous mass concentration measurements of TSP, PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. As such, Jim says “FIDAS will complement existing PM monitoring technology such as the TEOM FDMS, which is a standard method in many countries.”

+ For More Information

www.airmonitors.co.uk

ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |127|


CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY ONE Bowmer & Kirkland ISO 14001 Environmental Management certification

Why environmental certification? For Bowmer & Kirkland — one of the UK’s most successful privatelyowned construction, engineering and development groups — being able to demonstrate a firm commitment to effective energy management and environmental responsibility is essential to the continued prosperity of the business. The firm worked with world-leading multi-sector certification body BM TRADA Certification to achieve ISO 14001 Environmental Management systems certification. By certifying to this internationally-recognised standard, Bowmer & Kirkland would ensure that it's own internal quality and corporate responsibility standards were in compliance with legal frameworks and demonstrate to clients that it was a company committed to delivering the highest level of service through ongoing environmental and operational improvements. Bowmer & Kirkland has been a client of BM TRADA since 2001 and in that time has had all of its construction divisions, which represent its core business, certified for ISO 14001. In addition, five of its subsidiary companies have been certified for ISO 14001 certification with one currently in the assessment stage. Given the sheer size and complexity of the business — the group employs 1,400 people directly, and thousands more indirectly, with offices in Derbyshire, Manchester, London, Sunderland and Glasgow, and between 60 and 70 sites operational across the UK at any one time — it took between 12 and 14 months to achieve each certification, with multiple certifications on-going at different stages throughout the group at any one time. “With the size of the company and number of people involved, there was a lot required to become certified and compliant,” says David Gregory, Quality and Environmental Systems Manager at Bowmer & Kirkland. “It's a long journey for every business, but if you design the system correctly in the first place it reduces the amount of work required on a day-to-day basis.”

The benefits of ISO 14001 certification As well as ensuring legal compliance, the assessment process and subsequent certifications have brought many benefits to Bowmer & Kirkland. The first is economic. Higher conformance with legislative and regulatory requirements improves an organisation’s efficiency and reduces its operating costs through a reduction in waste and consumption of resources. “It has certainly added value to our business,” says Gregory. “The decrease in the environmental impact has resulted in savings through reduced waste and energy costs.” |128| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE


Compliance also minimises the risk of regulatory and environmental liability fines. Gregory cites falling carbon emissions as a good example. “Because of the size of the business we are legally required under the CRC (Carbon Reduction Commitment) Energy Efficiency Scheme to monitor and pay tax on carbon emissions in the UK,” he said. “Defining the scope of our carbon emissions through ISO 14001 has, in the two years so far reported on, resulted in a reduction of carbon emissions of eight per cent during the second year.

“Because of the size of the business we are legally required under the CRC (Carbon Reduction Commitment) Energy Efficiency Scheme to monitor and pay tax on carbon emissions in the UK,”

“That equates to something like 600 tonnes of carbon and has brought significant cost savings, not least in the amount of tax we would otherwise have had to pay to the government.” A third key benefit of the certification process has been reputational enhancement. The Bowmer & Kirkland ethos is firmly client-focussed, and meeting client requirements while seeking to develop long-term relationships is viewed as the group's most important goal. Certification in ISO 14001 assures clients that the company takes its environmental commitments seriously, resulting in an improved perception of the business and increased access to new customers. Gregory added: “The reputational benefit was one of the drivers for us in the first place. Getting certification demonstrates a commitment to environmental management and improvement in performance.” “For many clients you need environmental management certification if you are going to tender for the project. With the market conditions as they are today, clients can afford to be selective.” ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |129|


CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY TWO World Leading Accoya® Wood Rises to the Challenge Accoya®, the world’s leading modified timber, has successfully met the demands of a highly technical architectural project in the Netherlands. Reconstruction of the Pro Persona medical clinic on the outskirts of rural Stuwwalbos, Nijmegen, was designed in a joint project by BogermanDill in Amsterdam and SBH Architects and Consultants in Arnhem. The impressive plans for a distinctive wooden superstructure required curved boards as long as 4.4 kilometres - the equivalent of 2.7miles - to be created out of sustainable timber. Accoya wood, manufactured by Accsys Technologies, is one of the most advanced wood products on the market today, using wood modification technology to deliver outstanding levels of performance, stability and durability. It is created by using a proprietary process called acetylation on sustainably sourced woods. This results in a non-toxic, attractive wood which matches or exceeds the properties of tropical hardwood, which is perfect for a variety of uses from windows to doors to external cladding. It is almost impossible to create the curved shape out of most wood species, but Accoya was able to rise to the challenge, thanks to the technical process and the wood’s flexible and durable makeup, which is modified through to the core. Following the acetylation process, the pieces were curved into specially shaped blades that were steamed and bent by De Jong’s Houtwaren in Drogeham, the Netherlands. Unlike other timber treatments on the market, acetylation does not affect the flexibility of the wood’s cells. Dating back to the early sixties, the original clinic buildings had failed to meet current quality standards and had to be demolished in order to make way for new buildings. The new clinic building in Nijmegen, with a rough masonry substructure and a distinctive wooden superstructure, forms part of the master project for Pro Persona and the extensive use of Accoya has resulted in a bold and inspirational exterior. The finished wooden cladding, which from a distance gives a copper like appearance, stands in striking contrast to the rough texture of the brick and concrete basement. BogermanDill Architects commented: “Accoya was chosen for its outstanding durability in outdoor applications, and sustainable credentials which match the natural surroundings of the clinic. It has proved to be the only timber product that would meet the demands of this complex technical design, and the unusual curves created from such long timber pieces help to reduce the typical regimental appearance of a stone building." Bryan Crennell, Director of Sales and Marketing at Accsys Technologies added: “The Pro Persona clinic building demonstrates Accoya’s real versatility. Thanks to the acetylation process, Accoya has the strength and durability to meet even the most challenging architectural demands, enabling projects to create outstanding looks but also industry leading performance with unrivalled sustainability, which has resulted in a truly outstanding building”.

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CASE STUDY THREE Oceans ESU Oceans ESU initially turned to pension-led funding to develop a new sales and marketing strategy to grow its business. Now, with the flexibility this funding offers, the company has taken a second round of finance that has allowed it to go after new contracts around the world and start recruitment of new employees. Oceans was established in 1992 by Lucian Gill, a leading expert on reed beds and, in particular, the use of reeds to clean polluted water caused by chemical contamination. The reed beds are also good for wildlife and often significantly easier to operate and maintain – and thus cheaper – than equivalent mechanical systems. Clients include major oil companies, such as Shell and BP, with projects around the world. Business flourished until 2012, when the war between North and South Sudan saw Oceans lose its entire North Sudan operation and remove its team from the country because of safety concerns. Until that point Oceans had been banking with a major high street bank, but the combination of the political situation and a new bank manager meant development funding became extremely difficult. Company Director, Michelle Gill explains: “We moved banks and although they were extremely supportive, we had no history with the new bank. We needed to fund the development of the business to be able to take on new projects both in the UK and overseas. We wanted to provide stability for the future development of the company and to rely on our own funds rather than relying on the banks.” Contact from pensionledfunding.com – part of Clifton Asset Management – came at just the right time. “We were intrigued,” says Michelle. “Pension-led funding seemed to be a much better type of finance for businesses generally and especially those that banks struggle to understand. It clearly gives a business greater security. “Certainly we expect co-operation from our bank and if you have a good relationship that’s fine, but you can’t expect the bank to be there to cover every gap. We had to take responsibility ourselves.” Working closely with Oceans’ bank, pensionledfunding.com established a pension scheme for Oceans’ directors that allowed them to put funding into the business. They then used the Intellectual Property (IP) held

within the organisation to arrange a second batch of funding from the pension scheme. The money has been put to good use, with development of a new sales and marketing strategy that has allowed the team to go after new contracts around the world. Within five years, Oceans ESU aims to significantly increase the number of working reed beds in the UK, as well as looking further afield at the global oil industry. “We have been able to use our African experience to move operations into South Sudan and business is looking good there. Last year was definitely a testing year for us, but now I’m confident that we can look forward and really grow the business,” says Michelle.

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CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY FOUR Natural boost for AD plant efficiency is unveiled

A natural bioactive solution that can boost the quantity and quality of AD gas output while stabilising plants and reducing down-time has been unveiled to the industry. Citadel BioCat+™ is produced through the fermentation of natural plant material, and long term testing in Switzerland and Germany has now revealed a range of significant benefits in commercial and farm-scale anaerobic digesters. During trials, the amount of biogas produced was increased by an average 25% per tonne of feed stock, while the percentage of methane content was boosted from 54 to 62%. Odours were also eliminated as a result of the process cutting hydrogen sulphide levels by 75%, which also brings the benefit of reducing downtime due to the corrosive nature of H2S. Plant operators have also demonstrated that power output equivalent to historic values could be achieved with 20% less feed stock when BioCat+ was introduced. Citadel BioCat+, from Citadel Environmental Solutions, is generated for introduction to a plant in a specially made Catalyst Production Unit (CPU) installed on-site. The CPUs, which are wardrobe-sized cabinets, are manufactured from recycled material by a sister company of Citadel Environmental Solutions, Citadel Industries, based in Telford, Shropshire. Managing director of Citadel Environmental Solutions, Ray Long, said: “We're well aware that when any product appears on the market claiming to boost production or |132| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

cut costs, in whatever sector, it can be met with a healthy dose of scepticism. That's why we have extensively tested BioCat+ in real world commercial settings and now have valid and extremely positive results to demonstrate. We are confident enough that we can provide a guarantee to customers that if, after three to four months, they are not seeing results, they will pay nothing. “The benefits of introducing BioCat+ have been proven in both thermophilic and mesophilic digesters, the latter being the most common in the UK, and we have now introduced it to a number of units in this country, which are already showing the kind of results we would expect.” The micro-organisms in Citadel BioCat+ include naturally occurring bacteria from both land and marine sources and it is the synergy of the various components, combined with the biosphere it is applied to, which is returning the beneficial results. The cocktail, comprising microorganisms, micro-nutrients, co-factors and phages, has been developed through years of experimentation. Mr Long added: “As numbers of AD plants grow in the UK the pressure is going to build on operators to make them as efficient and cost effective as possible. We know that Citadel BioCat+ will make a huge contribution to that through either increased output, reduced inputs or a combination of both – not to mention reductions in odours and corrosive elements of the process.” BioCat+ is also approved for use in digesters certified under PAS 110 and the Quality Digestate Protocol.


CASE STUDY FIVE Showering Landfill Savings Printwaste Recycling & Shredding divert waste from landfill strategy has never been more imperative for leading Gloucestershire Company Kohler Mira is one of the largest employers in Gloucestershire and Printwaste has worked with them as their complete recycling service provider since the early 1990’s. In 2009, it became apparent that a better waste management system was needed in order to maximise recycling and reduce the amount of material that was currently being sent to landfill. Printwaste conduct regular audits of materials destined for landfill; the audits have been undertaken not only at the centrally located landfill waste compactors on Kohler Mira’s various sites but, more importantly, at the point of waste production in the offices or factory (see images). The scheme started in the office environment, where groups of employees’ individual waste were assessed. Following the success of the initial proposal, the scheme has been expanded to include several factories and the UK distribution warehouse. It now engages all staff via Kohler Mira’s five senior representatives from each department. Printwaste have hosted site visits for Kohler Mira to show its staff the processes their sorted materials follow post collection. Printwaste feel this is an important aspect of the service they provide as it injects the essence of recycling and shows them the difference they can make. Printwaste now recycles paper, cardboard, wooden pallets, IT equipment, glass, vending cups, cans, and various types of plastic from their manufacturing processes. In addition, redundant stock is either recycled or reclaimed to be reprocessed. In 2012, Printwaste assisted Kohler Mira to recycle 77% of all its waste material with 375 out of 488 tonnes being recycled from the Gloucestershire sites. Printwaste also initiated a pilot scheme with the view to expand the recycling of old stock items by finding the best reprocessing route which was also financially viable. The pilot scheme succeeded as it met the criteria of being cost neutral and saw almost 100% of the separated materials as recyclable. The scheme will continue into 2013 and plans are in place to extend the scope to include a ‘takeback’ system on used units with the objective to achieve a mixture of re-use and recycled product. This will involve not only Kohler Mira and Printwaste, but also the co-operation of the distributors and retail outlets. ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |133|


CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY SIX Large interlocking concrete blocks as optimal solution for storage of bulk material

Following a fire in a storage building, logistics company M. Zietzschmann from Neuss in Germany had to search for a suitable solution for storing and handling bulk material with special requirements. The search led to the Dutch company, Jansen Betonwaren. The firm’s ‘Legioblocks®’ proved themselves to be an economical and effective solution to meet the special requirements of the storage site.

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Jansen Betonwaren B.V. has developed a construction system using large-sized concrete blocks which can be easily stacked, virtually without any fixing material, thus offering outstanding flexibility. These concrete blocks, called Legioblocks®, can also be used to build long-lasting, robust and reliable constructions such as retaining walls, factory buildings or storage bins for bulk material. And this is exactly the kind of solution that Günter and Tobias Haberland, directors of the logistics company and cargo-handling terminal operator, M. Zietzschmann GmbH & Co. KG, and their architect, Mike Bollongino, were looking for. In 2011 a 50-year-old storage building belonging to the company burned down and it was necessary to rebuild. And in a storage facility consisting of a single continuous space, it is above all the storage of fertilizers and other aggressive materials (such as chemical precursors) that presents a problem, as the substances they contain are very corrosive to metal. For this reason, a solution was sought


that did not involve vulnerable metals. A new storage facility with an indoor and an outdoor area naturally needed to be suitable for storing other types of bulk materials, preferably in a space-saving and economical way. “We wanted a solution that could be implemented quickly and efficiently, that offered a relatively high degree of variability, and that was also costeffective,” explains T. Haberland. As the company had already had a smaller external storage area built with the help of Legioblocks®, the system was known and could now be applied on a large scale. Within a construction period of just six weeks, some 5,400 of the blocks weighing 2.4 tonnes each were put together. Because of the height of the walls, at 8.80 metres, as well as the 12m high fire protection wall, foundations were needed. However, it was possible to use much shallower foundations than would be needed when using other construction systems. “In contrast to concrete walls, for example, with their deep foundations, Legioblocks® also have the advantage that they do not contain vulnerable steel elements, which would be corroded by fertilizers,” G. Haberland emphasises. “And for the foundation we decided on a 1.20m deep strip foundation, so that we could erect a really solid building,” adds architect Bollongino. “This way we were in a position to build a tall storage space, which offered excellent conditions for bulk materials. It’s possible to pile up material to a height of 6.10m. First, though, it was necessary to create a completely even base, so that the 160cm long Legioblocks® could be stacked without any problems.”The first construction

layer consists of bevelled-edged base blocks, which ensure that loose material cannot get stuck in the corners of the building. The 11 layers of blocks can then be added. Haberland is especially proud of the buildings’ optimal usability: “We would never have been able to achieve the fill height of 6.10m with any other method.” That really was Jansen Betonwaren’s Unique Selling Point. Haberland explains: “The bins are filled from above by crane. For this we've incorporated three aluminium roof elements that slide over each other, as in river barges, so that the entire length of the storage area can be used and there isn't just one single heap of material. Alongside the use of this functional building material, this is the second innovation in this storage building, which reduces the amount of handling work involved.” The walls of the building with their imposing concrete blocks, rising nearly 10m into the air and crowned with a vault of larch wood, are almost reminiscent of the temple walls of the ancient Egyptians, which go back thousands of years and retain their strength and durability to this day. “I think it’s classy!” declares Bollongino with pride. Legioblocks® are not only particularly durable – they can either be reused for building or crushed, classified and then used as raw material for new production. “This completes the raw material cycle,” adds Math Janssen of supplier Jansen Betonwaren B.V. The company can supply customers who have opted for this durable product with its many advantages through its branch office in Germany, the UK and a number of locations in the Netherlands.

Haberland is especially proud of the buildings’ optimal usability: “We would never have been able to achieve the fill height of 6.10 metres with any other method.”

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FAMOUS LAST WORDS

Reintroducing Vertebrates We have, in Britain, lost much biodiversity. We fear we are currently losing much more. However, we have also replaced, deliberately, a little of what we have lost. A few species have returned on their own, or illicitly. So what opportunities do we have to replace some more of the lost species, and what are the restrictions? Amongst our losses have been our 7 largest mammals – 3 large herbivores, 3 large carnivores and our largest rodent. Amongst our birds, we probably lost our largest bird of prey, owl and auk, as well as a pelican, crane and stork. In terms of numbers of individuals, these losses were, in some cases, relatively small. In terms of charismatic species, they were enormous.

Derek William Yalden, Zoologist Born 1940; died 5 February 2013

Lecturer, University of Manchester 19652005; reader in Zoology 2005-2013; President, Mammal Society 1997-2013; Editor, Mammal Review 1980-2002; Linnaean Society Medal 2010;

Irreplaceable losses. Two species are gone forever: The Great Auk, a huge flightless Razorbill, the prototype for the southern oceans’ penguins (called in French le pingouine, its name was transferred to them), nested on flat coastal rocks around the North Atlantic. Around the British Isles, it nested historically on the Calf of Man, St Kilda and probably Holm of Papa Westray, Orkney. Archaeological evidence shows that it also nested near Jarlshof, Shetland; Knap of Howar, Toft’s Ness, Links of Notland and Knowe of Ramsay, Orkney; Oronsay, Risga, The Udal , Cnip and Sollas, Hebrides; and possibly other sites around Scotland, as well as the Isles of Scilly. In other words, it was widespread at one time and, the numbers of skeletons suggest, abundant as well. The last known around Britain was killed on St Kilda, in 1840; the last in the world were a pair killed south of Iceland in 1844. The Aurochs is a slightly different case. As a wild mammal, it is extinct; the last small herd lived in Poland’s Jaktorowa Forest, where the last cow died in 1627. However, some 9,000 years ago, a population in the Middle East, perhaps in Turkey, had been domesticated, and the domestic cattle from that source spread throughout Europe and Africa over the next 4,000 years or so. Thus, though the European Aurochs is extinct, the genes, or most of them, of its Asian relatives should survive in its domesticated descendants. Attempts have been made, especially by the Heck brothers at Munich and Berlin zoos in the 1920s-30s, to recreate the Aurochs by crossing various less specialised domestic breeds (Carmargue fighting bulls, Highland cattle, Hungarian steppe cattle, etc.). The apparent Aurochs colouration has reappeared: calves and cows are chestnut brown, with a light eel stripe, and the bulls turn very dark, almost black, with age. However, the size and horn shape of extinct Aurochsen have not returned. Even so, the Dutch have experimented with restoring ancient grazing patterns by releasing Heck cattle into a large nature reserve, Oostvaardersplassen, and the idea of trying something similar in Great Britain has been discussed. Lost, and perhaps returned. ► ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE |137|


O n e of the l a r g e mammals we lost was the Wild Boar. Henry III had 20 from the Forest of Dean at Christmas 1260, and 80 were taken from Pendle Forest to Pontefract Castle in 1295. These seem to be the last records of genuine Wild Boar in Britain. However, in the 1970s, certain enterprising farmers took to importing Wild Boar from Europe, to supply a specialist venison market. Some of their stock is genuine Wild Boar, some of it hybrids with domestic pigs. Boars are difficult to confine, prolific when breeding and catholic in their diet. Almost inevitably, some have escaped, either because fences were broken by falling trees during storms, or en route to market. Equally inevitable, free-living breeding populations have been established in the Weald in Sussex, in Dorset and, appropriately, in the Forest of Dean. Early reports of these populations concentrated on the danger they presented to people and their dogs, the damage they might do to farmland and golf courses, and the impossibility of such a crowded island hosting (again!) such large mammals. As the novelty has worn off, acceptance of their presence has increased, though stalking them for their venison has limited their numbers and their spread. Since Germans and French manage to live with many thousand Wild Boar loose in their countryside, there is no reason why they should not survive in Britain. Certainly they can be a hazard – to vehicles and their drivers, as are deer. Large birds might manage to return of their own volition. Several of the smaller birds that became extinct around a century ago have done so; among them are famous examples of returns, trumpeted as conservation successes, including Osprey, Marsh Harrier, Bittern and Avocet. Most spectacular is the return of the Crane. A single pair returned to breed in Norfolk in 1981. As they only have one or two chicks a year, their increase has been very slow. A considerable degree of protection, legal and discrete, helped in the early years. Now it is possible to see 10 or 20 in a day but they are still confined to a small area of East Anglia. There are proposals to breed extra birds in captivity and encourage their return to other wetland areas, including the Somerset Levels. The White-tailed Eagle might also have returned on its own, but failed. It was increasingly scarce over much of Europe through the 20th Century, limiting the source of colonisers. After a false start or two, a serious and official reintroduction programme brought 82 young birds from Norway to |138| ENVIRONMENT INDUSTRY MAGAZINE

Rhum during 1975-85, and the first eaglet was reared in the wild in 1985. Population increase was very slow, barely matching natural and illegal deaths, and a further batch of young birds was imported in the 1990s. Because these eagles came from coastal Norway to the Hebrides, the notion that this is a sea eagle has been reinforced. But it isn’t, necessarily, and wasn’t. In Eastern Europe, it lives along wooded river valleys, and did so in England in Saxon times, as indicated both by place-names and archaeological records. It should become more widespread again. Likewise Red Kites became extinct in England and Scotland by 1900, though a very few (< 6 pairs) survived in Wales. They might have spread back from that nucleus but increased very slowly. Birds were reintroduced to England and Scotland from Spain and Sweden. They now number around 100 pairs, and the Welsh population has also now increased to that level.

Possibilities for mammals While birds might be able to re-colonise on their own, mammals would need our help. Going backwards, we lost Wolves around 1700, Beavers around 1600, Boar around 1300 and Lynx and Bear around 500 A.D.. Probably Elk and Aurochs were lost around 2000 B.C.. Boar remain widespread across western Europe, even the outskirts of Paris, so it is not surprising that they have prospered here. Beavers and Lynx have been reintroduced to many countries, Lynx mostly to mountainous areas with good deer (prey) populations, Beavers to lowlands, as near as Brittany and the Netherlands. Wolves have spread, naturally, from Finland to Norway, Italy to France, and Poland to Germany. Neither farming nor the forestry interests have collapsed. Sure, there have been local problems. Sheep cannot be left untended on the hills in Wolf range and guard dogs are needed. Beavers sometimes cause damage to orchards, occasionally flood buildings. If Wolves killed more Red Deer hinds in Scotland, it would improve the value of sporting estates by leaving them to concentrate on stag stalking. Tourists flock to Yellowstone National Park in the hope of seeing the reintroduced Wolves there; they would to Scotland, too. They already travel to Mull to see White-tailed Eagles.


Enviroment Industry Magazine Issue 25  

Environmental Magazine

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