Page 1

AIR POLLUTION Pollution is a form of contamination of air, water and soil with substances and materials that are harmful to the environment and human health. It mostly refers to large cities and it is a very risky phenomenon for nature. Whether its origin is natural or human, air pollution produces temporary troubles, pathologies or permanent injuries, causing the death of many people too. The principal chemical elements that pollute the environment are: 

The carbon monoxide which derives from gasoline ; The nitrogen oxide which are two gases : nitrogen dioxide and the nitric oxide;

The hydrocarbons which are liquid organic particles;

The suspend particles which are small solid particles and volatile droplets

Pollution is very harmful to life. All human activities and the anthropic environment pollute the natural environment they interact with it, changing its original conformation.


BIOMASSES In the world there are two types of energies: exaurible (oil, uranium, etc…) that come from direct sources of energy and renewable energies (solar, wind, geothermic and biomasses ) regenerating themselves faster than they’re consuming themselves. Biomasses are the most innovated type of clean energy; in fact, in the decomposition of some organic substances, like wood and animals excrements, some gases are produced, like methane, that are used for the production of electric energy, for heating and for fuel supply. The biomasses are classificated on the basis of: 

Contents of water

Its vegetal and animal origins

vitality (if it contains alive or dead microorganism)

The biomasses are divided even in basis of its origin:  

Fitomasses (coming from vegetables) Zoomasses (coming from animals)

Biomasses (coming from microorganisms)

In the world the biomasses aren’t very popular, but in Europe their use is widespreading significantly and they are becoming an extensive source of clean energy. In Germany, UK and France the cultivation of biomasses is very much practiced 

Contents of water

Its vegetal and animal origins

vitality (if it contains alive or dead microorganism)

The biomasses are divided even in basis of its origin:  

Fitomasses (coming from vegetables) Zoomasses (coming from animals)

Biomasses (coming from microorganisms)

In the world the biomasses aren’t very popular, but in Europe their use is widespreading significantly and they are becoming an extensive source of clean energy. In Germany, UK and France the cultivation of biomasses is very much practiced the same in Italy too!!


What are they?

The word biomass means all biological and biodegradable materials. Biomasses include firewood, residual of agricultural and industrial products, but also specifically grown plants used to produce energy. From the historical point of view, the concept of biomass has been introduced in the twenties of the twentieth century. At the time, the scientist Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (1863-1945) tried to assess what was the mass of all living beings. He presented his estimates for the first time in 1922 or 1923, when he held his geochemistry conference in Paris. An essay for the conference was published in 1924 in French. After further consideration, Vernadsky followed a little book in the Russian language. In his reflections, Vernadsky didn't use the concept of "biomass", it was introduced a year later. The introduction of this word came about thanks to the German zoologist Reinhard Demoll (1882-1960). The term was taken over in 1931 by oceanographer Zenkevich Lev Aleksandrovich (1889-1970). A widespread use of the biomass is found throughout Italy. Some plants, like that of Dobbiaco, produce heat and biomass is used in western countries especially in the

nearby of the mountains. This is because transport distances are smaller. In Italy there are few biomass plants. All these materials can be reused to: 

Direct production of biological fuel (biofuel) The biofuel is a liquid combustible used in means of transport instead of traditional fuel and thermal energy.

Production of electricity and thermal energy (biopower) They can be turned into combustible to produce electricity and thermal energy.

Production of chemical compounds (bioproducts) They represent biomasses used to produce energy and to contribute to food industry.

Advantages of biomass Biomass is a renewable energy source, able to reform itself in a relatively short time and this is one of its main advantages. The exploitation of biomass for energy purposes can play a strategic role, contributing to the sustainable development of the planet. A widespread use of biomass can be a significant consequence to the economical, environmental and employment saving, as they can provide: 

The use of the agroindustrial residues;

New employment opportunities;

Energy independence.

New technologies: photovoltaic No sector in recent years has had a so rapid transformation as that of renewable energies. First of all there is the photovoltaic technology, an alternative energy that is becoming popular all over the world. A low-cost system: photovoltaic technology is one of latest generation energies, able to bring down the cost of energy. In fact, thanks to under investigation panels consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, cadmiu-tellurium and cadmium sulphide, the cost of photovoltaic panels should continue to fall, making their installation advantageous. Not to mention a new solar cell system, being tested too, which should triple the energy production. A truly innovative study was carried out by researchers at the University of Cambridge, who developed an organic photovoltaic system using low-cost materials such as long carbon chains that reproduce what is photosynthesis. This technology allows the creation of unrollable panels that can be applied directly to the building structures or windows, thus becoming embellishments. Technologies improvement: Norway. The latest invention is that of transparent amorphous silicon panels, that integrate fully with the building, turning the direct sunlight into spread light and creating in this way a high aesthetic effect. From Norway, moreover, comes the amazing invention of a spray that should be able to sprinkle particles on the buildings systems. This technology is truly innovative, if we think these transparent metal nanoparticles can be placed on any surface such as planes, cars, windows and more. Therefore, in 2016, when this device will be on the market, we’ll have more clean energy in the environment, thanks to renewable energies!

IIB C. Bubola, L. Rossi, N. Emanuele, B. Jashari.


Wind power is the convertion of wind energy into a more useful form of energy. It is a cycle thus functioning: through the use of turbines producing electricity, wind mills produce mechanical power; in other words, wind pumps water and water generates motion. Bing wind forms are made up of hundreds of individual wind turbines connected to the transmission of electricity. Wind provides more energy and has a lower visual impact, however the costs of implementation and maintenance are noticeably very high. Nowadays electric companies buy always more excessive electricity produced by small domestic turbines. Wind energy is an alternative form of energy to fossil fuels and it is renewable and supporting green economy. Moreover wind is a stable source form all year and in all seasons, but the significant intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when it is used to provide up to 20% of the total demand for electricity . If the demand is higher, there is need of special care to the distribution network and the conventional production capacity isn’t enough.

IIB Maria Teresa-Martina-Luca-Simone S.

Instituto Omnicomprensivo Statale “S.Pertini�

Renewable energy sources Awareness of energy consumption, conservation of energy, green or renewable sources of energy have become fashionable topics of conversation. Energy consumption has increased exponentially; faster than the growing need can be satisfied from conventional sources, by conventional means. We need to find ways of producing and distributing the energy, this insatiable thirst demands, without endangering the rights of future generations to live in a clean and sustainable environment. Since the current generation of pupils, our students, will become the energy professionals of the future, we need to promote an energy conscious approach in education. In their future role as energy professionals, they will have to face these issues and solve the associated problems. Therefore, it is never too early to foster awareness and introduce conscious reflection on energy uses and conservation. Perhaps the most important point about energy consciousness is coming to understand, that the most valuable energy is the energy you do not consume. According to one study, by 2030, individuals and firms will increase their energy consumption by 59 percent. Even in the future, 85 percent of the increased need will be served by coal, oil and gas (so called fossil fuels). Developing countries, primarily China and India will be responsible for two-thirds of the increased consumption. Fewer and fewer countries will produce more and more oil. Though the use of wind-, hydro-, and other renewable energy sources will increase, in total, they will not exceed two percent of the total global energy production. The Earth’s renewable energy sources constitute natural phenomena that are suitable for energy production, renew themselves without significant intervention, and become useable again in a timeframe that is useful on the human scale. Solar, wind, hydro, geothermal energies are all renewable resources. Among them, geothermal energy is the most favourable in our country. The name geothermal energy, also known as terrestrial heat reflects the interaction of the soil (geo-) and temperature (thermal). The temperature of the rocks gradually increases as one descends from the Earth's surface toward its core. Where water is found, the rocks heat the water, and this heated water can be used in many ways. In Iceland, for example, the water temperature is so high in some places that it can be used to power steam turbines for the production of electricity and industrial purposes. In our country there is no such example. However, a geothermal power plant has been erected in Målyi, near Miskolc (the largest one in Central Europe!), which provides heat for the district heating system of Miskolc, thus satisfying part of their energy needs from renewable sources.

We can feel the beneficial effect of the earth's heat on our skin in both abstract and physical ways. While taking advantage of the thermal baths is a way of life for many people or even a hobby for others in our country, we must bear in mind, that this is a natural phenomenon that is not available everywhere on earth. It is an example of the recreational use of a form of renewable energy.

Comenius Team from Aldas Utcai Altalanos Iskola – Budapest, Hungary

Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency Electric Cars Electric cars use an on-board battery to store electrical energy, which is recharged by connecting it to an electricity supply When required, energy is drawn from the electric-cells and converted to motive power by the use of one or more electric motors.

A battery is constructed from stacking individual electro-chemical 'cells', each of which produces a voltage (typically 2V) that is the result of a chemical reaction within the cell.

We already have the technology we need to cure our addiction to oil, stabilize the climate and maintain our standard of living, all at the same time. By transitioning to sustainable technologies, such as solar and wind power, we can achieve energy independence and stabilize human-induced climate change.

The first electric cars appeared in the 1880s. Electric cars were popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century.While an electric car's power source is not explicitly an on-board battery, electric cars with motors powered by other energy sources are generally referred to by a different name: an electric car powered by sunlight is a solar car, and an electric car powered by a gasoline generator is a form of hybrid car. Thus, an electric car that derives its power from an onboard battery pack is a form of battery electric vehicle.

Although the lead-acid battery was the most common electric vehicle battery until the late 1990s, the latest generation of rechargeable cells includes lithium-ion (Li-Ion) and lithiumpolymer (Li-Poly) cells.

The future of battery electric vehicles depends primarily upon the cost and availability of batteries with high specific energy, power density, and long life, as all other aspects such as motors, motor controllers, and chargers are fairly mature and cost-competitive with internal combustion engine components. Diarmuid O'Connell, VP of Business Development at Tesla Motors, estimates that by the year 2020 30% of the cars driving on the road will be battery electric.

Acigol Ilkogretim Okulu, Nevsehir / Turkey

Choose the right light - Types of light bulbs Incandescent light bulbs

In incandescent (traditional) bulbs, most electricity is transformed into heat. Wolfram vacuum heats up to 2500 degrees Celsius, and a side effect of such high temperaturesis the release of visible light. Only 5% of the energy supplied to the bulb is converted into light.

Compact Fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs) In the fluorescent lamp principle of operation is different. Fluorescent lamp is a phosphor coated glass tube filled with inert gas and a small amount of mercury. The light is produced by the electric unloading over the whole length of the tube. Thanks to these lamps emit much less warm and they are therefore more efficient than traditional light bulbs.

Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Light-emitting diodes utilize the principles of electroluminescence. They provide very high brightness and efficiency . LEDs have many advantages including lower energy consumption (about 85% less than traditional bulbs). The lifetime is much longer, up to 50 thousand hours. They are also praised for their physical robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.

Incandescent light bulbs

Compact Fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs)

Light Emitting Diodes (LED)

Life Span (average)

1200 hours

8000 hours

50000 hours

Watts of electricity used (equivalent to 60 watt)

60 watts

14-16 watts

6-8 watts

Kilo-watts of Electricity used (30 Incandescent Bulbs per year equivalent)


770 kWh/yr.


Annual Operating Cost (30 Incandescent Bulbs per year equivalent)





LED light bulbs: Comparison charts - Solutions for Sustainable Living. [online]. [cit. 2014-02-09]. Dostupné z: Porównanie żarówki led, świetlówki i żarówki tradycyjnej. In: [online]. [cit. 2014-0209]. Dostupné z:

Zakladni skola s polskym jazykem vyucovacim, Szkola Podstawowa z Polskim Jezykiem Nauczania Vendryně / CZECH REPUBLIC

The Ecological footprint What does „ecological footprint” mean? The ecological footprint is a method to define the space of earth in ha which is necessary for our lifestyle and standard of life. This includes the surface which is needed to produce clothing and food,to provide energy or recycle produced waste. The idea was developed by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees in. Wackernagel is the founder of the Global Footprint Network. Supporters of the foundation are the nobel prize laureate Wangari Maathai, founder of the Worldwatch Institute Lester R. Brown and Ernst Ullrich von Weizsäcker. How can you define your own ecological footprint? First we answered a few questions about our own consumption of energy, our relation to food (considering meat and other animal products like milk or eggs), travelling, means of traffic and housing. How can you define your own ecological footprint? First we answered a few questions about our own consumption of energy, our relation to food (considering meat and other animal products like milk or eggs), travelling, means of traffic and housing. Next we calculated our own ecological footprint. Then we created several feet out of paper to show our individual consumption of everything mentioned above. You can see the results at the pictures. How many students attended to this event? Approximately 300 students of the Regino-Gymnasium Prüm took part and created their own ecological footprint. As you can see in the photos there are feet which are smaller and some that are taller. The bigger the footprint the worse is your negative influence on the earth. Means: the smaller your footprint, the better is your lifestyle for our world. Ten possibilities to reduce the size of your own individual ecological footprint:

1. Ride your bicycle more often instead of using emission-producing means of traffic 2. Carpool 3. Use less plastic products 4. Eat less animal products such as meat out of factory farming 5. use energy saving bulbs 6. regulate your heating system in the different seasons 7. avoid travelling by plane 8. buy fair-trade products 9. buy products out of your own region 10. wash your clothes using economic programs and reduce the temperature Tamara Klasen sources: [10.04.2014]

Regino-Gymnasium Pr端m / Germany

Saving energy at home and in school We can reduce the amount of energy used every day by doing some easy activities and what’s more we can protect our environment in that way. 1 – EASY WAYS TO SAVE ENERGY AT HOME AND IN SCHOOL:

• Use daylight during the day. • Customise the type of lighting to work you do. • Use dispersed light directed to the walls or ceiling only when needed (it allows to use only half of light emission). • Switch off unnecessary light. • Use energy saving light bulbs in places where lights are used most often. • Switch off the light when you leave your place. • Don’t leave devices in stand-by position. Switch them off if not used. • Switch off the devices which aren’t used at the moment (like TV, printer, interactive whiteboard or DVD player). • Make sure your computer is enabled to hibernate and screen saver. • Take care of thermal insulation in buildings. Insulation reduces unwanted overheating in summer and cooling in winter. • Ventilate the rooms at night when temperatures are lower. • Shade the rooms – you can use curtains or blinds (inside or outside the building). • Don’t overheat the rooms (you’d better wear warm clothes and lower the heating temperature).


• Use a lid when cooking. It keeps the heat inside the pot and its content is cooked much faster. • Adjust the size of the pot to the burner or hob. • Use energy, that remains after disconnection of ceramic plate for cooking dishes, melting of butter etc. • Use energy efficient appliances. • If possible, turn the dishwasher on only full of dishes. • Avoid washing up at high temperatures (above 60 degrees Celsius). • Use the ecological programme (it has the lowest energy consumption). • If possible, connect the hot and cold water. • Avoid washing at high temperatures. • If possible turn on the washing machine only when is full. • Sellect the appropriate spin speed for fabrics that you wash. • Clean the filters regularly. • Place the refrigerator away from heat sources (eg. cooker). • Make sure that the back of the fridge has enough space to ensure the free movement of heat output. • Do not put hot food in the fridge, allow it to cool. • Do not open the refrigerator without the need. • If your fridge does not have an automatic defrosting it should de regularly defrosted. • Keep the seal on the door in a good condition. • Select the proper size of the boiler for your family (the smaller the tank, the less energy is needed to heat it). • Take a shower instead of having a bath. • Set the timer so that you have warm water when you need.


This is the second e-newspaper realized by all partners of the Comenius-project „Save natural energy for future generations“. The first e-newspaper deals with water saving techniques, you can find et on the website, too.

Second e newspaper  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you