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Compulsory social insurance is a part of state social security system characterized by the insurance of employed citizens against the changes in financial and/or social position including for reasons beyond control in compliance with federal laws. Compulsory social industrial accident insurance and occupational disease insurance is a type of social insurance aimed to: - ensure the social security of insured persons and economic incentives for insurance subjects to decrease occupational risk; - reimburse damages inflicted on the life and health of insured persons when they performed their duties under labor contract and in other cases specified by law through full insurance coverage including reimbursement of expenses for medical, social and occupational rehabilitation; - ensure preventive measures to curb the number of industrial accidents and occupational diseases. Compulsory health insurance is a part of the state social insurance which ensures that all citizens of the RF have equal access to medical services and drugs covered by the compulsory health insurance on terms specified in compulsory health insurance programs. Minimum amount of insurance and objects subject to the compulsory insurance as well as the terms and procedure of compulsory pension, social and health insurance are determined in the following federal laws: - Federal Law No. 167-FZ of December 15, 2001 "On Compulsory Pension Insurance in the RF" (as amended on 11.05.2006); - Federal Law No. 125-FZ of July 24, 1998 "On Compulsory Social Industrial Accident and Occupational Diseases Insurance" (as amended on 22.12.2005); - Federal Law No. 165-FZ of July 16, 1999 "On the Foundations of Compulsory Social Insurance" (as amended on 05.03.2004); - Law of the RF No. 1499-I of June 28, 1991 "On Health Insurance in Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic"; - Federal Law No. 52-ФЗ of March 28, 1998 "On Compulsory State Insurance of Life and Health of Military Persons, Citizens Called up for Military Periodical Training, the Ranks and Commanding Officers of Internal Affairs Bodies of the RF, the State Fire Fighting Service, the Staff of Bodies Controlling the Turnover of Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Penitentiary Facilities and Bodies and that of Federal Taxation Police Bodies" (as amended on 02.02.2006). Compulsory Occupational Insurance Compulsory occupational insurance implies the obligation of subjects to insure their (or other persons') life, health, property, and civil liability with regard to professional activities. Such requirements are applied to many types of activities, e. g. carriers (regardless of the type of transportation, except for urban and suburban transportation) shall insure the life and health of passengers, auditors shall insure their professional liability, owners of vehicles shall insure their civil liability, private detectives shall insure their life or health, etc. Customs Duties and Fees Article 318 of the Customs Code of the RF provides for the following customs duties: + import duty; + export duty; + VAT taken when the goods are imported to the customs territory of Russia ; + excise tax taken when the goods are imported at the customs territory of Russia; + customs duties.


1. STATE AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES IN ST. PETERSBURG In St. Petersburg the system of state authorities was formed which has statutory object...