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- The individual performing labour duties in the legal entity or in one of the included into it group of legal entities, is an individual managing body of other legal entity at the same time, or individuals performing labour duties in the legal entity or in one of the included into it group of legal entities, comprise over 50 percent of structure of a joint executive body and (or) board of directors (supervisory council) or other joint managing body of another legal entity. - The same physical persons, their spouses, parents, children, brothers, and (or) legal entities have the right to dispose independently of through their representatives (attorneys) of over 50 percent of voices, falling on voting shares or comprising authorized capital, shares of each of two and more legal entities. - Individuals and (or) legal persons have the right independently or through representatives (attorneys) to dispose of a sum of over 50 percent of the voices, falling on voting shares or comprising authorized capital, contributions, shares of one legal entities, and at the same time these individuals, their spouses, parents, children, brothers, sisters and (or) persons, offered by one and the same legal entity, make up over 50 percent of structure of the joint executive body and (or) board of directors (supervisory council) or other joint managing body of other legal entity. - Legal persons are participants of one financial and industrial group. - Individuals are spouses, parents and children, brothers and (or) sisters. Guarantee — 1) An obligation of the guarantor to pay a certain money amount for guaranteed person after approaching a guarantee case. The guarantee is drawn out in compliance with the established order and stipulates obligatory information. Letter of guarantee must contain information what contract is guaranted with guarantee, tipe period of this guarantee and amount of guarantee. The guarantee differs from the pleadg that the first is not the action additional the basic transaction. 2) A way of securing the liability observance that is documented with a contract, where the guarantor undertakes responsibilities due to the creditor of other person (debtor) to be in charge of meeting obligations by the latter in full amount or partially. The guarantor who paid the debt under the contract to the creditor, has the right to the make demand of the debtor about compensation of the paid sum. The guarantee is a form of provision of the credit reccurency. Holding companies (or holdings) — one of legal forms of entrepreneurial associations that is a variant of a group of persons based on relations of economic dependency and control, which participants are under one of the group's participants in their entrepreneurial activity being legally independent at the same time. The mentioned head person makes influence on making decisions by other group's participants due to the control possession of shares or other circumstances. Holding companies are not independent organizational and legal form of the entrepreneurial activity stipulated by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and are not subject to the state registration. Economic dependence of legally independent subjects incorporated into the holding company, is a subject of regulation of various branches of the Russian legislation. In the civil law the recognition of aggregate of persons as holding is observed within the framework of legal regulation of relations between the basic and affiliated (dependent) economic societies; the tax law allocates category "interdependent persons"; antimonopoly law — "a group of persons" and "affiliated persons". Each of the specified branches of the legislation has special purposes of legal regulation and various criteria of formation of concepts designating economic dependence of participants of holding. Interdependent persons (Article 20 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation) — for the taxation purposes they are determined as individuals and (or) organizations, which relations can influence on conditions or economic results of their activity or activity of persons represented by them. The organizations are recognized as interdependent when one 179

Business.support.structure.in.St.Petersburg  

1. STATE AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES IN ST. PETERSBURG In St. Petersburg the system of state authorities was formed which has statutory object...