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I Am Me! Getting to Know Yourself through Language Learning by Steve T. Fukuda Christopher J. Pope Hiroshi Sakata Takaki Fukumori

2014


I Am Me ©2014 Steven T. Fukuda, Christopher J. Pope, Hiroshi Sakata, Takaki Fukumori, & Perceptia Press Published by Perceptia Press, Nagoya, Japan in association with Panurgic Publishing 1st Edition First Printing Printing: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 All rights reserved. This book must not be copied or reproduced in any form whatsoever. ISBN978-4939130-53-3 Book Code: 101—E116-c About the authors Steve T. Fukuda teaches general English, teaching methodology, and university study skills courses in the Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima. His research interests are in educational psychology. Christopher J. Pope is from Houston, Texas in the USA. He has taught ESL and EFL at the secondary and tertiary levels for the past 15 years, in both the USA and Japan. He currently works at the Center for General Education, University of Tokushima. Hiroshi Sakata works for the International Center, University of Tokushima as an associate professor of cross-cultural communications and second language acquisition. He is currently interested in the development of English programs fostering the learner autonomy. Takaki Fukumori is a certified clinical psychotherapist and associate professor of psychology in the Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima. He has a wide range of research interests, such as avoidance of negative emotions and cognitive processing therapy. Acknowledgments “Glass-of-water” by Derek Jensen (Tysto) - Own work. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glass-of-water. jpg#mediaviewer/File:Glass-of-water.jpg Creative commons: Jasmine winces by Andy Eick; “ICJ-CJI hearing 1” by www.JeroenBouman. com. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/File:ICJ-CJI_hearing_1.jpg#mediaviewer/File:ICJ-CJI_hearing_1.jpg D: (Content Study) The Test and A: (Lesson Preparation) Clearing Your Mind in Chapters 1, 5, 6, and 15 are adapted from: Allen, R. (2004). Me, Myself, & I. New York: Collins & Brown. Full references for the works cited in this student book are included in the Teacher’s Guide, freely available from the publisher via www.perceptiapress.com. 2

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Contents Unit 1 Self-Improvement............................................................................................7 Test 1 Do You Know Yourself?.....................................................................................8 Test 2 Are You a Can-do Person?................................................................................14 Test 3 Are You Independent?.......................................................................................20 Test 4 Are You Always Correct?...................................................................................26 Test 5 Do You Want To Be You?..................................................................................32 Test 6 Are You Intuitive?...............................................................................................38 Test 7 Are You an Angry Person?................................................................................44 Unit 2 Personal Development...................................................................................51 Test 8 Are You Mentally Strong?.................................................................................52 Test 9 Are You a Postive Thinker?...............................................................................59 Test 10 Are Your Personal Goals High?.....................................................................64 Test 11 Do You Worry Too Much?..............................................................................70 Test 12 Are You Childish?.............................................................................................76 Test 13 Are You Lovable?..............................................................................................82 Test 14 Are You in Utopia?...........................................................................................88 Unit 3 Language Learning.........................................................................................95 Test 15 Can You Learn a Foreign Language?...........................................................96

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Introduction To the student We are excited that you have the opportunity to get to know yourself better through language learning. Not only in language learning, but in everyday life itself, it is very important to know yourself for success. Knowing yourself leads to an increase in self-efficacy which will help you gain confidence in many of those huge obstacles of everyday life. To do this, we have organized this book to enhance your metacognitive thinking, which means thinking about thinking, focusing on thinking about yourself and then having the chance to write about it and talk to others about it. In our busy everyday lives, we actually do not have much opportunity and time to do this and just go with the flow. However, this book provides a chance for you to take time to think about yourself, as well as improve your all-around English abilities. Remember that to improve your English, taking risks, learning from mistakes, noticing small improvements, through practice, repetition, and reflection are critical. Therefore, we encourage you to take the time outside of class after each lesson to reflect on any words or activities you had difficulty with and repeat them. While learning a language, appreciate those mistakes and learn from each other. Do not be afraid to explore. It is okay to venture off with your thoughts and get away from conformity once in a while. Interestingly, you may notice that sometimes what you thought would be the same as everybody is not, and what you thought may be different from everybody else turns out to be the same. As you go through the lessons think about and take time to reflect on those small improvements in simple language functions like self-introductions and the more difficult lifelong tasks, such as being able to answer the question who am I? From the authors, Steve T. Fukuda, Christopher J. Pope, Hiroshi Sakata, Takaki Fukumori

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Unit 1 Self-Improvement

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Test 1 Do You Know Yourself? A. Clearing Your Mind

How long can you challenge yourself? First, on a piece of paper or cardboard, cut a small hole ❚❚ the size of a 1 yen coin. Can you push a 100 yen coin through the hole? You can touch the coin and the card in any way, but you cannot bend or tear the card.

B. What Would You Say? Read the dialogue and create a response to finish it in the blank space. Then read it aloud with ❚❚ a partner. Scene: You are talking about your best friend with your brother because of an argument you had over a decision made by your best friend.

Dialogue

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You: I don’t believe he could do something like that. Brother: Are you sure he didn’t do it for you? You: It doesn’t matter. I’m his best friend, so he should have picked me to be on the team. Brother: To tell you the truth, you are not that good at it. You: That’s beside the point. Aren’t friends more important than anything? Brother: You might be right, and support is another important part of friendship! And you are not that good. You: .........................................................................................................................

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C. Before The Test Read the example sentences, then choose the definition that matches the word. ❚❚ a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

contrasting (   ) offend (   ) require (   ) messy (   ) habit (   ) mud (   ) depend (   ) annoying (   ) react (   ) blame (   )

I have two contrasting personalities. Saying bad things about my weight really offends me. I require a big breakfast every day. I want a clean room but it is messy. I have a bad habit of waking up late. I hate stepping in mud after the rain. I depend on my family for living expenses. My younger brother is really annoying when he cries. My parents reacted negatively when I introduced my girlfriend. My teacher blamed me for the bad presentation.

1. dirty or untidy 2. to need someone or something 3. different from each other in a noticeable way 4. to act in response to something 5. to rely on something 6. something you often do without thinking which is usually hard to stop 7. to make somebody upset because of something you do 8. to irritate or make angry 9. wet dirt 10. to say that someone or something is responsible

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D. The Test Read the sentences and choose the answers that best fit you. When you have finished, add up ❚❚ your score and read the description below. 1. Is there is a perfect partner for you? A person you must search for to find true love. a. There is no such thing. True love depends on timing, age, etc. b. A true love does exist, but there are many other people for me too. c. Everyone has a true love, and they must find him or her to become happy. 2. What is your reaction? Your friends visit your house and throw their jackets on your sofa. a. I would hang up their jackets. b. I would tell my friends to hang up their jackets and blame my roommate for the mess. c. I don’t care. The room is never clean anyway. 3. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day? a. Yes, breakfast gives me energy throughout the day. b. Breakfast is important, but I don’t have time to eat it. c. I never worry about breakfast and can’t make it my morning habit. 4. How would you react? You live in the city, and your friend invites you to his house in the country to go walking in the mud. a. I hate walking and I usually wear expensive clothes, so I would stay inside the house. b. I do not want to offend my friend, so I would decide to go with him. c. I came to visit him, and walking in the mud seems like a good experience. 5. What is your reaction? You are invited to an Indian restaurant. Everyone eats with their hands. a. Of course, I am in a different culture which requires a different eating habit, so I would eat with my hands. b. I have never eaten with my hands but don’t want to offend anyone, so I would eat with my hands too. c. I would ask the waiter to bring me a spoon. 6. How do you see a new boyfriend/girlfriend? a. It is a big challenge to change him or her into my ideal partner. b. He or she is a good person, but has annoying habits and we will break up. c. He or she is a good choice for now, because I am not thinking long-term.

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7. What is the meaning of your life? a. It is to get a good education, then a job, and move to the country to start a family. b. Same as above, but have lots of fun doing so. I always put play before work. c. For me, it is just to be happy. 8. How do you push your ideas? For example, you are the leader of a party with another person. Unfortunately, you have contrasting ideas on decorations. a. I would just push with my ideas for decorations. I don’t have to talk to him/her. b. I would try to talk with him/her. If my plan is better, it might get chosen. c. I would let them have their idea, I don’t care about the party anyway. 9. How would you react? Your neighbor, without asking you, cuts a branch from the tree in your garden because it is hanging over his property. Because of this, your tree looks very odd. a. I would go into his garden and cut his plants. b. I would complain. Then, I would tell him that if he asked me, I would have trimmed it. c. It doesn’t bother me. I don’t like gardening anyway. By the way, I ran over his child’s bicycle last week with my car. 10. What is the best description of your room? a. It is in perfect order and very clean. I can find anything at any time. b. As above, but it sometimes gets messy and needs cleaning. c. It is a garbage can. Let’s see how much you know yourself! ❚❚ Mostly c’s You should get credit for being strong and admit your failures, but you seem to be a coward often. If you’ve worked hard on something, don’t give up! Keep fighting to the end! Your idea or plan might be better. You need to stop taking the easy way and be more confident about your choices. Mostly b’s You don’t know yourself. You have traits of A and C. In some situations, you are lazy and unorganized, so you need someone to push you. If you don’t want to use your hands to eat, you don’t have to! If you want your friends to keep your house clean, you should tell them so! Though in some Asian cultures it is good to be collective, you should also be able to tell your opinions as well. Mostly a’s You are very logical, practical, and effective, and not afraid to admit it. This is hard to change and good for any partner or friends. However, you do show some signs of snobbery and could be excluded from others, so be careful. I am me!

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E. Thinking Further First, discuss the warm-up questions based on your personal experiences and ideas. Then read ❚❚ the passage. Afterwards, answer the questions according to the passage. • What do you think is the meaning of life? • How could surviving a traumatic event change a person’s views on the meaning of life? • How can we discover the meaning of life? Is it even possible?

The meaning of life Let’s think about ourselves for a moment. What is something you would have that would make your life complete? What do you feel is the meaning of life? Since we only live once, many people feel the meaning of life is to do or get everything they want. Is this the meaning of life? Dr. Viktor Frankl has a different opinion. At first, a person might seem to enjoy life by doing everything he or she wants. However, gradually this feeling will disappear, and the person will eventually suffer. This is because human desires have no end. When you fulfill a desire, you will always have a new desire. When your desires are too big to fulfill, what will happen? A good reference is that of Hitler, who killed himself when he did not gain power, or Qin Shi Huang, who died taking poison he thought would let him live forever. Dr. Frankl mentions that the best way to live a satisfying life is not by doing what you want, but by putting all your energy into helping others. These are not just nice words. Remember that Dr. Frankl was a Holocaust survivor. He was able to forgive. In his famous book Man’s Search for Meaning, Dr. Frankl wrote that life ultimately means taking the responsibility to find the right answer to life’s problems and to fulfill each individual task. In other words, the meaning of our life is decided by each situation and choice we encounter. Also in his book, Dr. Frankl writes that the meaning of life could be discovered by setting a goal and trying to achieve it, by experiencing many things and talking to many people, and by creating the right attitude towards unavoidable suffering. Dr. Frankl felt it was important to stop asking about the meaning of life and start thinking about what we could do for life around us by the choices we make. Our answers must not be only in the form of words, but in actions. In other words, life means taking the responsibility to find the right answers to the problems we face and to fulfill the tasks in front of each of us. Now, take some time out of your busy life and think of what you would like to do to have a meaningful life. Let’s think of the questions in the first paragraph again.

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F. Talk About It! Using the questions below, talk about how well you know yourself. Take 45 seconds to write ❚❚ down your thoughts. Then give your response to your partner/group. (a) What are your plans for the future? (b) What is your idea of a satisfying life? (c) If you could change one thing about you, what would you change? Examples: Toru Tanaka: I have been interested in global warming since I was a high school student. I want to know more about the causes of the problem. So, I plan to be a chemical engineer, in which I can study this and play an active part globally in the future. Keiichi Yamaguchi: I’ve always wanted to be a baseball player since I started, when I was five. I got annoyed when my high school coach said I had no chance to play in the pros. I know I should never give up, but I also have an interest in robots. Therefore, I’m planning to go to graduate school, and become an engineer. I think the meaning of life is to develop things that can help the other generation have a better life.

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G. Write About It! Read the question below. Plan a response of 150 to 300 words in 20 minutes. Using detailed ❚❚ examples to support your ideas, write it. • Is the best way to learn about life by listening to family and friends or through personal experience?

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Test 2 Are You a Can-do Person? A. Clearing Your Mind Read the following sentence… What do you think? ❚❚

Can humans lick their elbows?

B. What Would You Say? Read the dialogue and create a response to finish it in the blank space. Then read it aloud with ❚❚ a partner. Scene: It is a Friday evening and you and your friend are on a small uninhabited island. You came to the island by ferry, but missed the last boat home.

Dialogue

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Friend: I told you we should have gone back to the dock earlier. You: Sorry. It’s my fault, but don’t get so angry. What should we do? Friend: Well, we have no food and drink, and the next ferry won’t come till Monday morning. You: Give me a break! We have to spend the weekend here!? Friend: I guess so, let’s find shelter. (A day passes by and you have nothing to eat or drink. You wake up the next morning and…) A: What should we do for food? You: .........................................................................................................................

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C. Before The Test Read the example sentences, then choose the definition that matches the word. ❚❚ a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

deserted (   ) essential (   ) condensation (   ) distill (   ) tan (   ) shelter (   ) device (   ) storm (   ) horizon (   ) spear (   )

The room was deserted after the class. Saving money is essential for the trip next year. The condensation on the bottle makes the drink look very cold. We need to distill the water before we drink it to make it safe. I need a tan; my skin is so white. I found shelter from the rain. I need a device that can do my homework for me. The storm was very wet and windy. I love to relax by looking at the horizon from the beach. The Indians used spears to kill wild animals for food.

1. a place where there are no people 2. a object designed to do a job 3. drops of water that form when warm water cools 4. where the sky meets the land and the sea 5. important and necessary 6. a weapon with a sharp point 7. weather with strong wind and rain, and sometimes thunder 8. a light brown color 9. to make water pure by heating it, then collecting the gas as it cools 10. a place to live or stay and protect yourself from rain or danger

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D. The Test Read the sentences and choose the answers that best fit you. When you have finished, add up ❚❚ your score and read the description below. 1. What is the first thing you would do after being shipwrecked on a desert island? a. I would swim back to the wrecked ship and get essential supplies. b. I would relax on the beach and try to get a suntan. c. I would walk around the island and look for a restaurant. 2. What would you do for shelter? a. I would bring back wood and cloth from the wrecked ship. b. I would use leaves and branches to make a hut. c. I would dig a hole in the sand. 3. What would you do for food? a. I would make a spear and go fishing. b. I would make a bow and arrow and go hunting c. I would search the beach for food. 4. A storm is coming. What would you do? a. I would find higher ground and hide until the storm passed. b. I would wait in my hut. c. I would remember my teacher explaining how to take shelter under a tree and do it. 5. What would you do when you become thirsty? a. I would use plastic from the ship to trap condensation. b. I would try to make a device for distilling water. c. I would boil sea water and drink it. 6. You see wild pigs. What would you do? a. I would dig a hole and cover it with leaves to catch a pig. b. I would make a spear and chase them. c. I would ask myself: Do pigs make good pets? 7. You find some berries. What do you do? a. I would think they could be poisonous, so I wouldn’t touch them. b. I would wait for birds to eat them to see if they are safe. c. I would try them to see if they taste good.

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8. How would you try to escape from the island? a. I would keep a fire burning for smoke to go up at all times. b. I would scan the horizon for ships. c. I would put a message in a bottle and throw it in the ocean. 9. What would you do if you found a human footprint in the sand? a. I would be careful. The human might be dangerous. b. I would try to find the person for some company. c. I would hide so I wouldn’t have to share my coconuts. 10. A ship arrives and you are rescued. What would you do next? a. I would write a book and sell the film to Disney. b. I would go back to my family and start where I left off. c. I would ask the crew if I could bring my pet pig. Let’s see if you would be able to survive! ❚❚ Mostly c’s Some advice… never go to sea. You have no chance of surviving. You are someone who cannot live without the comforts of civilization. You even hate the sight of nature when just walking through the country. Mostly b’s Like most people, you would have difficulties at first. But after a few setbacks, you would develop the skills to survive. You would never give up. You would not enjoy it, but when rescued, you would be careful never to get stranded again. Mostly a’s You could be born on an island. You have great survival skills. You would find the experience a great adventure and be able to write a best-selling book. I am me!

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E. Thinking Further First, discuss the warm-up questions based on your personal experiences and ideas. Then read ❚❚ the passage. Afterwards, answer the questions according to the passage. • How long does it take you to get out of bed in the morning? • Do you eat breakfast every day? Do you drink coffee? • Are there things you do in your daily life that you wish you could avoid?

Hypersomnia! How many of you have a hard time getting out of bed in the morning? Hara Estroff Marano, in her article in the magazine Psychology Today, believes that it could be due to a slight case of depression. She asserts that the problem of getting out of bed is related to a person trying to escape daily routines and thoughts. From the moment we wake up, many of us think deeply about all the bad events that might occur in the forthcoming day. This forces a person to want to stay in bed. She says that sleep disturbance is a type of depression, and compared to insomnia, young people experience hypersomnia more often. This excessive sleep is a way to avoid a difficult day or life. A person suffering from hypersomnia wants to become isolated or avoid things. Avoidance is not a healthy way of coping. It is a way of victimizing the self when a person cannot handle a stressful situation. We must be strong and realize that escape, such as through sleep, gambling, or alcohol, will not solve depression. One should understand and gain the skills necessary to face life’s difficulties. There is no one else but yourself that can do it. One solution is to get structure in your life, as Marano suggests. Many feel better after a day that is structured. She asserts that we can feel much better and stronger when we develop this life skill than try to escape from it. Picking up a new hobby or setting a morning routine is a good way to start. For instance, you could set a time to wake up, and then spend the first hour every day exercising or reading the news. Another idea is to take this opportunity to try Morning English. This was popularized by Kenichiro Mogi, a famous brain scientist. He finds that morning is the best time to study English, because it is the only time of the day that the brain is fully refreshed and can take in a lot of information to be retained. In your morning routine, what kind of English learning can you try?

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F. Talk About It! Using the questions below, talk about if you are a Can-do person. Take 45 seconds to write ❚❚ down your thoughts, then give your response to your partner/group. (a) If you could take 3 things on a deserted island, what would they be? (b) Can you explain your daily life cycle? (c) What makes you feel lonely? Examples: Fumika Tsuzuki: I have to protect my skin from poisonous plants or dangerous bugs, so I will bring my favorite blanket. It can keep me warm, too. To survive, I will need a fire in many situations, for instance, cooking, keeping warm, scaring off wild animals, and making an SOS signal. Finally, to get fish or to get fruits from tall trees, a long spear will work wonderfully. Actually, I want to bring my phone to update my twitter, but it’s is not a priority now. Noriko Suzuki: I’ve always thought about these kinds of experiences. Since my lifecycle basically consists of eating and sleeping, all I would need is a knife, bucket, and some rope. The knife would be to get food in many different ways. I would use the bucket to catch rainwater and the rope to make a shelter. I think I could survive a few weeks. I would just try to start a fire with wood, and wait till help arrived.

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G. Write About It! Read the question below. Plan a response of 150 to 300 words in 20 minutes. Using detailed ❚❚ examples to support your ideas, write it. • Do you agree with the expression “Never give up”?

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Test 3 Are You Independent? A. Clearing Your Mind Read the following sentence… What do you think? ❚❚

Humans swallow many bugs in their sleep, including 4 spiders in their lifetime.

B. What Would You Say? Read the dialogue and create a response to finish it in the blank space. Then read it aloud with ❚❚ a partner. Scene: You are having a party this weekend and try to invite a classmate who doesn’t usually go to parties. You feel it would be a good chance to get to know that classmate.

Dialogue You: We would love you to come to our party this Friday. Classmate: Thanks, but… I have work every Friday evening till about 10. You: No problem, you can come right after work. The party will definitely still be going. Classmate: Yeah, but… I will be tired, and I don’t think I can get along with everyone. You: Come on… You’ll enjoy yourself! Besides, everyone wants you to come for sure. Classmate: Really!? I don’t know though… hmm… You: .........................................................................................................................

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C. Before The Test Read the example sentences, then choose the definition that matches the word. ❚❚ a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

redecorate (   ) My room design has not changed for 10 years. I need to redecorate. keep (sb) company (   ) If you are lonely or sad, I can keep you company. security guard (   ) How dangerous is a security guard’s job? organizer (   ) Can you be the organizer of the welcoming party this year? opportunity (   ) I hope to get a good opportunity for work to get money this year. catch up (   ) I have been sick and need to catch up with my homework. socialize (   ) I don’t like going to parties and socializing with other people. occasionally (   ) I usually prefer rock music, but I occasionally listen to jazz. put off (   ) We had a make-up exam, so we put off the trip until next month. relocate (   ) The security guard relocated my bicycle, so I couldn’t find it.

1. from time to time, sometimes, or now and then 2. to make an effort to reach a goal after a delay 3. a person who protects or guards an area or building 4. to change the appearance of something 5. to associate with or be in the company of other people 6. a person who leads, directs, or schedules something 7. to stay with someone so that they are not alone 8. to delay or postpone 9. a good or favorable chance 10. to move to a different place

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D. The Test Read the sentences and choose the answers that best fit you. When you have finished, add up ❚❚ your score and read the description below. 1. How would you redecorate your room? a. I would have a Redecorating Party and have my friends come and help. b. I would ask a few close friends to help and promise to cook them dinner. c. I would make my parents help me. d. I would do it by myself while listening to the radio. 2. What is your idea of heaven? a. It is a never-ending party with all my favorite people there. b. It is a place where I could visit my friends and family anytime, and they can visit me. c. It is a place where I could meet people or enjoy my own company as I wish. d. It is a place where I would never have to meet anyone unless necessary. 3. What would you do on your day off? a. I would plan a trip to the beach with my friends. b. I would visit an old friend who I haven’t seen in years. c. I would spend the day with my family. d. I would go hiking by myself. 4. How would you react? You have to finish work by staying late in an empty office. a. I would work very fast. I don’t like working alone, so I would have a coffee with the security guard. b. I would finish work quickly and have a friend pick me up after I finish. c. I would take my time, because it is nice to have some time alone. d. It is nothing new, because I usually spend my evenings like this. 5. What would you do at an office party your boss makes you go to? a. I would offer to be the organizer. I love parties. b. I would go and have a great time. c. I would try to enjoy the party because I had to go to it. d. For me, this is Hell, and I would leave at the first opportunity. 6. What would you do if your partner had to spend the weekend away at a conference? a. I would call all my friends and have a big party. b. I would ask my best friend to come over to watch movies. c. I would stay alone and catch up on some reading. d. I would bring home some work that needs to be finished.

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7. How do you use the Internet? a. It’s important for meeting new friends from all over the world. b. It’s useful for work, and I use sometimes use it for socializing too. c. I use it only for work, and occasionally send some email. d. I have been trying to create a virus. 8. What would you do if you wanted to go on vacation, but your friends couldn’t come too? a. I would look for a group vacation that I can join. b. I would go by myself, and try to make new friends. c. I would put off going on vacation until a friend is free. d. I would never take friends on vacation, because I prefer my own company. 9. What would you do about a promotion which you would have to relocate for? a. I would not accept it, because I could never leave my friends. b. I would relocate, but make great efforts to keep in touch with my friends. c. I would relocate and try hard to make new friends as soon as possible. d. I would relocate easily, because I don’t have close friends anyway. 10. What do you do to enjoy a day on the beach? a. I would go to the most popular beach, and try to find a spot in the middle of it. b. I would avoid popular beaches, and try to go to a quieter one. c. I would search for a beach that has lots of room, so I could get away from everyone. d. I would walk along the beach until I found a place with nobody around. Now add up your points and see if you are independent! (a-4; b-3; c-2; d-1) ❚❚ Less than 15 You are a loner with no desire for human contact. People irritate you most of the time and you are happier without them. You enjoy working on tasks alone and have a very good relationship with your computer. Although not unhappy, you are missing the personal growth gained from interaction with others. Could you try to be more sociable? 15-29 You are not bothered about being part of a group. Although comfortable with others around you, you also enjoy your own company. Your attitude is balanced and healthy. You will find yourself well, whether you have support of family, friends, and co-workers or not. 30-34 You are very passionate about being with other people, but can handle being alone occasionally. However, you would not cope with being alone for a long time. You really enjoy the excitement you get from others, but it would be good to realize you can be effective alone. 35-40 You are completely group-dependent and cannot live without friends. This is fine, but we all need moments when we need to be alone. Unfortunately, you cannot cope with this loneliness. You should try to build up some independence so you are not helpless when alone. It is possible—and can even be enjoyable—to do some things on your own. I am me!

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E. Thinking Further First, discuss the warm-up questions based on your personal experiences and ideas. Then read ❚❚ the passage. Afterwards, answer the questions according to the passage. • • • •

Do you value freedom? What does freedom mean to you? Who has power over your life? When you were a student, did you enjoy wearing a school uniform?

How YOU become YOU? As in Paul McCartney’s song Freedom, most people express their need for freedom. However, psychologist Erich Fromm suggests, in his book Escape from Freedom, that we do not want freedom, but actually try to escape from it. Fromm’s theory is a blend of Freudism and Marxism with his own. As we know, Freud thought personality was biologically determined, and Marx thought it developed from the society we live in. Fromm added the idea of freedom characterizing us. In fact, Fromm makes freedom the central characteristic of human nature. He suggested that with the idea of the individual, came thoughts, feelings, conscience, freedom, and responsibility, but also loneliness and confusion. Freedom is a difficult thing to have, and we tend to escape from it. Fromm describes three ways in which we try to escape from freedom: 1. Authoritarianism. Some people escape from freedom by becoming a part of an authoritarian system in two ways. One is to allow someone to control us; we become passive and just follow orders. The other is to become an authority and make other people follow us. 2. Destructiveness. Other people escape from freedom by removing themselves from the world. They ask themselves: if there is no me, how can anything hurt me? Or they escape by destroying others. They ask themselves: if I destroy the world around me, how can it hurt me? These questions lead to behaviors such as, humiliation, crime, and even terrorism. Fromm wrote that if a person’s desire to destroy something is blocked, that person becomes self-destructive, for instance, committing suicide. Certainly, people can also escape by drug addiction and alcoholism. 3. Automaton conformity. Because our society emphasizes equality, people can escape from freedom by hiding in mass culture. For instance, when we get dressed in the morning, there are so many decisions! But we only have to look at what other people are wearing and do the same, and our worries disappear. We could also look at the newspaper or television horoscope, and it will tell us what to wear and what to do! Which form of escape do you take? Fromm suggests that we adopt these characteristics from the types of families we grow up in. Was your family authoritative? Was anyone destructive? Did they try to blend in society too much?

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I am me!


F. Talk About It! Using the questions below, talk about independent you are. Take 45 seconds to write down your ❚❚ thoughts. Then give your response to your partner/group. (a) What are some things you could never do alone? (b) What do you usually do when you are alone? (c) Have you ever been or want to be a leader anything? Examples: Natsumi Fujikawa: I could never go to karaoke alone. I can go to the theater or a restaurant by myself, but I would feel a little weird if I went to karaoke alone. Perhaps I’m independent, but I need some friends when I want to enjoy something. When I ‘m alone, I clean or watch TV. I’ve wanted to be a leader before, because I thought I could collect all the members’ ideas and make the group better. Satoshi Fukuda: I think I am pretty independent. I usually go to movies, festivals, and restaurants alone. Many of my friends say I am weird. I don’t see anything wrong with it. I don’t have to worry about time or be anxious about anything. Don’t get me wrong though, I love to do these things with my friends. I just like to have time alone as well.

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G. Write About It! Read the question below. Plan a response of 150 to 300 words in 20 minutes. Using detailed ❚❚ examples to support your ideas, write it. • Should parents be the ones to make important decisions for their teenage children?

I am me!

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I Am Me!  

I Am Me!