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Eric Norton

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CONTENTS.

Chapter 01 ­­— Rules Chapter 02 — X-height Chapter 03 — Hyphenation Chapter 04 — Alignment Chapter 05 — Justification Chapter 06 — Combining Typefaces Chapter 07 — Quotes, Apostrophes, Dashes Chapter 08 — Special Characters Chapter 09 — Bullets Chapter 10 — Numerals/Figures Chapter 11 — Small Caps Chapter 12 — Paragraph Breaks Chapter 13 — Headers, Subheads, Crossheads Chapter 14 — Captions and Notes Chapter 15 — Font Specs Chapter 16 — Credits


X


01 Rules.

01 02 03

01 Use only one space between sentences. 02 Use real quotation marks. 03 Use real apostrophes. 04 Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong. 05 Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge. 06 Use en or em dashes, use consistently. 07 Kern all headlines where necessary. 08 Never use the spacebar to align text, always set tabs and use the tab key. 09 Leave no widows or orphans. 10 Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row. 11 Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph. 12 Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. 13 Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. 14 Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. 15 Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. 16 Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. 17 Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout. 18 Never justify the text on a short line. 19 Keep the word spacing consistent. 20 Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps or with few ascenders and descenders. 21 Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs. 22 Adjust the spacing between paragraphs. 23 Either indent the first line of paragraphs or add extra space between them – not both. 24 Use a decimal or right-aligned tab for the numbers in numbered paragraphs. 25 Never have one line in a paragraph in the column or following. 26 Never combine two serif fonts on one page. 27 Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page. 28 Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page. 29 Use the special characters whenever necessary, including super- and subscript. 30 Spend the time to create nice fraction or chose a font that has fractions. 31 If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it. 4


28 29 30 31


02 X-height.

Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability: an extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility: whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles. As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be asked...

Who is to read it?

Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it?

How will it be read?

Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

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X-height Baseline

7


Xx h g

Xxhg

AKZIDENZ GROTESQUE

BAUER BODONI

9/11

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Xxhg

Xxh g

ADOBE CASLON

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

CLICKER

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and move-

8


X x h g Xxh g BELIZO

ITC NEW BASKERVILLE

9/11

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

X xhg

X xhg

DIN

FILOSOFIA

9/11

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values

9


Xxhg

ADOBE GARAMOND

9/11

Xxhg HELVETICA NEUE 55

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural,

Xxhg

X xhg

MEMPHIS

MRS. EAVES

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

10


Xxh g

X xhg

INTERSTATE

MELIOR

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation

X x hg Xxhg GOTHAM

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted

72 POINT

ROTIS SANS SERIF 55

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

11


Xxhg

X xh g

ROTIS SERIF 55

SCALA SANS

9/11

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions

X x hg

X xhg

TRADE GOTHIC

UNIVERS

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and

72 POINT

9/11

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping

12


03 Hyphenation.

In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture – no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.

Hyphenation rules:

— how the text is read avoid widows. — avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names. — avoid hypjenating or line brakes of proper nouns. — leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. — avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. — avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. — avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. — never hyphenate words in a headline — avoid hyphenation in a callout.

14


Headlines: Don’t hyphenate headlines.

Don’t laugh — I have actually seen

Don Quixote de la Mancha

this as a printed headline. Someone did it...

Watch where the first line of two-line headline ends. does it create a silly or misleading phrase? If it does, fix it.

Professor and Therapist to Lecture

Don’t lose your self respect.

Don’t leave widows in headlines.

Man Walks Barefoot Across Bay Bridge Fix either way:

Man Walks Barefoot Across Bay Bridge OR

Man Walks Barefoot Across Bay Bridge

Line Breaks:

Look for bad line breaks throughout every line of body copy. Do this only on a final copy after all editing has been done. Examples of what to look for: Make sure headline text is justified appropriately – Use line breaks (shift return) to bump text to next line when needed – Use kerning to bring a hyphenated word together if necessary – Never hyphenate people’s names – Try substituting a short or a long word to make text fit.

Widows and Orphans

Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program you’re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong and must be fixed.

Widow When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

Orphan When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, won’t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. ALWAYS correct this.

Rivers In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.

15


1 2 3 4 5 6

7 8

9 16


1. Justify the headline so it stays on one line.

2. Use a line break (Shift Return) to bump “a” down to the next line, where it fits very nicely.

3. Kern the line a tiny bit to bring the rest of the word “inner” up.

4. Type a dischy in front of the word “often” to bump it down.

5. Never hyphenate a person’s name.

6. If you indent all your other paragraphs you must keep this consitent by indenting all of them. 7. There is plenty of room to squeeze “bought” on the line above, try kerning the line a tiny bit. 8. “Horsebarn” is a good long word that could be hyphenated; type a dischy.

9. In order to get rid of that terrible widow, exghange a short word for a long word.

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Right and wrong don’t exist in the world of graphic design. There is only effective & noneffective communication. — Peter Bilak, Illegibility


04 Alignment.

If someone insists that fully justified text is better than left-aligned text, tell them they are wrong. If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is better than justified text, tell them they are wrong. If they are both wrong, then what’s right? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.

Justified Text

Traditionally many books, newsletters, and newspapers use full-justification as a means of packing as much information onto the page as possible to cut down on the number of pages needed. While the alignment was chosen out of necessity, it has become so familiar to us that those same types of publications set in left-aligned text would look odd, even unpleasant. You may find that fully-justified text is a necessity either due to space constraints or expectations of the audience. If possible though, try to break up dense blocks of texts with ample subheadings, margins, or graphics. — Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text. — Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned). — May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text. — May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers. — Some people are naturally drawn to the “neatness” of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

Left-Aligned, Ragged Right — Often considered more informal, friendlier than justified text. — The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. — May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. — Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good).

Centered

There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don’t center it.

What to Remember...

As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different.

19


05 Justification.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page. Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.

21


desired minimum maximum


1

minnimum

Melior 8/12

80

This is the standard justification setting that Indesign applies. Most of it looks clean. Word spacing may be a little narrow.

maximum

133 desired

100

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

23

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


2

minnimum

Melior 8/12

30

maximum

103 desired

70

Word spacing has become even more narrow which leaves no room for them to breathe or relax.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

24

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


3

minnimum

Melior 8/12

60

maximum

83

desired

70

Word spacing still a little to tight, but a little better than before. Some lines still get pretty crowded.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

25

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


4

minnimum

Melior 8/12

85

maximum

120 desired

90

This looks pretty good. The word spacing is almost perfect, but there seems to be alot more hyphenation.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

26

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


5

minnimum

Melior 8/12

85

Here is a proper example of a good justification setting.

maximum

250 desired

110 The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

27

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many years-we grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


6

minnimum

Helvetica Neue 55 8/12

55

maximum

140 desired

120

Moving on to a Sans Serif font, the spacings have changed. This one seems just a little bit narrow, but not bad.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

28

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


7

minnimum

Helvetica Neue 55 8/12

120

The word spacing has become to wide and it brings the composition down a lot.

maximum

180 desired

150

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

29

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


8

minnimum

Helvetica Neue 55 8/12

90

maximum

150 desired

140

Word spacing has gotten even wider here. All the gaps are very evident in paragraphs 2 and 3.

The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

30

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


9

minnimum

Helvetica Neue 55 8/12

200

maximum

Okay... this is just crazy!

260 desired

230 The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

31

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


10

minnimum

Helvetica Neue 55 8/12

55

maximum

130

Much better! Now this is a proper justification setting.

desired

110 The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

32

Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like. Justified text was the style for many yearswe grew up on it. But there has been a great deal of research done on readability (how easy something is to read) and it shoes that those disruptive, inconsistent gaps between the words inhibit the flow of reading. Besides, they look dumb. Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you’ll find there’s a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.


06 Combining Typefaces.

When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of form and type color which include: proportion and x-heights. “There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies.� Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. (Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea)

S

serif

Mrs. Eaves

Akzidens Grotesque

sans serif

35


FRUTIGER humanist 24/12 point

ADOBE GARAMOND old style 9 point

These two fonts work nicely together because of the different stroke widths they each posess. Frutiger’s is a little more chunky than Garamond which emphasizes that contrast, but both fonts still feel light and easy to read.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg

AKZIDENZ GROTESQUE grotesque 24/12 point

BEMBO old style 9 point

These fonts also offer and very nice contrast but in a different fashion. Bembo has a slightly larger x-height than Akzidens, which offsets the flow of the type and makes for a faint sense of asymetry.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg

36


WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

NEW BASKERVILLE transitional 24/12 point

FUTURA geometric 9 point

Futura is a very beautiful sans-serif font, and it is nicely complemented by the thick and promonent serifing that ITC New Baskerville displays.

aa BB ee GG gg

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg 37

ROTIS SANS transitional 24/12 point

MRS. EAVES grotesque 9 point

Different letter forms play a big role in making this combination work. Mrs. Eaves had very short and wide letter formations where as Rotis Sans has very tall narrow letter forms. This difference is easily noticed and makes for perfect contrast.


INTERSTATE geometric 24/12 point

DIDOT modern 9 point

Here the contrast is mainly displayed with the stroke width of the two fonts. Didot has a very thin and it directly mirrors the size of Interstate’s stroking which, by nature, is much more thick.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg FILOSOFIA modern 24/12 point

GOTHAM grotesque 8 point

Both these fonts have very similar stroke widths but the serifs make all the difference. Filosofia has very noticable block serifs that really show up against the lack of serifs that Gotham (light) provides.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg

38


WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

UNIVERS grotesque 24/12 point

SWIFT transitional 9 point

Both these fonts have a rather heavy stroke width, which makes them blend with a nice uniformity. Swift is a little bit lighter still,and is a serif font which gives it just enough of a difference to be noticeable.

aa BB ee GG gg

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg 39

TRADE GOTHIC grotesque 24/12 point

ADOBE CASLON new transitional 9 point

Trade Gothic’s bold, condensed nature contrast Caslon’s transitional bracketed serifs and curved strokes. Caslon has a wide stroke at times and the darkness expressed there goes well with Trade Gothic’s black letterforms.


BELIZIO slab serif 18/12 point

HELVETICA NEUE grotesque 9 point

Both type faces had a wide character width but the differences in stroke width and serifing are extremely different. It’s easy to see how nice of a contrast this turned out to be.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism:

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg VOLTA slab serif 16/10 point

GILL SANS humanist 9 point

The humanist qualities of Gill Sans work with Volta’s thick color to create a well-balanced composition. Volta’s wide character width dramatcally differs from that of Gill Sans too, making for a nice look.

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion.The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automo- bile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

aa BB ee GG gg

40


a


07 Quotes, Apostrophes, Dashes.

Quotation Marks:

Use real quotation marks – never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use “and” – not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application – you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you. It is necessary to know how to set them yourself because sometimes the software doesn’t do it or does it wrong:

“ ” ‘ ’

Opening double quote: Option + [ Closing double quote: Option + Shift + [ Opening single quote: Option + ] Closing single quote: Option + Shift + ]

Usage Examples:

Bridge Clearance: 16' 7" The young man stood 6' 2" The length of the wall is 153' 9"

Apostrophe:

As as aside, people often are confused about where the apostrophe belongs. There are a couple of rules that work very well. For possessives: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.” “The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always.It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes — and neither should its.

42


For contractions: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out. For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around — just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’). In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed — the g is missing. In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction — it is simply plural.

Dashes:

Never use two hyphens instead of a dash. Instead, use hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes appropriately. Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use a double hyphen to indicate a dash, like so : -- . This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.

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Hyphen: A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

En dash: – Typing an en dash:

Option + hyphen( - )

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might use the word “to.” In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

Usage Examples:

October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age

Em dash: — Typing an em dash:

Option +Shaft + hyphen( - )

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens(or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using an—no space is used on either side.

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en em


08 Special Characters.

The following is a list of the most often-used special characters and accent marks. On the following pages are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need.

“ ” ‘ ’ – — … • fi fl © ™ ® ° ¢ € ⁄ ¡ ¿ ‹ ç Ç

Option + [ Option + Shift + [ Option + ] Option + Shift + ] Option + Hyphen ( - ) Option + Shift + Hyphen ( - ) Option + ; Option + 8 Option + Shift + 5 Option + Shift + 6 Option + g Option + 2 Option + r Option + Shift + 8 Option + $ Option + Shift + 2 Option + Shift + 1 Option + 1 Option + Shift + ? Option + 3 Option + c Option + Shift + c

Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the other key, then press the actual letter you want under it.

´ ` ¨ ˜ ˆ

Option + e Option + ~ Option + u Option + n Option + i

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09 Bullets.

Simply put, a bullet is a large dot used to draw attention to each item in a list or series. The items can be single words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs. Even if you use the bullet that is part of your font, don’t automatically assume it’s the right size: it might need to be altered in scale or position to make it look balanced next to the text. Bullets should be centered on either the cap height or x-height, depending on the nature of your copy. If all of your items begin with a cap, center the bullet on the cap, or a bit lower so it balances with the negative spaces created by the lowercase. If your items all begin with lowercase characters, center the bullets on the x-height. Insert some space after the bullet to avoid crowding. The preferred way to align bullets is with the left margin. You can also have the bullets overhang the margin, and keep all your text aligned with the left margin. Whichever style you choose, your listing will look best if items that run more than one line are indented so that the copy aligns with itself, and not with the bullet on the first line. To be more creative, substitute symbols or dingbats for the actual bullets. Try squares, triangles or check marks (just not all at once, as shown in the illustration!). Keep these simple and in proportion with the rest of your text.

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Pick any three adjectives that describe yourself:

Pick any three adjectives that describe yourself:

• lovely • surly • ghastly • womanly • saintly • ungodly • stately • sprightly

q lovely e surly t ghastly u womanly i saintly l ungodly ; stately v sprightly

There are lots to choose from, but they are usually too big. Now choose a Dingbat instead of a bullet…

(Choose ONE Dingbat)

Pick any three adjectives that describe yourself:

Pick any three adjectives that describe yourself:

lovely surly v ghastly v womanly v saintly v ungodly v stately v sprightly

lovely surly v ghastly v womanly v saintly v ungodly v stately v sprightly

v

v

v

v

You can decrease the size of the bullet, but then it sits too low.

Raise the Dingbat higher off of the baseline.

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v


10 Numerals/Figures.

Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one. Oldstyle figures are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. Unlike lining figures, they blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle numerals; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

Notice how large and chunky these numbers appear…

Notice how beautifully these numbers blend into the text…

Dear John, please call me at 438-

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762

9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage.

at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write to

Or write to me at Route 916, zip

me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

code 87505.

Mrs. Eaves

Memphis

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123 3


11 Small Caps.

Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which me and that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong.

Small Caps rules: — Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines. — Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they don’t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) — Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.

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Where to use small caps:

If you set acronyms in regular all caps, their visual presence is unnecessarily overwhelming. One standard and practical place to use caps is in acronyms such as fbi, nrc, cbs, or simm. Traditionally, “a.m.”and “p.m.” are set with small caps. If you were taught to type on a typewriter (or if you were taught on a keyboard by someone who was taught on a typewriter), you probably learned to set these abbreviations in all caps because there were no small caps on typewriters. But now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.

These large capital letters call way too much attention…

Making them small caps lets them blend in with the text much easier…

Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M.

Harriet, an fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 p.m.

Mrs. Eaves

Mrs. Eaves

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True-drawn small caps:

There are quite a few font families that include “true-drawn” small caps—letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thickness of the uppercase. These families are often called “expert” sets or perhaps “small cap” sets. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturb- ing tone throughout the text. True-drawn small caps are specially drawn to match the weight of the capital letters in the same face.

There Is No Rest For The Wicked.

The Wicked Are Very Weary.

Meta

Meta

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iI


12 Paragraph Breaks.

Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.

Paragraph Break rules: In typography there are 4 rules regarding paragraph breaks:

1. first line at the beginning of an article should be flush left. (do not indent first paragraph) 2. block paragraphs are flush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return. 3. the amount indent is = to the leading. (sometimes needs a bit more) 4. never hit two returns between paragraphs.

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1

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. p But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. p While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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2

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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3

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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4

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-theworld, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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5

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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10

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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13 Headers, Subheads, Crossheads.

The main header or “headline” is essential to be bold and leap out as the main title of the page or chapter start. If it does not, the reader may be confused as to where the document actually starts. So I always think its a good rule to ensure the reader knows where a section starts and make it quite plain. The main header should also look like it belongs to the first sentence. This can be achieved by ensuring that its paragraph spacing (the space after a hard return) is smaller than the paragraph spacing of the first sentence. Paragraph spacing is not commonly used - even amongst designers, but it is an extremely useful tool. Many people add spacing by hitting return but this does not give much control and cannot be styled from style sheets. Introduction paragraphs are a useful way to entice the reader to continue on reading. They also help not to waste a readers time if they are not interested in reading further. Typographically speaking these into paragraphs need to be easy to read but moredistant than the body text below. They are not the main article and need to be distinguished from it. The purpose of a subheader is to split up body text so that a reader can find their way around the document with ease. it also makes the document more readable because the viewer is not faced with a page of block text. Each subheader needs to be linked with the corresponding body text underneath it. This should be achieved by using correct spacing after and before the subheader (You find these settings in most “Paragraph” tool pallets and the example below demonstrates how it looks when executed.)

Header:

Material which is separated from the main body of text and appears at the top of a printed page.

Subheader:

A phrase, sentence, or several sentences near the title of the article or story.

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1

Adobe Garamond

Trade Gothic

8.5/12

24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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2

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Walbaum 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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3

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Univers 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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4

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Clarendon 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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5

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Interstate 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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6

Adobe Garamond

Mrs. Eaves

8.5/12

24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Hh


14 Captions and Notes.

Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. They’re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page. These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)

Numbers or Symbols:

Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

Size:

Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though they’re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.

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1

Adobe Garamond

Trade Gothic

8.5/12

24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first 2. parole in liberta = radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of words set free (liberty) an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the 3. selbst = himself first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.” 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van

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2

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Walbaum 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement (Philip

Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988). He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta (parole in liberta = words set free [liberty]) , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... a strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst (selbst = himself) (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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3

Adobe Garamond

Univers

8.5/12

24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3. selbst = himself

But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

81


4

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Clarendon 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

82


5

Adobe Garamond 8.5/12

Interstate 24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today— was parole in liberta 2 , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

83


6

Adobe Garamond

Mrs. Eaves

8.5/12

24 & 12

Words in Liberty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. [1] Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radicial Mix of Art and Life But the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestoes of Futurist poets & artists offered formal “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in liberta [2] , by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images... (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarme. But the verbal liberation didn’t end with the page; it moved, rather, toward a new performance art and a poetry that “scurried off the page in all directions at once,” as Emmett Williams phrased it for the “language happenings” of a later decade. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst [3] (circa 1915): “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

[1] Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

[2] parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) [3] selbst = himself

84


15 Font Specs.

Classification of Type

Garamond did not think of himself as an Old Style designer any more than John Baskerville could realize that some day he would be considered a Transitional designer. What happened is this. Over the centuries type became more and more refined; that is, the contrast between thick and thin strokes became greater and the serifs became finer. This refinement was pos- sible because of the development of smoother papers, better inks, and more advanced printing methods. The ultimate refinement was attained in the late 1700’s when Bodoni reduced the thin strokes and serifs to fine hairline strokes.After Bodoni, type design became eclectic. In search of new forms of typographic expression, designers began to borrow features from one period and add them to another. We see a lot of this today. Many of the fonts designed in the 20th Century are difficult to classify.

Variations in Stress: As early typefaces were based on the written letterforms the scribes, it was important that the type designer tries to capture as much as the written form as possible. The letter O is a good example to study the distribution of weight which creates a vertical stress through the thinnest part of the letterform. It was this characteristic that the early typefaces tried to imitate. This is quite clear in Garamond. As type evolved and the designer was no longer influenced by hand- writing, the stress became more vertical as in Baskerville and later totally vertical with Bodoni. In Univers you will find no noticeable stress.

Variations in Thicks and Thins: Faces also vary in degree of contrast between thick and thin strokes of the letters. In Garamond you can see a prominent characteristic of little contrast between thick and thin strokes of a let- ter. In Transitional faces there is a tendency toward refinement and greater contrast between thick and thins. Bodoni has maximum contrast in these strokes (extreme contrast of thick and thins, hairline serifs). With Serifa there is a return to very little contrast (almost mono-weight. In Univers the is an absence of any noticeable thick and thin strokes; there is a uniformity of strokes (mono-weight).

Variations in Serifs: Serifs also vary from one face to the next in their weight and in the way they are bracketed; that is the way in which the serif meets the vertical stroke of the letter. Once again, you can see the evolution of type from Garamond to Baskerville, to Bodoni this was followed by the return of the heavy serif in Serifa and the elimination of the serif in Univers.

86


Serifs.

xoaengdp xoaengdp Humanist

Didone (modern)

— little contrast between thick and thin of strokes — stroke weight has inflections similar to handwriting — strong diagonal stress such as on letter o — sloping bar on letter e

— extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes — hairline (strokes) serifs — horizontal stress — horizontal bar on e

Jenson, Goudy’s Kennerly, Bruce Rogers’ Centaur

Bodoni, Bauer Bodoni, Walbaum

xoaengdp xoaengdp Gerald (Old Style)

New Transitional

— contrast between thick and thin strokes is more pronounced — horizontal bar on e — diagonal stress is less prominent — shorter x-height — scooped serifs, sturdy without being heavy

— sturdy typefaces hold up under poor printing — little contrast between thick and thin strokes — horizontal stress — horizontal bar on e — tall x-height — shorter ascenders, descenders

Sabon, Garamond, Bembo, Times, Plantin, Caslon Old Style Bookman, Century Schoolbook, Cheltenham

xoaengdp xoaengdp Transitional

Egyptian or Slab-Serif

— contrast between thick and thin strokes is pronounced — very slight diagonal stress — bracketed serifs — horizontal bar on e — tall x-height

— mono weight — square ended serifs — horizontal stress — horizontal bar on e

Memphis, Clarendon, Serifa, Rockwell Baskerville, Caslon, Perpetua, (newer garamonds)

87


Sans Serifs.

xoaengdp Grotesque

— slight contrast in the stoke weight — slight squareness to the curves — usually a tall x-height : short ascenders and descenders — usually a two story lowercase a — capital R usually has a curled leg — capital G usually has a spur Helvetica, Univers, Akzidenz Grotesk, Folio

xoaengdp Geometric

— vary little contrast in the stoke weight (monoline) — a little wider set — constructed from simple shapes : circle and rectangle — usually a one story lowercase a — upper case A has a pointed apex Futura, Kabel, Metro

xoaengdp Humanist

— based on the proportions of the Roman capitals — some contrast in the stroke weight — lowercase a and g are usually two story Syntax, Frutiger, Praxis, Stone Sans

88


Font Specifications...

89


Archer

CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * HAIRLINE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

SEMI-BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

90


Akzidenz AkzidenzGrotesk Grotesk

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SANS SANS SERIF SERIF

MaxogGdQRst

REGULAR ROMAN

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 12 13 2 34 5 46 57 68 79 80 9 (0)({)}{?} !? ! @@ & *& *

A basic system for classifying typefaces A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, whenwhen was devised in the nineteenth century, printers sought to identify a heritage for printers sought to identify a heritagetheir for their own craft analogous to that artofhistory. own craft analogous to of that art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of theof the to calligraphy and the movement hand.hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are are Transitional and modern typefaces moremore abstract and less organic. These three abstract and less organic. These three main main groups correspond roughly to theto the groups correspond roughly Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in artinand Designers in in periods art literature. and literature. Designers the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have have the twentieth and twenty-first centuries continued to create new typefaces based continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj KkKk Ll Ll Ii Jj Mm NnNn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Mm Oo Qq Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 12 Ww 13 2 34 5 46 57 68 79 80 9 (0)( ) { }{?} !?@ && * * !@

BLACK BLACK

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Kk Gg Hh Kk Ll Ll Mm Nn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu Mm Nn Oo Qq VvVv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 Ww Xx 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} ? !@ && * * !@

A basic system for classifying typefacA basic system fornineteenth classifyingcentypefaces was devised in the es was devised in the nineteenth tury, when printers sought to identify century, when printers to identify a heritage for their ownsought craft analoa heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist gous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to letterforms are movement closely connected calligraphy and the of the to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefachand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. es are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond These three main groupsBaroque, correspond roughly to the Renaissance, roughly to the Renaissance, and Enlightenment periods in artBaroque, and and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth literature. Designers the contintwentieth and twenty-first centuriesin have and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on ued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. historic characteristics.

91


Baskerville

CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* 92


Belizio Belizio

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SLAB SERIF SERIF

MxagGdQrR

REGULAR REGULAR

Aa BbBb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Aa Dd Gg Hh Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo PpPp Qq Rr SsSs Kk Mm Nn Oo Qq Rr TtTt Uu VvVv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 12 3 34 4 Uu Ww Xx 12 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} !? @ && * * !@

A basic system for classifying typeA basic system for classifying typefacesfaces was was devised in the nineteenth devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to to century, when printers sought identify a heritage for their own identify a heritage for their own craftcraft analogous to that of art analogous to that of histoart history. Humanist letterforms are ry. Humanist letterforms closely are closely connected to calligraphy and and the the connected to calligraphy movement of the hand. Transitional movement of the hand. Transitional and and modern typefaces are more ab- abmodern typefaces are more stract and less organic. These three stract and less organic. These three mainmain groups correspond roughly groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and and to the Renaissance, Baroque, Enlightenment periods in art Enlightenment periods in and art and literature. Designers in the literature. Designers in twentithe twentieth and twenty-first centuries havehave eth and twenty-first centuries continued to create new typefaces continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

Aa Aa BbBb CcCc Dd Dd EeEe FfFf GgGg Hh Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Kk Kk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 8 9 09 (0 )( {) }{ ?} !?@ !@ && * * SMALL CAPS BOLD

Aa Bb CcCc Dd Ee FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii Aa Bb Dd Ee Gg Hh JjJj Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Kk Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Rr Uu Vv Ww Xx SsSs TtTt Uu Vv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 12 13 2 34 4 57 68 79 80 90 !@ 56 ( )( {) }{ ?} !? @ &* &*

A basic system for classifying typefacA basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth cen-cenes was devised in the nineteenth tury, tury, whenwhen printers sought to identify a printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art Humanist letterto that ofhistory. art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligforms are closely connected to calligraphy and and the movement of the raphy the movement ofhand. the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and and less organic. are more abstract less organic. These three main groups correspond These three main groups correspond roughly to the Baroque, roughly toRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, and and Enlightenment periods in art Enlightenment periods inand art and literature. Designers in the literature. Designers intwentieth the twentieth and and twenty-first centuries havehave con-contwenty-first centuries tinued to create new typefaces based tinued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

BOLD BLACK ITALIC ITALIC

Aa Bb CcCc Dd Ee FfFf Gg Hh IiIi Aa Bb Dd Ee Gg Hh JjJj Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Kk Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr SsSs TtTt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Rr Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy ZzZz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( { }} ){ ?? !@ && ** !@ 93


Bell Gothic

CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE

LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*

94


Bembo Bembo

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: MODERN MODERN

MxnogGdQrRst

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0 )( ) Ww { }{ ?} !? @ && ** !@

A basic system for classifying typefaces was was A basic system for classifying typefaces devised in the nineteenth century, when devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for for printers sought to identify a heritage their their own own craft craft analogous to that of art analogous to that ofhisart history. Humanist letterforms are closely con- contory. Humanist letterforms are closely nected to calligraphy and the of of nected to calligraphy andmovement the movement the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less TheseThese are more abstract andorganic. less organic. threethree main main groups correspond roughly to to groups correspond roughly the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenthe Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenmentment periods in artinand Designers periods art literature. and literature. Designers in theintwentieth and twenty-first centuries the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have have continued to create new typefaces continued to create new typefaces basedbased on historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Mm Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww XxXx YyYy Ww ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({) }{ ?} !?@ && * * !@

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn Oo Oo PpPp Qq Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 9 0 (0 )( {) }{ ?} !? @ !@ && **

A basic system for classifying typefacA basic system for classifying typefaces es was devised in the nineteenth cenwas devised in the nineteenth century, tury,when whenprinters printerssought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage their own craft analo- to that tage forfor their own craft analogous gousoftoart that of art history. Humanhistory. Humanist letterforms are ist letterforms are closely connected closely connected to calligraphy and the to calligraphy and the movement of and movement of the hand. Transitional the hand. Transitional andmore modern modern typefaces are abstract and typefaces are more abstract and less less organic. These three main groups organic. These three main groups corcorrespond roughly to the Renaissance, respond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods Baroque, periods in artand and Enlightenment literature. Designers in the in arttwentieth and literature. Designers in the have and twenty-first centuries twentieth and to twenty-first continued create newcenturies typefaces based haveon continued to create new typefachistoric characteristics. es based on historic characteristics.

EXTRA EXTRA BOLD BOLD

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95


Bookman

CLASSIFICATION: NEW TRANSITIONAL

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*

96


Bodoni Bodoni

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: MODERN MODERN

MxaogGdQrRst

REGULAR REGULAR

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A basic system for classifying typefaces was was A basic system for classifying typefaces devised in the nineteenth century, when devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for for printers sought to identify a heritage their their own craft analogous to that of art own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the connected to calligraphy andmovethe movementment of theofhand. Transitional and modern the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and typefaces are more abstractless andorless organic.ganic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups correspond groups correspond roughly to thetoRenaissance, Baroque, and and roughly the Renaissance, Baroque, Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in theintwentieth and twenty-first Designers the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new new centuries have continued to create typefaces based on historic characteristics. typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj KkKk LlLl Ii Jj Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( )( {) }{ ?} ?! ! @@ && * * BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk LlLl Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( )( ) { Ww { }}??!!@@& &**

A basic system for classifying typefaces was was A basic system for classifying typefaces devised in the nineteenth century, when devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for for printers sought to identify a heritage their their own craft analogous to that of art own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the connected to calligraphy andmovethe movement ment of theofhand. Transitional and modern the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and typefaces are more abstract less andorless organic.ganic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups correspond groups correspond roughly to thetoRenaissance, Baroque, and and roughly the Renaissance, Baroque, Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in theintwentieth and twenty-first Designers the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new new centuries have continued to create typefaces based on historic characteristics. typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ORNAMENTS ORNAMENTS

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Caslon

CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ALTERNATE

c h i k l Ss T t A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

SWASH

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ORNAMENT

A a Bb C c D d Ee F f G g H h Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn o Pp Qq r S s t Uu Vv Ww X x y Z z 1 2 3 4 98


Century CenturySchoolbook Schoolbook

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE GROTESQUE

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR REGULAR

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A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in the innineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a a heritage heritage for their for their own own craftcraft analogous analogous to to that that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterletterformsforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligto calligraphy raphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are are moremore abstract abstract and less and organic. less organic. These These threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to to the Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightand Enlightenment enment periods periods in artinand art literature. and literature. Designers Designers in the intwentieth the twentieth and twentyand twentyfirst first centuries centuries havehave continued continued to create to create new new typefaces typefaces based based on historic on historic characcharacteristics. teristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

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A basic system for classifying typefaces A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, was devised in the nineteenth century, whenwhen printers sought to identify a heriprinters sought to identify a heritage tage for their own own craftcraft analogous to that for their analogous to that of artofhistory. Humanist letterforms are are art history. Humanist letterforms closely connected to calligraphy and the closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and and movement of the hand. Transitional modern typefaces are more abstract and and modern typefaces are more abstract less organic. These three main groups less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to thetoRenaissance, correspond roughly the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in artinand literature. Designers in thein the art and literature. Designers twentieth and twenty-first centuries havehave twentieth and twenty-first centuries continued to create new typefaces based continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

BOLD BOLD ITALIC ITALIC

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99


Cheltenham

CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

100


Cholla Cholla

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: MODERN MODERN

MaxnogGdQrRst

REGULAR UNICASE

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIiKk Jj Kk Ll Ll MmMm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww WwXxXxYyYyZzZz1122 3 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({)}{?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for for their their own craft own craft analogous analogous to that toof that artofhisart history. tory. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely con- connected nected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of of the hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less andorganic. less organic. TheseThese threethree main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to theto the Renaissance, Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artinand artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in thein the twentieth twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on on historic historic characteristics. characteristics.

UNICASE REGULAR

AaAa BbBb Cc Cc DdDd Ee Ee Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Mm NnNn Jj Kk Mm OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu Vv Vv WwWw Xx Xx Yy Zz Yy 1Zz2 1 2 3 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({)}{?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage tage for their for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to that to that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artin art and literature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

101


Clarendon

CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SERIF

LIGHT

REGULAR

BOLD

102


Clicker Clicker

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SANS SANS SERIF SERIF

MaxnogGdQRs REGULAR REGULAR

AaAaBbBbCcCcDdDdEeEeFfFfGgGgHhHhIi IiJj JjKkKk Ll LlMm MmNnNnOoOoPpPpQqQqRrRrSsSsTtTtUuUu VvVvWw WwXxXxYyYyZzZz1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 8 9 90 0( )( {) }{ ? } ?! @ ! @& &* *

A basic system for classifying typeA basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth faces was devised in the nineteenth century, whenwhen printers sought to to century, printers sought identify a heritage for their own identify a heritage for their own craftcraft analogous to that of art analogous to that of histoart history. Humanist letterforms are ry. Humanist letterforms closely are closely connected to calligraphy and and the the connected to calligraphy movement of the hand. Transitional movement of the hand. Transitional and and modern typefaces are more ab- abmodern typefaces are more stract and less organic. These three stract and less organic. These three mainmain groups correspond roughly groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and and to the Renaissance, Baroque, Enlightenment periods in art and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the literature. Designers in twentithe twentieth and twenty-first centuries havehave eth and twenty-first centuries continued to create new typefaces continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. based on historic characteristics.

103


Didot

CLASSIFICATION: MODERN

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*

104


DIN DIN

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE GROTESQUE

MaxnogGdQrRt

LIGHT LIGHT

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A basic system for classifying typefaces A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the closelyofconnected calligraphyand and the movement the hand. to Transitional movement of the hand. Transitional modern typefaces are more abstract and and modern These typefaces aremain moregroups abstract and less organic. three less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. characteristics.

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj KkKk Ll Ll Ii Jj Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( ){ {} }??! !@@& * &* MEDIUM MEDIUM

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A basic system for classifying typefaces was A basic for classifying typefaces was devised in thesystem nineteenth century, when devised in the nineteenth century, printers sought to identify a heritage forwhen to identify heritage their printers own craftsought analogous to thata of art his-for their own craft analogous to that art history. Humanist letterforms are closely of contory. Humanist letterforms are closely nected to calligraphy and the movement of connected to calligraphy the movement the hand. Transitional and and modern typefaces of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These are more abstract and less organic. three main groups correspond roughly to These the three main groupsand correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, Enlightenment Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries twentieth and twenty-first centuries have the continued to create new typefaces have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. based on historic characteristics.

BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & * Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BLACK

105


DIN Condensed

CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE

LIGHT CONDENSED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*

BOLD CONDENSED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

106


Disturbance

CLASSIFICATION: SERIF

Mxnatqbwfgdr REGULAR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 445566778 89 09 0( )( {) }{ ?} ?! @ ! @& &* *1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ITALIC

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SMALL CAPS BOLD

Aa Aa Bb Bb Cc Cc Dd Dd Ee Ee Ff Ff Gg Gg Hh Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Kk Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm Nn Nn Oo Oo Pp Pp Qq Qq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt Uu Uu Vv Vv Ww Ww Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz Zz 11 22 33 4455667 78 89 90 0( () ){ }{ ?} ?! @ ! @& &* *

107


Fette Fraktur

CLASSIFICATION: BLACK LETTER

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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108


Filosofia Filosofia

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: MODERN MODERN

MxnaopQrRtfGg

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx YyYy Zz Zz 1 2132 3 4 546576879809(0)({)}{?}!?@! & @ *& *

A basic A basic system system for forclassifying classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised inin thethe nineteenth nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a for their heritage own craft for their analogous owntocraft that ofanalogous art history. to that Humanist of art history. letterforms Humanist are closelyletterconnected forms to are calligraphy closely and connected the movement to calligof the hand. raphy Transitional and the movement and modern typefaces of the hand. are more Transitional abstract and and lessmodern organic. typefaces These three main are more groupsabstract correspond and roughly less to organic. the Renaissance, These Baroque, three and main Enlightenment groups correspond periods in art roughly and literature. to the Renaissance, Designers in the Baroque, twentieth and and Enlightenment twenty-first centuries periods have continued in art and to create literature. new typefaces Designers based in on historic the twentieth characteristics. and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

FRACTIONS FRACTIONS

Aa Aa Bb Bb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh IiIi JjJj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp Qq Qq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 2132 43 546576879809(0) ({)} {} ? !?@ !& @* & *

UNICASE UNICASE

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg Hh Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{?} ? ! @! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefacestypefaces was devised wasindevised the nineteenth in the ninecentury, teenth when century, printerswhen sought printers to identify sought a heritage to identify for their a heritage own for crafttheir analogous own craft to that analogous of art history. to that Humanist of artletterforms history. Humanist are closely letterconnected formsto are calligraphy closely connected and the to movement calligraphy of the and hand. the Transitional movement of and the modern hand. typefaces Transitional are more and abmodstract ern and typefaces less organic. are more Theseabstract three mainand groups lesscorrespond organic. These roughly three to the main Renaissance, groups correspond Baroque, and roughly Enlightenment to the Renaissance, periods inBaroque, art and and literature. Enlightenment Designers in periods the twentieth in art and and twenty-first literature. centuries Designers have conin the tinued twentieth to create and newtwenty-first typefaces based cenon historic turies characteristics. have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

109


Franklin Gothic

CLASSIFICATION: GROTESK

BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * DEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

110


Frutiger Frutiger

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST HUMANIST SANS SANS

MaxodQRtfGg

CONDENSED CONDENSED

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Jj Kk Ll Mm Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy Zz Zz 1 21 32 3 4 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({ )} {?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for for their their own own craft craft analogous analogous to that to of that artof art history. history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the movement and the moveof the hand. mentTransitional of the hand.and Transitional modern typefaces and modern are more typefaces abstract areand more less abstract organic. and These less orthreeganic. main groups These three correspond main groups roughly correspond to the Renaissance, roughly to Baroque, the Renaissance, and Enlightenment Baroque, and periods Enlightenment in art and literature. periods in Designers art and literature. in the twentieth Designers and twenty-first in the twentieth centuries and twenty-first have continued centuries to create have continued new typefaces to create basednew on historic typefaces characteristics. based on historic characteristics.

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Mm Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww XxXx YyYy Ww ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({ )} {?} !?@! @ && * *

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)( ) { }{?} !? @ !@ && **

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in the innineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a a heritage heritage for their for their ownown craftcraft analoanalogousgous to that to that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to to calligraphy calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of the of the hand. hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefactypefaces are esmore are more abstract abstract and less and organic. less organic. These These threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to the toRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artinand art and literature. literature. Designers Designers in the intwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries havehave contincontinued to ued create to create new new typefaces typefaces based based on on historic historic characteristics. characteristics.

ULTRA ULTRA BLACK BLACK

Aa Bb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Aa Bb Dd Gg Hh Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq RrRr SsSs Kk Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq TtTt Uu VvVv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 12 33 Uu Ww Xx 12 44 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} !? @ && * * !@

111


Futura

CLASSIFICATION: GEOMETRIC SANS

BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

112


Gill GillSans Sans

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST HUMANIST SANS SANS

MaxnbyogGQRt

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{?}! ?@ !@ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own craft own analogous craft analogous to that toof that artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less andorganic. less organic. TheseThese threethree main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaisthe Renaissance,sance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in in art and artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have continued have continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Mm Jj Kk Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww XxXx Yy Yy ZzZz Ww 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({)}{?}! ?@ ! &&**

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf GgGg Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj Kk Dd Hh Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt Uu Mm Nn Oo Qq Uu VvVv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 12 Ww Xx 13 2 34 5 46 57 68 78 90 && ** 9 (0 )( {) }{ ?} !?@ !@

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typetypefacesfaces was was devised devised in the in nineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to to identify identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own own craftcraft analogous analogous to that to that of art ofhistoart history. Humanist ry. Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and and the the movement movement of the of hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more ab- abstract stract and and less less organic. organic. These These three three mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to the to Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and and Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in art inand art and literature. literature. Designers Designers in the in twentithe twentieth and eth and twenty-first twenty-first centuries centuries havehave continued continued to create to create new new typefaces typefaces based based on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

113


Gotham

CLASSIFICATION: GEOMETRIC SANS

BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

114


Helvetica Helvetica

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE GROTESQUE

MaoygGdQrRt

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({) { } ?} !?@ !@ && * *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own craft own analogous craft analogous to thattoofthat art history. of art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. These These threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in art and literature. in art and Designers literature. Designers in the twentieth in the and twenty-first twentieth and centuries twenty-first have centuries continuedhave to create continued new typefaces to createbased new typefaces on historic based characteristics. on historic characteristics.

BOLD ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Gg HhHh Ii JjIiKk Ff Gg Jj Ll Kk Mm Qq SsRr Tt Ss Uu Tt VvUu Vv Ll Nn MmOo NnPp Oo PpRrQq Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 2132 4 Ww 3 546576879809(0) ({ ) { } ?} !?@ ! @&&* *

BLACK EXTENDED BOLD

Cc AaAa Bb Bb Cc Dd Ee Dd Ff GgEe Hh Ff Ii JjGg Kk Ll Rr Mm Ll Hh Mm Ii NnJj OoKk Pp Qq Ss Nn Tt UuOo Vv Pp Rr Ww XxQq Yy Zz 1 2Ss 3 4Tt 5 6Uu 7 8 9Vv 0(){ } ?Ww ! @ &Xx * Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen print- printers sought ers sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for own their own craft analogous craft analogous to thattoofthat art of history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. TheseThese three three main main groups groups cor- correspond respond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in art in and artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first cen- centuries turies have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

ULTRA LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Jj KkXxLlYy Mm NnAa OoBbPpCc QqDdRrEe SsFfTtGg UuHh Vv IiWw ZzNn 1 2Oo 3 Pp 4 5Qq 6 7Rr8 Ss 9 0Tt( Uu ) { }Vv ? !Ww @ &Xx* Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

ULTRA LIGHT

115


Interstate

CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

116


Kunstler KunstlerScript Script

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SCRIPT SCRIPT

xyogGdQrRst

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk LlLl MmMm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1212 3 435 46 57 86 97 80 9( 0) ({ )}{? }! @? !&@*& * Pat. San ea consectet ad duis dolorem eu facil dit am, summy nisim ipit, quat, velit pratismodo diat. Dolessecte ver sim er aut wismod mincilit loboreet praessed tat. Iquis eu Et lorperi liquat lor sequam zzrilit, velese facin ut verosti nciduis modit, qui erosto odit ut verit feuisnos dolore eriurerdigna sisi facin tet, quamconse odolorincilla amcommodit nos ametfaci iureercil doluptatisl hendre ming eadofeum ad dunt dunt vulla ipit vulput feugait luptatislionsenit dolorernumaugait lorper sumsand ip erit lapraessi. feu feumsan henis exerci esto etumsan hent am, velit, quisitvel nummy veniam zzrilit,magna qui tincilitfeugiam, wis eum zzriustis ex eraestrud Lut iriuscilnostoet dolutat luptat.iritNullandre quis aute conulludelit lamcon vero facipet,et cortin veniamhenisi. eum illanQuis veros dignit vullandiat ptatincip ea exercidunt alit wis aliscidui et volorebladip autet,alitveros accumnis nisl dunt aliquam consent alit etuero odionsecte dunt nulla faci et in vulla feugait lore eum zzril ipit vel ute mod ting eumsandreet am, qui te faciniat nummod eu feugiat ullamco nsequi bla autpatet nummodipisi. ex Ed essimetummodit vent vendre tat utat venibh et pratuer ipsum volortio praessed vullamcon ulluptat delendit nonsenim inciliqui tioeniat odoloreet ver sum velis mincilit tat.consequam zzrit aut ipsum diamcon sequam num et wisi tio dolorem aliquis deldolobortie irit aut nosto elesto dolobor et, quis nos endreeraessed te dolobortin sumulput volenibhutexerit utpat. Uptat, dolese Lam dolut iuscilisci amcommy vulputat, quat, vel volobor molorem eraessis nitsum niamcorperos autat, venit in etum erilissit eui bla voloborem feum iurem nonsequi incip et essi.orper quamconsed magniam, quisitiritaccum alit e

iuscipit la consequam dit nulput acing eu feum quat. Ut luptat at.

117


Melior

CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* 118


Memphis Memphis

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SLAB SERIF SERIF

MxagGdQrRt

LIGHT LIGHT

Aa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf Gg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Aa Gg Jj Kk Mm NnNn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Mm Oo Qq Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({)}{ } Ww ? !?@! @ && * *

A basic system for classifying typefaces A basic system for classifying typefaces was was devised in the nineteenth century, devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heriwhen printers sought to identify a heritage tage for their own own craft craft analogous to that for their analogous to that of artofhistory. Humanist letterforms are are art history. Humanist letterforms closely connected to calligraphy and the closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and and movement of the hand. Transitional modern typefaces are more abstract and and modern typefaces are more abstract less organic. These three main groups less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to thetoRenaissance, correspond roughly the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in artinand literature. Designers in thein the art and literature. Designers twentieth and twenty-first centuries havehave twentieth and twenty-first centuries continued to create new typefaces based continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

MEDIUM MEDIUM

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf Gg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Kk LlLl Gg Jj Kk Mm NnNn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Mm Oo Qq Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({)}{ } Ww ? !?@! @ && * * EXTRA EXTRA BOLD BOLD

Aa Aa Bb Bb Cc Cc Dd Dd Ee Ee FfFf Gg Gg Hh Hh Ii Ii JjJj Kk Kk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn Oo Oo Pp Pp Qq Qq Rr Rr SsSs TtTt Uu Uu Vv Vv Ww Ww Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz Zz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} ? !@ !@ && **

A basic system for classifying typefacA basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth cen- cenes was devised in the nineteenth tury,tury, when printers sought to identify a a when printers sought to identify heritage for their own craft analogous heritage for their own craft analogous to that of artofhistory. Humanist letterto that art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the of the raphy andmovement the movement ofhand. the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are are Transitional and modern typefaces moremore abstract and less organic. These abstract and less organic. These threethree mainmain groups correspond roughly groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and to the Renaissance, Baroque, Enand Enlightenment periods in artinand lightenment periods art literaand literature.ture. Designers in the twentieth and and Designers in the twentieth twenty-first centuries have continued to to twenty-first centuries have continued create new typefaces based on historic create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. characteristics.

119


Meta

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

120


Mrs. MrsEaves Eaves

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: OLDOLD STYLE STYLE

MaxogGdQrRst

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ll Ll Mm Ii Kk Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( )( {) }{ ?} ?! @ ! @&&* * 1 2 3 456789

A basic A system basic system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when print-printers sought ers sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own own craft analogous craft analogous to thattoofthat artof history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less and less organic. organic. TheseThese three three main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and and Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in artin and artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first cen- centuriesturies have continued have continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

Aa Aa Bb Bb Cc Cc DdDd Ee Ee Ff Gg HhHh Ii JjIiKk Ll Mm NnNn OoOo Pp Pp Ff Gg Jj Kk Ll Mm QqQq Rr Rr Ss Tt Vv Vv WwWw Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz 1Zz2132 43 54 65 76 87 98 09 0 Ss Uu Tt Uu ( )({)}{?}!?@! & @*& *

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Kk LlLl Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv WwWw Mm XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( )( {) }{ ?} ?! @ !@& & **

A basicAsystem classifying typefaces was devised in the in the basic for system for classifying typefaces was devised nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for theirforown craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely to calligraphy and theand moveletterforms are connected closely connected to calligraphy the movement ofment the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstractabstract and lessand organic. These three correspond less organic. Thesemain threegroups main groups correspond roughlyroughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periodsperiods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and and in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based onbased historic characteristics. on historic characteristics.

FRANCTIONS FRACTIONS

Aa BbBb CcCc DdDd Ee Ee FfFf GgGg Hh IiIi JjJj KkKk Aa Hh LlLl Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Mm WwWw XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 2132 43 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0 )( { ) {}} ? !?@ !& @* & * 121


News Gothic

CLASSIFICATION: GROTESQUE

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 123456789 ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

122


OCR OCRA A

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: GEOMETRIC GEOMETRIC SANS SANS

MaopQRfGg

REGULAR REGULAR

Aa AaBb BbCc CcDd DdEe EeFf FfGg GgHh Hh Ii IiJj JjKk KkLl LlMm MmNn NnOo OoPp Pp Qq QqRr RrSs SsTt TtUu UuVv VvWw WwXx Xx Yy YyZz Zz1 12 23 3 4 45 56 67 78 8 9 90 0( () ){ {} }? ?! !@ @& &* *

A basic A basic system system forfor clasclassifying sifying typefaces typefaces waswas devised devised in in thethe nineteenth nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to to identify identify a heria heritage tage forfor their their ownown craft craft analogous analogous to to that that of of artart history. history. Humanist Humanist letletterforms terforms areare closely closely conconnected nected to to calligraphy calligraphy andand thethe movement movement of of thethe hand. hand. Transitional Transitional andand modern modern typefaces typefaces areare more more ab-historstract ic characteristics. and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

123


Optima

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

MxaopQRstGg A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOOK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*

124


Palatino Palatino

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: OLDOLD STYLE STYLE

MxaopQRstG

LIGHT LIGHT

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{?} !?@! @ && * *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for for their their own craft own analogous craft analogous to that to of that artofhisart tory. Humanist history. Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely areconclosely nected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the movement and the moveof the hand. mentTransitional of the hand.and Transitional modern typefaces and modern are more typefaces abstract areand more less abstract organic. and These less orthreeganic. main These groupsthree correspond main groups roughly correspond to the Renaissance, roughly to the Baroque, Renaissance, and EnlightenBaroque, and mentEnlightenment periods in art and periods literature. in art Designers and literature. in theDesigners twentiethinand thetwenty-first twentieth and centuries twenty-first have centuries continuedhave to create continued new typefaces to create new basedtypefaces on historic based characteristics. on historic characteristics.

OLDOLD STYLE STYLE

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg Hh Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{ } ? !?@! @ && * * MEDIUM MEDIUM

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg Hh Hh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp Qq Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{ } ? !?@! @ && * *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in the innineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage for tagetheir for their own own craft craft analogous analogous to that to that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. These These threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artinand art literature. and literature. Designers Designers in the in the twentieth twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries havehave continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

BLACK BLACK

AaAa BbBb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk Dd Gg Hh LlLl Mm Nn OoOo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu Mm Nn Qq VvVv Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 12 Ww 13 2 34 5 46 57 68 79 89 0 (0)({)}{?} !?@ && * * !@ 125


Perpetua

CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL

MxanopQrRtGg A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt UuVvWw XxYy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

126


Platelet Platelet

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: GEOMETRIC GEOMETRIC SANS SANS

MaxbyogGQrRt THIN THIN

AaAaBbBbCcCcDdDdEeEeFfFfGgGgHhHhIiIiJjJjKkKkLlLl MmMmNnNnOoOoPpPpQqQqRrRrSsSsTtTtUuUuVvVvWwWwXxXx YyYyZzZz1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( () ){ {} } ? ?! !@ @& &* *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in the in nineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage tage for their for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to to that that of art of history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterletterformsforms are closely are closely connected connected to calto calligraphy ligraphy and the and movement the movement of the of hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are are more more abstract abstract and less and less organic. organic. TheseThese threethree main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to to the Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightand Enlightenment enment periods periods in art in and art literature. and literature. Designers Designers in the in twentieth the twentieth and twentyand twentyfirstfirst centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characcharacteristics. teristics.

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAaBbBbCcCcDdDdEeEeFfFfGgGgHhHhIiIiJjJjKkKkLlLl MmMmNnNnOoOoPpPpQqQqRrRrSsSsTtTtUuUuVvVvWwWwXxXx YyYyZzZz1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( () ){ {} } ? ?! !@ & * HEAVY HEAVY

AaAaBbBbCcCcDdDdEeEeFfFfGgGgHhHhIiIiJjJjKkKkLlLl MmMmNnNnOoOoPpPpQqQqRrRrSsSsTtTtUuUuVvVvWwWwXxXx YyYyZzZz1 12 23 34 45 56 67 78 89 90 0( () ){ {} } ? ?! !@ @& &* *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in the in nineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage tage for their for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to to that that of art of history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterletterformsforms are closely are closely connected connected to calto calligraphy ligraphy and the and movement the movement of the of hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are are more more abstract abstract and less and less organic. organic. TheseThese threethree main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to to the Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightand Enlightenment enment periods periods in art in and art literature. and literature. Designers Designers in the in twentieth the twentieth and twentyand twentyfirstfirst centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characcharacteristics. teristics.

127


Priori Sans

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ALTERNATE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

128


Priori PrioriSerif Serif

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

MxanodQrRtSfg

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Gg Ff Gg HhHh Ii JjIiKk Jj Kk Ll Mm Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx Yy Yy ZzZz 1 2132 43 4 5 6576879809(0) ({ )} {?}! ?@! @ & *& *

A basicA system basic system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was in the devised nineteenth in the century, nineteenth whencentury, printers when soughtprinters to identify sought a heritage to identify for their a heritage own craft foranalogous their own to craft that ofanalogous art history. toHumanist that of artletterforms history. Humanist are closely letterconnected formstoare calligraphy closely connected and the movement to calligraphy of the and the hand. movement Transitionalofand themodern hand. Transitional typefaces are andmore modern abstract typefaces and lessare organic. more abstract These three and less mainorganic. groups correspond These roughly three main to the groups Renaissance, correspond Baroque, roughly to and Enlightenment the Renaissance, periods Baroque, in artand andEnlightenment literature. Designers periods in the in art twentieth and literature. and twenty-first Designerscentuin the ries have twentieth continued and to twenty-first create newcenturies typefaceshave based conon historic tinuedcharacteristics. to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ALTERNATE ALTERNATE

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Gg Ff Gg HhHh Ii JjIiKk Jj Kk Ll Mm Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv WwWw XxXx Yy Yy ZzZz 1 2132 43 4 5 6576879809 (0) ({ )} {?}! ?@! @ & *& *

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 2132 43 546576879809(0) ({ )} {?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was dewas devised vised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers soughtsought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to thattoofthat artof history. art history. Humanist Humanist let- letterforms terforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less and less organic. organic. TheseThese threethree main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and and Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in artin and artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have continued have continued to create to create new typenew typefaces faces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

129


Rotis

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

(55) SANS

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

SERIF

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

130


Sabon Sabon

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: OLDOLD STYLE STYLE

MxayogGQfR

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb Cc CcDd DdEe EeFf FfGg Gg Hh Ii JjJjKk KkLlLlMm Mm NnNn Oo Pp OoQq PpRr Qq Ss Tt RrUu SsVv TtWw Uu Xx VvYy Zz Ww 1 2Xx 3 Yy 4 5 Zz 6 7182930 4( )5{6} 7? !8@ 9& 0 ( *) {}?!@&*

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for for their their own own craft craft analogous analogous to to that that of of art art history. history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms areare closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and movement the move-of the menthand. of theTransitional hand. Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less andorganic. less or- These ganic.three These main three groups maincorrespond groups correspond roughly to the roughly Renaissance, to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Baroque, Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods in periods art and literature. in art andDesigners literature.in the Designers twentieth in theand twentieth twenty-first and twenty-first centuries have centuries continued have continued to create new to create typefaces new based on typefaces historic based characteristics. on historic characteristics.

SMALL SMALL CAPS CAPS

AaABabBC b cCD cd DE deEF efFG fg GH gh HIhi JIji JKj kKLklLl MM mm Nn NO no OP opPQ pq QR q rRS rs ST s tTU t uUV u vVv WW ww XxXY x yYZ y zZ1 z2 1 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)( ) { }{?} !?@! & & ** BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)( ) { }{?} !?@! @ && **

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for for their their own own craft craft analogous analogous to that to of that artof art history. history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the andmovethe movementment of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less andorless organic.ganic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and and Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in artinand artliterature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new new typefaces typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

BOLD BOLD ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({) { } ?} !?@! @ && * *

131


Scala Sans

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! & * ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

132


Serifa Serifa

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: SLAB SLAB SERIF SERIF

MxaoygGdQR

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({) { } ?} !?@ !@ && * *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage tage for their for their own own craft craft analogous analogous to that to that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. These These threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in in art and art literature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwenthe twentieth tieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries havehave continued continued to create to create new new typefaces typefaces based based on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)( ) { }{?} !? @ !@ && ** BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 9 0 (0)({)}{?} !? @ !@ && **

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefactypees was faces devised was devised in the nineteenth in the nineteenth century,century, when printers when printers sought tosought identify to a heritage identify foratheir heritage own craft for their analoown gouscraft to that analogous of art history. to that Humanist of art histoletterforms ry. Humanist are closely letterforms connected are closely to calligraphy connectedand to calligraphy the movement and ofthe the hand. movement Transitional of the and hand. modern Transitional typefaces and modern are more typefaces abstract are and more less aborganic. stract These andthree less organic. main groups These corthree respond main roughly groupstocorrespond the Renaissance, roughly Baroque, to the and Renaissance, Enlightenment Baroque, periods and in art Enlightenment and literature. periods Designers in art in the and twentieth literature. and twenty-first Designers in centuries the twentihaveeth continued and twenty-first to create new centuries typefachave es based continued on historic to create characteristics. new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BLACK BLACK

AaAa BbBb CcCc Dd Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Gg Hh Hh Ii Ii JjJj KkKk LlLl Mm Mm Nn Nn OoOo PpPp Qq Qq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 9 0 (0)({)}{?} !? @ !@ && **

133


Snell Roundhand

CLASSIFICATION: SCRIPT

REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* Dolessecte ver sim er aut wismod mincilit loboreet praessed tat. Iquis eu feuis dolore faci ercil eriurer sisi tet, quamconse do odolor amcommodit vulla feugait luptatisl dolorer augait praessi. Lut vel iriuscil et luptat. Nullandre magna feugiam, quis aute conullu ptatincip ea alit wis et volore dip et, cortin henisi. Quis autet, veros accum ipit vel ute mod ting eumsandreet am, qui te faciniat nummod eu feugiat ex essim vent vendre tat venibh et pratuer ipsum volortio eniat praessed mincilit dolobortie tat. Lam dolut amcommy nos eraessed tin ulput ut vulputat, quat, volobor incip et essi.orper sum quamconsed magniam, quisit accum voloborem alit iuscipit la consequam dit nulput acing eu feum quat. Ut luptat at.

134


Swift Swift

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: NEW NEW TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

MxaoygGdQrR

BOLD CONDENSED BOLD CONDENSED

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({) }{ ?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in the innineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heria heritage for tagetheir for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to that to that of artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups groups cor- correspond respond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Ba- Baroque, roque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artin art and literature. and literature. Designers Designers in the intwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

REGULAR REGULAR

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ll Ll Ii Kk Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({) }{ ?}!?@! @ && * * ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Ll Ll Mm Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr Ss Ss Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz Ww 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({) }{ ?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic systemsystem for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was was devised devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own craft own analogous craft analogous to that toofthat artofhistory. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to to calligraphy calligraphy and the andmovement the movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and modern and modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and less andorganic. less organic. These These three three main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artin art and literature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and and twenty-first twenty-first centuries centuries have continued have continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Kk Ll Ll Jj Kk Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Mm Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0) ({) }{ ?} !?@! @ && * *

135


Syntax

CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST SANS

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

136


Trade TradeGothic Gothic

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: HUMANIST HUMANIST SANS SANS

MxanyogGdQrR

CONDENSED CONDENSED

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd Ee Ee Ff Gg Ff Gg HhHh Ii JjIi Kk Jj Kk Ll Mm Ll Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Uu Tt Uu Vv Vv WwWw Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz Zz 1 2132 43 546576 7 8 9809(0) ({ )} {?}!?@! @ & *& *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in theinnineteenth the nineteenth century, century, whenwhen printers printers sought sought to identify to identify a heritage a heritage for their for their own craft own craft analogous analogous to that to of that of art history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closely closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and the and the movement movement of theofhand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more abstract abstract and and less organic. less organic. TheseThese threethree mainmain groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to thetoRenaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and Enlightenment and Enlightenment periods periods in artin art and literature. and literature. Designers Designers in theintwentieth the twentieth and twenty-first and twenty-first centuries centuries have have continued continued to create to create new typefaces new typefaces basedbased on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

MEDIUM MEDIUM

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} ? !@ !@ && * * BOLD BOLD

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe Ff Ff GgGg HhHh Ii Jj Ii Kk Jj Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs Tt Tt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 1 21 32 34 54 65 76 87 98 09 (0)({)}{?} !?@! @ && * *

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typefaces typefaces was devised was devised in thein nineteenth the nineteenth century,century, when printers when sought printers to identify soughta to heritage identify foratheir heritage own craft for their analogous own craft to that analogous of art history. to that of Humanist art history. letterforms Humanist are closely letterforms connected are to calligraphy closely connected and the movement to calligraphy of the hand. and the Transitional movement and modern of the hand. typefaces Transitional are moreand abstract modern and less typefaces organic. areThese morethree abstract mainand groups less correspond organic. These roughlythree to themain Renaisgroups sance, correspond Baroque, and roughly Enlightenment to the Renaissance, periods in artBaroque, and literature. and Enlightenment Designers in theperiods twenti- in art eth and andtwenty-first literature.centuries Designers have in the continued twentieth to create and new twenty-first typefaces centuries based onhave historic continued characteristics. to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLDBOLD NO. 2 NO.2

AaAa BbBb CcCc DdDd EeEe FfFf GgGg HhHh Ii Ii Jj Jj KkKk Ll Ll Mm Mm NnNn OoOo PpPp QqQq RrRr SsSs TtTt UuUu VvVv Ww Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} ? !@ !@ && * *

137


Walbaum

CLASSIFICATION: MODERN

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

138


Volta Volta

CLASSIFICATION: CLASSIFICATION: NEW NEW TRANSITIONAL TRANSITIONAL

MyogGdQrR

REGULAR REGULAR

Aa Bb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh Ii Ii JjJj Aa Bb Dd Gg Hh Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo PpPp Qq RrRr SsSs Kk Mm Nn Oo Qq TtTt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy ZzZz 11 22 33 Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy 44 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ? !@ && ** }? !@

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying type-typefaces faces waswas devised devised in the in nineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to to identify identify a heritage a heritage for their for their ownown craftcraft analogous analogous to that to that of art of history. art history. Humanist Humanist letterforms letterforms are closely are closely connected connected to calligraphy to calligraphy and and the the movement movement of the of hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional and and modern modern typefaces typefaces are more are more ab- abstract stract and and less less organic. organic. These These three three main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to the to Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, and and Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in art in and art and literature. literature. Designers Designers in the in twentieth the twentieth and and twenty-first twenty-first centuries centuries havehave con-continued tinued to create to create newnew typefaces typefaces based based on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

MEDIUM MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee FfFf Gg Hh IiIi Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Gg Hh JjJj Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Kk Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Rr Uu Vv Ww Xx SsSs TtTt Uu Vv Ww Xx YyYy ZzZz 12 13 23 46 57 68 79 80 9 (0)({)}{?} !?@! & @& 45 * * MEDIUM MEDIUM ITALIC ITALIC

AaAa Bb CcCc Dd EeEe FfFf Gg Hh IiIi JjJj Bb Dd Gg Hh Kk LlLl Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr SsSs Kk Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr TtTt Uu VvVv Ww XxXx YyYy ZzZz 11 22 3 34 4 55 Uu Ww 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ?} !? @! @ && **

A basic A basic system system for classifying for classifying typetypefaces faces waswas devised devised in the in nineteenth the nineteenth century, century, when when printers printers sought sought to to identify identify a heritage a heritage for their for their ownown craftcraft analogous analogous to that to that of art of histoart history. Humanist ry. Humanist letterforms letterforms are are closeclosely connected ly connected to calligraphy to calligraphy andand the the movement movement of the of hand. the hand. Transitional Transitional andand modern modern typefaces typefaces are are more more ab- abstract stract andand less less organic. organic. These These three three main main groups groups correspond correspond roughly roughly to the to Renaissance, the Renaissance, Baroque, Baroque, andand Enlightenment Enlightenment periods periods in art in and art and literature. literature. Designers Designers in the in twentithe twentieth and eth and twenty-first twenty-first centuries centuries havehave continued continued to create to create newnew typefaces typefaces based based on historic on historic characteristics. characteristics.

BOLD BOLD

Aa Aa Bb Bb Cc Cc Dd Dd Ee Ee Ff Ff Gg Gg Hh Hh IiIi JjJj Kk Kk Ll Ll Mm Mm Nn Nn Oo Oo Pp Pp Qq Qq Rr Rr Ss Ss Tt Tt Uu Uu Vv Vv Ww Ww Xx Xx Yy Yy Zz Zz 11 22 3 34 4 55 66 77 88 99 00 ( )( {) }{ ? }? ! @! @ && ** 139


16 Credits.

Designed by Eric Norton. Class project for Professor Herstowski’s Typography 02 at the University of Kansas, Spring 2011. Text for the book was compiled from the following sources: Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst, Getting it Right with Type: the Do’s and Don’ts of Typography by Victoria Square, Mac is Not A Typewriter by Robin Williams. This book is not to be sold to the public and to only be used by the designer for their reference and student design portfolio.

Type.  

An easy guide to the rules of Typography.

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