Certification of product — procedure of confirmation of conformity by means of which an independent from the manufacturer (the seller,) and the consumer (buyer) organization provides written confirmation that the product corresponds to the established requirements. Certification of quality systems — action of the third party confirming that the necessary confidence that properly identified system of quality corresponds to the chosen model or other normative documents determined by the applicant is provided. Commercial activity can be carried out by managing subjects (not only commercial ones) individually or together with other managing subjects. Dependent economic society (Article 106 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation) — commercial organization, in which authorized capital another economic society (prevailing, participating) has over 20%. Restrictions of mutual participation of economic societies in the authorized capitals of each other and number of votes at the general meetings are established by law. Financial industrial group (FAG) — aggregate of legal entities working on the basis of contract for setting-up of financial and industrial group or as basic and affiliated companies, or as participants in full or patially united material and non-material actives (system of participation) for achievement of common targets. Financial and industrial groups can be created on the basis of holding scheme (on the basis of relations of the property), and on a contract basis. The financial and industrial group is subject to the state registration, but at that it does not become a separate legal entity. The decision on state registration of the financial industrial group is made by the authorized state body. Financial industrial group consists of participants that are independent legal being independent subjects of law, and activity of financial and industrial group is regarded as activity of its participants. Activity of financial industrial group is regulated by Federal Law No. 190-ФЗ of 30.11.1995 "On Financial and Industrial Groups", and by other normative legal acts of the Government of the Russian Federation and normative legal acts of other authorized authorities. Group of persons — a group of legal entities and (or) individuals with reference to whom one or more conditions given below are applicable: - One or several persons in common as a result of agreement (coordinated actions) have the right directly or to dispose indirectly (e. g., on the basis of contracts of sale and purchase, confidential management, about joint activity, assignments or other transactions or on other bases)to dispose of over 50 percent of total voices, falling on voting shares or comprising authorized capital, shares of one legal entity. At that indirect disposal of the legal entity's voices is a possibility of factual disposal by them though third persons with regards to which the first person has the above mentioned right or authority. - One or several persons as a result of agreement or in some other way received the right influence on the decisions made by other person or persons, including the right to influence on the conditions of keeping entrepreneurial activity by other person or persons, or to exercise the authority of the executive body of other persons on the basis of the contract. - The person has the right to appoint an individual executive body and (or) over 50 percent of the joint executive body of the legal entity, and (or) on the offer of the person over 50 percent of structure of board of directors (supervisory council) or other joint managing body of the legal entity is elected. - The individual exercises authorities of the individual executive body of the legal entity. - The same physical entities, their spouses, parents, children, brothers, sisters and (or) persons offered by the same legal entity, comprise over 50 percent of structure of the joint executive body and (or) board of directors (supervisory council) or other joint managing body of two and more legal entities, on the offer of the same legal entities over 50 percent of structure of board of directors (supervisory council) or other joint managing body of two and more legal persons is elected.
Published on Jul 6, 2010
1. STATE AND MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES IN ST. PETERSBURG In St. Petersburg the system of state authorities was formed which has statutory object...