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360-degree branding Institutions ‘surround’ consumers with various converged media forms to market/sell their products. (Disney) Above The Line Marketing (ATL) Refers to the ways of traditionally marketing a film; for example:  Trailers (Theatrical & teaser); Posters (Theatrical & teaser) TV/Radio spots; Print (magazine/billboard); website It also refers to the film company’s ability to create synergy (e.g., soundtracks/ games) and tieins with other (non-film) companies to promote the film Alternate Reality Game (ARG) An interactive networked narrative that uses the real world as a platform and uses transmedia storytelling to deliver a story. Animatics Digital storyboarding Apps Applications for smartphones. Institutions will frequently use these to involve the consumer (Prometheus) Audience General term that refers to the consumers of media Below The Line Marketing (BTL) Refers to the alternative ways of marketing a film; for example: Viral Marketing – Social networks: Facebook; Twitter; Instagram; YouTube etc. Blog Shortened version of web-blog. Ben Wheatley used this to keep fans informed of the development of A Field in England Brand identity The assets that define a company; including ethos, products and logo: Disney! CinemaForAll Development organisation for community-led cinema Conglomerate (Media) A media group or media institution that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, movies, and the Internet: Disney Corporation and 20th. Century Fox Consumption The way in which media is ‘consumed’ by an audience (e.g., cinema/DVD) Convergence Coming together of two or more things Co-option This is when new practices emerge that are completely incomprehensible to those who were fluent in the previous culture of film. For example, visual effects like CGI were impossible without digitization; e.g., Frozen. More radical practices have to do with how viewers consume, share, and reconstruct film. For example, Honest Trailers and fan ‘trailers’. Cross-media convergence Media industries produce and distribute across several media—e.g. advertising Prometheus’ website in the Wall Street Journal (both owned by Fox) Distribution The process of making a film available for viewing by an audience Exchange The buying and selling of goods (tickets) from institution to audiences. Alternatively, it can also represent the way in which audiences are ‘exchanging’ information regarding film via social networking (commenting-Twitter; updating a status)/YouTube (‘Honest Trailers’ and comments) and thus ‘marketing’ the films Exhibition The showing of a film in a cinema Franchise The practice of producing several derivative works from an original work; e.g., Frozen and The Hunger Games


Global Relating to the world Hardware In film this can be any form of equipment that a particular function; e.g., 3-D cameras or harddrives for digital projection Institution General term that refers to the producers of media Intellectual property Refers to the trademarks and designs created within films that remain copyrighted to the film company; e.g., ‘Olaf’ and the Mockingjay symbol Jigsaw Financing A term that refers to the ways in which (traditionally) independent production companies obtain financing for films. For example, Under The Skin and A Field in England both used finance from (amongst others) Film-4 and BFI lotter funding. Local audience A specific area of the country (e.g., Glasgow – Under the Skin) Localisation Utilising digital technology effectively for personal use that replaces an old practice. For example, buying tickets online and printing them off/collecting. Marketing Communicating a film’s availability for the purpose of promoting or selling it. Mass market A product (film) that is intended to appeal to a large audience (Frozen/Prometheus/Mockingjay) Media platform A specific way of media delivery Motion Posters An online moving representation of a film’s content for marketing purposes Multi-platform Refers to many ways a film can be accessed; e.g. online; Blu-ray; streaming; cinema National audience A large native population to a country Niche market A product (film) that tends to appeal to a limited audience (A Field in England/Under The Skin) Oligopoly A market structure in which a few companies dominate-the ‘Big-6’. Although only a few companies dominate, it is possible that many smaller companies may also operate in the market. On-demand A service provided for consumers to access films via their television OurScreen A UK based digital-social platform that enables film fans to create and attend screenings at their local cinema. Posters An illustrative representation of a film’s content for marketing purposes Pre-production The process of preparing a film for production Production The actual filming and sound recording Prosumer Evidence of the blurring of the lines between institution and audience. A person who both consumes and produces media; meaning "production by consumers". Post-production All stages of production occurring after the actual end of shooting and/or recording.


Pull-media The audience decides to what they do with the media in ways that suit them; how they access media (tablet; laptop; smartphone) Push-media The audience passively receive the media they are ‘given’; the ‘old’ model-specific ways of receiving media; e.g. going to the cinema to see films and trailers Simultaneous release A coordinated release of a film in all its formats (A Field in England) Second-screen app A downloadable application intended to enhance the DVD/Blu-ray viewing experience (Prometheus) Social networking New media services which act as online sites to connect people with similar interests Software Part of a computer's processor to perform specific operations Soundtrack Used to promote the film ahead of its release (synergy) Streaming A service provided for consumers to access films via their television Synergy One or more elements coming together to produce an effect greater that the individual parts; e.g., soundtrack and game to promote Frozen Technological convergence How technology can be used to make things come together in one place: e.g. Trailers An advertisement, usually in the form of a brief excerpt or string of excerpts Translation Old practices that are kept intact and imported into a new medium; e.g., a digital camera. Transmedia Storytelling The technique of telling a single story or story experience across multiple platforms and formats using current digital technologies. Viral marketing Marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networking services and other technologies

to raise awareness of films through, for example transmedia storytelling Vertical Integration As a vertically integrated company, Disney has control over all aspects of what it produces and distrbutes. For instance, instead of having other companies licensed to sell Disney merchandise, it has complete control over this part of the business.

EXAM Thursday May 18 9.00am



Institutions & audiences glossary