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Social and Cultural Challenges in Interior Architecture

INSIDE Magazine 2016/2017

STUD ENT WORK BERLIN

#8 PARTICIPATE !

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INSID E 20 16 / 20 17

PARTICIPATE ! PAG. 03 INSIDE PROFILE PAG. 04- 07 DESIGNING CONVERSATIONS PAG. 08 - 09

STUDIO MUSEUM ESCHER BREUER

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Inter view with Benno Tempel

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Urban Foyer, Goda Verikaite

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Student Work PAG. 18 -23 STUDIO FORT NOORDDIJK PAG.24 Student Work PAG.25

STUDIO LET’S DECIDE PAG. 26 -27 Decision making laborator y PAG. 28 -31 Inter view Denis Oudendijk PAG. 32-33 Let’s ..... PAG. 34-35 State of Design, Berlin PAG. 36 - 41

Shopping to go, Farah Zamri

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STUDIO TA AT

Inter view with Breg Horemans

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STUDIO THE NEW WORKSPACE

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Student work Goda Verikaite

Manifest, Jo Basset PAG. 52- 53 Manifest, Eva Gonzalez PAG. 54- 55

Inter view with Chester Chung and Minsun Kim

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TR AVEL PAG. 58 - 59 TUTORS PAG. 60 - 64 EDUCATION ON LOCATION

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COLOPHON PAG. 67


PA RTICIPATE!

PARTICIPATE!

This year the overall theme of our course was PARTICIPATE! All over the world people are striving to participate. To grow beyond just doing their job and to become an active part of the world. People want to participate more in how this world is shaped and how decisions are taken. Through the explosion of social media more people than ever before are in direct contact with each other causing loads of information being spread and tons of opinions shared. Through that, hierarchies have become more visible and vulnerable causing some to open up more and others to strive for more control. But in the end all decision making at all scales starts with the ability to have a good conversation. So that’s what this years INSIDE first years students studied through projects in an abandoned military compound near Arnhem, in all kind of workspaces spread over the city of The Hague, in an architectural/ theatrical installation in Gent, in an empty fortress South of Rotterdam and the soon to be decommissioned American Embassy building in The Hague. The second semester was dedicated to researching and designing the relationship between space and decisionmaking. It started with an ‘entscheidungslabor’ in the GoetheInstitut, based in Rotterdam, and ended with a presentation at the State of Design fair in Berlin. This year INSIDE also says farewell to the fifth group of new masters of interior architecture that have been educated at the KABK. A major challenge for interior architects in this era is to explore the potentials of a wide variety of spaces that could or should be embraced by users. Abandoned spaces, infrastructural spaces, neglected spaces and re-framable spaces can reveal potentials when they are studied by the designers that are most specialized in the user perspective of space. In that respect it is crucial for future designers to also develop new skills to reach their goals and to act beyond the drawing of architectural plans and presenting floorplans, sections and renderings. Skills like exploration, trying out on a oneto-one scale and initiating interventions and debates are part of the crucial skills of provoking spatial changes of the next generations of interior architects. In all spatial situations in change the dynamics of design lie in understanding the context. Only exploring, stimulated by an advanced curiosity, enables finding the potentials, the ambitions and most of all the limitations of a context from which designers can shape the future spatial use and identity. After a first year filled with encounters, assignments and confrontations, the students return to their native countries PAG.03

where they define an assignment with which they complete their course at INSIDE by the end of the second year. The graduation projects of the INSIDE students that are presented in this catalogue show a large variety of design challenges and approaches in very diverse countries. Klodiana Millona researched the strong trend in her home country Albania amongst families to construct their own homes in a step-by-step way. Through understanding the dynamics behind this situation she discovered unique qualities in the permanent state of unfinishedness this creates. Isadora Davide researched the possibilities to reclaim the street as a communal space focussing on the south Portugese city of Faro. Designing approaches to re-conquer the street on the always and everywhere present cars. Minjung Kang developed possibilities to re-introduce the qualities of the South Korean courtyards that have disappeared in post war urban developments. Especially the wide spread use of smartphones and delivery services through apps open opportunities to re-connect people to space and through that to each other in an attractive and contemporary way. Makiko Morinaga developed a strategy to redesign the ‘castle park’ in the Japanese city of Kumamoto into a place for healing, learning and celebrating disasters, since it was seriously damaged in the earthquake that occurred in April 2016. Mila Tešić explored the history and deplorable current state of the once futuristic system of pedestrian passages under busy roads in the centre of her home town Belgrade. With her design she connects the revitalization of these tunnels to future climate-change adaptation. Finally Arvand Pourabbasi researched the changing living and working conditions of precarious workers such as young architects as himself. Try outs on a one-on-one scale enabled him to develop personal strategies to survive in places where these conditions coincide. This year we again have been very fortunate to be able to work with fantastic tutors from offices like OMA, Superuse, MVRDV, Raumlaborberlin, and Theory teachers Louise Schouwenberg and Anne Hoogewoning that worked together in guiding the students towards a thorough research that landed in extraordinary spatial change designs. Spread out in this magazine we, with pride, present some visual and written results by both the 1st year and 2nd year students. Hope you enjoy it! Hans Venhuizen Head of INSIDE


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INSIDE – Master in Interior Architecture at the Royal Academy of Art in The Hague – Cultural and social challenges in Interior Architecture – INSIDE is a master’s course for interior architects who start every assignment by conducting a wide-ranging exploration of a spatial context undergoing change. Wideranging here means that through observation, research and theoretical study, students chart and analyse a whole array of issues that are relevant to the spatial change that the context is undergoing. That wide range consists not only of spatial aspects but also of social, historical and ecological issues at play in the wider surroundings. After setting up and carrying out their investigation, the INSIDE students hone their skills in using the acquired knowledge to determine essential qualities that are of decisive importance for the spatial changes taking place. They then learn to incorporate those qualities in a spatial proposal grounded in a realistic perspective and in their social implications From inside to outside The term INSIDE not only specifies the space in which and on which interior architects work but also indicates the mentality with which they do it. These designers engage fully with society and have a keen awareness of social, economic and technological changes. They are capable of using their position to shape the relation between the space that relates most directly to people and the world that encompasses that specific context. For an interior architect, ‘inside’ is never isolated but always connected to ‘outside’. To emphasize the relevance of the surrounding world to interior design, INSIDE started by embracing the motto ‘Design for the Real World’. This motto references a 1971 publication by the Austrian-American product designer and tutor Victor Papanek. Some forty years ago, Papanek sketched a picture of a practice he detested, in which designers produced useless, attention-grabbing, polluting, purely commercial and even dangerous products. INSIDE feels an affiliation with the line of reasoning developed by Papanek for product designers and translated its principles to the world of spatial design within which we now find ourselves. In this way, INSIDE searches for the topicality and urgency of interior architecture in the ‘real world’, and thus for the contemporary cultural and social challenges for the interior architect. Cultural urgency A focus on the cultural and social challenges that face designers brought INSIDE to formulate a number of principles that determine the nature of the study course. For instance, at INSIDE we initially work on projects concerning spatial change with an explicit social relevance and, moreover, a significant cultural urgency. For instance, a student charted from a variety of perspectives the history of a mountain village in China threatened with abandonment. Drawing on her analysis, she then proposed interventions at the scale of the economic and collective places of encounter. These interventions enable the village to make better use of its resources. At the same time, a tightknit community forms around the new collective places of

encounter, reducing the necessity to relocate to big cities. By approaching the spatial and social issues in the village in an integrated manner, this student creates new collective places. In this way she succeeds in assuming the role of bridge builder between research, design and practice. Voyage of discovery The interior architect who graduates from INSIDE displays a sense of connection with ‘the urgencies and challenges of contemporary society’ not only in the nature of the projects he or she does but also in how he operates. This designer does not approach a spatial context in isolation, as though it were an unrelated assignment or a tabula rasa, but always tackles it in relation to existing patterns of use and current occupants, and in relation to its wider context. An extended exploration of the characteristics of the spatial context undergoing change therefore forms an integral aspect of the design process. INSIDE sees plenty of opportunities for designers who take responsibility for the society in which they live and work, a responsibility that can express itself in various ways: from the enthusiastic idealism of the designer who dreams up visionary plans for a possible sustainable world, to the socially responsible commitment of the pragmatic designer who devises solutions for current urgencies.

Graduation project of Junyuan Chen, ‘Future ruralization of Longshang Village’, China, 20 15.

The architects at SUPERUSE have been involved in the course at INSIDE from the very start. In all their work they acknowledge their responsibility for the ecological dimension of spatial interventions. PAG.0 4


STUD ENT INSID E PROFILE WORK BERLIN

The real world The relation with the real world is expressed in all parts of the INSIDE course and thus certainly in the choice of architects and offices that head the core studios. After all, they represent that real world and draw naturally from their practices in choosing real contexts and approaches as the basis for every studio project. Among the studio tutors at INSIDE are designers from MVRDV and OMA

Graduation project of Sisi Li, ‘Reactivate the Hutong’, 20 16.

By focusing on urgent themes affecting society, we highlight issues in today’s world that are also relevant to current professional discourse. As far as the intended research and results are concerned, students are encouraged to think beyond what is possible. Idealism, imagination and sense of reality must find the right balance at the Royal Academy of Fine Art, where challenging the impossible is an everyday ambition. INSIDE aims to educate interior architects as autonomous minds, working in an applied context, who succeed in deploying the built environment as material for the imagination. They are designers who explore with an organic intelligence and act on the strength of a strong sense of responsibility to improve the built environment spatially, and thus also socially. The interior space INSIDE focuses on design with social relevance, hence we do not respect the boundaries of specific physical or programmatic areas of work but, instead, concentrate on current thematic issues such as: changes in the health care system; the rise in the ageing population; the consequences of ‘the new world of work’; vacancy of office and retail space; changing lifestyles; the industrialization of the food industry; attention for schooling and education; and increasing importance through desire and necessity of self-organization. The spatial and social impact of these issues manifests itself in all areas of work of the interior architect. And moreover, students from countries all over the world at INSIDE prove capable of putting forward relevant social issues with a spatial component and with a cultural urgency we are unfamiliar with in the Netherlands, such as the seemingly unstoppable urbanization now taking place in China. INSIDE does not educate students to work exclusively in a Dutch spatial context. By enabling students to ‘pick up’ projects in their native countries and to develop them at INSIDE for their graduation, we open the door for an exchange of international experiences and mutual cultural influencing. PAG.0 PAG.055

Entrepreneurs and instigators Within the nature of commissions available in interior architecture, the highlighting of social relevance and cultural urgency in design projects is not always apparent; in fact, they often recede into the background. In such cases, we educate INSIDE students to enrich existing projects with that relevance and urgency or to take the initiative in defining such assignments for themselves. The role of the interior architect as a connector and bridge builder between research, design and practice would seem to be more relevant than ever. It is a practice in which citizens have become more vocal, and no longer consist of individuals but they consist of professionally organized collectives that cause the need to approach social and spatial issues in an integrated manner and not in isolation. More than has been the case up to now, commissioning in these processes entails working together with various parties with various interests. INSIDE attaches great importance to the skill of future interior architects in being able to explore such processes and, within them, to be able to define relevant interventions. At INSIDE, entrepreneurial skills stand for the successful running of a design office as well as instigating processes at the personal initiative of the designer. For INSIDE, the interior architect of the future is someone who, when commissions for desirable or even necessary spatial changes are not forthcoming, is capable of initiating them himself. The structure of our course The INSIDE course is structured in a similar way to a research and design office. The main features of the course are the Studios in which students complete the entire process of a research and design project: orientation, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research), presentation and evaluation. In the first year students are allotted four to eight weeks (comparable to a competition submission) or eighteen weeks (comparable to a regular commission) for the main projects in the Studios. Within the research and design process, various aspects are explored in depth in four parallel programmes: Theory, Flows, Skills and Travel. These programmes form an integral part of the design process in practice, but they are given added emphasis during the INSIDE course in relation to the Studio projects, and are supervised by specialist tutors. In this way, the analysis of the dynamic nature of a spatial context undergoing change is scrutinized closely in Flows, while the various theoretical aspects of a project are explored in Theory. An introduction to specific skills required in a project and to the approach of a particular tutor is offered in Skills, and relevant projects are visited in Travel. In the second year a Graduation Studio is organised to assist students in drawing up individual graduation projects. Students work independently and cover the entire process of orientation, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research) and presentation by themselves, under the individual supervision of the tutors.


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Studio The Studios form the backbone of the course, where students cover the entire process of orientation on the research and design of a selected spatial context undergoing change, research (through design), analysis, concept development, design (through research), presentation and evaluation. In the studios the students work on a concrete project under the supervision of a renowned designer, or under the supervision of a team assembled by this designer. The project assignment is determined by the studio tutor in consultation with the head of the course. The project can be purely academic in character or it may relate directly to current projects within the tutor’s private practice.

Graduation project of MinSun Kim, ‘Home for a moment ’, 20 13.

Flows Contemporary interiors increasingly depend on a complex of (inter)connecting flows. At the same time the growing awareness of the limits to our resources forces designers to reinvent the performance of spaces we inhabit. This has led to interior designers rapidly becoming dependent on external specialists and losing one of their primary capacities: to integrate. Flows aims to support interior designers retaking an active integrating role in the execution of their profession. Theory At INSIDE, research means deepening understanding, strengthening basic and essential research skills, and developing an individual approach to research themes. That is done by enabling students to conduct as much independent theoretical research as possible. Theoretical research here is taken to mean: systematic, critical reflection on the basis of a concrete question and definition of problem by consulting literature and other sources, with the aim of acquiring knowledge that offers answers to the question and problem posed. Skills Skills are advanced competences and techniques that enable students to carry out projects within the Studios more proficiently. INSIDE does not educate interior architects to cover a strictly defined field but, instead, focuses on the position that architects, responsible for the space that people relate to most directly as users of space, adopt in a process of spatial change. The skills are offered in such a way that students learn to practice them to such an extent that they can refine them on their own. Travel At INSIDE the basis of every design lies in observing, researching and analyzing a situation. The best attitude for doing that is to travel to places and thus experience ‘a tremendous sense of liberation and, at the same time, to be very aware of all the dangers and limitations that surround you’. (Lebbeus Woods, as quoted in an interview with Jan Jongert). At INSIDE we aim to foster this state of mind through experiencing the real world in the Travel programme. PAG.0 6


INSID E PROFILE

Embrace Braambergen, ‘ the balcony’, final project by first year students, 20 15/20 16.

Tutors 2016-2017

INSIDE Magazine 2015/2016 #7 Social and Cultural Challenges in Interior Architecture

Studio Makkink&Bey Jurgen Bey & Chester Chuang MVRDV Fokke Moerel, Aser Gimenez-Ortega, Mick van Gemert Superuse Studios Lizanne Dirkx Raumlaborberlin Benjamin FoersterBaldenius OMA Mark Veldman Anne Hoogewoning & Louise Schouwenberg TAAT Gert-Jan Stam & Breg Horemans Erik Jutten Hans Venhuizen

External Examiner 2016-2017 Elsbeth Ronner Lilith Ronner van Hooijdonk

Visiting teachers/ lecturers/guests/guides

Cover INSID E maga zine 20 15 -20 16

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Observatorium Geert van de Camp & André Dekker Frans Bevers Cloud Collective Gerjan Streng Gert Dumbar Leeke Reinders REFUNC Denis Oudendijk, Jan Körbes

Vincent de Rijk Lucas Verweij Jan van Grunsven Mauricio Freyre Anne-Karin ten Bosch COMAS Hagar Zur NHTV Olga Russel Marcel Smink Hans Jungerius Tim Devos XML Architecten David Mulder Wijnand Galema Jan Rothuizen Suzanne Oxenaar Klaske Havik Benno Tempel Antonis Pittas Alexandra Landré Benedict Esche Danielle Arets Tara Karpinski ZUS Elma van Boxel & Kristian Koreman Peter Zuiderwijk MaisontheFaux Joris Suk & Tessa de Boer Marjan Groot Jean-Louis Cohen Jacob Voorthuis Dirk van den Heuvel Claudia Curio Tadas Rickevicius Mārtiņš Eņģelis Marcel Westerdiep Ad van der Zee Niek Koppelaar Bram Kap Algimantas Grigas


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@tension - was a performance that played with expectation and illusion. Participants were blindfolded and placed in two rows back to back. One by one the participants had to force their way through and by doing that provoking coincidental confrontations.

DESIGNING CONVERSATIONS Buitenplaats Koningsweg (Koningsweg cultural estate) is a former military site near Arnhem situated right at the edge of the Veluwe National Park. In the coming years this area will be transformed into a cultural estate where living, heritage, nature, recreation and culture are combined in a unique way. In the first week of September 2016 40 architecture students from 18 countries designed and built ‘special places for a good conversation. With the title ‘designing conversations’, eight interventions were realized on the estate where the ideal conditions for a good conversation are created and even introverted people are seduced to have a good talk.

The designing conversations project was a cooperation of: Inside

A new season - showed the discovery of a brandnew season that entered through the broken fence, causing leaves and branches to turn completely white. An unprecedented scene that made people sit and stare at it with great awe and in absolute silence.

Master interior architecture of the Royal Academy of Art The Hague (tutors: Hans Venhuizen and Erik Jutten) Comas School of Design and innovation of the College of Management Tel Aviv (tutor: Hagar Zur) NHTV International spatial development NHTV Breda (tutor: Olga Russel) Observatorium Geert van de Camp, André Dekker and Marcel Smink Stichting Verborgen Landchap Hans Jungerius & Caro Delsing Hans Jungerius Marcel Smink

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D ESIGNIN G CON VERSATIONS

Bird talk - placed two particpants on wooden swings high in a tree on two sides of a fence. These participants were talking to eachother in their own language. Since these languages were completely different, the participants were in a state of not understanding but nevertheless in complete communication with eachother.

Bridge over time - was a rope structure that provoked participants to inevitably meet in the middle of the structure. This extremely narrow space forced them to negociate the possible continuation of their path.

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INSID E 20 16 / 20 17

STUDIO MUSEUMHOTEL ESCHERBREUER First year Studio MuseumHotel EscherBreuer is a design and theoretical research studio that ran for 8 weeks guided by Mark Veldman (OMA) and Anne Hoogewoning (theory tutor). The studio started in November 2016, the final presentation took place in February 2017.

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STUDIO ESCHERBREUER

The American Embassy in The Hague, designed by Marcel Breuer in the late fifties, is no longer viable for security reasons and will be decommissioned in the near future. The building will thus become available for redevelopment; an exceptional opportunity to celebrate this important icon at a prominent location in the city centre. The news about the future vacancy of the embassy building stirred up several public debates raising the question whether it should be preserved or demolished. Some have argued for demolition, currently the public opinion seems to support the preservation of this Brutalist design by Breuer; a showcase of his interest in construction and materials and their inherent expressive potential. One of the advocates of reuse of the building in an adapted form is Benno Tempel, director of the Gemeentemuseum Den Haag. Tempel came up with a proposal to house their collection of the famous artist M. C. Escher. The local government holds a corresponding view, though they also announced a desire to investigate the possibility of conversion of the building into a hotel. How can, with respect to its enigmatic character and in keeping with Breuer’s legacy, the future MuseumHotel EscherBreuer become part of the civic and cultural life of The Hague and be finally treasured by the public? The first year students worked in pairs of 6 teams (2 students designed an individual plan) on a design for the reuse of the building on two levels, a masterplan and an architectural proposal, in which museumand hotel facilities are programmed. The following themes were investigated by the students: the museum concept, the hotel concept, the museum – and hotel concept intertwined in a 24 hours experience, the architectural and diplomatic legacy of Marcel Breuer, the monographic collection about Escher, the museum extension: an intense art experience, and the public – private: exposure to the city In collaboration with Gemeentemuseum Den Haag (Benno Tempel). With lectures and talks by Wijnand Galema, Suzanne Oxenaar and Frans Bevers.

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Interview with Benno Tempel, Director of Gemeentemuseum Den Haag and Escher in het Paleis

As the director of the Gemeentemuseum and the Escher Museum, what excites you the most about the future development of the Escher Breuer Museum Hotel at its new location? There are three beautiful levels that make the combination of a museum and a hotel in the soon to be decommissioned US embassy building in Den Haag very exciting. Firstly, the Dutch Board of Tourism promotes Holland with five artists: Rembrandt, Vermeer, Van Gogh, Mondrian and Escher. We started to exhibit the Escher collection at one of the former Palaces of the Royal Family at the Lange Voorhout around 10 years ago. Until then there was no place in the Netherlands where you could see the artwork of Escher. A permanent presentation of his work proved to be a success and I think it is now time to present his work more content-wise and more spectacular. We will be able to present Escher much more in a way that does right to the artist, and give more insight into the complexity of his work. Secondly, I believe a new place will be created that will not only give the building a new character, but will also change the cultural infrastructure of the city. By realizing the Escher Museum you will open up a part of the city, a beautiful location in Den Haag, a place that can really add a new experience for (international) visitors. Also the shops in the near surroundings, some of them went bankrupt, will benefit of the opening of the museum. Lastly, there is this splendid possibility that the building will not only become a museum, but also a hotel, a combination which is quite rare, internationally speaking as well. It is very challenging to create something so special. At the same time it is the most difficult part of the whole concept, but we will come to that later. The aim to intertwine the visitor’s/guest’s experience between the museum and hotel is at a level of extreme complexity. What do you find most challenging within this new identity of the project? I don’t know a museum where different facilities like a hotel and a museum are intermingled. The weak point is that running a hotel is a complete different business then running a museum. I am afraid that the city will take the decision of hiring a big hotel firm, that would like to

Benno Tempel

Benno Tempel worked with the students from INSIDE on the project development of the new Escher Breuer Museum Hotel at its new location, the current American Embassy.

accommodate 100 rooms in the building. In that case I predict that within half a year, even earlier, the museum and the hotel will be fighting about spaces and their guests. So I think if you have something in your hands that is incredibly unique, you should be able to look at it from a different point of view and not in the “normal way”. I am also worried, at the end, the city will not take this position and that there will be a big chance that the two will not collaborate and will end up with their backs to each other. Everyone tells me that at least 100 rooms are necessary to be profitable to run a hotel, but I think its bullshit! Even with 25 rooms you can make a splendid and succesfull hotel, especially with a museum hotel concept. I am convinced that it will be possible to find a ways to have all rooms booked whole year round. Have you thought of new ideas that this hotel will offer that is different from regular hotels? Yes, a lot! And I think that is also shown in the students projects. It was amazing how so many of you came up with new ideas and possibilities, in a different perspective of a “normal” hotel. The studio helped me a lot to form and shape my ideas, for instance, if the Escher Museum becomes a place for families, then you definitely need different kinds of hotel rooms, like family rooms with double rooms, one for the kids and the other for the parents.

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INTERVIE W BENN O TEMPEL

In one of the projects of the studio, the public program promotes opening up the courtyard as a place for retreat to enhance the connection between the museum with the people of the city. How do you think the Museum Hotel will best engage with the local residents and how important is this engagement? What I like very much about moving into the Breuer building is the impact of the Museum Hotel on the city’s infrastructure. One of the key elements is that the site need to have a public character and the most logical thing to achieve that is to open up the courtyard. It will be great if it will become a place where people stay and enjoy concerts and have discussions or meet ups with people from abroad. What I thought was a brilliant idea of one the group of students was to keep the original form of the auditorium and transform it into a glass pavilion for lunch concerts, public and political debates etc. Even other cultural institutes could join, like the dance theater in Den Haag. They have beautiful dancing rooms but no rooms for lectures. Why not let them use our space? It would be great. I would love to make it open, so a lot of people can make use of this space. It is a golden opportunity that is not yet here in this city. As a museum director, do you think art and architecture should have the same amount of impact on the visitors in a museum? If not, what sets the balance between the two expressive mediums? I don’t think they have the same impact, for example, the Breuer building is definitely a beautiful building, but still it is there to serve the art and to present art. I see a lot of contemporary museumbuildings that says “look how big I am” but they don’t function as a place where you can present art in a pleasant way. On the other hand if you want to have an intense art experience, it depends a lot on the sound, climate, smell and spaciousness of the rooms. I think the impact of the building will then be more indirect and people will not realize why they love to visit the Escher Museum. They will remember how fascinating the artwork of Escher is but not the architecture.

INSID E students Yu- Chin Ku and Jo Basset with Benno Tempel

My opinion is that many architectural projects could benefit from the process we went through together with OMA. So I am very happy that your department got in touch with me. It was really an inspiring exercise and I am sure that overall the society will benefit from KABK students projects like this one, which have a public character. Overall it gave me a lot of inspiration which architects, if I can say so, do not always give in the process of the design.

Considering the first time collaborating with the students from KABK interior architecture, seven unique concepts were developed to enhance new thoughts on the concept of the new Escher Breuer Museum Hotel. What are a few inspirational thoughts you’ve gained through these projects? An idea that struck me is to look at the museum not like a horizontal building, but in a vertical way. The exterior of the Breuer building is beautiful, but the interior is not that interesting. To transform the interior into exciting rooms, and do that vertically can be a very good idea. What I also really liked was opening the courtyard, changing the façade and create a new access to the building. One of the things I didn’t think of before was to make the corner of the building, where the two adjacent parts meet, transparent.. One of the student groups came up with this idea and I think it was a very good way of looking at the building not as one unit but as two separated parts. PAG.0 13

INSID E students visiting the museum Escher in het Paleis


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URBAN FOYER Extension of the Street to the American Embassy Building Goda Verikaite ‘When do you enter the museum?’ – architect and critic Mark Wigley wonders in his article “The Secret Life of the Gallery Wall”. (1) ‘I see crowds of people passing by, some are gathering in groups next to the entrance, some are waiting for the ticket, some are chatting or just loitering. Paradoxically the act of loitering in some places in United States is even forbidden or evidently not welcome (by putting a sticker on the shop window ‘no loitering’)’. (2)

I agree with Wigley that the entrance of museums are sometimes a bit confusing because of the changing flows of people – visitors who are just arriving while others are leaving. Every place encourages specific behaviour of the visitor, for example churches usually influence people to become calm and concentrated even without being religious or spiritual. Surprisingly this happens immediately entering a church; the light beams falling through the stained-glass windows and echo’s of sound spreading across the vaulted ceiling create unspoken rules of whispering as well as walking and observing in a slow pace. But also museums can create specific behaviour of their visitors. I experienced this in the Contemporary Art Museum Folkwang (2010) in Essen designed by the British architect David Chipperfield. The building provokes calmness and silence while walking from one gallery to another. The clear structure of the white cubes and the transparent insertions of little courtyards allow visitors to stop for a minute and to contemplate the previous exhibition before entering the next one. A few trees swaying in the wind create a meditative view. At the same time the open space is separated by glazed walls; though it is not accessible. For me, the negotiation between the outside and inside is the most significant feature of Museum Folkwang. I had a completely different experience at Centre Pompidou (1977) in Paris designed by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers described as “a dynamic communication

machine” in Paul von Naredi –Rainer’s book ‘’Museum Buildings: A Design Manual” (3). The museum is located in the heart of Paris, attracting hundreds of visitors every day. Not only the building but also the surroundings remind me of a live pulsating organism. Centre Pompidou invites different groups of people to gather, communicate or just settle down straight in front of the main entrance. It is hard to distinguish who is the visitor and who is the pedestrian having a short break on the square. I have always been interested in public domain that attracts people and how this attractiveness is created. Synergy between people brings energy to places. How can this liveliness and vitality in public domain be reached? In this paper I will try to find out how the American Embassy building in Den Haag, in its new role as a museum-hotel, can become open and inviting for its residents and other visitors. Context Openness in the city and openness in a building has always intrigued me. People are usually considered being open and honest but what if these human characteristics could be transformed into architecture? I choose to incorporate this idea into the American Embassy (1959) designed by Marcel Breuer. Despite its diplomatic function some parts of the building used to be open for the public like two entrances which are rather expressive and inviting, a library where books about the history of the US could be consulted, and some glass passages. They gave the building the impression of a welcoming place. However, during the course of time due to the changing historical and political context, especially PAG.0 14


URBA N FOYER , GODA VERIK AITE

after 9/11, the building has become more closed of. From my personal experience and conversations with residents of Den Haag I came to the conclusion that nowadays the embassy and its surroundings do not trigger their interest anymore. Some of them even feel uncomfortable while passing the building surrounded by five layers of fences, iron grille, cameras sticking out everywhere and security guards walking around. Since the collection of the Dutch graphic artist M.C. Escher is going to move to the US embassy building, the new function asks for a new manifesto of architecture. This approach could provoke a new attraction for both the residents and tourists and replace the image of the embassy building as a not accessible monument. Dutch architect and researcher Hans Teerds formulates in his article ’Public Realm, Public Space’ my thoughts as follows: “<...> continuity is closely related to public life. The long lifespan of the urban structure creates room for (collective) memories, so that the city can be the interaction between the individual and the universal’’ (4). My design aim within this Studio is to create a continuity of the public domain into the American embassy building that will be transformed into a museum-hotel. In the length of that I am going to focus on the new function of the building as an inviting and open space and how it can activate the city and contribute to the public realm in the near surroundings. Public Domain as an Experience The terminology ‘’Bilbao effect’’ is widely used to describe the revival of cities by adding a single world-class architecture project as a catalyst to the existing surroundings. From my personal point of view, these kind of projects are usually not very contextual but just provoking a specific emotion. Like the just mentioned Centre Pompidou, a building that pops out as an implosion, where the public space is sucked out until it becomes a vacuum, and then implodes (radically defined by French philosopher Jean Baudrillard and cited by the Dutch sociologist Arnold Reijndorp) (5). The architecture speaks for itself – the building is wrapped by huge pipes and escalators which create a sense of a never ending movement and vertical circulation of people. Till the recent times escalators used to be accessible for non-paying public which provided complete openness of the building to the city and its’ citizens. Being a visitor allows you not only to observe the artworks but also slightly experience the feeling of being PAG.0 15

part of the Parisian society. The museum building and the square in front are inseparable. Paul von Naredi – Rainer describes it as a real foyer of the museum entering the main hall gives a sense of ‘’something happening here’’. (6): The idyllic image of a lazy Parisian afternoon next to Centre Pompidou emerges in my mind firstly while remembering Paris. Children running around and nannies trying to catch them, old couples drinking coffee and gossiping in the restaurants nearby, bunches of teenagers and lovers laying on plaza stones, groups of tourists trying to listen to their guides, street performers, lonely flâneurs stopping for a moment, pigeons walking around and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle – all these images merges together into one perfect idea about public domain. As stated by Reijndorp: “public domain is not so much a place as an experience and cultural exchange” (7). Public Loop as a Tool for Interaction The recent decision by Centre Pompidou to tax the access to the escalators immediately decreased the interaction between museum visitors and the public (it also contradicts the primary idea of the architects). The last group just entering the building for the experience of going up and enjoy the stunning view. The ability to access the rooftop had meanwhile become a very popular attraction for both tourists and city residents. The idea of a public loop accessible for 24 hours without payment in my view intrigues and broadens a role of a museum in the city. Taipei Performing Arts Center in Taiwan, a project by OMA, which is under construction at the moment, is another interesting example of experimental architecture where the public and private layers of a cultural building intertwine. As it is stated on OMA’s website: “The Public Loop is a trajectory through the theatre infrastructure and spaces of production”. (8) Although the Loop is hidden, at the same time it is expressed as a piece of choreography in architecture that becomes a stage for a public performance. The site of the new Performing Arts Center, located next to the night market, induced the idea of engagement with the city residents by lifting the first floor and make the ground floor accessible for the market people. In this case a new building organically brings new cultural life to its surroundings. Additionally, the accessibility to the normally hidden theatre-making process and backstage


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rooms creates the experience of cultural voyeurism that will attract all kind of people. In terms of the museum experience, if the building function in the future as a stage, every interaction and encounter between the different users like museum- and theatre visitors, hotel guests, market people and others could turn into an experience of the whole space. Public Space for Encounter The variety of encounters in public space are widely investigated by the American journalist and urbanist William H. Whyte (1917- 1999) by simply being a people-watcher (9). In 1969 he received a grant for assisting the New York City Planning Commission in drafting a comprehensive plan for the city. This grant and a huge curiosity about people’s behaviour in the public domain encouraged Whyte to work on the Street Life Project for more then fifteen year. He used to walk in the city observing different uses of the public domain. He documented his observations of the use of squares, parks, plazas, public buildings, streets and little corners, talked to people and described his findings about the pedestrian behaviour and the dynamics of these spaces in the city in various articles and books. One of his most remarkable books is The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (1980) in which Whyte analyses the attractiveness of public spaces and describes the tools to use specific spatial elements for instance sunlight, water and trees, the natural elements of public space. (10) According to Whyte also food facilities and spontaneous triangulations (like street performances) noticeably appeal to the users of public space. More seats means an increase of attractiveness of public domain. This is what Whyte claims with an experiment with movable chairs. A popular square in New York City is filled with lightweight chairs. Every person has the right to move it as far as she or he wants. Some people immediately start gathering in groups, creating little circles, others stay separate but try to align the position of their chairs with people already sitting on the square. An interesting observation is a woman who moves her chair only ten centimeter forward but the act of movement allows her to feel more comfortable and familiar with the space. The sense of being allowed to change something in public space according to your own situation for instance by moving a chair, creates a kind of openness in the public

domain. Or as Whyte concludes in his book: “the street as itself is the river of life for the city, we come here not to escape but partake in it”. (11) In terms of public space, streets reflect the most vibrant public domain, that allow different scenarios and avoid any possible exclusion. Public Scenarios The above examples and investigations can also be translated into museum architecture in order to provoke openness. What is the role of the public domain in the museum? Generally museums are considered to be a public space, however the ticket office distinguishes the visitors quite literally from the public domain. Museums therefore become places dedicated for tourists and people interested in a specific exhibition. But what if the museum could become an open platform for everyone as a communication machine or simply as the extension of the street? If the street is the place where real life takes place, prolongation of the street into the museum could become the key to openness. In my view the museum has to respond to the collective consciousness of the city not only in an architectural way but with a conceptual strategy. As Hans Teerds states: “Architecture is part of the preconditions; it does not constitute the public realm itself, but it is the stage upon which public life can develop”. (12). If the building function as an activator, all possible scenarios can be developed in order to encourage interaction between people. A variety of activities like lectures, outdoor cinema, performances, concerts, workshops for children, art student events or antique markets could engage the public with the museum and create a dynamic social and cultural life within the building. The Lithuanian-British project ‘Sing Me to Sleep’ hosted by the National Gallery of Art in Vilnius in 2016 shows how extreme a museum can act in regard to openness. The Gallery wanted to underline the importance of the creative arts within the lives of people living in the margins of society and organized several workshops, exhibitions and performances involving homeless people (13). Are there any margins to open up a cultural building? Actually, in my opinion there should be no restrictions. We all belong to society that is never perfect but will always be lively and diverse. Conclusion From my personal observations of public places and various case studies I come to the conclusion that openness PAG.0 16


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in a building creates additional value to a museum. For instance, Centre Pompidou used to be public by providing free outdoor escalators to reach the roof. In this way it broadens its role from a space for only exhibitions to an open platform for gathering. Thus I consider Centre Pompidou as a perfect example how the openness of building can be felt not only physically but also in a sensory way. The vibrant plaza in front of the Pompidou and various sculptures by French artists in the surrounding area contribute to this feeling of belonging and welcoming by the museum even before entering. The urban researcher Whyte mentions in his analysis on public spaces that the street is the ultimate public domain where everyone is welcome. Here people gather, talk, meet, play, read, eat or just loiter and these little accidental encounters between different groups of people bring energy to the city. Through one of my case studies, the Taipei Performing Arts Center, I discovered the possibilities for the public to enter the building straight from the street. If I translate this idea of the public circulation system in this multifunctional building as a public loop I believe this is a perfect architectural tool for the American Embassy building. Finally, the project ‘Sing me to Sleep’ in the National Gallery of Art in Vilnius shows that if a museum embrace the ultimate openness, and thus taking risks for the confrontation of a variety of people, it will create a lively urban choreography. I perceive the public loop as a prolongation of the street into the museum that opens the building up to the city. A public loop invites people to experience the museum inside, however, the question is how do we enter the building? Usually walls, doors and controlled entrances are accepted as physical boundaries between inside and outside and as tools to divide museum visitors from people who would just like to experience a space inside. But what if the ground floor turns into an open platform as an urban foyer without any limitations to enter? And what if the flow of people continues from the street through the building and they end up in the courtyard? They will create a flowing transition both horizontally and vertically. I believe that in this way the loop will increase the dynamics in the future Escher museum and will provoke a diversity of scenarios like public events and open air exhibitions or simply provide spaces for gathering. I would like to finish my conclusion with Whyte’s quote which gives an answer to my main goal of continuity of the public domain into the American Embassy building - ‘what attracts people most, it would appear, is other people’. (14)

Footnotes 1. Wigley, M. (2012). The Secret Life of the Gallery Wall. Oferta pública / Public Tender. Barcelona, Spain: MACBA, 177-18 2. Marshall, A. (2014). A Guide to Legal Loitering. Retrieved from: https://www.citylab.com/navigator/2014/09/a-guide-to-legalloitering/380615/ 3. Naredi-Rainer, P.V. (2004). Museum Buildings: A Design Manual. Birkhäuser, Publishers for Architecture, 38 4. Teerds, H (2008). PUBLIC REALM, PUBLIC SPACE: An Architectural Reading of the Human Condition. OASE #77 Journal for Architecture, 29 5. Reijndorp, A. (2002). In Search of the New Public Domain. NAi Publishers, 108-135 6. Naredi-Rainer, P.V. (2004). Museum Buildings: A Design Manual. Birkhäuser, Publishers for Architecture, 40 7. Reijndorp, A. (2002). In Search of the New Public Domain. NAi Publishers, 116 8. Taipei Performing Arts Centre. Retrieved from http://oma.eu/ projects/taipei-performing-arts-center 9. Project for Public Spaces. Retrieved from: https://www.pps.org/ reference/wwhyte/ 10. Whyte, H.W. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (archive film from observational documentary series) 11. Whyte, H.W. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (archive film from observational documentary series) 12. Teerds, H (2008). PUBLIC REALM, PUBLIC SPACE: An Architectural Reading of the Human Condition. OASE #77 Journal for Architecture, 30 13. Sing Me to Sleep. Introduction text of the social art project. 2016. Retrieved from http://www.menasgerovei.lt/padainuok-manlabankt.html 14. Whyte, H.W. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (archive film from observational documentary series) Images 1. Image_1 Verikaitė, G. (2016). The Contemporary Art Museum Folkswang (David Chipperfield). Essen, Germany 2. Image_2 Verikaitė, G. (2015). The Centre Pompidou, (Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers). Paris, France 3. Image_4 Ščerbauskas, R. (2016). ‘‘Sing Me to Sleep’’, The National Gallery of Art. Vilnius, Lithuania

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COMMUNAL SPACE

In the new function one part of the building will become a hotel and the other a museum. The corner adjacent to the Lange and Korte Voorhout will be transformed as a communal space for both the museum visitor and the hotel guest. Cam Liu

OPEN STREET

The ground floor of the building has become part of the street to function as an open square. Following Escherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mathematical principles this square is designed as grid. Goda Verikaite and Zara Bennet

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ATRIUM

One of the existing entrances will be re-used to enter the hotel and the museum. Entering the building you will arrive in the glass roofed atrium inspired on Escherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mathematical forms. Shin Young Kang and I-Chieh Liu

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ART INSTALLATIONS

With art installations the optical illusions of M.C. Escherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work are experienced in an extension in the courtyard of the museum. Jo Basset and Pichaya *JaJa* Puapoomcharoen

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COURTYARD

The cour tyard is de signed as a lively meeting place where people can have their lunch, enjoy the garden or par ticipate in the de bates taking place in the auditorium. The auditorium is rebuild and copied following its original forms. Yu- Chin Ku and Jina Baek

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RESTAURANT

A restaurant can be found in the hotel as well as on the roof of the museum. The latter one can be reached by a public, transparent loop that cuts through the exhibition rooms of the museum. Eva Gonzalez de Yanes

THE TOWER

The Tower is created by adding a new volume in the courtyard, inspired by one of Escher’s most famous work ‘House of Stairs’, which gives the public the possibility to overlook the city. Jo Basset and Pichaya *JaJa* Puapoomcharoen

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REFLECTING DOME

In the courtyard museum visitors can experience Escherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s artistic view on the universe in a huge reflecting dome hosting an art installation. Dylana Kim and Vittoria Colangelo

HOTEL UNITS

The hotel in the building is not an ordinary one; there are vertical and horizontal hotel units, designed as masterpieces by the artist M.C. Escher, with direct views into the museum. Farah Zamri and Janneke Derksen

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STUDIO FORT NOORDDIJK Re-vitalizing Fort Noorddijk An INSIDE studio by Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius of Raumlaborberlin Client Heritage Foundation and Landscape Foundation of the Province of South-Holland, Delft The fortress at the Noorddijk in Hellevoetsluis, a village just South of Rotterdam, is a small defense object that once was part of the water defense system protecting the most important parts of the Netherlands. The system was developed in the nineteenth century and was based on using the water as a way to hinder the enemy to occupy the cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Large parts of the country could be inundated and thus became inaccessible for enemy troops and vehicles. The inundated areas were then protected by a chain of strategically placed fortified buildings. The invention of the aeroplane immediately made this system redundant. Still the objects survived and developed into unique natural â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;reservesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with special heritage qualities. The fortress is a 90 m2 fortified building in the middle of its own private island. Isolated from the nearby village Hellevoetsluis overlooking agricultural fields. The owner of the fortified island, the Heritage Foundation and Landscape Foundation of the Province of South-Holland, invited INSIDE to discover possibilities for re-vitalizing the place taking in account numerous limitations which apply to such an enterprise, the most important ones being the natural and heritage qualities of the island. Also the accessibility for the villagers was desired by the client as well as the ability to read the history of the place. Although the island is small, has steep slopes, has a very humid indoor climate and is populated by bats, the students took on the challenge of developing re-use possibilities. Coached by Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius of raumlaborberlin students researched the possibilities of turning the limitations into special features of the fortress island.

Harvest Island. Instead of spending a lot of energy with fighting against the humid climate inside the fortress, you could also start grow mushrooms, they love this climate. Yu- Chin Ku and Janneke Derksen

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STUDIO FORTN OORD DIJK

Bat Museum. Instead of a limitation to the re -use of the for tress, the bats that live there could be in the centre of a museum about the life of bats, including a playground. I - Chieh Liu, Dylana Kim and Jinaa Baek

Obser vator y for climate change. The topography of the for tress island is exactly right for the coming climate change. On the solid for tress an obser vator y for the rising seawater can be built. Joe Basset and Z ara Bennet t

Wellness Island. The clarit y and isolation of the island make it fit to ser ve as an intensive wellness resor t, also of fering courses and exhibitions. Dylana Kim, I - Chieh Liu and Jinaa Baek

Flower therapy. The for tress of fers the ideal location for a flower garden as they have a beneficial impact on the state of mind and emotions of people living around it. Farah Z amri and Shin Kang PAG.025


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STUDIO LETâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S DECIDE

Western society is increasingly challenged by more and more people who want to enter the public debate on current issues. Encouraged by the possibilities social media offers to share opinions, this flood of information is not always carefully formulated and regularly show deeply felt frustrations by the participants in an uncensored way. This unleashed ambition to participate in decision making currently challenges the democratic traditions that especially western countries have developed.

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LET’S DECIDE Since all decision making starts with the ability to have an exchange of thoughts and a good conversation the students were stimulated to take on the challenge to research and develop the future demands of decision making. How can this be perceived at its best? What kind of conditions are necessary to give room to freedom of speech? What are the spatial settings for a debate to be deemed equivalent? And what kind of role do new technologies play within decision processes? The studio consists of three phases: The first phase focused on creating a decision-making laboratory, ein Entscheidungslabor, in the Goethe Institute Rotterdam during Museum Night on March 4. The second phase focused on further developing the laboratory results and adding to that the research of a wide variety of spaces where decisions are taken. During the third phase of the project students developed Decision Devices that result from their personal interpretations of the research results. For the theory program the students had to observe and describe a place where decisions generally are taken. The students came up with observations at a train station, a café, an office, a library etc. Furthermore they had to write a critical review about a build project and an essay in which they described their design approach and design challenges for the studio’s brief to develop a decision device; the essay by Farah Zamri is added about influencing the decisive moment of buying clothing, being a fast shopper herself.

The first part of the studio is set up as a decision-making laboratory. The brief was to create temporary decision spaces in the Goethe Institute Rotterdam. Four typologies were given: the online decision making space, the boardroom, the 1 on 1 space and the arena. The installations should generate a strong spatial impact that completely changed the perspective on some of the rooms of the Goethe Institute like the office and the library. And last but not least, the installations should be realized within a tight budget and creating no waste materials. The online decision making space group created 4 spaces where visitors could fill in an online questionnaire. In the arena visitors were invited to physically react to questions presented by the students. Through moving closer and further away from the ‘yes-spot’, opinions were expressed and exposed, and coalitions between the participants were forged without saying a word. The boardroom group build up some spaces with a variety of light compositions creating different levels of hierarchies and intimacy. However, the most privacy was experienced through a design that merely covered the visitor with a blanket. In order not to create waste the students made use of the existing furniture of the Goethe Institute or either created installations from rented material. During the event of the Museum Night approximately 200 visitors participated in the installations, each designed by a group of 3/4 students, while discussing current political and societal issues taking place in Germany and in the society at large. During the night all participants were observed how they ‘spatially’ react to the settings and conversations.

In collaboration with REFUNC (Denis Oudendijk Design tutor laboratory space), MVRDV (Fokke Moerel, Aser Gimenez Ortega en Mick van Gemert, STUDIO tutors), Anne Hoogewoning (theory INSIDE, SUPERUSE), Lizanne Dirkx (flows research INSIDE), Mauricio Freyre (SKILLS workshop Film Narratives), CLOUDCOLLECTIVE / Gerjan Streng (SKILLS workshop datavisualisation), Lucas Verweij (SKILLS workshop presentation and PANIC week tutor), Gert Dumbar (SKILLS workshop graphic design) and with contributions of: Tim Devos, Jacob Voorthuis (XML architecten) Anne-Karin ten Bosch, Klaske Havik and Jan Rothuizen.

In collaboration with REFUNC (Denis Oudenijk) and Goethe Institute Rotterdam (Claudia Curio and Henning Rosenbrock). With lectures and talks by Cloudcollective (Gerjan Streng), Tim Devos, Anne-Karin ten Bosch and Benedict Esche.

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With special thanks to Huurland.nl (rental firm). Museumnight photos taken by Sander van Wettum Arena photo taken by Ishka Michocka


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1 ON 1

The amount of times specific furniture was used and moved in the one on one space.

The 1 on 1 space group observed how two people, who did not knew each other before, would react in a situation in which they feel awkward. The students, who were all dressed like laboratory researchers, observed how the two participants â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;spatiallyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; reacted while they were having a conversation initiated by the students.

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ONLINE

L A BA R ATORY

The online decision making group created 4 intimate spaces. In these spaces the participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire. The intimacy was enhanced by re-using the rented container for the transportation of the chairs and to influence the light inside by lampshades. However, the most privacy was experienced by the people who just sat on a chair, merely covered by a blanket.

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BOARDROOM The boardroom group rented a large number of cubes which appearance they changed by using different colours of light. Additionally, varying the setting and compositions of the cubes a boardroom was created by different hierarchies and levels of intimacy. In this way the connection between intimacy and its possible influence on decisive moments was explored. PAG.03 0


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ARENA The arena group experimented with non-verbal decision making. They created an arena from the foldable chairs and invited participants to physically react to questions that the students presented. Through moving closer and further away from the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;yes-spotâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, opinions were expressed and exposed, and coalitions between the participants were forged without saying a word.

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INTERVIEW with Denis Oudendijk from REFUNC REFUNC is a laboratory for design which specializes in the use of unorthodox materials. By shifting functionality and materials REFUNC uses its full potential. REFUNC works in open teams and has a direct approach to design. Denis Oudendijk worked with our students on the Decision making laboratory, presented at Museumnight Rotterdam. Denis was interviewed by first year INSIDE students Jaja and Shin. How did you start REFUNC and what were your reasons to set it up as an architecture laboratory? REFUNC was the title of an exhibition workshop I did in 2001 for which I scanned my local neighborhood for discarded materials. I made an inventory list about the materials I found and their current function and what I thought they could become. This workshop took place after I teamed up with 2012 architects (lately known as Superuse studio) where we developed the ‘Harvestmap’: a geographic representation to help identify and prioritize waste materials that are collected in the project site. In that period I also started working with Jan Körbes, and we did the ‘mille gomme’ project together for which we re-used 1000 tires. For a time we specialized in re-using and transforming used tires into furniture and architecture. As my background is architecture and I like to experiment and play it’s an easy step to start an architecture laboratory and REFUNC as an office was born.

We are especially interested in how REFUNC deals with the reuse of existing objects and materials. Can you explain how you manage to every time re-use them and develop new designs? We start to make an inventory of the things and materials we find and compare this with the demands of the design. There are a lot of abandoned resources, especially in the Netherlands. It is not difficult to find and get material because we, Dutch people, are tempted to throw away things easily. Every day I throw away things myself and I collect them again, sometimes I sell them but I also kind of failed to get rid of them as I might have a later use for them. I’m stiin this process and getting better at it. You should love your kids and not things. When and where do I start reAquapolis in Poland by REFUN C

using? It is a combination of chance and potential. We try to be as lazy as possible, which means you have to be smart and use as less energy and material as possible, this is also the ecological part of our work. But it is more about the potential of every kind of material, when you continuously play and experiment with the world around you, everything is inspiring and can be used to design anything and at the same time use less resources and energy. The projects of REFUNC in our opinion are very creative and surprising. What are your sources of inspiration? Can you explain your approach and your working methodology? An architect has to know the way to sell his project and clients like to have an added value to the project. It is up to the designer to create this value. Our design approach is ‘ the world without a manual’ which works best with extreme deadlines and budget cuts. We start to analyze the mission and the questions raised and look around us to see what objects and materials are available and aesthetically pleasing, the important thing is not to forget the means to connect materials and search for available tools. My sources of inspiration are non- designers like farmers, people who need to solve real problems.

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What is the most attractive part and what is the hardest part of your role as an architect within in the projects of REFUNC? Can you give some examples? The most attractive part is the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;not designing partâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and finding a solution or the answer to a problem with available materials. The hardest part though is to get a commission and to find a client who believes that you really know what you are doing. If you are playing or improvising, people tend not to take you serious because it looks like you mess around. If you improvise in music then you are really good, but improvising with design people most of the time think you are not qualified. Obviously you cannot improvise a lot in the field of architecture because you have to satisfy many requirements but you still can play with the rules and definitions. It is somewhat easier with interior architecture; in this profession you can improvise more but still you need to have the trust from the client who is willing to put his money on your bank account to create something for him. So this is the most difficult part and what we are doing is really business so you need clients. I always try to keep a relaxedness in my work but at the same time it is very stressful and sometimes I wonder if I need more assistants for my practice so I will be able to rethink and develop more REFUNC projects, but then again it is the hands on approach which generates the best result.

If you evaluate the presentation during Rotterdam Museum Night at the Goethe Institute what is your opinion in comparison with projects you worked on with students from our department in the past? Do you have any suggestions to reach a better result in the design? I think it really went well! This project was about improvising and experimenting to really build and let go design principles and plans. It was the material itself which guided the project and the experiment to rent materials like chairs and other objects and thus being more circular, I liked that. Of course during collective processes like these always the ownership popâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s up with discussions if the design is going the right or wrong direction. This is part of the deal! To improve these processes you need more experience in order to be able to make better design decisions in a short time notice.

What would be your dream project to work on in the future? I would love to build my own house as a village, like a collection of small architectural projects, combined together as a wonderful place where nothing is what is seems!

Pixel Palace in Ka zachstan by REFUN C

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Denis Oudendijk


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LET’S ..... The students observed and analyzed a wide variety of spaces where decisions are taken. Under the guidance of MVRDV researcher Mick van Gemert students dived into some iconic spaces that facilitated important democratic and political decisions in the past we all know by repeated images like the oval office in the White House, the Wannsee villa near Berlin, the palace in Versailles, etc. Apart from these iconic decision spaces, the insiders looked also into the qualities of spaces for daily use where people decide to buy or not to buy a certain item and some researched for instance the influence sound has on the processes of decision making. Finally, a few people studied the spatial qualities of toilets, kitchens and showers as they seem to be the domestic spaces where people are inclined to decide on important issues. Under the guidance of MVRDV the research results of the first two phases of the project are presented and processed into a book. CONTENT OF LET’S DECIDE BOOK 1.LET’S BE YOURSELF by Dyana Kim 2.LET’S DINE by Yu-Chin Ku 3LET’S BUY by Jinaa Baek and Farah Zamri 4.LET’S PRESIDE by Eva Gonzalez De Yanes 5.LET’S PROTEST by Goda Verikaite 6.LET’S OCCUPY by Pichaya *JaJa* Puapoomcharoen 7.LET’S MAKE HISTORY by Zara Bennet 8.LET’S HAVE A TEA by Yuan-Chun *Cam* Liu 9.LET’S DOMINATE by I-Chieh Liu 10.LET’S EXPERIMENT by Joe Basset 11.LET’S PROCESS by Shin Young Kang 12.LET’S LISTEN by Vittoria Colangelo 13.LET’S VOTE by Janneke Derksen 14.LET’S EXHIBIT

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STUD ENT WORK BERLIN

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STATE OF DESIGN, BERLIN

In a three days ‘pressure cooker process’ guided by Lucas Verweij, students filtered essential elements from their research results presented in the book. By combining these essential elements they made the first steps into creating personal concepts from their research results. These concepts lead to a design of a Decision Device, this design process was guided by MVRDV architect Aser Gimenez Ortega. A device can be interpreted in many ways; it can be an object, room, ritual, software, scenario etc or a combination of these elements. Concepts for the device need to include 3 aspects:it has a strong spatial component, it facilitate critical decisions and it is accompanied by a clear manual or choreography. The decision devices created by the students, the process of research and the choreography they developed, were presented in the Let’s decide spatial installation at the Berlin design fair: The State of Design from 1-4 june.The folded chair arena was built with the knowledge of REFUNC.

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STATE OF D ESIGN, BERLIN

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NINE STORIES DINNER Yu Chin Ku The “nine stories dinner” is a portrait re ecting on disconnected families that involve an unbalanced authority of making decisions led by the lack of communication. It takes shape as a ficitonal story that depicts a family of four whom share an intimate, re-uniting experience during their visit to a family therapy restaurant called the “nine stories.” They gradually make their way up the nine stories of tables, rebuilding their once segregated relationship as they accomplish nine tasks together and share with one another, stories of their own. The aim of this design is to value the importance of communication and support of decision making within our families.

A PLATFORM FOR A PROTEST Goda Verikaite Seven people are needed to build a wall. How many people are needed to move it? The wall of Neuperlach (Munich) divides the migrant center away from the local residents. It was introduced as a noise barrier but was immediately followed with different reactions. A platform for a protest consists of investigations within the local situation, decision ow and recent outcomes. It also raises questions about the wall - is it only a tool against the sound or also the exclusion of xeno - the one who is a stranger and unknown..? The platform invites you to rethink the wall as an element and suggests scenarios for resistance – a physical form of protest as well as an online petition.

VOTE YOUR TYPE Janneke Derksen The Election Day is one of the most important moments of our democratic society. The way we vote now do not connect to the moment and rhythm of the voter. I defined the proifle of three types of voters: the efficient voter, who is short on time; the celebratory, who is enthusiastic and community oriented; and the indecisive one, who is hesitant about his choice. These profiles will optimize the individual experiences by improving the way in which we vote. Therefor, the voter will connect to the day. So what kind of voter do you identify with?

LET’S AGREE Pichaya Puapoomcharoen “A room for a handshake” Parting from researching human behaviour in public space, it depicts that there is a measurable amount of space in which people feel necessary to set between themselves and the others. It is as if we are surrounded by a series of invisible bubbles of space nested like Russian dolls and we feel uncomfortable if these are inappropriately invaded. These bubbles, as human distance, consist of four zones; public, social, personal, and intimate. The closer to the others the more could lead to confrontation. This design device serves as a spatial tool to facilitate open communication for people involved in a conflict in order to reach an agreement. PAG.0 40


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IT’S AN EASY DECISION . A NEW PROTOCOL FOR FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCES Zara Bennett A new protocol for future Climate Conferences must emit a feeling of exposure. Exposing places in the world most susceptible to climate change, countries such as Sudan, Haiti and Malawi, and using them as site specific settings for future conferences so leaders can see exactly what they are deciding on. Creating a campaign and personal travel itinerary to further plant their feet into the issue of climate change and become wrapped up in a place. Putting the topic of a conference for climate change on a pedestal so it has nowhere to hide. Putting our leaders in a transparent space so we can see, hear and listen to their intentions. Altogether giving everyday people the chance to feel as though they are part of a decision for climate change.

HEY, MISTER PRESIDENT Eva González For a presidential decision to be considered successful, the support from three different groups is ideal. However, this is rarely the case. Presidents need to find a balance in gettingthe support of the congress, political parties, and the general public. Nevertheless, the former does not have direct input into the decision-making process. This device will bring the people’s voice directly into The Oval Of fice by means of directional sound and crowdsource support. Therefore, every morning, constituents will deliver their voices to the president, thus potentially helping in the decision-making process. PAG.041 41 PAG.0

SPACE, POWER AND DECISION-MAKING I-Chieh, Liu “Space is fundamental in any exercise of power.” - Michel Foucault,1984. Applying this concept as an inspiration, I wondered about the relationship between space and power. First, I assumed that the show of power in a particular space served as a subtle factor in the process of decision-making. Subsequently, I researched a historical event between China and Japan in the late 19th century: The Treaty of Shimonoseki, when Taiwan was handed over to Japan by China. This is an iconic negotiation for me as a Taiwanese. I imagined a scenario where the negotiation site changed to the Forbidden City in Beijing, instead of Japan. Would the outcome of the negotiation be different?

PEOPLE’S PARLIAMENT Yuan Chun Liu The decision making for a democratic country is never a simple process. Imagine the negotiation between citizens with countless different opinions. “Open-source governance” is a political philosophy which advocates the application of the open-source philosophies to democratic principles, to enable any interested citizen to contribute to the formation of policies. When it comes to decision making for a country it will provoke massive discussion between citizens. Therefore, to create an operating framework for this system, how to connect these massive discussions then becomes the essential issue to consider.


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SHOPPING TO-GO Farah Zamri

Strolling between shops Browsing.. Browsing.... Browsing...... Browsing through my eyes I select the clothing A pair of pants catch my attention, aha! Let’s check if they are my size... Ah, perfect! I think they would fit right? Should I purchase these pants before trying? What if they are not the right fit? Maybe I should try them first in the fitting room... The activity of apparel shopping has to do with a series of decisions, from selecting the clothing, trying them on, and finally making the purchase. All these decisions are thought through by retailers to arouse the consumer to buy beyond what he or she needs. Since clothing is all about the right fit, the fitting room is usually the final stop for shoppers before making the purchase decision. The setting of the right atmosphere influences the shoppers’ behaviour and motivation. This influence is achieved for instance by the use of light, colour and special mirrors, all in order to obtain the right level of privacy in the fitting room. However, not all shoppers make it to the fitting room due to obstacles like a long queue. For leisure

shoppers waiting in a queue is not a problem as they enjoy taking their time, but fast shoppers consider waiting in a line a waste of time. This de-motivate them to buy clothing. Being a fast shopper does not necessarily mean that this person dislikes shopping; it is just that this group of shoppers have a specific purchase goal. They know exactly the product they need and they have done thorough research before going on a purchase hunt. To be efficient in shopping is the ultimate goal for fast shoppers. Spending too much time in a shop can be rather frustrating; especially when there is a long queue. I personally skip the fitting room when I see a long line and thus it discourage me to make a buying decision. For fashion apparel stores, the fitting room is their selling point, it is even equally important as the display of their products. “When customers make their buying decisions in the fitting room, it’s more profitable for the store and more efficient and enjoyable for the customers, which in turn builds customer loyalty”. (1) Retailers invest in the fitting room to make the activity of shopping more appealing, but this does not respond to the needs of the fast shoppers, as most fitting rooms are designated together in one area and located in the back of the store. On the contrary, the fast shopper would like the fitting room to PAG.0 42


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be easily accessible. With the convenience of cutting-edge technology and the current fast-paced lifestyle, the consumer has less time to shop in stores and therefore relies on online shopping. However, at the end of the day, online shopping does not offer the same feelings of instant gratitude the consumer is awarded when he or she directly purchase and own the product. Therefore in my opinion the face-to-face retail, called brick and mortar businesses, where the consumer has direct contact with the vendor and the consumer can have a touch and feel experience of the product, will survive the e-commerce business. But how can the fast shopper be satisfied having a preference for not buying online but at the same time dislikes wasting time on trying clothes in fitting rooms? The idea of being able to purchase clothing “on the go” has become an essential need that matches the current rapid lifestyle of consumers. One of the largest supermarkets in the Netherlands, Albert Heijn (AH) offers a quantity of products depending on the location of the store. Albert Heijn XXL for example offers a larger variety of products in comparison to a regular Albert Heijn. In addition, you can find AH-to-go stores located at train stations. These three types of AH stores target different types of consumers with different marketing concepts. The AHto-go concept is designed to meet the need of daily rush hour train commuters. Since the size of these stores are smaller, they offer food and drinks that are suitable for the consumer to grab and go, along with breakfast and lunch package deals. What makes AH- to-go more convenient is the user- friendly self-check out service, which allows the consumer to directly scan their purchase and pay within seconds. When I commute with the train, I often stop at AH to-go for snacks or drinks. The self-service check-out counters are very efficient and easy to use. This efficient system build up a new level of personal trust, where as a consumer, I have the control and ability to scan every purchase without relying on the staff. A similar “to-go” concept has recently been developed by Amazon; the first ever no check-out, no grocery store line - the Amazon Go store. This concept uses the “just walk out” technology, which is currently still being tested before it’s officially launched in the United States. (2) Shoppers simply scan the Amazon app before entering the grocery store. Anything picked up by the consumer will be detected by the sensor fusion, which adds the product directly to the online cart in the app. Once the shopping is finished, shoppers can just walk out and the automatic payment will be processed in the app. This concept is less time consuming. Shoppers will be able to enjoy the smooth transaction without stress. Both AH-to-go and Amazon Go concepts are specifically designed for fast shoppers. They show how current food retailers value the need for a fast shopping process. If fashion retailers could adopt similar to-go concepts into the activity of shopping, it would create a new shopping experience for this fast shopper target group, shifting to a more efficient method of shopping. PAG.0 43

Going back to the context of the fashion retail, specialized men’s jeans retailer Hointer, created a fast shopping experience as the company was well aware of the behaviour of the fast shopper. In the store they simply applied a QR code on all their displayed products and when the shopper would like to try a pair of jeans, they simply scan it, and delivered the jeans at a designated fitting room. In this

way the Hointer store successfully identifies what men generally hate about the traditional way of shopping and instead offer a quick and fun experience. (3) For me this example is very inspiring and it shows how apparel shopping can be as efficient as purchasing food to go. Shopping is becoming truly experiential, as the options where and how to purchase a product are spreading. This makes shopping omnipresent, as the shopper can simply brows online, using any device and being able to compare products online. This creates more awareness about products and you might expect that the decisions to purchase a product is well considered. Spending too much time in a store is not my favorite. I prefer to do my research before visiting the store and then view the specific products I am interested in. While visiting the store, I already have an idea which product I would like to see and try. As all these decisions can be made without visiting the stores, why not integrate apparel shopping as a “to-go” concept? The goal of my design for the studio Let’s decide is to ease the process of decision making for fast shoppers. The reason why shoppers enter the store at the first place will be that they have a clear expectation to view the product of interest that they have selected already online. The best way to enhance the apparel shopping to-go concept would be at public commute places, like train or bus stations, thus transitional places in between the departure and the final destination of the fast shopper. Here they can grab their breakfast and try on clothing on the way to their work. ________________ 1.“ Learn why ‘Fit ting Rooms Mat ter’” Retail customer experience. Ed. Marge L aney. N.p., 3 A pr. 20 15. Wed. 2.“A mazon Go Store Lets Shoppers Pick Up Goods A nd Walk Out ”. the Guardian. N.p., 20 17. Web. 16 May 20 17. 3.“ US retailer Hointer uses robots to deliver your selections to the fit ting room. ” Retail Innovation. N.p., 18 May 20 13. Web.


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INTERVIEW with Breg Horemans from TAAT In the second studio five insiders went to Gent for two weeks to work on a Theatre/Architecture installation Hall05 by Belgian/Dutch collective TAAT. To produce Hall05, a Do-It-Together theatrical installation, the KABK students worked together with KASK Gent School of Art students. Located in the interior of the historic Sint Niklaas-church, Hall05 wants to address the value of real people meeting each other in real space. Without the use of words. The students got the opportunity to collaborate in the design process from the beginning till the end, and building the installation with their own hands. The opening presentation was on the 12th of November 2016. Can you explain the name of your group TAAT that stands for ‘Theatre as Architecture, Architecture as Theatre’ and what directed you towards Architectural Dramaturgy? TAAT originated after the collaboration on the project KHOR II. Gert-Jan and I rediscovered the common ground between theatre and architecture. This connection is full of potential, but somehow forgotten. Theatre in a lot of cases takes place in a black box. Architecture plays a prominent role to shape the conditions of this box and how spectators experience a ‘show’. How you position yourself in a space actually influences the play a lot. At the same time, also in architecture, the performative and theatrical potential is not always visible. We both felt that this common ground was an interesting and urgent starting point to discover and renew the connection between theatre and architecture. TAAT was founded from this common interest. The term architectural dramaturgy is on one hand a method of organising a spatial experience. On the other it signifies a hands on working process of production, where we see every HALL subproject as a ‘rehearsal by or with space’. Is it problematic to work together with people from different disciplines? What would be pros and cons? I think inter-disciplinary connections and collaborations make every designer or artist more aware of the way he or she looks at his profession In my case, having a background as an architect, a merely result based working method towards a clear goal was dominant in my thinking. Architects are used to go with this linearity, step by step. For the artist, his or her path is less linear, much more associative. To connect this different working methods was the biggest challenge when I started working with professionals from different artistic fields. At the same time I immediately saw the advantages of this approach. It makes you aware of what you can do as architects or interior architects and how you can positively influence other disciplines and vice versa. So for me, interdisciplinary collaborations are not problematic at all, but challenging in a positive sense. It is not something to ‘overcome’ but to work with. In the best case you profit from the openness of each other’s differences finding a mutual synergy.. The contrast generates fresh and meaningful ideas that only

appear in a constructive and open dialogue. Based on your experience what was the hardest moment during the project you worked on with our group? When you are doing an physical building project for an installation, which we did with the KABK students during HALL05, I think the most difficult part is to create something that goes beyond the level of a ‘hedonistic‘ experience to something that is really meaningful as an artistic experience. The biggest challenge during the whole project was to get to a point where a meaningful experience was generated, within a process that was based on this collective synergy. This has to do with quality management. We never want to push the group we work with into our personal ideas, but all together define a set of common goals. Our responsibility is to create an open environment where everything can be said and discussed , but with a clear eye on the eventual result. During the production of HALL05 the group was extra critical, what meant that we postponed certain design decisions until the very last days, resulting in a couple of late nights. By staying critical we really ‘lifted’ the result to a new level, making it better and stronger. I think at the end a more meaningful experience for the audience was generated in comparison to the previous HALL projects. I’m really proud of how we did this as a team! About the different installations: each one was developed according to the senses; Hall 05, which we worked on, was about the sense of touch. Why do you base your projects on senses? I think the senses are always a bit undervalued in thinking about and developing architecture.. They are not used often as concrete design tools or as a valid design perspective. Personally I am influenced by the book “The Eye of the Skin” by Juhani Pallasmaa, a Finnish architect who wrote about how forms and shapes influence your perception of architecture. For instance, the form of a staircase - let’s say in your home - formulates how your body reacts with space. It ‘stores’ this experience in a sort of ‘bodily memory‘. I think it’s very interesting to work with this concept and see how space can influence your memory - especially with senses as touch, sound and smell. On the other hand the senses trigger a much more intense interaction - opposed to a superficial ‘tinder style’ visual interaction - between yourself and another person, an aspect that we actively work with in constructing the experience within every HALL project. Our assignment for the next studio is to design a device that will help people to take decisions. The Hall installation is also a kind of decision making device because it is about how to provoke people to encounter and what will follow afterwards: the decision, or not, to have more contact. With Hall05 you collaborated with a dating website and used the installation as an offline dating device, was it successful? The Offline Dating night was a success. People really made PAG.0 4 4


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the effort to queue for quite a long time. Once inside participants sometimes spent more than 30 minutes encountering each other, really looking for ‘something’ intense. The difference is in ‘how to frame an experience’. If you call something a ‘theatre play’, it opens up a certain reference frame for people to experience something. When you call something a ‘dating machine’, a total different set of references appears. How you frame a project and what sort of rules you set up is probably more important than what you actually build inside. It is more about ‘staging’ a ritual. Let’s say if you enter a white cube you know that there are certain rules or instructions that will totally fit with your experience, this already loads your experience and gives meaning. This is very important in situations where you as a designer want people to ‘be empowered’ in space. Where it’s about them, and not only about the conventions - for example in a white cube - that are imposed on them. If you think of architecture as a place of ‘decision making’, I think it is really important to ‘leave space open’ for the visitors to be empowered and actually make their own decisions. How would you define Architecture and Interior Architecture? And when does Architecture become Theatre and vice versa? Why do you think it is important to define architecture and interior architecture and why is it important to know

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where one stopes and where the other begins? It’s very easy to get into ‘what it is’- discussions about these terms. From the moment you put something in a certain category, you will always find an example or a way to look at it that questions your decision or the category as such. Take a look at ‘The Matter of Time‘ by Richard Serra at the Guggenheim Museum at Bilbao: is this an interior or an artwork? Is it a sculpture or a space? The longer you try to resolve this question, the less it matters. In the end, the work is about how you experience the space and what impact it has on you. So the discussion is not about what it ‘is’, but about what it ‘does’. Any space, depending on how you look at it or within which reference frame you put it, can change. So I think it is more important to speak about space and what impact it has on people instead of defining what is architecture, what is interior architecture, or when something is art or not. If you have to define in one word the Hall project what would you like to call it? Encounter. The project brings together disciplines, people with various backgrounds, experts and audience members that have never met before. Committing to ‘the other’ on a fundamental level asks for generosity and openness, both in the process of experiencing HALL or in the process of designing and making the installation.


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STUDIO TA AT

Photos taken by Jim Stephenson

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STUDIO THE NEW WORKSPACE Studio Makkink & Bey assigned the students to design their future workspace on the basis of their own terms and conditions. The starting point of the design process was a 1-day internship at a nearby company in The Hague. These companies were not all aligned with design, like a law firm, Salvation Army, paper factory, cafe and even a cemetery. The students had to research and analyse flows which were present in these firms (for instance energy, waste and money), interview the owner or employees to find out the work flows and conditions, map the spaces for production and to gather rest material which they could use for their own new workspace, like paper, second hand clothes, sand, etc. It was a struggle for the students to create space with not so obvious materials, instead of chairs and desks, as these were not allowed to be an initial element of the design. In the end, the students succeeded to extend the definition of ‘a working space’ and went through experimental hands-on experiences by building with re-used materials their ideal space to work in at INSIDE. As part of the theory program the students had to write a manifest to strengthen their ideas about their ideal, personal workspace with clear statements as a call for change; the manifests by Eva Gonzalez, who spend her internship at a cemetery and Jo Basset who build a vertical, hanging workspace are added. In collaboration with Studio Makkink & Bey (Jurgen Bey and Chester Chuang), Superuse Studios (Lizanne Dirkx) and Anne Hoogewoning. With special thanks to Jero Papierwarenfabriek, Begraafplaats St. Petrus Banden, Geelkerken Linskens Advocaten, Care Autoschade, Studio Duel, Tiddo de Ruiter, Lunchbox, Repro– van de Kamp, Leger des Heils, Partou Kinderopvang (Utrecht).

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PROJECT BY GODA VERIKAITE

One day internship at Repro-van de Kamp

Waste material

Material flows analysis

Company spatial elements analysis

Waste material proces

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THE HANGING WORKSPACE 1. The visual field: Verticality Commercial buildings, in particular current high-rise architecture, have made use of the vertical space at an urban scale. However, as we go to work every day, we settle in a workspace configured around horizontal spaces that limit our visual field and perception of this space. Often we feel overwhelmed and stressed by the concentration of the eyes and the body towards the same angle for a long period of time. Configuring the workspace in a vertical design, forces the alteration of eye levels between elements that are hanging. 2. Interaction: A sign We struggle to find a workspace that would be individual but at the same time interactive with others. Isolated between walls or open in a space of offices, we often tend to feel the need for one of the two. To separate ourselves from colleagues, a gesture or a sign designed is more than enough. There is no need for building walls or cubicles. Like curtains, hanging ropes can be moved to show the need of individual space, or openness for interaction. Thus, an inferred individual space is created. 3. Freedom: All sides of the workspace Freedom is an essential life element that is finding its way through workspace design. We no longer can accept being confined and restricted in one position doing monotonous work. Therefore, altering positions, directions, and perspectives are part of our work process now. Using free will, we can decide where to work and how to work using the workspace in different ways. Now, horizontal planes, vertical elements, floors, and walls all can be used for work. 4. Nature: The reference Nature has a lot more to offer in design. Workspaces must borrow spatial qualities from nature if we were to transform them into free, vertical, and interactive compositions. If we are to work in nature, the spatial awareness of all vertical elements such as trees in forests for example, and the freedom of moving in multiple directions allows us to release all work pressures. 5. Design: A process Designing the ultimate future workspace can be a journey from wild nature to basic construction of vertical elements, reaching an organized mechanism and flowing workspace. Jo Basset

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TRANSITORY PERMANENCE I firmly believe that a workspace should adapt to the requirements of the workforce by accommodating different needs within one profession, as well as different professions within a workforce. It should not be approached as one-type-fits-all. Just like sand, the space has to embrace changes. It must adapt to new approaches and tendencies designed to protect and improve working conditions and productivity. It should cover the basics expectations of a workspace while offering room to be creative. It should keep up with the advances of technology and the demands of the workforce. It has to encourage workers to keep moving by offering spaces to relax, be active, and work in different postures. It must be clean, efficient, and organized. It has to be pleasant to all five senses. And it must be accessible to workers with disabilities. It should encourage socializing without inducing peer pressure. It has to assimilate the needs of introverts and extroverts alike. It should encourage teamwork by offering spaces to gather comfortably, and also to enable communication between groups of people. A workspace also protects and balances privacy. Like sand that cracks under pressure, the space should work within its limitations. It should be a disrupter of the corporate order; a space that allows to break dated work policies. I want to live in a world where a workspace creates a sense of enjoyment and fulfillment. And it must be designed to evolve and contribute to the society while not being detrimental to the environment. Eva Gonzalez

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Interview with Chester Chuang and Minsun Kim During the first years of INSIDE half of the INSIDE students were of Asian origin. We wanted to know what the appeal is for Asian students to study in the Netherlands and how they experience their time here. Two current INSIDE students interviewed MinSun Kim, who was the first INSIDE student receiving her master diploma, and Chester Chuang who works at Studio Makkink & Bey. Chester guided Studio The New Workspace together with Jurgen Bey this year.

del Mobile in Milan and DMY exhibition in Berlin through the school’s program. So for me the contacts I made through the academy were somehow a start of my career.

Yu-Chin Ku, MinSun Kim, Jo Bassett, Chester Chuang

Chester, you’ve worked as a freelancer before joining Rianne Makkink and Jurgen Bey. Minsun, you’re a passionate designer working in the field of interior architecture and unconventional urban spaces. Can you both share with us a your own experience of studying and searching for a job here in the Netherlands? Chester: When I first came to the Netherlands, it was quite different to what I was used to. The Dutch mentality is relatively free and open minded when dealing with design, compared to my background studies in industrial design where it was very strict and straightforward. I find that switch very interesting and helpful for my own development. After my graduation from Design Academy Eindhoven, I started freelancing a little bit. Most of my contacts were very much established while I was studying. I think that is an important starting point. I established connections with my fellow classmates with whom I have studied for 2 or 3 years. These are the people who know you well and have experienced working with you and understand your qualities as a designer. Also, one important thing to mention is that most of the teachers in the Netherlands here are part-timers thus they are also working in the design field, unlike my previous studies in Taiwan where the teachers work full time and have not much connection to the real professional world of design. Minsun: In my case as well, the study program at INSIDE was a starting point for my career after my studies. For example, while having the graduation exhibition I met the director of Today’s Art and I was invited to present my work during the art festival. I was also part of the Salone

How has your working methodology changed while working/studying in your origin country to your experiences in the Netherlands? Minsun: When I was working for 3 years in South Korea, I was very much used to do typical architectural projects and work with visualization software. In the Netherlands, I learned that architecture is much more than practical and tangible elements and I learned a lot about the social, cultural, and even narrative aspects of architecture. Chester: One thing I noticed about myself is that I don’t do renderings anymore [laughs]. When I first came here, I remember I was making a rendering on my computer when suddenly my teacher told me: ‘Come on, just go to the workshop and build it! I think this taught me that you can see a lot more quality in your design when you build it and even while you build it, rather than seeing it on screen as a render. What are some interesting or weird experiences you’ve encountered during your studies or working period in the Netherlands you’d like to share with us? Chester: I can give you a very simple example that says a lot. It’s sanding paper. The finest sanding paper you can work with here is 400 or 600. But in Taiwan, you can get it until 2000. [laughs]. I think this all comes down to differences in culture. In Asia, in general, I would say that craftsmanship and perfection has long been part of their tradition. Whereas in the Netherlands, you are more free to focus on the bigger picture rather than on small details of craftsmanship. This is also interesting since often you could miss the bigger picture when focusing on small elements. Minsun: In 2012, there was a very heavy snow storm in the Netherlands and I was traveling by train. The train stopped for some time due to weather conditions and I was very worried. I looked around and people were very relaxed as is usually the Dutch atmosphere, people were joking, and they did not really care about the weather. [laughs] I find that interesting, coming from a different country and atmosphere. PAG.0 56


INTERVIE W CHESTER CHUA N G & MINSUN KIM

How do you think, as an international designer in the Netherlands, you are contributing to the diversity that the design profession requires? How is your background helping in shaping your inspiration and image as a designer outside your home country? Chester: I think it is very important to make use of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cultural background because it is the only thing that helps you stand out within the diversity of the design profession. However, one should not be bound by that only, but also stay open and not be trapped in the same bubble. So I can imagine it as a layered cake, where each layer consists of different elements like background, culture, personalityâ&#x20AC;Ś and in the end its about what the cake would taste like ! Minsun: I agree with Chester. Culture and background are important, but the personality of the designer is equally important for inspirations. What are the tips you can offer the students of INSIDE concerning the transition from academic and student projects into field related projects that hold much more responsibility and quality in the real world? Chester: It is very important to get involved with people who are currently working in the field on projects that get realized. Even when researching your design, these people can give valuable insights that would help you now and in the future. Gradually you will find your balance between conceptual and pragmatic applications of design. Minsun: Make use of your time during your studies in order to meet people from different disciplines. So, contact people, meet people, and stay open for new information! One more thing is to find like-minded people that can be friends or students and form collaborations or groups. That will help a lot.

Chester Chuang at Studio Makkink & Bey

Do you have any advice you would like to give to students coming from your home country or Asia in general? Chester: Work on the English language first! Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s very important. Design can be visualized and speak for itself, but as a basic skill you need to communicate well. Also stand for yourself and position as a designer, just like the Dutch do. Minsun: Many people coming from Asian countries are afraid of failure. My advice is that you can learn a lot from failure and there is nothing wrong with that. What does a designer learn while working in the Netherlands that you cannot learn anywhere else? Chester: I think the approach to design is particular in the Netherlands and in general people here are very passionate in terms of seeking new innovations. Design is a deep subject and here you can find a lot of writings on the subject. Minsun: [laughs] How to make a simple lunch! It saves you a lot of time as a designer to have a

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TRAVEL At INSIDE the basis of every design lies in observing, researching and analysing a situation. The best attitude for doing that is to travel to places and thus experience â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;a tremendous sense of liberation and, at the same time, to be very aware of all the dangers and limitations that surround youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;(quote Lebbeus Woods in an interview with Jan Jongert). At INSIDE we aim to foster this state of mind through experiencing the real world in the TRAVEL program. On this page an impression is given about the sites we visited during the past year, among others: Ruhr area, the Baltics, Venice and Maastricht.

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Hans Venhuizen is head of INSIDE, he curates the SKILLS programme and is the tutor of the TRAVEL programme. Venhuizen studied Architectural Design and Monumental Art at the School of the Arts Arnhem. In his work Venhuizen deals with the culture of spatial planning. Venhuizen advances a broad understanding of culture that encompasses cultural history, heritage, architecture and art, as well as the culture of the current residents of a region and the idiosyncrasy of a place. In his search for a more specific identity for the built environment, Venhuizen links the worlds of culture and space to each other in different ways. In this, his focus is always on the culture of spatial planning itself, and the game is his most important instrument. Venhuizen developed various spatial planning games, including the ‘Parquettry Landscape game’ and the debating game ‘The Making Of’. In the publication ‘Game Urbanism’, 2010, Venhuizen introduces his approach as a manual for cultural spatial planning.

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LOTTE VAN DEN BERG COORDINATOR INSIDE

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ERIK JUTTEN PRACTICE TUTOR Next to the theoretical development of the students and the design ‘on paper’ it is the ambition of INSIDE to stimulate the student-designers as ‘entrepreneurs’. That is also the reason why INSIDE has chosen the motto ‘design for the real world’. Students are asked to do research in the ‘real world’ and to do several tests on a 1 to 1 scale. Every semester INSIDE wants to do a public presentation of the projects in ‘a real world’-context and on a one to one scale. To realise this, Erik Jutten works from the start until the end of the semester to develop the projects. Erik Jutten graduated in 2004 from the Fine Art department of the Royal Academy in The Hague. In his graduation project Erik Jutten devoted himself to connecting students & developing their projects. A role he has since continued as initiator of and partner in diverse public space projects. As a serious ‘hands-on, let’s do it’ person, Erik sometimes feels a bit awkward besides OMA and MVRDV people, but hey, someone’s got to do the dirty work. Besides working at INSIDE Erik is heavily involved in City in the Making, an acivist organisation working at reclaiming empty buildings for living-working and commoning. www.stadindemaak.nl

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Lotte van den Berg studied Media & Culture in Amsterdam and graduated with a Master in Film Documentary in 2011. After graduating she worked as a producer and volunteer coördinator at Cinekid, a Media festival for children. After that she started working at Sports & Culture TU Delft as a Programme assistent for the Culture courses and projects. In February 2016 she started working at INSIDE. In addition to her task as Coördinator, Lotte works with the students on the visibility and PR of INSIDE.

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Netherlands and Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain and graduated with a Master in Architecture in 2005.

ASER GIMÉNEZ-ORTEGA TUTOR STUDIO LET’S DECIDE BY MVRDV Aser Giménez-Ortega is a Spanish architect and project leader at MVRDV since 2007. Born in Murcia in 1979, he studied at TU Eindhoven, the

Before joining MVRDV, he worked as an architect and urban designer in Spain, Brazil and the Netherlands. At MVRDV, Aser has been involved in the conceptualizing and execution of projects of various scales, including urban designs such as Montecorvo Eco-City in Logroño (Spain), a future vision for Oslo (Norway), building projects including the Headquarters of Norwegian bank DNB in Oslo (Norway), development strategies such as the conversion of New Holland Island in Saint Petersburg (Russia), transformation projects as Roskilde Festival High school (Denmark) as

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well as research projects such as the Vertical Village, in collaboration with The Why Factory. He has lectured and conducted student workshops in different cities and universities such as The Hague, Oslo, Istanbul, Amsterdam and Plovdiv. Since 2012 he has been leading several of MVRDV projects in Asia such as Hongqiao Central Business District in Shanghai, a complex development of more than 105,000m2 of offices and commercial program, as well as the conversion of a former industrial district into an Art and Design Hub in Chongqing, and two office towers in the new Western waterfront development in Shanghai.

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TUTORS 20 16 -20 17

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MARK VELDMAN TUTOR STUDIO MUSEUMHOTEL ESCHERBREUER BY OMA

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Theatre as Architecture Architecture as Theatre During their successful cooperation for KHOR I (a DIYtheatre installation for the Worldexpo Floriade 2012) Dutch theatre maker Gert-Jan Stam and Belgian architect Breg Horemans discovered how their respective disciplines could challenge and enrich each other. They founded TAAT, a collective operating on the cutting edge of theater, architecture, visual art and design. Taking the complex relationship between theater and architecture as a starting point TAAT focusses on developing ‘architectural dramaturgy’: architectural settings that allow for a theatrical interaction.

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GERT-JAN STAM & BREG HOREMANS TAAT

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Benjamin studied Architecture in Berlin (TU and HDK) and Copenhagen (Royal Academy). He was politically active in the Cold War-peace movement in the 80´s, Housingrights-, Squatter-, Anti Gulf War and Anti Olympia in Berlin movements in the 90´s. He Founded the ‘Institute for applied building arts’ and the „Testfield for Ephemeral constructions“ in Berlin in 1999. He works since 1999 as a free performing Architect with raumlaborberlin. Benjamin was professor at the Academie for Art, Architecture and Design in Prague 2010/11 and Professor for transdisciplinary Design at the Folkwang Universität der Künste in Essen 2014/15. Currently he is teaching at the University Witten/ Herdecke. He is lecturing on performative Architecture, urban Pratice and trans episthemic Design around the world. Benjamin Foerster-Baldenius received the Max Taut award of the UdK Berlin 1999 and the Erich Schelling award for innovative Architecture 2005.

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BENJAMIN FÖRSTER-BALDENIUS STUDIO FORT NOORDDIJK BY RAUMLABORBERLIN

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Fokke Moerel holds a Masters in Architecture from the Academy of Architecture, Rotterdam. Since January this year Fokke became Partner at MVRDV, and has been working in the studio for over 15 years. Founded in 1993 by Winy Maas, Jacob van Rijs and Nathalie de Vries in Rotterdam, the international practice of MVRDV realizes exemplary, outspoken projects all over the world. Fokke Moerel’s experience includes working on notable projects such as the competition-winning Public Art Depot MBVB in Rotterdam, Cultural Cluster in Zaandam, RockMagneten in Roskilde, Denmark and the Book Mountain, Spijkenisse Public Library in the Netherlands. She lectures internationally in Europe, America and Asia, and has taught at Silpakorn University in Bangkok, as well as at Harvard Graduate School of Design, Cambridge, MA, with MVRDV Director Nathalie de Vries.

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S T U D I O MICK VAN GEMERT TUT OR STUDIO LET’S DECIDE BY MV RDV

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Mark Veldman has been working for OMA Rotterdam since 2005. As a project architect Mark has been in charge of a variety of both master planning, architectural and research projects. His portfolio includes the mixed-use projects Coolsingel and Stadskantoor in Rotterdam, the master plans Oude Dokken in Gent and Binckhorst in The Hague and master planning proposals for the Floriade 2022 and Zeekracht, a sustainable approach for wind farming in the North Sea. Currently Mark is working on the proposal for the International Convention Centre in Brussels, part of the NEO Master plan at the Heysel Plateau. Before joining OMA Mark worked for the architectural practice of Riken Yamamoto in Yokohama and was enrolled as a research fellow at the lab of Yoshiharu Tsukamoto (atelier Bow-Wow) at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Mark Veldman completed his Masters in Architecture cum laude at Technical University Delft in 2001.


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The Dutch design collaborative Studio Makkink & Bey is led by architect Rianne Makkink (b. 1964) and designer Jurgen Bey (b. 1965). Supported by a various design team, they have been operating their design practice since 2002. The studio’s various projects include interior design, product design, public space projects, architecture, exhibition & shop-window design, research projects and applied arts. Their products, furniture, interiors and public spaces are often produced in collaboration with companies such as Prooff, Droog Design, and Moooi and other professionals from their local and international network. Based in Rotterdam, their work has appeared in several museums and is part of their collection, amongst others the Centre Pompidou in Paris, Fnac, the V&A in London, the Central Museum in Utrecht,in the USA

and in Asia. Clients include commercial & private clients like Spring Studio’s Londen and New York, Industries like Vitra and Hermes, governmental & cultural institutions, fashion designers like Jean Paul Gaultier, gallery’s like Pierre Berge in Brussels etc. The designs of Studio Makkink & Bey have been awarded with several prizes and their vision is adopted by colleagues, both within the Netherlands and abroad, through education, many lectures and exhibitions. Rianne Makkink & Jurgen Bey are known as critical designers, driven to understand the world and to question it in a unique manner. To this end, their design team analyses content in search of the relation between objects and their users through composing narratives to find connections. The Studio is extremely interested in the future of the new working landscape, they introduced a new on line magazine; Proofflabmagazine, that aims to define the future working culture. Jurgen Bey is currently director of the Sandberg Institute, the Master of art and design of the Rietveld Arts Academy in Amsterdam.

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JURGEN BEY, CHESTER CHUANG AND MICHOU NANON-DE BRUIJN STUDIO MAKKINK & BEY

LOUISE SCHOUWENBERG THEORY + WRITING Louise Schouwenberg studied Psychology at the Radboud University Nijmegen, Sculpture at the Gerrit Rietveld Academy in Amsterdam, and Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam. After establishing her career as a visual artist, from 2000 onwards her primary focus has been on art and design theory. She regularly writes for (inter)national art and design magazines and has contributed to a range of books, including ‘Robert Zandvliet - I owe you the truth in painting’ (2012), and ‘Hella Jongerius - Misfit’ (2011). Since 2010 she leads the master department Contextual Design at Design Academy Eindhoven. Since 2012 she is one of the tutors of the Interior Architecture masters at KABK (INSIDE).

ANNE HOOGEWONING THEORY + WRITING Anne Hoogewoning studied Architecture History at the University of Amsterdam and Cultural Heritage at the Reinwardt Academy. After her studies she worked at the Collections and Exhibition Department of the Netherlands Architecture Institute (now The New Institute) and as a staff officer of Europan Nederland. During these years she was co-editor and co-author of 5 editions of the ‘Yearbook Architecture in the Netherlands’ (2000-2005). Anne worked as a design and architecture coordinater at two cultural public foundations. Since 2013 Anne has been active as an independent researcher, writer, tutor, advisor and fundraiser within the field of design and architecture among others together with Bonnie Dumanaw under the name ABCultural Producers. Additionally she is a committee member for visual arts, design and architecture at the Council of Culture, member of the Board of the Van Doesburghuis Foundation (Paris) and of the Board of ArchiNed.

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LIZANNE DIRKX FLOWS SUPERUSE STUDIOS Lizanne Dirkx joined Superuse Studios in January 2013. Lizanne was educated at the University of Brighton after her Bachelor’s in Product Design at the Design Academy in Eindhoven. Lizanne works as a Designer, Researcher and Workshop Facilitator. She is specialized in sustainability, social design, materials& crafts and the circular economy.

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Gerjan Streng studied Architecture and Urban Cultures at Eindhoven University of Technology. Before co-founding The Cloud Collective, he has worked as an architect in New York, Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Within The Cloud Collective, he focuses on spatial research and strategic urban planning projects, driven by a desire to understand the urban rationale while admiring its elusive complexity. Knowledge of the city, a combination of available open data and soft information with novel analytic techniques result in design intelligence and hands-on advice for numerous actors in the urban constellation.His work includes experiments with collective creation of space such as the installation The City and the Country, but also strategies for developing thePolaroid Performance Factory in Enschede and the Piushaven district in Tilburg. Recently, he contributed to the Value Lab– a team of experts advising the Central Government Real Estate Agency (RVB), several ministeries and the city of The Hague – on strategies to improve the social and financial returns of selling and reallocating (public) property.

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T U T O R * P R E S E N T A T I O N * S K I L L S

Dr. Leeke Reinders is a cultural anthropologist and works at the Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of Delft University of Technology and the KU Leuven in Brussels. He explores creative links between ethnographic fieldwork and the design field of (interior) architecture, urban design and urbanism. His main interests are in the anthropology of urban space, the meanings and practices of home, narrative mapping and the relations between architecture/ planning and the everyday. He teaches at the Inside department of KABK, the Design Academy in Eindhoven and the Academy of Architecture in Rotterdam. He has written several books and articles, most recent are Het gemankeerde (t)huis: een visuele antropologie over de woonpraktijken van ouderen in Brussel (Garant 2016, together with Isabelle Makay), Hard city, soft city (Delft University Press, 2016) and De alledaagse en de geplande stad (SUN Trancity 2010, with Arnold Reijndorp).

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LEEKE REINDERS

LUCAS VERWEIJ DESIGNER, WRITER, TEACHER Lucas Verweij is a versatile man who moves across design in all its facets with natural ease. Whether it be as an architect, moderator, teacher, writer or educator, Verweij engages in activities that breathe curiosity and innovation.During the nineties Verweij co-founded studio Schie 2.0, an interdisciplinary architecture practice investigating new approaches for the public realm. Between 2001 and 2005 he worked for Premsela, the Netherlands Institute for Design and Fashion, as project leader in the field of social development. He subsequently served as dean of the Academy for Architecture and Urban Design in Rotterdam.Since 2008 Verweij has lived in Berlin, where he was a teacher at Berlin’s two design school. He now teaches in Poznan’s ‘School of Form’. He writes columns for the English designblog ‘Dezeen’ and publishes a book about design with Haystack publishers. He keeps us regularly updated on his observations on design through his blog, and he’s active on Twitter. He acts as initiator and curator of public events in the fields of architecture, design and innovation both in Rotterdam and Berlin.

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GERJAN STRENG


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MAURICIO FREYRE

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Vincent de Rijk (Gouda, 1962) has been working as an industrial designer, furniture maker and model builder for more than 20 years. He is trained at the Academy for Industrial Design in Eindhoven where he graduated in 1986 and starts his Werkplaats Vincent de Rijk in 1987. He became famous with a series of bowls in ceramic with polyester resin and realized many architectural models, primarily for OMA. In recent years he has also emerged as a leading specialist in the field of new materials like his transparent resins, with which he has produced many pieces of furniture. His workshop is situated in the Port of Rotterdam, in a building he converted together with the other users.

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REFUNC is an architecture laboratory and an experimental method that deals with the function, perception and meaning of (unused) components, material and resources.

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Refunc plays with problems, connects people, invents functions, creates spaces, optimises environments,transforms garbage, opens options, inspires components, helps knowledge, exchanges experiences, operates instantly, questions standards, finds solutions.

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REFUNC DENIS OUDENDIJK & JAN KÖRBES

From linear over circular to helical function concepts. Refunc provides a better life for discarded materials, components, objects or spaces. Refunc connects local material and knowledge flows towards a better world. Operating on the boundaries of architecture, art and design we reshape old materials to new products. Design origins are found in the object itself, listening to its own composition, history or local and social context. We can start from a design, but prefer problems to play with, like extreme deadlines and non-existing budgets…3D troubleshooting and creative improvisation with locally available waste materials lead the way to our often unpredictable results. We can not oversee all potential of the material, although we are getting quite experienced by now… Wherever you can find garbage, we do research and workshops on creative re-use, as recycling is not the answer to the questions of life, the universe and everything. We are Refunc

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Is an audio visual artist and filmmaker, graduated from Architecture and Fine Arts, based in Madrid. He uses the film medium to explore structures and systems of thought behind the constructed and projected, reflecting on the mechanisms of cinema within the process of creation and representation. His projects and films have been exhibited at Rencontres Internationales Paris/Berlin, Haus der Kulturen der Welt (Berlin), Fundación Telefonica (Lima), TENT Museum (Rotterdam), W139 (Amsterdam), Nederlands Film Festival (Utrecht), FIC (Valdivia), Sunset Cinema (Luxemburg), Filmmuseum (Amsterdam), etc. He is currently a visiting teacher at The Berlage (Delft), KABK Royal Academie of Art (The Hague) and ETSAM Universidad Politécnica (Madrid).

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GOIN G PL ACES

EDUCATION ON LOCATION

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INSID E 20 16 / 20 17

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COLOPH ON

INSIDE Magazine #8 Is the eighth publication by INSIDE Master Interior Architecture 2016/2017 INSIDE Master Interior Architecture Royal Academy of Ar t Prinsessegracht 4 2514 AN The Hague w w w.kabk.nl w w w.enterinside.nl h.venhuizen@kabk.nl l.vandenberg@kabk.nl Editors/Contributors: Hans Venhuizen (Head INSIDE) Anne Hoogewoning ( Tutor THEORY programme) Lotte van den Berg (Coordinator INSIDE) Student Editorial team: Jo Basset Shinyoung Kang Yu- Chin Ku Pichaya Puapoomcharoen Graphic Design: Dana Doorenbos (Design office, Graphic Design Depar tment, K ABK ) Nina van Tuikwerd (Design office, Graphic Design Depar tment, K ABK ) Graduating students 2016/2017: Isadora Davide Minjung Kang Klodiana Millona Makiko Morinaga Ar vand Pourabbasi Mila Tesic First year students: Jo Basset, Zara Bennett,Yu- Chin Ku, Goda Verikaite, Farah Zamri, Jinaa Baek, Vittoria Colangelo, Janneke Derksen, Eva Gonzalez, Shinyoung Kang, Dylana Kim, Pichaya Puapoomcharoen, I- Chieh Liu, Yuan- Chun Liu Printing: Oranje van Loon, The Hague INSIDE would like to thank: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag, Lloyd Hotel Amsterdam, Escher in het Paleis, Er fgoedhuis en Landschap Zuid-Holland, Goethe Institut Rotterdam, Vilnius Academy of Ar ts – interior design, Interior Design, Jero Papier warenfabriek, Begraafplaats St. Petrus Banden, Geelkerken Linskens Advocaten, Care Autoschade Studio Duel, Tiddo de Ruiter, Lunchbox, Repro – van de Kamp Leger des Heils, Par tou Kinderopvang, Chantal Hendriksen Copyright INSIDE, K ABK The Hague/ The Netherlands, June 2017 Most photos were made by students and staff of INSIDE. Exceptions are: Profile picture Fokke Moerel: © Allard van der Hoek Cover/Museumnight: Sander van Wettum REFUNC images – Ishka Michocka Arena images – Ishka Michocka Photos of presentation Ar vand in Berlin – Ishka Michocka Studio TA AT images – Jim Stephenson Images Studio The New Workspace – Katarína Gališinová Image American embassy – R. Joosten Image The Baltic Way on the back – Virgilijus Usinavicius As it was not possible to find all the copyright holders of the photos in this publication, INSIDE invites interested par ties to contact INSIDE.


www.enterinside.nl

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This photo by the Lithuanian photographer Virgilijus Usinavicius is titled ‘The Baltic Way’ about a peaceful political demonstration that occurred on 23 August 1989. On this day two million people joined their hands to form​a human chain spanning 675.5 kilometres across the three Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, considered at the time to be constituent republics of the Soviet Union. (Wikipedia)

INSIDE Magazine 1617 #8  

A compilation of our INSIDE 1617 programme and student work of our first year students: Joe Basset, Zara Bennett, Yu-Chin Ku, Goda Verikait...

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