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‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻘـــــﺪﻣــﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻼﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺧﺎﰎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﺳﻠﲔ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺻﺤﺒﻪ ﻭﺳﻠـﻢ ﺃﲨﻌﲔ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣــــﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻲ )‪ (SKETCH UP‬ﻳﻌﺘﱪ ﻣـــﻦ ﺍﻟﱪﺍﻣـــﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻴﺰﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻳﺴﻬﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻤــﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ ﻓﻴــﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﻫﻨﺪﺳﻴﺔ ﺛﻼﺛﻴــــﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻗﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓــــ‪،‬ﺓ ﺇﱃ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺘــﺎﺝ ﺭﺳﻮﻡ ﺛﻨﺎﺋﻴـــﺔ ﺍﻷﺑﻌــﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﲞﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺳﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪.‬ﻳﻘﻮﺩﻙ ﻫــﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘــﺎﺏ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻌﻠـــﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣــﺞ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠــــﺔ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ﺧﻄﻮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠـــــﻰ ﺃﺳﺲ ﻭﻣﺒـﺎﺩﻯء‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠـﻢ ﻣــﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺑﺪﻗـــﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻴـﺔ ﺭﺳﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﻫﻲ ﺃﺩﻕ ﻭﺃﺟـﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘــــــﻲ ﳛﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ‪.‬ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎ ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣــﺞ ﻛﻐﲑﻩ ﻣـﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻣــــﺞ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳍﻨﺪﺳﻲ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺑﻌــﺪ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻋـ‪،‬ﱃ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻭﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺎﺗـﻪ ﰲ‬

‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻴـﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺮﺳﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ ﻓﻬــــﻮ ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺮﻑ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﻓﺮﺓ ﻓـــﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻔﺘﻘﺪ ﳊﺲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪1‬آ ب  ‪-‬اب ااد‬ ‫اس اف‬


‫ﺍﻟـﻔﺼـــﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺼﻴــﺐ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣــﺞ ‪Sketch- UP v5‬‬ ‫ـ ا  م  ا ـ ـ ا ص ول ـــــة ‪  ! ،‬ا رة رـ" )‪(١‬‬ ‫ ‪+,-.‬م ‪ ،‬أي أ ّ‬ ‫ن &ل )‪ 0  ! (Authorization Dialog‬ا ‪ 0 12‬و‪/‬‬ ‫إآ‪-‬ل ا  ‪78 ،‬ذا آن ‪& 34‬ل )‪:) ، (Keygen‬رة ر" ‪: (٢‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(١‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(٢‬‬ ‫‪ 3@-4‬إد>ل أ!‪  8 = 8 3-‬ا " ا ‪,‬ي و ر" &ل )‪، (Authorization‬‬ ‫أد>‪ -.‬ه ! ‪ 0-/‬ا  رة دا‪ ، B-C‬وإن " ‪0-/ ,8 ، -@.-A @A‬‬ ‫ت ‪. E8‬‬ ‫ن ! ٍ‬ ‫ا  ‪ِ -I‬‬

‫‪2‬‬


‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﳌﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪: (٣‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(٣‬‬

‫ أ  !" وذ ‪: K. LM-  E1N  3‬‬ ‫‪File‬‬

‫‪New‬‬

‫‪   4‬ا ‪ 2-‬ا‪O8  (Top View) K.‬ة ا !" و أ !" ‪ /‬‬ ‫و‪ /‬و‪ TU‬ا ‪ 0@2‬او ‪ = S‬م ‪ PQR‬ا !" وذ ‪: 3‬‬ ‫‪File‬‬

‫‪Save As‬‬

‫‪O8   A‬ة )‪:) (Save As‬رة ر" ‪: (٤‬‬

‫‪3‬‬


โ€ซ๏บป๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“โ€ฌ โ€ซ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูคโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช W Xโ€ฌู…โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7โ€ฌุฏ>ู„โ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช"!Yโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช+-โ€ฌุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช"!.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช4Zโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃู…โ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช. E1N "I (File Nameโ€ฌู€โ€ช Kโ€ฌุฒุฑ )โ€ชQX " 8 LM-  (Saveโ€ฌู€โ€ช Pโ€ฌุง !" โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌูˆ\โ€ชXโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชPโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ]ุฑ ุงโ€ช S8 "!Yโ€ฌุฃโ€ชO8 K.โ€ฌุฉ ุง !"  ุง โ€ช BZโ€ฌุง โ€ช,โ€ฌู‰ )ุง ุฑุฉ ุฑ" โ€ช(ูฅโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ๏บ๏ปŸ๏บผ๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“ ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูฅโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆโ€ช S8โ€ฌุฃ!โ€ช8 0Qโ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุฉ ุง !"  ุง โ€ช BZโ€ฌุง โ€ช,โ€ฌู‰ !ู‰ โ€ช E4Lโ€ฌุง โ€ช Rโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช(Status Bar) Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช  4โ€ฌุง !โ€ช 0Cโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช X\-โ€ฌุช ุง โ€ชX B--โ€ฌู„ ุขโ€ช 0โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ โ€ชO ุŒโ€ฌุง  ุง โ€ชNโ€ฌูˆุฑูŠ ุง   ุฅ =โ€ฌ โ€ซุฃโ€ชIโ€ฌุก ุง โ€ช:) 0-/โ€ฌุฑุฉ ุฑ" โ€ช(ูฆโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ๏บ๏ปŸ๏บผ๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“ ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูฆโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช8โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Sโ€ฌุง โ€ช BZโ€ฌุง โ€ช E4L  K-โ€ฌุง โ€ช B Rโ€ฌู‡ โ€ชO8 3โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช 1:โ€ฌุฉ โ€ชO8 K-,Aโ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ชB-   "@Rโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช W X (Value Control Boxโ€ฌุง!โ€ช T b, bโ€ฌุง โ€ช 0-/โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช S8 Bโ€ฌุง  โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุขโ€ช-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฐุข &โ€ช78 ู‹ Qโ€ฌู† โ€ชO8โ€ฌุฉ ุง !" )โ€ช  A (Drawing Windowโ€ฌุง โ€ช 2-โ€ฌุงโ€ชK.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช (Top Viewโ€ฌูˆุฐ โ€ช S/4 3โ€ฌุฃโ€ช  A 3โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌ ู€ู€ ุงโ€ช . K.โ€ฌูˆ โ€ชR.โ€ฌู„ โ€ชK.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ  ุฃโ€ช S8 0N8โ€ฌุง โ€ชNQโ€ฌุก ุง โ€ช ู‘ g . SI\hโ€ฌุฏุฑโ€ช Bfโ€ฌุฑุคโ€ช B4โ€ฌุง โ€ช 2-โ€ฌูˆ โ€ช 0-/โ€ฌุฐ โ€ชT b,A 3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง> ุฑ โ€ช2โ€ฌู€ู€ )โ€ช (ISOโ€ฌุง โ€ช ",Z-โ€ฌู€ู€ โ€ช E4Lโ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง โ€ช2-  "@Rโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ ุง  !โ€ชSโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช:) (Standard View Toolbar Controlโ€ฌุฑุฉ ุฑ" โ€ช(ูงโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช4โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซ๏บป๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“ ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูงโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ุง โ€ชb+โ€ฌู€ุท ุฐุงุช ุง ุงู† ุง โ€ช BI\hโ€ฌุง โ€ชf-โ€ฌุฏุฉ โ€ชO8 S8โ€ฌุฉ ุง !" ูˆุง โ€ช/-โ€ฌุฉ โ€ชjA N/ Tโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅ โ€ชR Kโ€ฌู€ู€ูˆุฑ ุง !" ุง โ€ช W X ุŒ BI\hโ€ฌุฃู† ุง โ€ช.โ€ฌู† ุงโ€ช4 -Xโ€ฌู€โ€ช jโ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฑ โ€ช ุŒ Xโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช.โ€ฌู†โ€ฌ โ€ซุง>โ€ช j4 Nโ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุฑ โ€ช W X ุŒ Yโ€ฌุฃู† ุง โ€ช,-โ€ฌูŠ ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช 4Oโ€ฌุง โ€ช4  .โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช jโ€ฌุฅ โ€ชKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช,โ€ฌูŠ ุงุฑุถ โ€ช W Xโ€ฌู… !" ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุฃู€ู€ ุง โ€ช.โ€ฌู† ุง โ€ช W hโ€ฌูˆู‡ ุงุฒุฑู‚ โ€ช j 8โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฑ โ€ช ุŒ Zโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช 0h-4โ€ฌุงโ€ช K.โ€ฌูˆุง!โ€ช:) ุŒ 0Qโ€ฌุฑุฉ ุฑ" โ€ช(ูจโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ๏บป๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“ ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูจโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซุฃูŠ ุฃู† ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฑ โ€ช Zโ€ฌู‡ ุง โ€ช /โ€ฌุง โ€ช 0@2. W hโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ชR4โ€ฌู„ ุงโ€ช@Lโ€ฌู„ ุง โ€ช B Chโ€ฌุฅ โ€ช B I\I Kโ€ฌุงโ€ช/โ€ฌุฏโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆโ€ช oRAโ€ฌุง โ€ช E42โ€ฌุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช 8  4โ€ฌู€= ุฅ!" ุง โ€ช p.-โ€ฌุง โ€ช Rโ€ฌู€โ€ชf4 ุŒ Sโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ โ€ช E4Lโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช "Cโ€ฌุง โ€ชB ,-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ชR4โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช -fโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Tโ€ฌุฃูˆุงู€ ุง ู€ู€ ูˆุง โ€ช @-  \>  Sโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ ุง โ€ช:โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ ุฅ โ€ชKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช BqLโ€ฌุง โ€ช,-โ€ฌุฉ ูˆโ€ช T -fโ€ฌุงุฏูˆุงุช ุง โ€ช8-โ€ฌุฉ ูˆโ€ช :โ€ฌุง !" โ€ช:) ุŒโ€ฌุฑุฉ ุฑ" โ€ช(ูฉโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ๏บป๏ปฎ๏บญ๏บ“ ๏บญ๏ป—๏ปข )โ€ช(ูฉโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช5โ€ฌโ€ฌ


‫و‪fA‬ــ ‪4L oRA‬ـــــ‪ E‬ا ا‪ "C‬ا ‪ E4L B ,-‬ادوات ا  ! ‪(Standard Toolbars) B‬‬ ‫وا ‪O‬ي ‪R4‬ي ‪ p.+‬ادوات ا ‪ fR4 S‬ر!" ا ‪-‬ــــــذج وأدوات ا ‪ 0-/‬وا ‪/‬ض‬ ‫ا ‪ Bs  S8 0-/. fR S‬ا  )‪:‬رة ر" ‪ ، (١٠‬و و‪ TU‬ا ‪K. LM-‬‬ ‫أي أداة !  ‪ uUA BR -.A‬إ!" آ‪ 0‬أداة ‪.‬‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﻗﻢ )‪(١٠‬‬ ‫ورة ـــــــــــ‪ T -f B‬ادوات ‪ K. E1N  E2A‬اداة ا ‪  B:+‬ا ‪-‬اد‬ ‫ا!‪. = -/‬‬ ‫و‪,4 K.‬ر ا ‪O8‬ة ورة ‪-‬د‪ "4 B4‬و‪ TU‬ادوات ا ‪ h@4 S‬ا!‪+‬ا ‪0,‬‬ ‫ا ‪:‬ل إ  ‪ 0h‬أدوات ا !ـ" وأدوات ا ‪ 04/‬وأدوات ا @ــــ‪ B‬وا‪/‬د و‪ g‬ه‬ ‫)ا رة ا ‪-/‬د‪,4 B4‬ر ا ‪. (BL2‬‬ ‫ا  رة ‪ E , B‬و!‪ 0‬ا ‪ ، "./‬و‪. S!  j =-./A @-4‬إن أ!س‬ ‫‪ 0- B4q‬ا  ‪ S8 -@4‬ي ا !" ‪b+.‬ـــــط وا ‪ . wf‬ا ‪b+‬ط ه‪S‬‬ ‫ا!س ‪@Lx‬ل ‪ y4q  W X ،‬ا‪ 0- "4 N/  A‬إ‪q‬رات ا ‪ wf‬ا ‪S‬‬ ‫وره ‪ 3. EAA‬ا ‪b+‬ط ‪. ً .-‬إن وـــــ‪ B‬ا ‪ =./ZA " -‬أ "  آ‪  h‬‬ ‫ا ا ا>ى ‪ ،‬آ‪ -‬أن ‪ 8‬ـــــ= >‪ B :‬ا ‪ R,‬وا ‪wf. (Push & Pull) T8‬‬ ‫ ‪ 0 @2‬أ‪,f‬م ‪ B I\I‬ا‪/‬د  ‪ ،‬وا ‪ K. -/A wf‬ا ‪b+‬ط وا ‪RA S‬د ‪، A8X‬‬ ‫ ‪78 3 O‬ن ‪OX‬ف ‪8X‬ـــــ‪OR4 B‬ف ا ‪ =f‬ا ا‪   E‬ا ‪8R‬ت ‪ ،‬و‪OX‬ف ا ‪OR4 Y =f‬ف‬ ‫ا ‪8R‬ت ا ‪RA S‬د‪:) ، w‬رة ر" ‪ ١١‬و ‪(١٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺭﺗﲔ )‪ ١١‬ﻭ ‪(١٢‬‬

‫‪6‬‬


โ€ซุงุฑ!ูู€ู€" ูˆโ€ช2+A Yโ€ฌู€โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌูˆ ู€ู€ู€โ€ชBโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฃุขโ€ชhโ€ฌู‡ โ€ช B /8โ€ฌู‡โ€ช Sโ€ฌุฃู† โ€ชAโ€ฌู…  !"โ€ฌ โ€ซู‡ โ€ชq 3โ€ฌู‚ โ€ช4โ€ฌุฉ !" ุงโ€ช@Lโ€ฌู„ โ€ช S8โ€ฌุง  ูˆ @ ูŽโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ุŒ Bq,โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ชX (Line Tool) Eโ€ฌู€ู€ู‡ โ€ช/Aโ€ฌุถ โ€ช B .โ€ฌุข ุฉ โ€ช ุŒ NA Yโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 0-/,Aโ€ฌู€โ€ช Tโ€ฌุงุฏูˆุงุช ุง>ู‰ โ€ช uAโ€ฌู€ู€ ุฃู‰ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง !" โ€ช -โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€" ุงโ€ช@Lโ€ฌู„ โ€ชB I\Iโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช/โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง !" โ€ช S8โ€ฌุง  โ€ช =24โ€ฌุง โ€ชN K. oRโ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ช ุŒ oRโ€ฌูˆุฅู† โ€ช 0Qโ€ฌุงโ€ชY!Yโ€ฌู„ โ€ช SI\Iโ€ฌุงโ€ช/โ€ฌุฏโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช =24โ€ฌุง โ€ชb,-โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ชb+โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุท ูˆุง โ€ช4,-โ€ฌุช โ€ช S8โ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ โ€ช 0R 0RAโ€ฌุง โ€ชh.h-โ€ฌุช ูˆุง}โ€ชqโ€ฌุฑุงุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช. B-4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅุฃ ุง !" ูˆู† ุง โ€ช  y.โ€ฌู… โ€ช Bbโ€ฌุงโ€ช/โ€ฌุฏ ูˆู… ุง โ€ช 3ู‘@-4 W X ุŒ Bโ€ฌุง  โ€ฌ โ€ซุฅุฏ>ู€ู€ู„ ุง  ู€ู€" ุง โ€ช4A Sโ€ฌู‡ โ€ชO8 S8โ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ช@Rโ€ฌู€ู€"   โ€ช2A K B-โ€ฌุก โ€ช -U  ุŒโ€ฌุฐ โ€ช 3โ€ฌุฅุฏ>ู„โ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช8,-โ€ฌุช ูˆุงโ€ชqโ€ฌุงู„ ูˆุฃู ุงโ€ชbโ€ฌู€ู€ุฑ ูˆโ€ช gโ€ฌู‡ ูˆ โ€ช B41โ€ฌุง โ€ช 3โ€ฌุฅ ู€ู€โ€ช Kโ€ฌุฃุฏุง ูุฉ ุฃูˆ ุฃู€ู€ู€ู€ ู &>โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช T b,Aโ€ฌุฅุฏ>ู„  ู‘" โ€ชR  g 0ู @2โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุก ุง !" ุงโ€ช K. E1Uโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช! ุŒ b 2 (Line Tool) Eโ€ฌู‰ ุฃู† ุง โ€ชLM-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซ! โ€ช =.@L  1โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชX ุŒ ". 0@L Kโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชO8 K. Bb Kโ€ฌุฉ ุง !" โ€ช "ู‘ I ุŒโ€ฌุงุข~ โ€ชBbโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ชX "I B4โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช  -โ€ฌูˆ!ู‰ โ€ชRAโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช T E+โ€ฌุง โ€ช "I ุŒ LM-โ€ฌุงโ€ชK. E1Uโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Tโ€ฌุง โ€ช Bbโ€ฌุง โ€ช} B hโ€ฌุก ุง โ€ช ุŒ E+โ€ฌูˆ โ€ช1โ€ฌุถ ุฑ!" >โ€ชQ K. E1N >& Eโ€ฌุญ )โ€ช(ESCโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ}ุก โ€ช B .-โ€ฌุฑ!" ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Eโ€ฌุงูˆู„ ูˆ ุฃ !" ุง โ€ช E+โ€ฌุง โ€ช4 ู‹ b> "! ุŒ Shโ€ฌุงุฒูŠ ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ชX\ -Xโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Pโ€ฌุฃู† ู† ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Eโ€ฌุฃโ€ช -Xโ€ฌูˆโ€ช Z =R -.A  Aโ€ฌุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Eโ€ฌุขู โ€ช"On  .โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ"โ€ช Axisโ€ฌูˆโ€ช 0โ€ฌุฃู† ู…  โ€ช K. E1Nโ€ฌุง โ€ช Bbโ€ฌุง โ€ช B hโ€ฌู… โ€ช  1โ€ฌุงโ€ช8 wZAYโ€ฌู‰ โ€ชAโ€ฌู„ ู†โ€ฌ โ€ซู† ุง โ€ช O+4 E+โ€ฌู† ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฑ ุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช4โ€ฌุงุฒโ€ช. =4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช /4 " = E+โ€ฌุงุฒโ€ชR-. ู‹4โ€ฌุฑ โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุฃูŠ ุฃ ู‘โ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช7โ€ฌโ€ฌ


‫ﺍﻟـﻔﺼـــﻞ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ‪Sketch UP 5‬‬ ‫ﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺳﺒﻖ ﺗﻨﺼﻴﺒﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻛﺮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼـﻞ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺿﻐــــﻂ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻳﻘﻮﻧﺔ ﺍﻹﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ‪.‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ﰎ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﰲ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻣﻴﻊ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺩﺍ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻇﺎﺋﻔﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ‬

‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮﺍﺭ ﻭﺑﻜﺜﺮﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺷﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬

‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺃﻗﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺿﻌﺖ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ﺍﳌﻨﺴﺪﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬


‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺟﺰﺍء ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻳـﻂ ﺍﻟـﻌـﻨـﻮﺍﻥ )‪ ، ( Title Bar‬ﻭﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ )‪ ، (Drawing view‬ﻭﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫)‪ ، (Status Bar‬ﻭﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ )‪. (Value Control Box‬‬

‫‪ ١‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺍﻟـﻌـﻨـﻮﺍﻥ )‪: (TiTle Bar‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﰲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻳﻜﺘﺐ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻪ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻭﲜﺎﻧﺒﻪ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Untitled‬ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺪﺧـﻞ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺘﻮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺪ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﳌﻠﻒ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﺳﻢ ﻟــﻪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﻻﺳﻢ ﺍﶈﻔﻮﻅ ﰲ ﻫـﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﻠﻒ ﺁﺧــــــﺮ ﳏﻔﻮﻅ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﰲ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺳﻴﻈﻬﺮ ﺍﲰﻪ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺣﻔﻆ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٢‬ـ ﻧـﺎﻓـﺬﺓ ﺍﻟـﺮﺳـﻢ )‪: (Drawing View‬‬

‫ً‬ ‫ﻭﻫــﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓـﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﲢــﺪﺩ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳـــﻢ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﺑﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺗﻐﻴﲑ ﻭﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺇﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ ‪ XZY‬ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﶈﺎﻭﺭ )‪. (Axis Tools‬‬

‫‪9‬‬


‫‪ ٣‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺍﻟـﺤـﺎﻟـﺔ )‪: (Status Bar‬‬ ‫ﰲ ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﻓــﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻳﻮﺟــﺪ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟــﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ ﺫﻭ ﻟﻮﻥ ﺭﻣﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﻳﺴﺮ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ )‪(Command Prompts‬‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﱪﻧﺎﻣــﺞ ﺣﻴﺚ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻡ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺽ ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﻟﻸﻭﺍﻣــﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻭﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻣﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﺩﺍﻻﺕ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎﻧﺎ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻻ ﺗﻔﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫)‪: (Resize Handle‬‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ) ‪Value Control‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫‪ (Box‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻳﻈﻬـﺮ ﻃﻮﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ ﻣﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻳﻈﻬــــﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺮﺽ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺪ ﺭﺳﻢ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻧﺼــــﻒ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻤﺎ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺸﺎء ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﻟﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﳌﻔﺎﺗﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﻨﺸﺮﺡ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻﺣﻘﺎ‬ ‫‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٤‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ )‪: (Toolbar‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺑﻪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﻛﻞ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺗﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﻇﺎﺋﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﳝﻜﻦ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜـــﻦ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﻌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻇﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻﻮﻝ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻭﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ٥‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﻘـﻴـﺎﺳـﻲ )‪: (Standard Toolbar‬‬

‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﳛﻮﻱ ﳐﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﳌﻠﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﻮﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻭﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻹﻟﻐﺎء ﻭﺍﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺢ ﻣﺜﻞ ‪:‬‬

‫‪10‬‬


، Erase ، Paste ، Copy ، Cut ، Component ، Make ، Save ، Open ، New . Print ، Redo ، Undo

: (Edit Toolbar) ‫ ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺘـﺤـﺮﻳـﺮ‬٦ : ‫ﻭﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﳉﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ، Move Tool ، Push & Pull Tool ، Offside ، Print Tools ، Select Tools . Erase Tool ، Skill Tool ، Rotate Tool

: (Drawing Toolbar) ‫ ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺮﺳـﻢ‬٧ ّ : ‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻠﻲ‬

، Freehand Tool ، Rectangle Tool ، Arc Tool ، Circle Tool ، Line Tool Protractor ، Dimension Tool ، Text Tool ، Measure Tool ، Polygon Tool . Tool

: (Camera Toolbar) ‫ ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﻜـﺎﻣـﻴـﺮﺍ‬٨

ّ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫـــﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻳﺆﺩﻱ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﺅﻳـــﺔ ﺍجملﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣـﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻧﺮﻏﺐ‬ ّ ّ Lock : ‫ ﻣﺜﻞ‬، ‫ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﻨﺸﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﻣﲑﺍ‬، ‫ﺑﺮﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ Zoom ، Walk Tool ، Window Tool ، Orbit Tool ، Pan Tool ، Around Tool . Undo View Change Tool ، Extreme Tool

11


‫‪ ٩‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻇـﻬـﺎﺭ )‪: (Display Modes Toolbar‬‬

‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﲤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺝ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـــﺬﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻨﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﻃﺎﺭ ﺷﺒﻜﻲ )‪ ، (Wire Frame‬ﺧﻄــﻮﻁ ﺧﻔﻴﺔ )‪، (Hidden Line‬‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻣﻈﻠﻞ )‪ ، (Shaded‬ﻣﻈﻠﻞ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻡ )‪ ، (Shaded & Texture‬ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎﻑ ) ‪X. ray‬‬ ‫‪. (Transparency‬‬

‫‪ ١٠‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﺮﺅﻳـﺔ )‪: (View Toolbar‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪. Standard View Presets‬‬

‫‪ ١١‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﻄـﺒـﻘـﺎﺕ )‪: (Layers Toolbar‬‬

‫ّ‬ ‫ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺗﺘﻀﻤﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺻــﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺇﱃ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻃﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ ‪.‬ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻳﻈﻬـﺮ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻧﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳـــﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ )‪(Toolbar‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﳍﺎ )‪ (Check Mark‬ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺭﲰﻬﺎ ﺳﻮﻑ ﺗﺆﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨـﺪ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺷﻜــﻞ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻫﻮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﻊ ﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﺇﺷﺎﺭﺓ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺘﻐﻴﲑ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﺄﺷﲑﻩ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺛﻢ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻃﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬


‫ُ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻊ ﺇﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻴﺴﺮﻯ ﻳﻈﻬِﺮ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪(Layer Manger‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﺘﻴﺢ ﺇﻧﺸﺎء ﻃﺒﻘﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ١٢‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﻈـﻼﻝ )‪: (Shadows Toolbar‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫــﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻳﻌــﺮﺽ ﻃــﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻄﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺃﻥ ﺻﻨــــــﺪﻭﻕ ﺍﳊﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Shadow Option‬ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺘﻪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﻈﻞ ﻭﰲ ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ٍ‬

‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﲢﻮﻱ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ ِ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ﳌﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺃﳓﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ ﺯﺭ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻟﺘﻨﺸﻴﻂ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ١٣‬ـ ﺷـﺮﻳـﻂ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻣـﺴـﺘـﻮﻳـﺎﺕ ﺍﻟـﻘـﻄـﻊ ) ‪Section Planes‬‬ ‫‪: (Toolbar‬‬

‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻘﻄﻊ ﻟﻠﺸﻜﻞ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺮﻳﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﳓﺪﺩﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟـﻜـﺒـﻴـﺮﺓ )‪: (Large Tool Buttons‬‬ ‫ﳝﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻂ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻜﺒﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺼﻐﲑ ﺣﺠﻢ ﺃﺯﺭﺍﺭ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬


‫ﻧـﺎﻓـﺬﺓ ﺍﻟـﺘـﺤـﻜـﻢ ﺑـﺎﻟـﻘـﻴـﻤـﺔ )‪: (Value Control Box‬‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (V.C.B‬ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺮﻳﻂ ﺍﳊﺎﻟﺔ )‪(Status Bar‬‬ ‫ﺃﺳﻔﻞ ﻧﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺘﺎﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ّ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ‪ ،‬ﻫــﻮ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﻷﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺮﲰﻬﺎ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻂ ﻭﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪.‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻫــﻮ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﻗﻴﻢ ﺍﻷﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘـــــﻲ ﻧﺮﲰﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﻃﻮﻝ ﺍﳋﻂ ﻭﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﺃﺑﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺁﻟﻴﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ‪.‬‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ﻗِﻴﻢ ﻧﺎﻓـــﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻜـــــﻢ ﺗﻄﺒﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﲨﻴﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻄﻴﻞ‬ ‫‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﳋــﻂ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓـﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺴـﺤﺐ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ ﻭﻛـــﺬﻟﻚ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ )‪. (Edit Tools‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻓﺬﺓ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻔﺲ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻷﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﺮﻳﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﲢﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ ﺍﳌﺆﺷﺮ ‪.‬ﻭ ﺑﺈﻣﻜﺎﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻗﺒـﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌــﺪ ﺇﻛﻤﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﻗﺒﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺒﺪﺃ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ‪.‬‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺰﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻲ ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (V.C.B‬ﻻ ﳝﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪.‬‬

‫)‪: (Hot Keys‬‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ ﻫــﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ ﻭﺫﻟـﻚ ﺑﻌﻤــــﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻟﻸﻭﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺜﻼ ﻧﺴﺘﻌﻤﻞ )‪ (Ctrl + C‬ﻹﺟﺮﺍء ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺦ ‪(Ctrl + V) ،‬‬ ‫ﻹﺟﺮﺍء ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺲ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﻨﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺴﺮﻳﻊ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫)‪: (Page Tab‬‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻚ ﲝﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﻟﺪﻫﺎ ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻮﺿﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺟﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﲣﺘﻔﻲ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬


‫• ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﺪ )‪. (View‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻘﺎﺕ )‪. (Layers‬‬ ‫• ﺍجملﻤﻮﻋﺎﺕ )‪. (Set‬‬ ‫• ﺍﻟﻈﻼﻝ )‪. (Shadows‬‬ ‫)‪. (The Page Tab Control Area‬‬

‫• ﺍﻟـ‬

‫ﻭﻟﻔﺘﺢ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﺭ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ )‪ (View‬ﳔﱰ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ )‪. (Page Tabs‬‬

‫ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻀﻐﻂ ﺑﺎﳌﺆﺷﺮ ﺍﻷﳝﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﺃﻭﺍﻣﺮ ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﻕ ) ‪Context‬‬ ‫‪. (Menu‬‬

‫‪15‬‬


W h โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0Q โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ$ % &$ ( title bars) โ€ซ ุง ุงู†โ€ฌ#โ€ซู€ู€ู€ ! ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ drawุŒ cameraุŒ view ุŒ editุŒfile :/ โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ+โ€ซุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ* ูˆ !ูŠ ุงโ€ฌ3โ€ซุงโ€ฌ helpุŒ windowุŒ toolsุŒ

:(File Menu) p. B-C .:&โ€ซ ุช ูˆู‡โ€ฌ6โ€ซ ูˆุงุงุฏ ูˆ @ ูˆ?>= ุงโ€ฌ567โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ8$โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ9 :  &โ€ซูˆ !ูŠ ุง)ูˆุง; ุงโ€ฌ

โ€“ import- exportโ€“ revertโ€“ save copy asโ€“ save as- save- open-New exitโ€“ recent fileโ€“ printโ€“ print preview-print set up

: ( New) 4f p. u8 ุŒ/$ J  โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุง ุง! & ุงโ€ฌ:K  ุŒ(New)  โ€ซ ุฃ;ู€ู€โ€ฌD E 9 #FGโ€ซู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ & !โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌD  &โ€ซุงุช ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ567 Mโ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. .  L; 8$ โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ . ,โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP6% &โ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ$ L; N; Oโ€ซ ุฃุขโ€ฌ8$  /%โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌ6โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซ ูˆ;ู€โ€ฌ. L; 8$ J>,

16


Key board hotkey: ctrl-N

: ( Open)y! p. u8 ( File open dialogs )L; 8$ โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS T ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ 5โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ67 N; โ€ซุขโ€ฌU% โ€ซ ูˆ ุฃู†โ€ฌุŒ; %>โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ T67 โ€ซ ู€โ€ฌ/19  โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ6; 8โ€ซู€โ€ฌ$  8 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ ./1K J>, & !โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌD  &โ€ซุงุช ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซุงโ€ฌ Key board hotkay: ctrl-o

:( save)โ€ซ ุงุชโ€ฌ1A PQX /T67 โ€ซ ูˆุงู† ู€ู€โ€ฌ:> โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌุŒ& !โ€ซ& ุง ุงโ€ฌ$ J@! &โ€ซุงุช ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ56! ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Jโ€ซู€ู€>ู€โ€ฌ, โ€ซุงุชโ€ฌFโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ567  โ€ซ ;ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซู€ู€ู€ุฌ ;ู€โ€ฌV% โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌ%โ€ซ ูˆุฅุฐุง ุฃุฑุฏโ€ฌ.& !โ€ซ ;ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ%>โ€ซู€& ุงโ€ฌ$ .โ€ซูˆุฌโ€ฌVโ€ซุงโ€ฌ Key board hotkey: ctrl-s :/T7Z; N ]โ€ซ ุฐโ€ฌDโ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌSโ€ซูˆ ุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ ;!ุฏ ;ุฑโ€ฌ, &โ€ซ ุง[ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ56!โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌS \ /โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ;ู€ู€โ€ฌ%>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ The general tab of ) :&โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุง[& ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ5โ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ6!โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌS \ #_ :โ€ซ?ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ ( preference

17


โ€ซโ€ช PQXโ€ฌุง !" ุง โ€ช S Rโ€ฌุขโ€ช: ( save as) 4f p.-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู€ู€ ุงโ€ช D #FGโ€ฌู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง); โ€ชS 86โ€ฌูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑ)โ€ช`7 .( save as dialoge boxโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช67 =a3%โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช 5โ€ฌุง ุง! & ุขโ€ช  Lโ€ฌูˆ ุฅโ€ช aโ€ฌุกโ€ช bโ€ฌุง ุง ุงูˆ !โ€ชุŒ ; &$ 56โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆู‡ ู โ€ช N%โ€ฌุฏุงโ€ช +โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช PQXโ€ฌุง โ€ช:( save copy as) 2-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡ู€ู€โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง);ู€ู€ โ€ช J!  L;  =a3%โ€ฌุง ู€ู€ _ ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช1%โ€ฌู… โ€ชุŒ/9โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง โ€ช &Fe Jโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช /$ J %โ€ฌูˆโ€ช ./1F eโ€ฌูˆู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง); ] ;โ€ช 567 Nโ€ฌุง_ ู‡โ€ฌ โ€ซุง ุฏุฉ ุง& โ€ช T6!9 MKโ€ฌุฅโ€ช fโ€ฌุก ุฅุข ] ุง ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช.] N9โ€ฌูˆู€ู€ ุงโ€ช D #FGโ€ฌู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุง); โ€ชS Tโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ;_ โ€ช. /9โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช  Tโ€ฌุงโ€ช.( save as) D #FGโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช18โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:\h ‫ن‬.  3-!‫ن ر‬.A ‫ أن‬T b,A ،BQ.+ ‫  ان‬w‫ء‬,‫" اآ‬A ‫ و‬3-!‫ ر‬B4‫ ؤ‬gA  ‫ن‬. =4. ‫ــم‬A‫ و‬S.:‫ ا‬3-!‫ ر‬K ‫ إ‬T‫ــ‬fA‫و‬، ‫ ـ= !" >ص‬QRA‫و‬،‫اول‬ =8UY 34 ‫ ! @ن‬0‫ــ‬-/ ‫وــ اء ا‬.‫ا‬O@‫وه‬،>‫ = !" أ‬QRA‫ و‬،‫أ>ــــ‬ ‫ن‬.  "! ‫ ا> ر ا‬3@-4 ‫ه‬،‫ أ ان‬w/ ،‫ ر!م‬w‫ ـ‬S.:‫ ا‬3-!‫ ر‬K‫إ ـــــــ‬ . S ‫ء ا‬1 ‫= ــــ   ا !م وإ‬.NQA ‫ي‬O ‫ا‬

:( revert)‫ع‬f‫= ا}ر‬-C .‫ أ\ا‬9 T67 &‫  ا‬g‫ و‬D‫] ا! * إ‬1f‫ و‬b‫ ) د‬J 3

: (export)4A ‫ت‬e‫ دا‬D‫* ; إ‬6‫ ا‬/+ 1‫ أ‬D‫ل إ‬S‫ وا‬- export—;‫ أ‬8$  D‫ ر إ‬J1% ‫أو‬،‫و @ ا‬، N\h ‫ ص‬V‫ ;= أ‬J  9 /‫ا@_ رآ‬ .‫ ت أ\ى‬1>a

:; %> 9  ‫ ا‬3‫]  @ ا ا‬.‫وآ‬ export f File D #FG‫ ا‬ :/6‫ أ‬/+ 1‫  أ‬T

3D Model 2D Graphic Section Slice Animation

:3D Model /F@9....‫ أو آ د‬/G9 3D Format /FS D‫أب إ‬- L; @ J 3

.DXF/DWG/F@9 -١٤-‫ وأو آ د‬DXF/DWG

:2D Graphic /‫رم ا  ه‬،b‫ ;!د‬/,‫د‬،‫ د‬9o‫ ا‬/‫ــ‬1,‫ – د‬bitmaps – *n9 ‫ـر‬S @ J 3

/ ‫ـ‬g9 ‫ أن @ـر‬N‫ وـ‬- pixel- *S \ D  ‫ـر‬S،‫ ــــ د‬9)‫ ا‬/‫ــــــ‬+ f .(EPIX) L; ‫  ت‬g‫ وو‬TGA‫و‬BMP‫و‬TIFF‫و‬PNG‫و‬JPEG: ‫ل‬ZT‫;ــــــ= ا‬، #>G 9 / _‫ أ‬D‫ آ >و ــ‬b‫ــ ط أ@ر‬1‫ ] ا‬8‫ــ‬3 p@‫ ا‬b.‫ه‬ @ ] /!; ،(PIXEL‫ ل‬9)b‫ أ@ر‬7 ‫ أن !د‬G‫= أ‬a3 ‫ام و‬1‫ ا‬/ g‫وو‬ bT‫ أ‬Jr &‫( وا‬Anti-alising) :>a ] 8 /‫ـ‬+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫هــ‬،/‫  ــ‬/,9 ‫ا@ـر‬ .( pixilation)‫ ل‬/ ‫ا‬

19


vector ) *‫  ه‬e‫ ا@ـر ا‬.@ ‫ــ‬O‫ أآ‬,‫ و‬.‫\ــ‬U b‫ أ>ـ‬b‫ أن أ@ر‬5‫ــ‬7e ‫ ر‬V‫ا ا‬.‫ه‬. DXF L;‫ و‬DWG‫ و‬EPS‫ و‬PDF– p@‫ @ه ا‬N (images p@‫( \ رج ا‬vector)/‫ ن ا‬9 57e./ 9 a‫ أ‬D‫ ت إ‬6‫ إر ل ا‬J3‫ ا‬N; J  .(texture) ‫ام‬1‫* وا‬$ 6_‫ل وا‬ZT‫ ا‬JO;‫ ر‬se‫ \ رات ا‬t 9 e ‫ـ‬, ‫آرة‬.‫ا‬

:Section slice ‫* أداة‬a‫ا‬9 ]‫= ذ‬a3%، (2D section slice) ‫ د‬9)‫ ا‬/+ f *! =a, @ standard ) / , /‫ ا  ه‬p@9‫ و‬/1,‫ د د‬9U9 ‫و ن‬. ‫ د‬9)‫ ا‬/+ f *! =a, . (vector format

:Animation ‫ ار !ي‬J J>, *‫ر ;!آ‬S L; @ J 3 .*‫ا@ر ا!آ‬.../+ , L‫ ار‬J J3‫ ا‬N; J  ‫ ر‬V‫ا ا‬.‫هــ‬، ‫! ت ا& ــ ه‬6@‫ ا‬N‫ ;ــ‬/3 D *‫ر ;!آ‬S ‫و‬، (Tour Guide tours) /  (DVD) ‫و‬h (CD) ‫ص‬, D .b1 ; ‫*  ذج‬3% ;

:(Import) ‫ا! اد‬ . ‫ ر‬D‫ا; أ\ى إ‬9 N; ‫ ت‬6; ‫ ااد‬N; ; %>‫ ا‬ :/6‫ أ‬/+ 1‫ أ‬T import f File D #FG‫ ا‬ 3D Model 2D Graphic

:3D Model DWG p@9‫ ; أو آ د و‬%9 N; ‫ د‬9)‫ ا‬/fZf ‫ ت‬6; ‫اد‬e J 3 /+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫هــ‬ ‫ط‬aV‫ ا‬:J_ ‫ ; أو آ د‬%9 ‫ ت‬% ‫ ا;ادات آ‬./$ J % ‫ي‬.‫ذ ا‬% D‫ إ‬DXF‫و‬ ‫ د‬9)‫ ا‬/fZf ]3‫ ت ذات ا‬+ ‫ وا‬b‫ وا‬Ne &>‫ــط ا‬a\‫ و‬+‫اس واوا‬,)‫وا‬ . ‫ه‬K‫و‬ ‫ ت ادة‬1>a‫& ا‬$ b‫ و‬D‫ ; وا‬%>‫& ا‬$ ‫ط‬a\ D‫ردة !ل إ‬3‫ا) ل ا‬ *‫( ؤ‬Zoom extents);‫= ا  ل أ‬a3 ./; &$ ‫ ت‬+ ‫رد ا‬3 ‫وف‬، . ‫  ااده‬9 ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ا‬/;

:2D Graphic ‫ آــــــ ن‬b‫ آ@ر‬/‫ر  د‬S =g‫اد وو‬e J 3 ،‫ ــ د‬9)‫ ا‬/+ f ‫ ا@ر‬/‫ــ‬+ , b‫ـر‬S L‫ ط ;ـ‬1‫ وإ‬M! /? 3>9 =a3 ‫  وب‬9،]‫ــ& ر‬$ ‫و @ه آاد‬ . ‫ة ا‬.$ % D‫ إ‬b >; 20


:Print set up โ€ซ= ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌa3 `!9 =>aโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ gโ€ซ ุงุงุฏ ูˆูˆโ€ฌT; Dโ€ซู„ ุฅโ€ฌSโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุง ุง);ู€ู€โ€ฌ.โ€ซ] ู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ D fE &โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ6@โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซู‡โ€ฌKโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ/ 9 aโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌJ โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ/,โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ูˆุฏุฑโ€ฌ/Sโ€ซุน ุงุฑู‚ ูˆ\ุงโ€ฌ% / 9 ? N; Oโ€ซู… ุฃุขโ€ฌV3 &โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌe !โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ /โ€ซ ู€ู€โ€ฌ9 aโ€ซู€ู€ู€ุน ุฃโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌbโ€ซ ูˆุข> ุฃ@ุฑโ€ฌ/,โ€ซุญ ูˆุฏโ€ฌgโ€ซูˆโ€ฌ .โ€ซ ุง ุฒโ€ฌDโ€ซ* ุฅโ€ฌS;

:Print preview

b โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ/ 9 aโ€ซ   ู„ ุฃโ€ฌ9 =>โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌaโ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/$ T โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซุง ุง); ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ  ู‡โ€ฌN> Print )โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS T.(Print preview);โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ$ุŒ =โ€ซ>ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌa โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS  โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌT$ (Properties) D #Fโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌG% (Printer) *% \ &$โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌpreview E$ ;V3% &โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/> !โ€ซ& ุฃโ€ฌ$ *$ โ€ซ> ูˆุงโ€ฌ, N; *;V3โ€ซู€ู€ู€ * ุงโ€ฌ9 aโ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ6Sโ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ7 J%โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌPrint Options) *% \ &$ (Print preview) โ€ซ= ุฃ; ู…โ€ฌ,โ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌF@โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ (ok) D #FG% f โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ17e   &โ€ซุง ุง@ูˆู‚ ูˆุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ& ู‡โ€ฌ$ โ€ซ\ู‰โ€ฌeโ€ซุงุฏุงุช ุงโ€ฌoโ€ซุงโ€ฌ 21


/9 *S Vโ€ซุงุฏุงุช ุงโ€ฌoโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ ุฅุข ู„ ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌPrint preview) โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS Dโ€ซ ู€ู€ุฏ ุฅโ€ฌ% &  9 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ $ T โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ.$ %  T$ (ok) D #FG% 17e ]โ€ซ ุฐโ€ฌN  โ€ซุขโ€ฌ ./ >a -printโ€“ D #FG% f =>aโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:(print)Tqโ€ซุฃโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ6; =>? ] (print dialoge box) =>aโ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS โ€ซ>= ูˆุง\ ุฑโ€ฌaโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/+ , .*> ! 9 *Sโ€ซ ุฑุฉ ูˆุงโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ 9 aโ€ซ& ุฃโ€ฌ$ /9 โ€ซู…โ€ฌ1% โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ูˆุง ุงโ€ฌ/ !โ€ซ ; ุฃโ€ฌ%>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: Recently opened file list .  โ€ซูˆโ€ฌh  J โ€ซ! ูˆุงโ€ฌ$ =a3 &โ€ซ ; ูˆุงโ€ฌ%> b+ โ€ซ ุงู… ุฃโ€ฌ/+ , &โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ

:(exit) "! โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp. y.g 567 ] โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. ุŒ/$ J โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ  ูˆุงโ€ฌ7 โ€ซุญโ€ฌ6โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌL; :K N; ] โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ .โ€ซุงุชโ€ฌFโ€ซ ] ุงโ€ฌ16 โ€ซ ูโ€ฌ/3 9โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ/1K J>, & !โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซุงุช ุง& ุฃโ€ฌFโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

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:(Edit Menu)4RA B-C โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ6; J\โ€ซ ! ุง) ู„ ูˆุง  ุช ุง& ุฏุงโ€ฌD J &โ€ซ ุง)ูˆุง; ุงโ€ฌ/+ 1โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌb.โ€ซ !ู€ูŠ ู‡ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ83โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ูˆุง@ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌy3โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌz1โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌeโ€ซู€ู€ ุก ูˆุงโ€ฌFoโ€ซูˆู‡ู€&  ุช ุงโ€ฌุŒ; %>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซู‡โ€ฌKโ€ซูˆโ€ฌ......=; โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJโ€ซ ุช ูˆโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌJ61โ€ซ ุก ูˆุงโ€ฌ6\oโ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ

deselect all ุŒselect allุŒeraseุŒpasteุŒcopyุŒcutุŒredoุŒundo push/pull make ุŒmake componentุŒlockุŒconstruction geometryุŒunhideุŒhideุŒ .faceุŒintersect with modelุŒclose group /componentุŒ group

:(undo)โ€ซุกโ€ฌ1 โ€ซุฅโ€ฌ ; %>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.b.6  ;โ€ซุฃูŠ ุฃ\ ุฃโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ b  โ€ซ ุก ุฃ\ ุฃ; ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌN;  โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ.Lโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌT67 / 7 โ€ซ ุง\ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ/ F โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ%.6% &โ€ซูˆุง;ู€ุงโ€ฌeโ€ซ ุก = ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌNโ€ซ ;ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ &โ€ซุง ุง); ู‡โ€ฌ. /3โ€ซ ุฃ ุขโ€ฌ/ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ$โ€ซุงุขุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 / โ€ซุฉโ€ฌa3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN โ€ซ ุกุงุชโ€ฌFoโ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(undo)*aโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 b Fโ€ซ; ุฃโ€ฌh \โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซูˆุง&  ุฅโ€ฌุŒ (redo) Key board hot key: ctrl-z

23


:= X\ โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌFo J 3 e โ€ซูˆโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ_ ุกโ€ฌ%eโ€ซ = ุงูˆุง;ุง  ุงูˆุงโ€ฌJ (undo) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ .(undo view change) โ€ซ ุฃ;ู€ู€โ€ฌJ โ€ซ ุง_ ุงโ€ฌF . (view changes) โ€ซุฃ;ู€ู€โ€ฌ

:(redo)wโ€ซุงุฏโ€ฌ .(undo) /19 3โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉ ุฃโ€ฌJ J โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌFo J 3 โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Key board hot key: ctrl+y

:(cut)Tb clip ) &$  gโ€ซ ุงุฐุฌ ูˆูˆโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุฑุฉโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS  โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa, N;  โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซุง\ ุฑ ู‡โ€ฌ Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌ/% f 1% โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌN (clip board) &$ โ€ซ ุช ูˆุง! ุช ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ%โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.(board .(paste);โ€ซ   ู„ ุฃโ€ฌ9 โ€ซุญโ€ฌ6; L; *76โ€ซ ; ุงโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.$โ€ซุงโ€ฌ% N; ]! N; N% (paste)โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌcopy)โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌcut) โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 โ€ซ   ู„ ุฃุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ9 โ€ซู‡โ€ฌF  D7 ] โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD1> `7 ุŒ(clip board)โ€ซ ;! ุช ุฃู„โ€ฌDโ€ซุฅโ€ฌ .(copy)โ€ซ(ูˆโ€ฌcut) Key board hot key: ctrl+x

:(copy)ยƒ,

โ€ซูˆู† ุฅุฒุงโ€ฌ9 (clip board)Dโ€ซ ุฑุฉ ุฅโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุฎ ุงโ€ฌ3โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3% ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ \ ุฑ ู‡โ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุฑโ€ฌL; โ€ซ& ุฃูŠโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ( ุฅุฏุฑุงโ€ฌclip board)&$ โ€ซ ุช ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; .(copy)โ€ซ(ูˆโ€ฌcut)โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 ; %>โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ Key board hot key: ctrl+c

:(paste)y & โ€ซ ุง ุง!ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌDโ€ซ( ุฅโ€ฌclip board)โ€ซ ุฎ ;! ุช ุฅู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ3โ€ซุง ุง);  ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ9 /!;  Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/a1% *aโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 =g โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ:@ โ€ซ( ูโ€ฌpaste)  โ€ซุง) ู„ ุง& ุงูŠโ€ฌุŒ ./9 MK% โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ& ุง ู† ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุช ุฉโ€ฌ%; =g9  ; %>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ$โ€ซุงโ€ฌ% N9 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%โ€ซ( !] ุงโ€ฌpaste)โ€ซ(ูˆโ€ฌcopy)โ€ซ(ูˆโ€ฌcut) โ€ซ= ุง  ู„โ€ฌa3% .(copy)โ€ซ(ูˆโ€ฌcut)โ€ซ* ุง  ู„โ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ>ู„โ€ฌ3 D7 % ; &$ D1> (clip board)โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%;ุŒ Key board hot key:ctrl+v :(erase)u, .โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN;โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ );!&( ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงุฒุงโ€ฌN; ] ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Key board hot key: Delete

:(select all)0@ โ€ซุง> ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซ& ุง ุฃูˆ ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ู„ ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌoโ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ = ุงโ€ฌN; ] ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Key board hot key: ctrl+A

24


:Deselect all .(select all) /โ€ซ* ุง\ ุฑ ุฃโ€ฌS \ Jr ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Key board hotkey:+T

:(hide)โ€ซุกโ€ฌQ>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ _โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#3> N; ] โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌุŒ &+;K bโ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌV โ€ซุนโ€ฌg; โ€ซ ุฃูŠโ€ฌJ  N; ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ] ู‡โ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฑุงู†โ€ฌ9 ]; ,  ZO;ุŒ/1F; =,โ€ซ ;ุงโ€ฌJ\โ€ซู„ ุฏุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซุฃูˆ ุง_ ู‡ุฉ ูˆุง ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌุŒ& !โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ* ู‡โ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 =a3 ุŒ&\โ€ซ ุซ ุงุงโ€ฌf)โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌg9 ]โ€ซ  ุฐโ€ฌ9 MK โ€ซ] ุงุงุฑ ูˆโ€ฌ9 >โ€ซุงุจ ูˆโ€ฌ9โ€ซูˆุฃโ€ฌ /39 โ€ซ ุง& ู‡โ€ฌNโ€ซ& ุง); ุขโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุซโ€ฌf)โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌgโ€ซ ุฐ] ูˆูˆโ€ฌ: &โ€ซ ุก ุงุฑุงู† ุงโ€ฌ6\โ€ซุง); ุฅโ€ฌ .3โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ Key board hot key: H

:Unhide ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ  ู„ ู‡โ€ฌeโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ*+; + 6\โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌ:> &โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ%โ€ซ= ูˆุงโ€ฌgโ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌJ  ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ .โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌ6\oโ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌFโ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌa3 โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ+ 6\โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌ:> โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ+ โ€ซ ู€  ุขโ€ฌ/%โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซุขโ€ฌU; โ€ซู†โ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌM :/6โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ/+ 1โ€ซ& ุฃโ€ฌ$ ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ* ุง\ ุฑุงุชโ€ฌfZf ] โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Selected Last All :Selected .(hide)โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌ6\eโ€ซ& ุง;ุงโ€ฌF ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ :Last .โ€ซ ู‡ูŠโ€ฌs / %โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุกโ€ฌ6\โ€ซ  ุฅโ€ฌJ \โ€ซ ุก ุฃโ€ฌ6\โ€ซ& ุฃ; ุฅโ€ฌF% ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡โ€ฌ9 :All .bโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌs & !โ€ซ& ุง ุงโ€ฌ$ /6Vโ€ซ = ุง) ู„ ุฃโ€ฌJ % ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡โ€ฌ9

:Construction Geometry :&โ€ซ* ูˆู‡โ€ฌ6โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/+ 1โ€ซ& ุฃโ€ฌ$ ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ* ุง\ ุฑุงุชโ€ฌfZf ] โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ Hide All Unhide All Erase All :Hide All .โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/1a; N; โ€ซ_ ุกโ€ฌ%oโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌa\ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุก = ุขโ€ฌ6\โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌa3% ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡โ€ฌ9 :Unhide All N; 19  + 6\โ€ซ_ ุก ุง&  ุฅโ€ฌ%oโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌa\ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุฑ = ุขโ€ฌsโ€ซุง ุง);  ุฅโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡โ€ฌ9 .โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/1a;

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:Erase All .โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/1a; N; โ€ซ_ ุกโ€ฌ%oโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌa\ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซู = ุขโ€ฌ.7  ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ* ู‡โ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9

:Lock โ€ซูˆโ€ฌh ! Ne 8>@ `!9 `!9 /; :K % ; ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3 . โ€ซ !ู‡โ€ฌ

:Unlock . :9 3โ€ซ& ุง); ุงโ€ฌF ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ

:(Make Component) โ€ซ ุข ู†โ€ฌ0- .โ€ซ ุฑุฉโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุง) ู„ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%; โ€ซุง ุง); ู†โ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ

:(Make Group)=-Z 0- .(Group)โ€ซ ุฑุฉโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุง) ู„ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ;!ุฉโ€ฌ/; โ€ซ_ ุกโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌN; ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ

:Close Group/Componte .*3โ€ซ ุช ูˆ ! ุงโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุงูˆ ู‚ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌN; (Exit)โ€ซูˆุฌโ€ฌVโ€ซุง ุง); ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ] ู‡โ€ฌ83

:(Intersect with Model)โ€ซุฐุฌโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT Tq โ€ซุงโ€ฌ =? 1 Nโ€ซ` ] ;ู€โ€ฌ7 ุŒ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ   ู„ ู‡ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ9 /39 โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ1 โ€ซ_ู€ ุก ุง) ู„ ุงโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌN Ng bโ€ซุงโ€ฌ.=? 1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ1a; &โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ$ โ€ซุงูโ€ฌ7  =; โ€ซ>ู€ู€ุจโ€ฌ%โ€ซูˆู‚ ูˆุฃโ€ฌS JO; N@ .  ; โ€ซ  ุฃูˆโ€ฌ$โ€ซ ุฃูˆ !> ุฃูˆ ุฏโ€ฌ$.7 N โ€ซ ุช ุงุฉโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:No selection โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ.(No Selection)โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌe /โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌT ุŒbโ€ซ ู€ู€ ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌJ โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌe ; :* โ€ซ ุง)ูˆุง; ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซูˆ ู†โ€ฌุŒ(Face ) % ; TุŒ bโ€ซ  ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌ3 /โ€ซูˆุฏ ูˆโ€ฌ Select, Area, Intersect with ModelุŒ Align viewุŒ Align Axes

ุŒ Zoom ExtentsุŒOrient FacesุŒReverse Faces :(Select)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ+ 26


:* โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/+ 1โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌT / #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ

All on same ุŒ All ConnectedุŒ Connected FacesุŒBounding Edges . All with same materialุŒlayer

:(Bounding Edges)Bb R- โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌ8R โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ 9 *a!โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซุง ุง);  ุง\ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ

:(Connected Faces)B.- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwf โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ 9 *@โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซุง ุง);  ุง\ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ

:(All Connected)0- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0โ€ซุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซ ุฑ ;= ุงโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ 9 *@โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซุง ุง);  ุง\ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ . 9 *a!โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:(All on same layer)=b โ€ซ~ ุฃโ€ฌQ S8 T -Z โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .*1>aโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP6% &$ โ€ซ ุฑุฉโ€ฌVโ€ซ= ุง) ู„ ุงโ€ฌgโ€ซุง ุง);  ูˆโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ

:(All with same material )wโ€ซุฏโ€ฌ- โ€ซ~ ุฃโ€ฌQ T -Z โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .bโ€ซ ุฃ ุฏโ€ฌP69 โ€ซ ุก ุง) ู„โ€ฌ3โ€ซุง ุง);  ุงุขโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌD #FGโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ

:(Area)=X,- โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ :โ€ซ* \ ุฑุงุชโ€ฌfZf /$โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/7 3; a  ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ . materialุŒ layerุŒSelection :Selection .โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/7 3; /$ ; % ; ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3

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โ€ซุง โ€ช T Tqโ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ)โ€ช:(Intersect with Modelโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Nโ€ฌุฅโ€ช_%โ€ฌู€ ุก ุง) ู„ ุง โ€ช1โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช  9 /39โ€ฌู€ ู„ ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง);ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช; ] `7 ุŒโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช=? 1 Nโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ@โ€ชS JO; Nโ€ฌู€ูˆู‚ ูˆุฃโ€ช>%โ€ฌุจ ;ู€ู€=  โ€ช7โ€ฌุงู โ€ช$โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€& ;โ€ช /1aโ€ฌุงโ€ช.=? 1โ€ฌุงโ€ชNg bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง! โ€ช $โ€ฌุช ุงุฉ โ€ช $.7 Nโ€ฌุฃูˆ !> ุฃูˆ ุฏโ€ช  $โ€ฌุฃูˆ ;  โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชRโ€ฌุฐุงุฉ โ€ช:(Align view)2โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง); @>โ€ช 8โ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช Vโ€ฌุฑ โ€ช !9โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ุง_โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชRโ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌูˆุฑ)โ€ช:(Align Axesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง); @>โ€ช 8โ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช Vโ€ฌุฑ โ€ช !9โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ุง! ูˆุฑโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ@~ ุง โ€ช:(Reverse Fases)wfโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง);  โ€ช Pโ€ฌุงโ€ช bโ€ฌุงโ€ช Vโ€ฌุฑุฉโ€ช `7 ุŒโ€ฌุฅู† โ€ช N; M%  Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช /โ€ฌู†โ€ฌ โ€ซ; โ€ช.Nโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช = fAโ€ฌุง โ€ช:(Orient Faces)wfโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง โ€ช / =a3%โ€ฌุงโ€ช bโ€ฌุข โ€ชMK%โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช: Zoom ExtentsุŒโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช   9โ€ฌู„ ู‡ู€ู€ู€โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง);ู€ู€  > ุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุฅู€โ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช7 3โ€ฌู€* ุงู€ู€ู€ู€&  โ€ช = Jโ€ฌุง_โ€ช +; Jโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆ;ุขโ€ช.$ % &$ rโ€ฌุฉ ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช28โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:(View Menu)=-C :&‫ة ا وه‬.$ % &$ ‫ ا‬T;  &‫ !ي ا)وا; ا‬/+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫ه‬ Section ،Section planes،Hidden Geometry،Toolbars Page ،Component Edit،Rendering،X-ray،Shadows،Axes،Cuts .(Tour guide،Tabs

:(Toolbars)‫= ادوات‬qL‫أ‬ ،‫ة ا‬.$ % D T$، ‫ه‬U9 *6V‫ ا‬+‫ا‬1‫ ا‬#_  ;)‫ا ا‬.‫* ه‬a‫ا‬9

:(Hidden Geometry)= Q+- ‫@ل أ‬L‫ا‬ ‫   ل أدوات‬9 + 6\‫ وان  إ‬:> &‫ ا‬/6V‫ ر ا) ل أ‬s‫ إ‬N; ] /+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫ه‬ &$ ‫ آ‬،* a1; ‫ط‬a\ N; ‫ إ? ر & ن‬J D T ‫ ا) ل‬b.‫ وه‬،‫ ء‬6\o‫ا‬ :* ‫ا@رة ا‬

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(Unhide);‫   ل أوا‬9 /+;   ، /6V‫ ر ا) ل أ‬V%  7‫و‬ .(Unhide All)‫و‬

:(Section planes)Tb- ‫ت ا‬4, b‫أ@ر‬،‫أب‬- ; %9 =a1; fU D a3 *S \ ‫ ت‬% ‫ آ‬N ‫ه& > رة‬ . ‫& آب‬$ Ja3; =a1; ‫ي‬3;  / ‫أ‬

:Section Cuts ‫_ح‬9 ‫م‬1% ‫ وف‬./ 9 , ‫ي‬.‫ اذج ا‬J\‫ دا‬J ‫ وا‬T‫ ا‬N;  ;)‫ا ا‬.‫هـــ‬ .\‫ أ‬J@$ &$ J@6 9 ]‫ذ‬

:(Axes)"! ‫ور ا‬R T e /3 9‫ ( و‬Axes);h ‫ أ; م‬b‫ــــ= ا ر‬G%، ‫ر ;!ــ ور ا‬s >K‫ـــ ر‬ . ‫ة ا‬.$ % &$ ‫ا! ور‬ : (Shadows)‫ا \ل‬ ‫ أ; م‬b‫= ا ر‬G%، ،‫ل‬ZT‫ ر ا‬s‫ر ;! ور إ‬s >K‫ ر‬ ‫ة ا‬.$ % &$ ‫ل‬ZT‫ ا‬T e /3 9‫( و‬Shadows) ;h .‫ ا ذج‬D‫و‬

:X-Ray J_ *‫ ر‬V‫ اران ا‬J 9 MK% / ; ‫ت‬e 7 &$ `7 *$ 6 ، /% ‫ي‬.‫ ا‬3‫ا‬ .(X-Ray);‫ أ; م أ‬b‫= ا ر‬g9 ‫م‬1% ]‫ ذ‬J ‫و‬، ‫ ت‬$ !‫ط ا‬a\ = ‫ى‬%

30


:Rendering O‍ ŘŞ Ůˆ  أآ‏$ !‍ ŮˆŘ§â€Źb‍ ا‏#_ ‍ \ عات‏D ‍ا ا); !ي‏. *% O‍ ا‏/+ 1‍أ‏ :/ ,â€ŤŮˆŘ§â€Ź Shaded With ŘŒShadedŘŒHidden LineŘŒWireframe ŘŒMonochromeŘŒTextures End ŘŒDepth Cued EdgesŘŒExtended EdgesŘŒProfile Edges Edges .Jitter EdgesŘŒPoints

: Wireframe N; /; /%U‍ ا آ‏T ‍ ع‏V‍ا ا‏.‍هـــ‏ /$â€ŤŮˆâ€Ź.*; ‍ آ‏b‍@ع‏9 &6V bâ€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒâ€Ťء‏aV‍ا‏

   &‍= ا  Ů„ ا)ŘŻŮˆŘ§ŘŞ ا‏a3%e .(push/pull):O>‍ ŘŁ; ا‏JO;ŘŒb‍ ا‏D

:Hidden Line Nâ€ŤŮˆâ€ŹŘŒ b‍ ŘŞ ŮˆŘ§â€Ź$ !‍ ا‏N; /; /%U‍ ا آ‏T ‍ ع‏V‍ا ا‏.‍ه‏ t9)‍ ا‏N% 9 ‍> ?>= ا‏K‍ ع‏/ 7 &$ 6; ‍ا‏.â€ŤŮˆŮ‡â€ŹŘŒâ€Ťام‏, ‍ل Ř§Ůˆâ€ŹZg â€ŤŘŻŮˆŮ† أي‏ .â€ŤŮˆŘ§)د‏

31


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32


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:Up date page

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35


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36


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:Zoom .โ€ซุงโ€ฌF@ โ€ซุง ุง); > ุงูˆโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3

:Zoom window โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌb> % โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุง ุง! & ูˆุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุกโ€ฌr (Zoom)J  ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3 ./7 โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ.$ % J 9 โ€ซ!ุฏโ€ฌ Key board Hotkey:Ctrl+Shift+W

:Zoom Extents โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ; โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌJ  &โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ7 3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซุง ุง); > > ุง_ ุฅโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3 .โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % &$ rโ€ซูˆ;ุขโ€ฌุŒ +; Key board Hotkey:Ctrl+Shift+E

:position Camera =,โ€ซ ;ุงโ€ฌN โ€ซ ] ุง!ูŠโ€ฌ8 &โ€ซ= ุง ;ุง ูˆุงโ€ฌ,; โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ3 โ€ซ= ุง ;ุงโ€ฌ,; /+ , 8a@; โ€ซ  ุฏุฉ ;= ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซูˆู‡โ€ฌุŒ(โ€ซ ุงุงุฑโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTโ€ซูŠ ุงโ€ฌ3; _; JO;)J_ *9 f T% .J Tโ€ซู‰ ุงโ€ฌ39 * .\) ( Walk)

:Walk *117 *9 โ€ซู…โ€ฌ1 ]%โ€ซ ุงุฐุฌ ุข  ุงโ€ฌJ\โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง_& ูˆุงู„ ุฏุงโ€ฌG!3 ;)โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ

S@\ /Z\ &_ ]%Uโ€ซู„ ุงุฐุฌ ุขโ€ฌZ\ โ€ซ  ูˆุฑุฉโ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู„โ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌJ\โ€ซุฏุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซ ุน \ ุตโ€ฌ6 โ€ซ ุงุฑโ€ฌD โ€ซ> ุง ;ุงโ€ฌO โ€ซูˆุงู† ุฐ] !ุซ ูˆุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู„โ€ฌ

:Look Around ._โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/a1% D *9 f /a1% โ€ซู„โ€ฌ7 @โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌh >O โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ 3

37


‫‪:(Draw Menu)B-C‬‬ ‫ !ي ‪ /+ ,‬ا )‪ = D (Draw Menu‬أدوات ا >‪; %‬ــــ و ‪r‬ودك‬ ‫ا>ا‪  e J+‬ل ا‪ #+‬ا)دوات و;‪@V‬ات ‪ /7‬ا‪8

6‬‬

‫و !ي ا)دوات ا *‪:‬‬ ‫‪.Polygon،Crile،Rectangle،Freehand،Arc،Line‬‬

‫‪:Line‬‬ ‫ ‪ J 3‬أداة )‪ &$ (Line Tool‬ر \‪a‬ط ا ‪ %‬ت أو ا! ‪ $‬ت ‪.$ % &$‬ة ا‪.‬‬

‫‪:Arc‬‬ ‫;ـــ دة ‪ /+ ,‬ا‪1‬س ƒ أداة ا‪1‬س ‪$   e‬ـ& ر أ‪,‬اس ا ‪ %‬ت ‪،‬وا& _‪J‬‬ ‫‪ D‬ة \‪a‬ط ;‪ G >9 *a> ; *13‬ن ا‪1‬س) ‪ J 6‬آ‪1‬س وا‪.(7‬‬

‫‪:Freehand‬‬ ‫;ــ دة ‪ *+ ,‬ا ‪  9‬ا!ـة ‪ /n J 3‬أداة )‪  (Freehand‬ا‪aV‬ــط ا‪F‬‬ ‫;‪ *T‬واا‪3; &$ * ,‬ي وا‪، 7‬وا‪aV‬ط ا@* ‪ GF>9‬و‪3; &$‬ي وا‪7‬‬ ‫أ‪ /%; G‬آ ‪ +‬ت ;!*‪.‬‬ ‫‪: Rectangle‬‬ ‫ ‪ J 3‬أداة ا‪  Ja3‬ا‪ Ja3‬وذ] ‪ 9‬أر‪ 9‬ــ* ‪ $ 7‬ت ;‪$ * ? 1‬ـــــ& ‪P6%‬‬ ‫ا‪3‬ي وآ ن و‪. 17e /‬‬

‫‪:Circle‬‬ ‫ ‪ J 3‬أداة اا‪+‬ة  آ ‪ %‬ت اا‪+‬ة‪.‬‬

‫‪:Polygon‬‬ ‫ ‪ J 3‬أداة ا‪$ =G‬ــ& ر آ ‪ +‬ت ا‪ =G‬ا‪ /T‬واا‪ Ng * ,‬دا‪+‬ــــة وا&‬ ‫ !ي ;‪ (٣)N‬إ‪.M%  (١٠٠)D‬‬ ‫‪38‬‬


:(Tools Menu)B-C &$ J ‫ = أدوات ا‬D‫ل إ‬S‫ ا‬N; ] ‫ـــ* ا)دوات‬+ , /+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫ ه‬JO ، ]‫ ذ‬D‫ل إ‬S ‫* ?ق‬fZf  ،‫ ;ــــ‬%>‫ا‬ ‫@ات‬V;‫ ا)دوات و‬# $ ‫\ ن‬e‫ ن ا‬1a‫إ; ا‬، ‫اه‬7‫أ‬ .8

6‫ ا‬/7 Paint ،Eraser،Select Follow ،Push/Pull،Scale،Rotate،Move،bucket Offset ،Me ،Text،Dimensions،Axes،Protractor،TapeMeasure، .Section Plans

:Select ./  O‫ أو أآ‬7‫\ رآ ن وا‬e ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ ] ه‬83

:Eraser   ‫ ء و‬6\‫ إ‬N; G‫ و ] أ‬،‫ة ا‬.$ % N; ‫ ت‬+ ‫ ا‬/‫زا‬e ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ ] ه‬83

.‫ ت‬$ !‫ا‬

:Paint Bucklet . ]‫ذ‬% &$ ‫ء ا) ل‬Z? N; ] (Paint Bucklet)p>@‫أداة >* ا‬

:Move ‫ ت‬% ‫ و آ‬G‫ أ‬J 3 ‫و‬،‫ خ ا) ل‬3‫ ] !] و; * وا‬83 ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ه‬ .‫ ت‬%‫ا‬

:Rotate ‫ى‬3; Ng ‫دة أو ا دة‬6‫ ا واــاد ا‬S  ‫ ا)داة و‬b.‫ هــ‬J‫ ــ‬3

N; ‫ء‬r‫ \ ر ــــ‬9 ]‫ـ ل وذ‬o‫ ا‬L! ‫ و‬# ‫ ا ـ ل ا)داة‬N‫ و‬، 7‫دوران وا‬ .#1$ ‫اذج‬

:Scale &$ ‫ ا\ى‬S  D‫>* إ‬3% ‫ رة‬V‫ ا) ل ا‬#‫ دة ! و;ــ‬o ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ هــ‬J 3

.‫اذج‬ 39


‫‪:Push/Pull‬‬ ‫ ‪ J 3‬هـــــ‪ b.‬ا)داة ‪ ao‬ء ا‪ o‬ل ا‪ 9 *!a3‬ا ‪ O f‬او‪7e‬اث ‪&$ N ; L‬‬

‫ا_‪J‬‬ ‫و ف ــ‪ *h D‬هــــ‪ b.‬ا)داة ‪ &$ Ja3; %‬ا_ ا ي ‪ J1% f‬إ‪ D‬ا_‬ ‫ا‪ V% f &fZO‬ر ه‪ b.‬ا)داة ‪ J D #FG% f،‬ا‪، a1; 8>@ `!9 Ja3‬‬

‫‪ M!3 9 , f‬وا‪$، =$‬ى ‪ 9‬ن ا‪ , Ja3‬أ‪; 8>S‬ازي ;‪Za3‬ت‪.‬‬ ‫و‪ =a3%‬أن ‪!%‬ث ‪ L‬دا\‪; J‬ازي ا‪Za3‬ت وذ] ‪ 9‬دا‪+‬ة ‪ D‬ا‪7‬‬

‫‪: /7a‬‬ ‫‪ f‬ا  ل ا)داة ‪F‬ض ا‪ =$‬إ‪ D‬اا\‪ 57Z$، J‬ن ا‪. L‬‬

‫‪40‬‬


โ€ซโ€ช:Follow meโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ  ูˆโ€ช? D bโ€ฌู„ ; ู„ ;!ุฏ โ€ช J *$ 7 JO;ุŒโ€ฌุฃูˆ\โ€ช; #โ€ฌู…โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช9โ€ฌุงโ€ชุŒ (Free hand) *aโ€ฌูˆู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ ;โ€ช6โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช \ J_9โ€ฌุต ; ! ูˆู„ ุฅโ€ชJS 6 *$ gโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงุฐุฌ โ€ช 3 9โ€ฌุญ ] ุฑ โ€ช D J@6โ€ฌุฃโ€ช7โ€ฌู‰ โ€ช  %โ€ฌุช ; ู„ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซูˆุง  ู„ ู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ชe *S Vโ€ฌุงุฑ ุฐ] ุงโ€ช? D J@6โ€ฌู„ ุง ู„ โ€ช =a3 ุŒโ€ฌูˆ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุง  ูˆโ€ช? D /โ€ฌู„ ; ู„ ;โ€ช Z 3โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Off Setโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช 3eโ€ฌุฎ ุง! โ€ช $โ€ฌุช ุง& !โ€ช #โ€ฌุงโ€ชุŒ/โ€ฌูˆ โ€ชV3โ€ฌู… ุฃโ€ช 3e Gโ€ฌุฎ โ€ช8aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ; โ€ช =; Nโ€ฌุง>โ€ช 1โ€ฌุก โ€ช; P6% Ngโ€ฌุขโ€ช rโ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุง)โ€ชุŒ&Sโ€ฌุฃุฐุง ุข ู†  โ€ช %ย†$ Ja3; 8aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช /V3% =a3%โ€ฌุฅโ€ช Ja3; Dโ€ฌุงุข> ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ช `!9 FSโ€ฌุฃู† ;ุขโ€ช rโ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุง)โ€ช &Sโ€ฌูˆุง_โ€ชJโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช y33โ€ฌู‡ โ€ช. /36%โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช41โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซโ€ช:Tape Measureโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ )ุฏุงุก ุฏ ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง  ุช ุง โ€ช NG ุŒ > 9 *1โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง  ุช โ€ช ,โ€ฌุณโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช &$ Na1% N9 *$ 3โ€ฌุงโ€ช G6โ€ฌุก ุงโ€ช &fZOโ€ฌุง)โ€ช 9โ€ฌุฏโ€ช  ุŒโ€ฌุข โ€ช +โ€ฌุช โ€ช7โ€ฌู„ \โ€ช #โ€ฌุงโ€ช _%oโ€ฌุกโ€ช ุŒโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุข โ€ช +โ€ฌุช โ€ช /a1%โ€ฌุงโ€ช _%oโ€ฌุกโ€ช ,ุŒโ€ฌุณ ุข ;โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงุฐุฌ โ€ช 9ย†9โ€ฌุฏ ุฏโ€ช./1,โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Protractorโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช 1โ€ฌุณ ุงโ€ชrโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ชุŒโ€ฌูˆ  ุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช \โ€ช #โ€ฌุงโ€ช _%oโ€ฌุกโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Axesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ !] ุงูˆ โ€ช !; /โ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง โ€ช Ngโ€ฌุฑ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Dimensionโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช =gโ€ฌุข โ€ช +โ€ฌุช ุง)โ€ช 9โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุงุฐุฌโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช42โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:Text .‫& اذج‬$ z‫ ت ا‬% ‫= آ‬g ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ ه‬J 3

:Section Plane .‫& اذج‬$ =a1; J  ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫ ه‬J 3

43


:(Window Menu)B-C :‫ د‬S &‫إادات اذج ه‬. ‫* إدارة ا ذج‬6‫* !ي إادات اذج وآ‬+ 1‫ا‬ ‫  ت‬g‫و‬،‫ل‬ZT ‫ آ‬،‫ اذج‬D fE &‫ادات ا‬o‫( ;= ا‬dialog boxes) ‫ار‬7 ‫  ت‬t 9F N;  ‫ ا!ار‬:‫ د‬S ‫إن‬. ‫ل اذج‬7 ‫وا ; ت‬،‫ ر‬so‫ا‬ :‫ ت‬+ ‫ا‬،‫ااد‬،‫ ت‬1>a‫ا‬، ‫! ت‬6@ ‫اذج آ‬

، Material Editor،Material Browser،Entity Info،Model Info Shadow ،Display Setting،Pages،Layers،Components Ruby ،Hide Dialogs،Preferences،Outliner،Soften Edges،Setting .Console

:MODEL Info &‫(وا‬Model Info)‫ار‬7 ‫وق‬S ‫  ض‬J 3 ‫* ; ; ت اذج‬+ , ‫; دة‬ .‫ اذج‬J;  ‫ادات‬o‫= ا‬g J 3

:Entity Info 44


โ€ซ; ุฏุฉ โ€ช ; ; *+ ,โ€ฌุช ุง โ€ชS T N+โ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ; ; ุช ุง โ€ช(Entity Info)N+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Tโ€ฌูˆูˆโ€ช =gโ€ฌุงโ€ชoโ€ฌุงุฏุงุช ุงโ€ช N+  9 *S Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช Vโ€ฌุฑโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Material Browserโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ; ุฏุฉ โ€ช 86@; *+ ,โ€ฌุงุงุฏ โ€ช 86@; Tโ€ฌุงุงุฏโ€ช ุŒโ€ฌูˆุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช \e J 3โ€ฌุฑ ูˆ โ€ช :>aโ€ฌุง)ุงู†โ€ฌ โ€ซุงุฏุฉ โ€ช /$โ€ฌูˆโ€ช%โ€ฌู€ู€ ุฐุฌ ุงู€ุงุฏ ;โ€ช JOโ€ฌุฃู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ู„ ุงโ€ช9 aโ€ฌู‚ ูˆุง! ูˆ;ุงุฏ ?> * ูˆุฃ ู„โ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช D *6Vโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช1%โ€ฌู… โ€ช/9โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Material Editorโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช ! /+ , J 3โ€ฌุงุงุฏ  ุถ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ)โ€ช/  eุŒ (Material Editorโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ! &$โ€ฌูˆ\โ€ช #โ€ฌุง)ุงู† ูˆุงุงุฏโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช45โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:Components J‫ أع وأ‬/  J ‫& ا‬$   e،‫ ت‬%‫ ا‬/+ , ‫ ت ض ;اد‬%‫ ا‬/+ , ‫اب‬9)‫ا‬: JO; *6V‫ـــــ& ام ا‬$   ‫ ا‬O ‫ أــ ل‬N‫و ن ;ـ‬. ‫ ءة‬6‫آ‬O‫واآ‬ . ‫ه‬K‫ رات و‬3‫ا‬،‫ا) ر‬،*r‫>

ت ا‬%،&‫واا‬، ، ،]9 >_‫ا‬،

:Layer .; %>‫ ت ا‬1>?  J 3 &‫وا‬،‫ ت‬1>a‫  ض إدارة ا‬J 3 ‫ ت‬1>a‫ ا‬/+ ,

:Display Setting Display Setting Dialog box)‫ ر‬so‫ار إادات ا‬7 ‫وق‬S T /+ 1‫ أ‬b.‫ه‬ Face and Edge )/$ !‫ وإ‬/‫ورة ا‬S ‫ ذج‬% #_ ‫ رات‬V‫ي !ي ا‬.‫ا‬،( Hidden ،Wireframe:&‫ ه‬/‫ورة ا‬S ‫ ذج‬%.(rendering .and Monochrome،Shaded with textures،Shaded،line

(jitter)‫ط أل‬a\‫>&( و‬% ‫)ا_ ا‬J $‫ط ا>و‬a\ &‫ ه‬/$ !‫ورة أ‬S ‫ ذج‬% .(Extended Edges)‫ ت اة‬$ !‫وا‬ 46


:Shadow Setting ‍اع ŘĽادات‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS T (Shadow Setting Menu)‍ل‏ZT‍* ŘĽاد ا‏+ , J 6‍& اŘ°ŘŹ آ‏$ ‍ل‏ZT‍ * Ř§â€ŹŘŒ(Shadow Setting Dialog Box)‍ل‏ZT‍ا‏ D $ ‍ل‏ZT‍ ا‏T ‍ أن‏% &‍ * ا‏3‍ل ŮˆŘ§\ Řą اŮˆ* ŮˆŘ§_ ŮˆŘ§Ů… ŮˆŘ§â€ŹZT‍ا‏ ./9 , ‍ي‏.‍ ا‏3‍ ا‏J_‍ا‏

:Soften Edges (Soften Edges Dialog Box) ‍ ت‏$ !‍اع   ا‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS T *+ 1‍ ا‏b.‍ان ه‏ O‍ اŘ°ŘŹ أآ‏J ‍ Ůˆâ€Ź/9 ‍م‏1% ‍ي‏.‍& اŘ°ŘŹ ا‏$ ‍ ت‏$ !‍ ا‏J1S‍   Ůˆâ€ŹJ 3 ‍ي‏.â€ŤŮˆŘ§â€Ź .* ,â€ŤŮˆŘ§â€Ź

:Component Out Liner ‍  ؜‏J 3 &‍( ŮˆŘ§â€ŹComponent Out Liner)‍؊‏.$ % ‍ ع‏so *+ 1‍ ا‏b.‍Ů… ه‏V3

.‍& ع؏‏$ =; ‍ ŘŞ ŮˆŘ§â€Ź%‍ا‏

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:Ruby Console .&9‍ ŘąŮˆâ€Ź8

6; ‍ ع‏so *+ 1‍ ا‏b.‍Ů… ه‏V3

47


:Help Menu : * โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌgโ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌD *+ 1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ !ูŠ ู‡โ€ฌ

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48


:Sketch Up Web Site `7 (Sketch Up Web Site) Mโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ ; %>โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ,; Dโ€ซ] ุฅโ€ฌS โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ = =; ; %>โ€ซ;= ุฏูˆุฑุงุช ุฑ>*   ุงโ€ฌุŒ; %>โ€ซ ; ุช  ุงโ€ฌD =,โ€ซ!ูŠ ุงโ€ฌ .; %> โ€ซุงุฑุงุช ุฉโ€ฌSโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌN; 3 ;

:View Tutorial >Video Tutorials &$ MK N * โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ6โ€ซ ?= ุงโ€ฌ1; N; >โ€ซ ; ุฏ ุขโ€ฌ%> *โ€ซุฃุช ุง_ุข* ุงโ€ฌ b.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ! =a3 โ€ซูˆโ€ฌุŒ %%eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD  ,; &$  gโ€ซ* ูˆูˆโ€ฌ39 ; %>โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ . %%eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ?= ;> ุฉโ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

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49


โ€ซุง โ€ช 0Qโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ชTโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช "Cโ€ฌุง โ€ช ,โ€ฌู‚)โ€ช:(Context Menusโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† โ€ช T *+ , 56โ€ฌุฃโ€ช, &$ Gโ€ฌุงโ€ช +โ€ฌุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌู‚ ุงโ€ช\ 9 ] 83 `7ุŒ*S Vโ€ฌู„ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช1โ€ฌุงโ€ช+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง& โ€ชV3โ€ฌู… โ€ชO9โ€ฌุฉ โ€ชุŒโ€ฌูˆ โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ชVโ€ฌุงุต ุง โ€ช!; J_9 *1โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช7ย†9โ€ฌู‰ ุงุงุฏโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ\ู€ู€ู„ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช1โ€ฌุงโ€ช +โ€ฌุง โ€ช Dโ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌูˆุงโ€ช E 9 #Fgโ€ฌุง)โ€ช ; ZO;. Nโ€ฌู†  โ€ฌ โ€ซ; โ€ช Mโ€ฌูˆุงโ€ช D %โ€ฌุงโ€ช 7โ€ฌูˆู‡โ€ช /โ€ฌูˆุฐ] โ€ช E 9 #FG 9โ€ฌุง)โ€ช *+ ,  T Nโ€ฌุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌู‚โ€ฌ โ€ซุง *โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซูˆ ูˆโ€ช =gโ€ฌุงโ€ช T (Select) D Eโ€ฌุงโ€ช *+ 1โ€ฌุงโ€ช *6โ€ฌุง *โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซูˆ ูˆโ€ช =gโ€ฌุงโ€ช T ( (Area)D Eโ€ฌุงโ€ช *+ 1โ€ฌุงโ€ช *6โ€ฌุง *โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช50โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:context Clicking P>‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹO‍ ŘŁŮˆ أآ‏7‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹN+ ‍ \ Řą آ‏9 G!3 (Context Menus)‍ ق‏3‍ ا‏+‍ا‏, .(Context click)‍ ق‏3‍ ا‏/3>‍ آ‏D3 * ‍ ا‏b.‍ه‏./ N)‍ ا‏E 9 J‍& د‏$ ‍ ت‏% ‍ ا‏3, &$ T ‍ آ ن‏J ‍ ق‏3‍* ا‏+ , &$ *@6‍ا ; ŘŞ ا‏ .; %>‍& ا‏$ J 3‍ا‏ J 3‍* ا‏S‍ ŘŞ Ůˆâ€Ź%;‍( Ůˆâ€ŹDialog Boxes) ‍ ا!اع ا)\ى‏:‍ د‏S ]‍ ذ‏NG9ŘŒ 9 *S V‍ Ů‚ ا‏3‍ ا‏+‍ا‏,  (user interface components) 86@;‍( Ůˆâ€Źpage tabs)‍! ت‏6@‍(ŮˆŘ§ŮˆŮ„ ا‏drawing axes)‍;! ŮˆŘą ا‏ . ‍ا‏.‍( ŮˆŮ‡â€ŹMaterial Browser)‍ااد‏ :(Dialog Boxes)‍اع‏R ‍ ا‏y4‍د‏: &$ŘŒ] =; *9‍ ; * Ůˆ; Ůˆâ€Ź%>‍& ا‏$ (Dialog Boxes)‍ ا!اع‏:‍ د‏S J  9 ‍ ا>إ‏J>, ‍†د\ Ů„ ا ; ت‏9 ]; Ma 9 ‍ ت‏1>a‍* ا‏19 =; ] 6 ‍ !د‏e ] 8 ‍ Ůˆâ€ŹJ ‍ ŘĄ ا‏f‍ ؼ‏T ‍ أن‏N (Dialog Boxes) :‍ ا@ د‏b.‍` أن ه‏7ŘŒ N ‍أب‏- ; %9 &$ ‍ ا!اع‏:‍ د‏SŘŒJ %‍ أ‏9 *9a‍ات ا‏F‍ؼاإ ا‏ D ‍( ŘŁ\ى‏user interface components)‍م‏V3; ‍ ت‏%; *S‍ Ůˆâ€ŹD‍ ؼ‏r61 ‍أن‏ .(‍ إات‏Oe‍ ا‏t 9 =;)F@ ‍ ! Ůˆâ€ŹŘŒ* _‍ا‏ Snapping Dialog Boxes to Other User Interface Components ‍اع ŘĽادات‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS JO; (Dialog Boxes)‍ ا!اع‏:‍ د‏S t 9 ‍؊‏.$ % ‍ ت‏$ 7 ‍ \ ع؏‏D‍ ŘŁ ؼ‏r61 (Display Setting Dialog Box)‍ا ؜‏ Dialog ) ‍اع ŘŁ\ى‏7 :‍ د‏S J6‍* ŮˆŘŁâ€Ź, =; * _ *‍ ع‏V‍* ا‏$ !â€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒ:>a‍ا‏ .(Stack user ) ‍م‏V3; ‍ ت‏%; *S‍ Ůˆâ€ŹD‍اع ؼ‏7 ‍( @ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹSnap)r6, * ‍اإ‏o :& ; ‍( ŘŁ\ى  ŘĽاإ‏interface components 51


Display Setting ) f (Window) D #FG 9.โ€ซูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌS sโ€ซุงโ€ฌ-ูก .(Dialog Box Dialog Box title )โ€ซูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌS โ€ซ ุงู†โ€ฌ# D #FG 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ#Fgโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข .(bar .b โ€ซ ุฃูŠ ; ู†โ€ฌDโ€ซ ุง ูˆุงโ€ฌ:>aโ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$  *โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌVโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑ ุฅโ€ฌS โ€ซูƒโ€ฌ7-ูฃ : B X\ &$ุŒ โ€ซ * ุง ุถโ€ฌgโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌF =; โ€ซ !ูƒโ€ฌe :>aโ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % Dโ€ซุช ุฅโ€ฌr6, &โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS .โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ.$  9 *1@; 3

:Manipulating Dialog Boxes in a Dialog Box Stack โ€ซ@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ9 ; >f โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS N; *; Dโ€ซ( ุฏ ุฅโ€ฌDialog Box Stack) J_โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซุขโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS N; *;โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ%โ€ซ!` ุขโ€ฌ9 

$ 7 J6โ€ซ ูˆุฃโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌN; *โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ :โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%โ€ซู„ ูˆุงโ€ฌZTโ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑ ุงุฏ ูˆุงโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS N; *fZf โ€ซูŠ !ูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซุง & ุงโ€ฌ

:* โ€ซู‚ ุงโ€ฌa 9 โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS *;โ€ซ& ุขโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS =; J; % โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌ D #FGโ€ซ ูˆุงุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ#FGโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP> 9 ; 9 โ€ซ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ:โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌS *;โ€ซูƒ ุขโ€ฌ7 โ€ข .โ€ซุงุฑ ุงุงุฏโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS โ€ซูŠ ู‡โ€ฌ.โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌD)โ€ซูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌS โ€ซุงู†โ€ฌ ZO; *;โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNg bF@ โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌb> โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS โ€ซ ุฃูŠ ุงู† )ูŠโ€ฌD *3>โ€ซโ€ข ุขโ€ฌ D P>% โ€ซู„โ€ฌZTโ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS F@ >Kโ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌ /+ 19 =; & >aโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/7 Dโ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ$ *% f โ€ซ ;ุฉโ€ฌ/ P>% f bF@ $ /%โ€ซโ€ข ุงโ€ฌ .*;โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; / g; P6% &$

52


โ€ซโ€ข โ€ช7โ€ฌูƒ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงโ€ชZTโ€ฌู„ ุงุงโ€ช &$ =,โ€ฌุงโ€ช #โ€ฌูˆุฃ\โ€ช N; /โ€ฌุง;* โ€ชD P> 9โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช /%โ€ฌูˆ!>โ€ช =; /โ€ฌุงุงุฑ ุง>โ€ช Pโ€ฌุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช Nโ€ฌุฃูˆ ุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌุฑโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ข โ€ช7โ€ฌูƒ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงโ€ชZTโ€ฌู„ ุงุงโ€ช &$ =,โ€ฌุฃโ€ช J6โ€ฌุง;* ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌุฑ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ชNโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช\oโ€ฌุงโ€ช N; /โ€ฌุง;*โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ข ุง ุฅุฏ\ ู„ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงโ€ชZTโ€ฌู„ ูˆโ€ช &$ / gโ€ฌุฃโ€ช Dโ€ฌุง;*โ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ข ุง ุฅุฏ\ ู„ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงโ€ช %โ€ฌุช ุฅโ€ช L@; Dโ€ฌุง;* โ€ช\ย†9โ€ฌุงุฌ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงุงุฏ \ ุฑุฌ ุง;* ูˆุฅุฏ\ ู„ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงโ€ช %โ€ฌุช ;!โ€ช./โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ข ุง ุฅุฏ\ ู„ โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ โ€ช7โ€ฌุงุฑ ุงุงุฏ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุฃโ€ช J6โ€ฌุง;* ูˆโ€ช =gโ€ฌุง;* โ€ช _ `7โ€ฌุกโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช53โ€ฌโ€ฌ


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!‫ ا‬J>,

!‫  ا‬9 54


โ€ซโ€ช:Minimizing Dialog Boxesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ@โ€ช(minimize)bFโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุข>โ€ช # D *3โ€ฌุงู† โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚ ุง!ุงุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซุงูˆ>โ€ช.(maximize)bโ€ฌูˆโ€ช Nโ€ฌุฅุงุก ุฐ] ุฃโ€ช @ Gโ€ฌุฏโ€ช :โ€ฌุง& โ€ช Neโ€ฌูˆโ€ช&$  gโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุข;* โ€ช Sโ€ฌุฏโ€ช :โ€ฌุง!ุงุฑโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชRโ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง !")โ€ช:(Drawing Axesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ ู† ;! ูˆุฑ ุง โ€ช &$โ€ฌุง>โ€ชa\ *fZf N; ; %โ€ฌุท ;โ€ช; ; *%โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช&$ T G 9 Dโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.$ %โ€ฌุฉ ุง ุง!ุฑ )โ€ช; (Xโ€ฌู† โ€ช 9โ€ฌู† ุง)โ€ชุŒ7โ€ฌูˆุง!ุฑ)โ€ช 9 (Yโ€ฌู†โ€ฌ โ€ซุง)\โ€ชุŒGโ€ฌูˆุง!ุฑ)โ€ช 9 (Zโ€ฌู† ุง)ุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌ โ€ซู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง! ูˆุฑ ] ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง โ€ช *39 Jโ€ฌูˆ* โ€ช &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช G6โ€ฌุก ุงโ€ช &fZOโ€ฌุง)โ€ช 9โ€ฌุฏโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ\โ€ช: B Xโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ;! ูˆุฑ ุง ุงโ€ช @  T e *fZOโ€ฌุงู… ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง>โ€ช. h &6V `7 ; %โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชR 34RAโ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง !")โ€ช:(Moving the Drawing Axesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ]! Nโ€ฌูˆุฏูˆุฑุงู† ูˆโ€ช !; J1%โ€ฌูˆุฑ ุงโ€ชุŒโ€ฌุข โ€ช Nโ€ฌุฅ\โ€ช.$ % N; + 6โ€ฌุฉ ุงโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆ!] ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูกโ€ฌุง\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง! ูˆุฑ)โ€ชุŒ (the Axes Toolโ€ฌุงโ€ช! Eโ€ฌู„ โ€ช /โ€ฌุฅโ€ช !; *; Dโ€ฌูˆุฑโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7-ูขโ€ฌูƒ ุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช *a1โ€ฌุง&    ;ุขโ€ช rโ€ฌุงโ€ช7oโ€ฌุงโ€ช fโ€ฌุช ุง โ€ช&$โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุฐุฌโ€ชุŒโ€ฌู‰ โ€ช 9โ€ฌู† ุง! ูˆุฑ @โ€ช E 9 :โ€ฌูˆ !ูƒ ; โ€ช! O7 /โ€ฌูƒ ูˆุงโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช*a1โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ชุŒ *9aโ€ฌุง โ€ช Jโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ )โ€ชU (Tool Tipsโ€ฌุข ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุงโ€ช; =G ]%โ€ฌุขโ€ช rโ€ฌุง! ูˆุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช *a1โ€ฌุง&  ูˆโ€ช. $ / gโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูฃโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช>1 Pโ€ฌู„ โ€ช b.9โ€ฌุงโ€ช.*a1โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูคโ€ฌุง!โ€ช Mโ€ฌุงโ€ช 9 Eโ€ฌุง โ€ช; Nโ€ฌุขโ€ช rโ€ฌุง! ูˆุฑ ุง โ€ช !; =gโ€ฌุฐุงุฉ !ุฑ )โ€ช (Xโ€ฌุง!ุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซุง)โ€ช.7โ€ฌุง โ€ช Jโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ โ€ชUโ€ฌุข ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุงโ€ช 7 ]%โ€ฌุฐโ€ช. *,9 /โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูฅโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช>1 Pโ€ฌู„ โ€ช b.9โ€ฌุง! ุฐุงุฉโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช55โ€ฌโ€ฌ


‍( ا!ع‏Y) ‍= ;! ذا؊ !ع‏g ‍ ا! ŮˆŘą ا‏r‍ ;آ‏N ‍ ا‏9 E‍Ůƒ ا‏7-ŮŚ . *,9 /‍ ذ‏7 ]%‍ ا‏N; ‍آ‏U ‍ل‏ee‍ أدا؊ ا‏J ‍ Ř§â€ŹŘŒG\)‍ا‏

: B X\ . $ 1o * ‍ ŘĄ ا‏f‍ ؼ‏,‍& اى Ůˆâ€Ź$ 8

6‍* ا‏7 &$ (Esc) ‍ ح‏6‍ ا‏D P>‍اآ‏ . ‍ ا! ذا؊‏b.9 ‍>ل‏1 *% f P>‍ اآ‏-٧ (Y)(X) ‍ي‏3; D ‍( ا!Řą ازعق د‏Z)‍ ا!ع‏J  ‍Ůƒ ;! ŮˆŘą ا‏7 .N>‍ا‏/-X‍ŮŠ ا‏,- â€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒ

Resetting the Drawing )B !  ‍  ا‏/U‍ Ůˆâ€ŹK ‍ŮˆŘąŘ§ !" ؼ‏R‍اد؊‏ :Axes (Reset)‍( ŮˆŘ§\ ŘĽ د؊‏Drawing Axes) ‍ ;! ŮˆŘą ا‏D N)‍ ا‏E 9 #Fg‍ا‏ .* 1‍  ا‏g‍ Ůˆâ€ŹD‍ ŘŻŘŠ ا! ŮˆŘą ؼ‏o (Contest Menu) ‍ ق‏3‍* ا‏+ , N;

Moving and Rotating the Drawing Axes Relative to :Current Position Z 3; *‍* Ůˆâ€Ź,9 & !‍  ا‏,; D‍>* ؼ‏3 9 ‍= !] Ůˆ Ůˆ ;! ŮˆŘą ا‏a3

.(Move Sketching Context dialog box)‍اع‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS

:& 9 , â€ŤŮˆ& !Ůƒ Ůˆ ŮˆŘą ;! ŮˆŘą ا‏ ‍*  Ů‚ ;! ŮˆŘąâ€Ź+ , T ‍ ;! ŮˆŘą ا ه‏D N)‍ ا‏E 9 #Fg‍ا‏-ŮĄ . (drawing axes context menu)‍ا‏

Move Sketching )‍اع‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS T$ *+ 1‍ ا‏N; (Move)‍Ůƒâ€Ź7 \‍ ا‏-٢ . (Context dialog box. of the Model )‍اع‏7 ‍ŮˆŮ‚â€ŹS &$ ‍ات ا!د؊‏7 9 ‍* ŮˆŘ§ŮˆŘąŘ§Ů†â€Ź7‍زا‏o‍ ا‏, ‍د‏7 -ŮŁ .(unit panel)‍ات‏7‍* ا‏% \ &$ŘŒ(Units Panel Info dialog box 56


.(ok) #Fgโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูค

:Aligning the Point of View to the Current View โ€ซูˆ! ุฐูŠโ€ฌุŒ ;  & !โ€ซ ู† ;! ุฐ* _ ุงโ€ฌTโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1% โ€ซู† ! ุฐูŠโ€ฌh =a3

: & !โ€ซ ุง_ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ _ ุฅโ€ฌTโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1% .โ€ซ ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌD (Context clink) โ€ซ*  ู‚โ€ฌ3>โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ-ูก .โ€ซ ู‚โ€ฌ3โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ+ , N; (Align View) _โ€ซ ุง\ ;! ุฐุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข

:(Hiding the Drawing Axes) "! โ€ซูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌR โ€ซุกโ€ฌQ>โ€ซุฅโ€ฌ View ) *+ , Dโ€ซ \ู„ ุฅโ€ฌ9 ]โ€ซูˆุฐโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % N; โ€ซ ุก ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ6\โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌa3

โ€ซ*  ู‚ ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ+ , N; โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌุŒ(Axes) *โ€ซ ุฃ; ู… ุขโ€ฌN; Uโ€ซ;* ุงโ€ฌZ *โ€ซ( ูˆุฅุฒุงโ€ฌmenu . .(drawing axes context menu)

:(Inference)โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ;!ูƒ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซุฑโ€ฌa; &โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌJ! โ€ซุฃุจ ;!ูƒโ€ฌ- ; %9 &$ โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌ3D Space) &fZOโ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌG6โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ J โ€ซ ] ุงโ€ฌ8 (inference engine) โ€ซุง ุง!ูƒโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ. (Input device)โ€ซ( ูˆ ุฒโ€ฌ2D Screen) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ+ f *  Z 3; . โ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ ] ุฃโ€ฌT &โ€ซู„ ูˆุงโ€ฌeeโ€ซ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1% *aโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 *  *,9  โ€ซ ูƒโ€ฌ3

:(Inference Types) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซุฃุงุน ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ :โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุงุนโ€ฌ%โ€ซ* ุฃโ€ฌfZf ] โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ (Point Inference) Bb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .E+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข .โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ .1 ; โ€ซู„โ€ฌeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ  ; โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ; ; ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ%>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Point Inference :* โ€ซ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ! ุงโ€ฌJ_ โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ.โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ *,9 *9aโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉ !ุฏ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ* ู‡โ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 Equi-Distant ุŒOn EdgeุŒOn FaceุŒIntersectionุŒMidpointุŒEndpoint . Half CircleุŒOn Edge 57


:Endpoint ‍( !د‏The green Endpoint inference)G\)‍ل ا * ذات ان ا‏e‍* ا‏a1% . ‍س‏1â€ŤŘŁŮˆ Ř§â€ŹŘŒ#V‍ * ا‏%

:Midpoint ‍( !د‏The cyan Midpoint inference)&+ 3‍ ذات ان أ‏#‍ل ا‏e‍* ا‏a1% .*$ 7 ‍ ŘŁŮˆâ€Ź#V L@‍* ا‏a1%

:Intersection (The black intersection inference) ‍ ?= ذات ان ا)د‏1‍ل ا‏e‍* ا‏a1% .#>G 9 /‍ ŘŁ\ ŘŁŮˆ Ůˆâ€Ź#\ =; =? 1 *a1% D‍ _ ؼ‏

:On Face D‍( _ ؼ‏The red On Edge inference) ‍ ذات ان ا)زعق‏/‍ل ا‏e‍* ا‏a1% . N+ ‍ ا‏/‍ Ůˆâ€ŹD =1 &‍* ا‏a1‍ا‏

:On Edge D‍( _ ؼ‏The red On Edge inference)7)‍* ذات ان ا‏$ !‍ل ا‏e‍* ا‏a1% .*$ !‍ ?Ů„ ا‏D =1 &‍* ا‏a1‍ا‏

58


:Equi-Distant On Edge (The Equi-Distant On Edge inference) *‫ و‬3‫* ا‬$ 3‫ل ا‬e‫* ا‬a1% T ‫ي‬r;1‫ ذات ان ا‬#V‫ ; ا‬،(chamfer)‫أوال‬، *$ 3‫ ا‬L@; D‫ _ إ‬ . T >9 Na> ; N$ 7 N9

:Half Circle % ; T (The Half Circle inference) ‫ة‬+‫ اا‬L@% ‫ل‬e‫* ا‬a1% .#>G 9 ‫ة‬+‫ دا‬L@% ‫* ا& ن‬a1‫ ا‬D‫س _ إ‬,

:Linear Inference ‫ ء‬G6‫& ا‬$ b  ‫ اوا‬#\ ‫ ?ل‬D r61(Linear Inference) &aV‫ل ا‬ee‫ا‬

; , ‫ ء‬f‫ أ‬,E; #1; #\ T &aV‫ل ا‬ee‫( ا‬ToolTip)‫ أل‬D‫* إ‬$ go 9. . 9

. Tangent، Parallel،Perpendicular،FromPoint،OnAxis 59


:On Axis โ€ซ ูˆู†โ€ฌT โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ7โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ* ุฅโ€ฌa\ โ€ซ ;! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌDโ€ซู„ _ ุฅโ€ฌeeโ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ ./ :9 aโ€ซ !ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ9 *,Z / โ€ซู†โ€ฌ9 โ€ซุง ู†โ€ฌ3; โ€ซ( ู†โ€ฌY)โ€ซ ุงุงุฒูŠ !ุฑโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌุŒ7โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/% โ€ซ( ู†โ€ฌx) โ€ซ ุงุงุฒูŠ !ุฑโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ:ZO; . โ€ซ ุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌ/% โ€ซ( ู†โ€ฌZ) โ€ซ ุงุงุฒูŠ !ุฑโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌุŒG\โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/%

:From Point โ€ซ ?ู„โ€ฌD *a1% N; *a\ โ€ซ ;! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌDโ€ซ( _ ุฅโ€ฌFrom Point) /a1% N; โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ / :9 aโ€ซู† ุง!ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ9 #> โ€ซ ู† ุงโ€ฌ9  #1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซ ุฅู† ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซุง  ู‡ ุช ;! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ .(โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌN>โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ-Xโ€ซ)ุงโ€ฌ

:Perpendicular . *$ !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD *โ€ซ ;! ุฐุงุฉ ุฏโ€ฌDโ€ซูŠ ุฅโ€ฌr;1โ€ซ ู† ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุงู†โ€ฌ#Vโ€ซ_ ุงโ€ฌ

:Parallel .*$ !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ;! ุฐุงุฉ ;ุงุฒ* ุฅโ€ฌDโ€ซูŠ _ ุฅโ€ฌr;1โ€ซ ู† ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุงุงุฒูŠโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Tangent . โ€ซุณโ€ฌ, โ€ซ * ุข ู†โ€ฌ% *a1% N; % ;

:Planar Inference .โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌG6โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3; Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌr61 (Planar Inference)โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌeeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ :Drawing Planes _;โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌdrawing axes)โ€ซ! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ9 *$ โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌr61 ; %>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % &$ (geometry)J Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌr61โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3%e ; (your view)]โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ .(the drawing area)

:On Face *a1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ( _ ุฅโ€ฌA blue On Face inference) /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซู„โ€ฌeโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซุง)ุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌ โ€ซู…โ€ฌV โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌN /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD *a1โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ+>; /%โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; K 9 . /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD =1 &โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . 17e โ€ซุขโ€ฌ. โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌinference locking)โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ6, โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3; โ€ซุข! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌ

:Encouraging an Inference =; โ€ซ \ ุฑ ;! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌ9 ; %>โ€ซู… ุงโ€ฌ1 โ€ซ & ;> ุฉ ุฃูˆโ€ฌUe , b% โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌeeโ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ % 7โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ Eโ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌ19 9 *S \ โ€ซุต ! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ= ุฒ ุฏุฉโ€ฌa3%ุŒ * !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ& ู‡โ€ฌ$ .ยƒ? Vโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

;. / โ€ซ ; ; ; ุชโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; MK โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ,โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD 9 f ,E; J_9 %โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ  ] ุง! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌJ@6 ; %>โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ T (ToolTips)โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1% . 9 3; :โ€ซู„โ€ฌh : Ja3 ` f #\  ; โ€ซุขโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ\ ;ุงุฒูŠโ€ฌh โ€ซ ! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌ#\  ; %>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ  60


โ€ซโ€ช -ูกโ€ฌูˆ ุฃูˆู„ โ€ช $ 7โ€ฌู† โ€ช J  =; Ja3โ€ฌุฃูˆู„ โ€ช; *$ 7โ€ฌุงุฒ* !ุฑ)โ€ช (Xโ€ฌุง!ุฑ ุง)โ€ช.7โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูขโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช *a1% D E 9 Pโ€ฌุง>ุง* ! โ€ช *$โ€ฌุงโ€ช *O Oโ€ฌูˆโ€ช7โ€ฌูƒ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุข  ุงโ€ช ]%โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช; ` Oโ€ฌุงุฒูŠ โ€ช #Vโ€ฌุง)ูˆู„โ€ช> 9ุŒโ€ฌุฃ ุง!ุข* โ€ชU9โ€ฌุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช ุŒ #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช M #Vโ€ฌุฃู† โ€ชTโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 9โ€ฌู† ุง)โ€ช.7โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช #\ :\ -ูฃโ€ฌุง@โ€ช7ุŒLโ€ฌูƒ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช *a1% D #Vโ€ฌุง>ุง* โ€ช *a1โ€ฌุง)ูˆโ€ช #V Dโ€ฌุง)ูˆู„โ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ ูˆ โ€ช a,  ]a\ . Ja3 /โ€ฌุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ช.*a1โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช >f -ูคโ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช Dโ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ชs * F *a1โ€ฌุฑ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ ) โ€ชthe Endpointโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.(ToolTipโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7 -ูฅโ€ฌูƒ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช =,โ€ฌุงโ€ช * % `7 &>1โ€ฌุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช M ` Oโ€ฌุฅู† โ€ช#\.Tโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช =; #1โ€ฌู† ;โ€ช! :9 aโ€ฌุฑ ุง)\โ€ช Gโ€ฌู >= ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช ] N> #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช D ]%โ€ฌุงโ€ช#Vโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;> ุฉ ;= โ€ช *a1%โ€ฌุง>ุง* โ€ช #Vโ€ฌุง)ูˆู„โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูฆโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช ; Pโ€ฌุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช /โ€ฌู† โ€ช9โ€ฌู† ุง!ุฑ) ุงโ€ช (7โ€ฌูˆู† ุฏูŠ โ€ชDโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ช #1โ€ฌุง)\โ€ช.Gโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Component Inferencesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ= ุฃุฏูˆุงุฉ ุงโ€ชeโ€ฌู„ ุง ุฏ* โ€ช Nโ€ฌุฃู† โ€ชV3โ€ฌุฌ ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุฃ ู„ ุฏุง\โ€ช Jโ€ฌุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข> ุช)โ€ช (Components entitiesโ€ฌุงูˆุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช ุง ุช)โ€ช(Groups entitiesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.โ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ ุง ุช ูˆุงุข> ุช   โ€ช 19 Eโ€ฌุท โ€ชmagenta )*r;,โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.(dotsโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Inference Lockingโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช t 9 &$โ€ฌุง)โ€ช 7โ€ฌู† โ€ชุŒโ€ฌุง_โ€ช, N; J1 , Jโ€ฌุฑ ] โ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ชeโ€ฌู„ โ€ช 1%โ€ฌุท โ€ช 1% Nโ€ฌุท ุง\ู‰โ€ช ;ุŒโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช N; Jโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช Mโ€ฌุฃู†  โ€ช.*,9โ€ฌุง โ€ช J6, Jโ€ฌุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„)โ€ช ( inference lockโ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช Jโ€ฌุง>โ€ชe ; %โ€ฌุฏุฏ โ€ช Nโ€ฌุงโ€ช b  eโ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช3;  7โ€ฌู„ โ€ช J! /โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง_* โ€ช  e.โ€ฌู„โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช J6,โ€ฌุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ โ€ชุŒโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช 6; D Pโ€ฌุญ )โ€ช *7 &$ (Shiftโ€ฌุงโ€ช ; 8

6โ€ฌุง>โ€ช3 ; %โ€ฌู„ โ€ชDโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง! ุฐุงุฉ ุงโ€ช #\ )*9aโ€ฌุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ ู†  (โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง! ุฐุงุฉ >โ€ช D7ุŒ*61; D1โ€ฌูˆุฃโ€ช1 %โ€ฌู… โ€ช ]!9โ€ฌุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌุงูˆุง\ ุฑ โ€ช *a1%โ€ฌุงโ€ชeโ€ฌู„โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.*% fโ€ฌุง@ุฑุฉ ุง *  โ€ช J6,โ€ฌุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช b  eโ€ฌุง)ุฒุฑู‚ โ€ช Gโ€ฌู†  โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุฏ โ€ช D #>G 9โ€ฌุงโ€ช./โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช61โ€ฌโ€ฌ


P; V‫ ا‬J@6‫ا‬ :Principal tools T J@6‫ا ا‬.‫& ه‬$ ‫ا)دوات‬،‫ ن‬7)‫ ا‬MK‫& ا‬$ ; %>‫& ا‬$ J 3 &‫ه& ا)دوات ا‬ :(the Tools menu)‫* ا)دوات‬+ , Ng . Paint Bucket Tool، Eraser Tool، Select Tool

:Select Tool ‫   ا  ل‬% &‫ ت ا‬% ‫ ! ا‬J 3 (Select Tool) ‫\ ر‬e‫أداة ا‬ ‫ رة‬V; *‫\ ر ف آ‬e‫ ت ا& _ ا‬% ‫ا‬.‫أدوات أو أوا; أ\ى‬ (Principal toolbar) N; ;‫(أ‬Select Tool)‫\ ر‬e‫ أداة ا‬#_%.(selection set) .(Tools menu) N; ‫أو‬

:Selecting a Single Entity ‫اوآ ن‬، (single-entity) ‫د‬6; ‫أ; ا\ ر آ ن‬، N‫\ ر‬e‫ ا‬J ] 8 ; %>‫ا‬ :‫د‬6; ‫\ ر آ ن‬e.(multiple-entity) M‫;آ‬ . D‫ إ‬/ F E‫ ا‬،(Select Tool)‫\ ر‬e‫ا\ أداة ا‬-١ .6S)‫ ن ا‬9‫ƒء‬G ‫ ر‬V‫ا ن ا‬،‫ ا ن‬D #Fg‫ا‬-٢

:Selecting Multiple Entities ‫ة‬7‫ ز * وا‬%‫ ا‬% ; (Multiple-entity) ‫ ت ; دة‬% ‫ ا\ ر آ‬6‫ ا‬N; .(‫ رة‬V‫ ت ; دة )ا* ا‬% ‫ آ‬D

62


expandable )= J9 , โ€ซูˆู‚ ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌS J 3 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซุง\ ุฑุงุช ; ุฏ ุงโ€ฌ selection )โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ& ;* ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุช ุง& ู‡โ€ฌ% โ€ซ ?* ุงโ€ฌ7e (selection box . (set :โ€ซ ุช ; ุฏุฉโ€ฌ% โ€ซ\ ุฑ ุขโ€ฌe P>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข.  Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌ/ F Eโ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌthe Select Tool)โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซุง\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS *โ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌe โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ9 *, *$ 3; Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM!โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ b.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌุŒ3)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌM!โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌN)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ.(selection box)โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ Ng S  *โ€ซ ุง\ุงโ€ฌุŒ(a crossing selection)=? 1โ€ซ\ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD3 * โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุง@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ.Ja3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ\โ€ซ ุฏุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุกุงโ€ฌr โ€ซ ] ุง& ู†โ€ฌG9ุŒโ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJa3; โ€ซ!` ุฃู†โ€ฌ9ุŒ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ู†โ€ฌfโ€ซ  ุง\ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ1$ุŒโ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌNโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซุง *  ุงโ€ฌ .(selection box)โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซูˆู‚ ุงโ€ฌS Ng #1$ N_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุกุงโ€ฌr

a crossing ) D3 * โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌุŒ Nโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌM!โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ3)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ Ja3; J\โ€ซ@ุฑุฉ ุข ;* ุฏุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌS  โ€ซ ] ุงโ€ฌ#1$ โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌV%ุŒ(selection Nโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฑ ุฅโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุง@ุฑุฉ ุง *  ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌ.(selection rectangle)โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ .*; โ€ซ@ุฑุฉ ุขโ€ฌ9( selection box)โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซูˆู‚ ุงโ€ฌS J\โ€ซ ุฏุงโ€ฌ#1$ 7โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌN+ โ€ซ ุฑุง ุขโ€ฌV;

J; โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ7โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌN+  Nโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฑ ุฅโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุง\ ุฑโ€ฌ

63


*% #1$ *; ‫@رة آ‬9 Ja3‫ ا‬Ng J\‫\ ر)  ا\ ر ا @ اا‬e‫ا‬ the selection )‫\ ر‬e‫ا* ا‬9 *a1 *3‫او* ا آ‬r‫ ا‬D‫ إ‬E‫ ا‬M!‫ ا‬-Ù£ .(starting point ‫(أو‬N‫ ا‬D‫ ر إ‬3‫ ا‬N; ‫ )ا\ ر‬+r J\ S  ‫ ; = ا‬E‫ر ا‬7 -Ù¤ selection ) ‫\ ر‬e‫وق ا‬S &$ (‫ ر‬3‫ ا‬D‫ إ‬N‫ ا‬N; ‫@رة Ø¢ ;*)ا\ ر‬9 J\

.( box

N‫ ا‬D‫ ر إ‬3‫ ا‬N; * &+r ‫ا\ ر‬

(‫ ا\ ر‬J@! )‫\ ر‬e‫* ا‬%

64


‫ا\ ر Ø¢ ;‪ N; J‬ا‪ N‬إ‪ D‬ا‪ 3‬ر‬

‫‪ *%‬ا‪ \e‬ر)  ا\ ر ا‪(J‬‬

‫ا\ ر ‪ N; * &+r‬ا‪ N‬إ‪ D‬ا‪ 3‬ر‬

‫‪ *%‬ا‪ \e‬ر)  ا\ ر ا‪(J‬‬ ‫‪65‬‬


Adding and Removing )‍> ع‏Y‍ ا‏B-Z K ‍ آ ŘŞ ؼ‏B8U‍ ŮˆŘĽâ€ŹB ‍ؼزا‏ :(Entities from the Selection Set 8

6; N; O‍ Ř­ ŘŁŮˆ أآ‏6; =; J 3 ‍ أن‏N ( The Select Tool)‍\ ع‏e‍أدا؊ ا‏ .*‍ ا‏N; ‍ ت‏% ‍* ŘŁŮˆ ؼزا* ا‏$ go ŘŒ8

6‍* ا‏7 &$ J ‍ا‏

:Adding to the Selection Set B-Z- ‍ ا‏K ‍ آ ت ؼ‏B8U‍ؼ‏ &$ J ‍ ا‏8

6; N; O‍ Ř­ ŘŁŮˆ أآ‏6; =; J 3 ‍ أن‏N (Select Tool)‍\ ع‏e‍أدا؊ ا‏ selection )‍\ ع‏e‍ ;* ا‏N; (entities) ‍ ت‏% ‍* ŘŁŮˆ ؼزا* ا‏$ go 8

6‍* ا‏7 .(set

:( Adding to the Selection Set)‍> ع‏Y‍ ا‏B-Z K ‍ ؼ‏B8U}‍ا‏ D‍ ؼ‏/ F E‍( ا‏Control key) ‍؊‏a3‍ Ř­ ا‏6; D P> 9 ‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹP>‍اآ‏ ‍ا‏7‍ا ŮˆŘ§â€Ź7â€ŤŮˆŘ§â€ŹŘŒâ€Ť ت‏% ‍* آ‏$ go *$ g‍ ŘŞ ؼ‏% ‍ آ‏D P> %‍ أ‏9 +‍ ;= ŘĽ ع؊ زا‏ Shift ) ‍ ح‏6; D P> 9 ‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹP>‍ Ř§ŮˆŘ§Ř˘â€Ź.(selection set)‍\ ع‏e‍ ;* ا‏D‍ؼ‏ ‍\ ع‏e‍ ;* ا‏D‍ا ؼ‏7‍ا ŮˆŘ§â€Ź7‍ ŘŞ ŮˆŘ§â€Ź% ‍* آ‏$ go *$ g‍ ŘŞ ؼ‏% ‍ Ř˘â€ŹŘŒ (key .(selection set)

Changing Selection Status for an )‍@ ن‏. ‍> ع‏Y‍ ا‏B /U‍  Ůˆâ€Ź1A :(Entity ‍ ŘĽ ع؊‏D‍ ؼ‏/ F Eâ€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒ (Shift key) ‍ ح‏6; D P>‍& ا‏$ ‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹP>‍اآ‏ ‍ ع؊‏V‍ ŘŞ ا‏% â€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒ ‍ * ا\ Řą ا ن‏g‍ Ůˆâ€ŹP  ‍ ت‏% ‍ ا‏D P> 9 z, %‍ Ůˆâ€Ź+‍زا‏ F‍ ŘŞ ا‏% â€ŤŮˆŘ§â€ŹŘŒ (unselected)‍ ع؊‏V; K 8>@ (selected entities)  7 .(selected)‍ ع؊‏V; 8>@ ‍( ٠‏unselected entities) ‍ ع؊‏V;

Subtracting from the Selection )‍> ع‏Y‍ ا‏B-Z  ‍ح‏b ‍ا‏ :(Set ‍ ŘĽ ع؊‏D‍ ؼ‏/ F Eâ€ŤŘ§â€ŹŘŒ (Shift key) ‍ ح‏6; D P>‍& ا‏$ ‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹP>‍اآ‏ N; ‍ ت‏% ‍زا* ا‏o  7 ‍ ع؊‏V‍ ŘŞ ا‏% ‍ ا‏D P> 9 z, % ‍ ;= ŘĽ ع؊‏ Shift ) ‍ ح‏6; D P>‍& ا‏$ ‍ ŮˆŘ§â€ŹP>â€ŤŘŁŮˆ Ř§Ř˘â€ŹŘŒ(selection set) ‍\ ع‏e‍;* ا‏ ‍ ت‏% ‍ ا‏D P> 9 z, %‍ Ůˆâ€Ź+‍ ŘĽ ع؊ زا‏D‍ ؼ‏/ F E‍ Ř§â€ŹŘŒ (key *; N; ‍ا‏7‍ا ŮˆŘ§â€Ź7‍ ŘŞ ŮˆŘ§â€Ź% ‍زا* ا‏o  7 (selected entities) ‍ ع؊‏V‍ا‏ .(selection set) ‍\ ع‏e‍ا‏ 66


:Expanding Selection Set ‍ أدا؊‏D #FG 9 ]‍( ŮˆŘ°â€Źselection set) ‍\ ع‏e‍ ;* ا‏D‍* ؼ‏$ go‍= ŘŁ ا‏a3

. ‍\ Řą Ř°] ا ن‏e ‍ ا ن‏D ‍ ;؊‏P>â€ŤŘ§Ř˘â€ŹŘŒ ‍( ŘŠ ;ات‏Select Tool) ‍\ ع‏e‍ا‏ = =; /‍* Ř§Ůˆ Ůˆâ€Ź$ 7 ‍\ ع‏eŘŒ/‍* ŘŁŮˆ Ůˆâ€Ź$ 7 E ‍ ا ن‏D *39‍ ;

ن Ůˆâ€ŹP>‍اآ‏ ‍\ ع‏e‍* ا‏3  * ‍ ا@Řą ا‏./‍* ŘŁŮˆ ا‏$ !‍ ;= ] ا‏+ r$ *@‍ ŘŞ ا‏% ‍ا‏ :1 9

:B]R. ‍  ق‏+‍ا‏, .‍ Ů‚  ن‏3‍* ا‏+ , ‍ ع‏G7o (context-click) P>‍  Ů‚ ا‏J ‍ا‏ : * ‍ ا)ŮˆŘ§; ا‏7‍ ا‏Z 3; ‍\ ع‏e‍& ا‏$ =‍ ] ا‏8 *% f +‍ا‏,  &‍ŘŠ ŮˆŘ§â€Ź Connected Faces, All Connected, All on same layer, and All with ŘŒ . Bounding Edges,ŘŒsame material

:Selecting or De-Selecting All Geometry (Edit menu)!‍* ا‏+ , &$ (Select All menu)J‍ ŘŁ; أدا؊ ا\ Řą ا‏J ‍ا‏ &$ *+‍ ا‏S  ‍\ Řą = ا‏e 8

6‍* ا‏7 &$ (Ctrl+A)&7 6; D P>â€ŤŘ§ŮˆŘ§Ř˘â€Ź Edit ) !‍* ا‏+ , &$ ‍( اد؊‏Deselect All menu) *+ , J ‍ ا‏.‍اذ؏‏ ‍اإ‏o ‍؊ ا‏.$ % &$ ‍ عغ‏$ ‍ ŘŁŮŠ ; ن‏D P>‍( ŘŁŮˆ اآ‏Ctrl+T)D P>‍( ŘŁŮˆ اآ‏menu currently selected )  7 ‍ ع؊‏V‍ ŘŞ ا‏% ‍( = ا‏De-Selecting) * .(entities

:Eraser Tool ‍ ت‏% ‍ ŘŞ ŮˆŘ˘â€Ź$ !‍ ŘŞ ا‏% ‍ آ‏JO;ŘŒ ‍ ت‏% ‍٠ا‏.! *3+‍ Řą* ا‏9 J 3 83‍ؼن أدا؊ ا‏ . ‍ ت‏$ !‍ ŘĄ Ůˆ   ا‏6\o G‍ أ‏J 3 ‍ أن‏N 83‍أدا؊ ا‏.‍؊ ا‏.$ % N; ‍ء ا> إ‏a\ ‍ \ ع‏9 ‍* ŘŁŮˆâ€Ź3+‍* ا)ŘŻŮˆŘ§ŘŞ ا‏+ , N; (Eraser Tool) 83‍ أدا؊ ا‏#Ů‘_

67


โ€ซ;โ€ช *+ , N; (Eraser) 83โ€ฌุง)ุฏูˆุงุช โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช: Erasing Entitiesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุข ุฐุข  โ€ช ุŒู‹ 19โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช 83 J 3 83โ€ฌุฃูˆ ;!& ุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช.$ % &$โ€ฌุฉ ุงโ€ชU9 57e ุŒโ€ฌู†โ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช 83; N; ] e 83โ€ฌุงโ€ช. bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 83โ€ฌุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูกโ€ฌู€ ุง\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช (Eraser Tool) 83โ€ฌูˆโ€ช J Fโ€ฌุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌุฅโ€ช !; Dโ€ฌุฉ ;= โ€ชSโ€ฌูˆู‚โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช. FSโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูขโ€ฌู€ ุงุข>โ€ช D Pโ€ฌุง โ€ช N+โ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช ุŒ/!39 MKโ€ฌุข ] ;โ€ช 83โ€ฌุฉ ุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช P6% &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช,โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 9โ€ฌุงุฑ ุง>โ€ช D Pโ€ฌุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌูˆ!>โ€ช$ /โ€ฌู‚ ุฉ ุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช = ุŒ !3โ€ฌุง) ู„ ุง&โ€ฌ โ€ซุง\ุช ู โ€ชู‘!  7 83โ€ฌุฑ ุงโ€ช N; Eโ€ฌุง>โ€ช. Pโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅุฐุง โ€ช \ 9 ,โ€ฌุฑ โ€ช ุŒ/!39 MK e Jโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ช 6; D Pโ€ฌุญ )โ€ช *7 &$ (ESCโ€ฌุงโ€ช8

6โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Foโ€ฌุก * ุงโ€ช.7 J>, 83โ€ฌู ุง\ ุฑูƒ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;!โ€ช 7 :*sโ€ฌูˆู„ ;โ€ช 83โ€ฌุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช#>9โ€ฌุก ุฅุฐุง ุข  ูˆุฒ โ€ช 9โ€ฌุงุฑ ุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช&$ MKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช. !3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;!โ€ช *sโ€ฌุฃ\ู‰โ€ช  :โ€ฌุฏุฉ โ€ช 83โ€ฌุฏ ุข> ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช โ€ช *39โ€ฌู† ุฐ] โ€ช \ 9โ€ฌุฑ ุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุชโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชU9โ€ฌุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช \eโ€ฌุฑ )โ€ช (Select Toolโ€ฌูˆุงุข>โ€ช 6; D Pโ€ฌุญ )โ€ช *7 &$ (Deleteโ€ฌุงโ€ชุŒ8

6โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆ โ€ช =a3โ€ฌุฃโ€ช 83; ู‹Gโ€ฌุงุงุฏ ุงโ€ช Vโ€ฌุฑุฉ โ€ช \ 9โ€ฌุฑ ุข* )โ€ช *+ , N; (Eraseโ€ฌุง! โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช: Hiding Edgesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข>โ€ช Pโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช 6; D P> 9โ€ฌุญ )โ€ช (Shiftโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช Jโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช(Eraser Tool) 83โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช. ( !3; N; eโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 6\oโ€ฌุก ุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช )โ€ชู‹ 9โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช68โ€ฌโ€ฌ


: Soften Edgesู Soften/Smooth ) โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN โ€ซ(   ูˆโ€ฌCtrl) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P> 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ

ู‹ ; (Ctrl + Shift) & ู‘ 7 6; D P> 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ !3; N; e ู‹ 9 (Edges . (Unsoften/Unsmooth Edges) *ู‘ Kโ€ซ * ูˆโ€ฌ% K โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ 7 J 

: Paint Bucket Tool =a3 โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ. โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ> ุบ ุฅโ€ฌS)โ€ซ ุงุงุฏ ูˆุงโ€ฌz@V J 3 โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ โ€ซ> ุบโ€ฌSโ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุง>ุงู„ ;ุงุฏ ุฃูˆ ุฃโ€ฌุŒ*@โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุฏ* ุฃูˆ ุฏโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซุก ุขโ€ฌZa   โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ\ู‰ ุฐุฌโ€ฌU9 *+ , N; (Paint Bucket) โ€ซ \ ุฑโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ* ุฃูˆโ€ฌ3+โ€ซ ุง)ุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ# N; p>@โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#ู‘_

. โ€ซุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ

: Applying Materialู Shaded ) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ, =; JG โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌShaded) JTโ€ซ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌsโ€ซ * ุฅโ€ฌgโ€ซ ุฅ; ูˆโ€ฌJ 3 ]%โ€ซุข ุฃโ€ฌU

. ]โ€ซุฐโ€ฌ% D :>a ; โ€ซ= ุฑุค* ุงุงุฏโ€ฌa3 `!9 (with Texture

: โ€ซุงุฏโ€ฌ- โ€ซุงู… ุงโ€ฌ+!Y โ€ซุกโ€ฌZ? *> Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌEโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ Fโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌPaint Bucket Tool) p>@โ€ซู€ ุง\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌูก โ€ซ ;>* ุงุงุฏโ€ฌNG โ€ซ ุงุงุฏโ€ฌ86@; ุŒ(Material Browser) โ€ซ ุงุงุฏโ€ฌ86@; #ู‘_โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุง) ู„โ€ฌN; J_9 โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ โ€ซุกู‡โ€ฌZ? โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp>@ ;โ€ซุงโ€ฌVโ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3 &โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ . $ โ€ซ* ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ6Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ ;ุงุฏโ€ฌNG โ€ซ ;> ุช ุงุงุฏโ€ฌN;  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซ ; !ูŠโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซู€ ุง\ ;>* ุงุงุฏโ€ฌูข

โ€ซู‡โ€ฌKโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌL1โ€ซ ;ุงุฏ  ;* ูˆุฃโ€ฌุŒ*$ 6 . โ€ซ ;>* ุงุงุฏโ€ฌN; โ€ซู€ ุง\ ุงุงุฏโ€ฌูฃ 69


‫ رة‬V‫  دة ا‬9 Da b‫ ا‬، F>S  &‫ ا‬b‫ ا‬D P>‫ـ اآ‬٤ P>‫ اآ‬،(Select Tool) ‫\ ر‬e‫ أداة ا‬Z ً  3; ‫ ; دة‬S  ‫ \ ر‬9 , ‫ـ إذا‬٥ . ‫ة‬7‫* وا‬3>9 ‫ رة‬V‫ ا‬S  ‫ = ا‬p>@ p>@‫ أداة ا‬،‫ رة‬V‫ ا‬S  ‫ ا‬D

: Face Painting Rules ‫ ; دة أو‬b‫ و‬p>S % ; :ّ>a &‫* وا‬6V‫ ا‬b‫ ا‬p>@ ‫ا‬, ‫ه ] ة‬ . ,‫ ا‬P6% &$ ‫ ت ; دة‬$ 7 : &‫ا ه‬1‫ ا‬b.‫وه‬ ‫م‬1 ; e ً ‫ أو‬/F>S  ‫ي‬.‫ ا‬M% ‫ ا‬D  p>@ &‫ ا‬b‫ ا‬M%  ‫ـ‬١ *> p>@9 ,‫ ا\ت و‬, b‫ = ا‬% ‫ ل إذا آ‬O‫ آ‬. /‫ و‬N; O‫ \ ر أآ‬9 . p>@‫ ا‬P69 p>@ b‫ ا‬J‫ >* آ‬،7‫ وا‬/‫و‬ ،b‫ ا‬7‫( أ‬L\) s p>@9 ,‫  ا\ ره و‬, b‫ = ا‬% ‫ إذا آ‬J9 1 9‫و‬ . p>@ *6V‫ ا‬b‫= ا‬ p>@9 ,‫ ت و‬$ !‫ ;= = ا‬/‫ ر و‬V ; p>@ ‫ رة‬V‫ ت ا‬$ !‫ـ = ا‬٢ . /‫ ا‬N; *; ;)‫ا* ا‬ N; *6V‫ ا* ا‬p>@ ‫ ت و‬$ !‫ و= ا‬/‫ ر و‬V ; p>@ N ‫ ت‬$ !‫ ـ ا‬٣ . /‫ا‬ :S.4 - o َ - 3 ‫آ‬A Edge ‫> ر‬Y‫ أم ا‬o/U‫ <<< وو‬Display Settings <<< Window . ‫ت‬8R ‫ ا‬K. yb- ‫  ا ˆ ا‬IA B4‫ ؤ‬By Material ‫ة‬O8 ‫ ا‬S8 Color

: Paint Bucket Tool Modifier Keys ‫   ل‬9 ‫ة‬7‫* ;ة وا‬39 b‫ء ة و‬Za J 3 ‫ أن‬N ‫ء‬Za‫ أو ا‬p>@‫أداة ا‬ . Alt ‫ و‬Shift ‫ و‬Ctrl J ‫ ا‬8

6;

: Element Fill (No Modifies) ،ً 19  ‫  آ ذآ‬P>% ; b‫ ا‬D ‫  د ًة‬J ‫ء‬Za‫ أو ا‬p>@‫أداة ا‬ ‫ة‬7‫ة وا‬19 F>S N (Select Tool) ‫\ ر‬e‫داة ا‬U9 ‫ ت ا&  ا\ ره‬% ‫وا‬ . ‫ء‬Za‫ أداة ا‬N;

: Adjacent Fill (Ctrl) ‫ء ذاك‬J p>@‫داة ا‬U9 /‫ ا‬D P> 9 (Ctrl) ‫ ح‬6; D P> 9 ‫ وا‬P>‫اآ‬ /‫ وا‬/ 3>‫ي آ‬.‫ ا‬/‫ ا‬. p>@‫ ا‬P69 (/9 J@;) ‫ ; ور‬/‫ وأي و‬/‫ا‬ . * ‫ ا‬b.‫ أداء ه‬J>, ‫ ا دة‬P6%  ‫ أن ن‬M ‫ا ور‬

70


โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 p>@โ€ซ\ ุฑ ูˆุงโ€ฌeโ€ซ* ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ ุฏโ€ฌ:*T7Z; p>@ (Selection Set) โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ ุช ุงุฏุฉ ;* ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ  Ctrl J โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . #1$ : Replace (Shift) =g p>@โ€ซุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌU9 /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ>, (Shift) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P> 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ ู‚ ุง! & ;= ; ุฏุฉ ุฉโ€ฌ3โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌP6% =; ุŒ/โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌJโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌD p>@โ€ซ; ุฏุฉ ุงโ€ฌ

. J โ€ซ ุญ ุงโ€ฌ6; Z ู‹  3; p>@โ€ซ\ ุฑ ูˆุงโ€ฌeโ€ซ* ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ ุฏโ€ฌ:*T7Z; . #1$ โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ& ;* ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุช ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp>S M>3 Shift : Adjacent Replace (Ctrl + Shift)ู โ€ซ>ุงู„โ€ฌe p>@โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌZ\ ู‹%h (Ctrl + Shift) N7 6โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P> 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ . /โ€ซู‹ู ;= ุฐุงูƒ ุงโ€ฌ+ r$ *@โ€ซ ;= ุง) ู„ ุงโ€ฌ#1$ /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ Mู‘>3 J โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ8

6; Z ู‹  3; p>@โ€ซ\ ุฑ ูˆุงโ€ฌeโ€ซุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌU9 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ ุฏโ€ฌ:*T7Z; . #1$ โ€ซ\ ุฑโ€ฌeโ€ซ& ;* ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุช ุงุฏุฉโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp>S : Sample Material (Alt) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ุฐุฌโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌp>@โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌN; F Alt โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P> 9 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฑุฉโ€ฌa1 Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ F ุŒโ€ซ ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌNg โ€ซ ุงุงุฏโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ู‘ ุชโ€ฌ.\) (Sample Tool) . (Eyedropper) 71


โ€ซุงุข>โ€ช D Pโ€ฌุงโ€ช /โ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ  ุฃ\โ€ช ; .โ€ฌุฏ โ€ช /โ€ฌุฐุฌ )โ€ชู‘7 ุŒ(Sampleโ€ฌุฑ ;โ€ช 6โ€ฌุญโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช  (Altโ€ฌุฏุฉ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชZaโ€ฌุกโ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุงโ€ช p>Sโ€ฌุงโ€ช /โ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ  โ€ช 9โ€ฌุฐุฌ )โ€ช. (Sampleโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช: Painting Groups and Componentsโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชZ? Nโ€ฌุก ุข ;โ€ช Jโ€ฌุข โ€ช %โ€ฌุช ุง* ุฃูˆ ุง โ€ช %โ€ฌุช ุงโ€ช6โ€ฌุฏ* โ€ช Ngโ€ฌุง* ุฃูˆ ุงุข> ุชโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 9โ€ฌุงุฏ โ€ช U .โ€ฌุฃ ู„ ;ุงุฏ โ€ช Dโ€ฌุข ;โ€ช *; Jโ€ฌุฃูˆ ;ุขโ€ช: Mโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูกโ€ฌู€ ุง\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง@>โ€ช! ุŒpโ€ฌู„ ุงโ€ชZ? *> J_ Eโ€ฌุก ูˆ;@โ€ช 86โ€ฌุงุงุฏ _ู‘โ€ชุŒ#โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;@โ€ช 86โ€ฌุงุงุฏ !ูŠ โ€ช >; Dโ€ฌุช ุงุฏ โ€ช =>a J 3โ€ฌุงุงุฏ โ€ช Dโ€ฌูˆโ€ช bโ€ฌุงุฐุฌ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชS Zโ€ฌูˆู‚ )โ€ช ุŒ(Drop Down List Boxโ€ฌุง>โ€ช! ; %โ€ฌูŠโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูขโ€ฌู€ ุง\ ;>* ุงุงุฏ ;โ€ชู‹  3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง  ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง> ุช ุงุฏ ูˆุง& โ€ช; NGโ€ฌุงุฏ  ;*โ€ช; ุŒโ€ฌุงุฏ โ€ช *$ 6โ€ฌูˆโ€ช1โ€ฌู ูˆโ€ชKโ€ฌู‡ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูฃโ€ฌู€ ุง\ ุงุงุฏ ุง&  ?>  ;โ€ช *>; Nโ€ฌุงุงุฏ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูคโ€ฌู€ ุงุข>โ€ช D Pโ€ฌุง* ุฃูˆ ุงู‘ู† ุง&  ?>= ุง ุฏุฉ  โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุงโ€ช  9 DaF bโ€ฌุฏุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช. *9aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Zโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช \eโ€ฌุฑโ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุงุข>โ€ชD Pโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชูฅโ€ฌู€ ุฅุฐุง โ€ช \ 9 ,โ€ฌุฑ ; ;= ; ุฏุฉ ุฃูˆ ;โ€ช %โ€ฌุช ;โ€ชู‹  3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช \eโ€ฌุฑ โ€ชU9โ€ฌุฏุงุฉ ุง@>โ€ช ุŒpโ€ฌูˆ โ€ช p>Sโ€ฌุง= โ€ช *3>9โ€ฌูˆุงโ€ช7โ€ฌุฉ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช :*T7Zโ€ฌุฅุฐุง ุข ู† ุงโ€ช Ng /โ€ฌุง* ุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ช 9 p>S , Mโ€ฌุฏุฉ )ุง ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซุง)โ€ช :>a J>, ุŒ(*Sโ€ฌุง ุฏุฉ โ€ช = Dโ€ฌุง* ุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ชย†$ ุŒMโ€ฌู† ุงโ€ชDa N /โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:Zโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช  9โ€ฌุฏุฉ ุงุฉ โ€ชู‹ O; .โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช  rโ€ฌุช ุง); ;*โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุง@ุงุช ูˆุงโ€ช ?oโ€ฌุฑุงุช โ€ช &$โ€ฌุง@ุฑ ุง * โ€ช J>, F>S ,โ€ฌูˆโ€ช=gโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง ุฏุฉ โ€ช Dโ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ช %โ€ฌุชโ€ช. ุŒโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช  rโ€ฌุช ุง); ;* ูˆุง@ุงุช ูˆุงโ€ช ?oโ€ฌุฑุงุช โ€ช  19โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง)ุงู† ุง)โ€ช. *Sโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช72โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซุง โ€ช 0Qโ€ฌุง โ€ช,โ€ฌุฏุณโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช: Drawing toolsโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู‡โ€ชOโ€ฌุง ุง โ€ช Sb14 0Qโ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง !" ุง โ€ช S8 0-/,A Sโ€ฌุง โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง )โ€ช (Drawing toolsโ€ฌู‡& ] ุง)ุฏูˆุงุช ุง& โ€ช J 3โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ โ€ช.  Jโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏูˆุงุช _โ€ช Jโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช (The Line Tool) #Vโ€ฌูˆุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช1โ€ฌุณ )โ€ช (The Arc Toolโ€ฌูˆุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซุง ุง!)โ€ช (The Freehand Toolโ€ฌูˆุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช(The Rectangle Tool) Ja3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงุงโ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฉ )โ€ช (The Circle Toolโ€ฌูˆุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช. (The Polygon Tool) =Gโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏูˆุงุช ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช ] &aF J@6โ€ฌุง& โ€ช &$ Tโ€ฌุงโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Line Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชa\  J 3 (Line Tool) #Vโ€ฌุท ุฃูˆ โ€ช $ 7โ€ฌุช โ€ช $ 7 ุŒโ€ฌุช ; ุฏุฉ ;@*โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ุŒ G >9โ€ฌุฃูˆ ุฅ ู„ ;โ€ช *1Fโ€ฌุงโ€ชeโ€ฌูˆโ€ช. /โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช N (Line Tool) #โ€ฌุง   ุฃโ€ชGโ€ฌู€ู€ โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 31โ€ฌุง)ูˆู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช/โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ _โ€ช #โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ช#Vโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช (Line Toolโ€ฌุฃ; โ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช # Nโ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุง ุฃูˆ ;โ€ช*+ , Nโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชDrawing aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:Lineโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Nโ€ฌุฑ ุงโ€ชaVโ€ฌู€ู€ุทโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Dโ€ฌูˆู€ู€ู€โ€ชbโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช; (facesโ€ฌุฏุฉ โ€ช7 &$โ€ฌู€ู€ู€* ุง ุฃูˆ ุฑ โ€ช@9โ€ฌุฑุฉ ;โ€ช *@6โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Nโ€ฌุง_โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงุฏโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช !9โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ;โ€ช3โ€ฌูŠ ุง! ูˆุฑ(โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ !" ุง โ€ช:E+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูกโ€ฌุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชุŒ (Line Tool) E+โ€ฌุง โ€ช =.@L  1 ! LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช.". Kโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูขโ€ฌุงุข~ โ€ช Bb TUโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ช. E+. B4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชX -ูฃโ€ฌู€ูƒ ุง โ€ช8 LM-โ€ฌู€โ€ช Sโ€ฌุงโ€ชZAYโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช wโ€ฌุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช gAโ€ฌู€ ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Eโ€ฌุฅ ู€=โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌูˆุฅโ€ชIโ€ฌู€ุก ุฑ!โ€ช 3-โ€ฌุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชEโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ!  โ€ช: S8 = qโ€ฌูˆู‚ ุง โ€ช@Rโ€ฌู€"   โ€ช B-โ€ฌูˆ ุฑุฉ & โ€ช.Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูคโ€ฌุงุข~ ุฉ ุฃ>ู‰ โ€ช K.โ€ฌุง โ€ช Bbโ€ฌุง โ€ช g Sโ€ฌุฅู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุก ุง โ€ช+โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชb ุŒ 8 Eโ€ฌู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุง โ€ชB4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู€ู€ู€ โ€ช@Aโ€ฌู† ุงโ€ช 4f E> B4โ€ฌุฃ>โ€ชq .โ€ฌู€ู€ู„ ุง โ€ช @-4 E+โ€ฌุฃู† โ€ชRโ€ฌุฏโ€ช7 B wโ€ฌุฏ>ู„ ุงุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช73โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซุง โ€ชbโ€ฌู„ ุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ชO8 S8 E+. w4โ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ช B-   "@Rโ€ฌุฃ โ€ช 0โ€ฌุข~ ุง โ€ช Bbโ€ฌุง โ€ชB hโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงูˆโ€ช /โ€ฌุฑ!" ุง โ€ชE+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:B]R.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ ูˆุจ โ€ช T b,Aโ€ฌุง @~ ูˆุง!โ€ช-โ€ฌุงุฑ ุฐ โ€ช K. 3โ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชU LMโ€ฌู€โ€ชb Tโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ชB4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุง โ€ช R,โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช+โ€ฌุฑุฌ ุฏูˆู† โ€ช 4RAโ€ฌุง โ€ช TU LM-โ€ฌุง โ€ชbโ€ฌู€ู€ู„โ€ชX.โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุฑ ุง โ€ช} LM-โ€ฌุขโ€ช-โ€ฌู„ ุง โ€ช. E+โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Creating a Faceโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€โ€ช * % &$ D1> (Line Tool) #โ€ฌุขโ€ช * % *a1% ุŒ b #\ Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช #Vโ€ฌู‡โ€ช> b.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช@9โ€ฌุฑุฉ โ€ช *a1% *hโ€ฌุง>ุง* โ€ช #Vโ€ฌุฃ\ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช\  =a3โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช #โ€ฌุฃ\ู€ โ€ช!9โ€ฌู€ู€] ุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌูˆุง>โ€ชf Pโ€ฌู€ู€ โ€ช%โ€ฌู€* ;ู€ู€ู€โ€ชa1% Nโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ุง>ุง* ู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุงู†โ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช aVโ€ฌู† โ€ช 1โ€ฌู† โ€ช3; &$โ€ฌูŠ ูˆุงโ€ช.7โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช *fZfโ€ฌุงูˆุงุขโ€ช N; Oโ€ฌุงโ€ชaVโ€ฌู€ู€ุท ุงุงโ€ช3; &$ * ,โ€ฌูŠ ูˆุงโ€ช7โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ โ€ชุŒโ€ฌูˆ โ€ช 1% &$ =? 1โ€ฌุท ุง>ุง* ูˆุง *โ€ฌ โ€ซ);โ€ช  ุŒ(*17 *%โ€ฌุข ู† ุงโ€ช. /โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ชUโ€ฌุข โ€ช 9โ€ฌู† ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชeโ€ฌู„ โ€ช *a1%โ€ฌุง * )โ€ช ; *+; (Endpoint inference ToolTipโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ช :Fโ€ฌุข ู† ุงโ€ชU /โ€ฌุข โ€ช 9โ€ฌู† ุฃูŠ \โ€ชaโ€ฌุท  ;โ€ช3โ€ฌุฉโ€ช .โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช(Line Tool) #โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7โ€ฌู€ุฑุช ูˆู€ โ€ชr eโ€ฌุงู„ โ€ช $โ€ฌู€ * โ€ช 9โ€ฌู€ ู€ู€ ุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช#โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:B]R.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชUโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Tโ€ฌุฃู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ูˆโ€ช B /Uโ€ฌุงโ€ชUYโ€ฌุฑโ€ช(Window > Display Settings ):โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช E- Kโ€ฌุง  ูˆุฑุฉ ุง โ€ช (Shaded rendering style) 0.N-โ€ฌู‰ โ€ชUโ€ฌุญโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช wfโ€ฌุง โ€ช4Zโ€ฌุฉ  โ€ช Aโ€ฌู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:Splitting a Lineโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง>โ€ช; %โ€ฌู€ู€ โ€ชa, 31โ€ฌู€ู€= ุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช #โ€ฌุฃ ; \โ€ชaโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ุท ุฉ  ุฏู€ู€ู€ู€* โ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช.#โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช:ZOโ€ฌุงุฑ \ู€ู€โ€ช #โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ ุฅโ€ชa1% Dโ€ฌู€ู€ู€* ุง@โ€ช =99 E ) Lโ€ฌุฐูˆ ู†  โ€ช #V (&+โ€ฌุฃ\โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 31โ€ฌุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช #โ€ฌุฅโ€ชr Dโ€ฌุฃโ€ช 3; Nโ€ฌูˆโ€ช .Nโ€ฌุง);โ€ช *Oโ€ฌุง *  ุงโ€ช7โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ชaVโ€ฌู€ู€ุท ;โ€ช$ ? 1โ€ฌู€ู€&โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชa1%โ€ฌู€ู€* ุง@ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชa\ %;ุŒ Lโ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช 3; Nโ€ฌูˆโ€ช.Nโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช74โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:Splitting a Face /‫ اـ‬31 (face's edges) /‫ ت و‬$ 7 D ‫ ط‬1% * %‫ا* و‬9 =‫ ;ــ‬#‫ار \ــ‬ D‫ إ‬/‫ ت ا‬$ 7 ‫ى‬7‫ إ‬N; #‫ ; ر \ــــ‬3, , Ja3;  * ‫ا@رة اــ‬ .  *9 1; *$ 7

N; ‫ء‬r 3 &‫ـــط وا& ه‬a\ ‫أي‬. *31; K ‫ـــط‬a\ J\‫ ا‬، \) N7 N‫;ـ‬ ) &>% ‫ اــــ‬J‫ورة ا_ــــ‬S ‫ );ــ أب‬NVf‫ أ‬#‫ ;ــ= \ــ‬T /‫ وــ‬#!; ‫ــــــ ر‬so‫  ت ا‬g‫وق و‬S &‫ـــ‬$ J ‫ــ‬$ ‫ـــ‬, (Profile Edge rendering style D M1  (Line Tool) #‫ــ‬V‫ أداة ا‬J ‫ا‬. (Display Settings dialog box) ‫ و!ـــــــ ول‬J‫ ا_ـ‬J! ; %>‫ ا‬. *\‫ط ;ا‬a\ 31 *‫ ;د ! و‬#\ ‫?ل‬ .  $ /‫ ا‬31  ‫ي‬.‫  وا‬a\  * ‫ا@ر ا‬، #V‫ ا‬J;  ‫إ دة‬

:Specifying Precision Line Values

;  #‫ــ‬V‫ ?ــل ا‬T (Value Control Box) *‫ـــــــــــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.‫ــ‬$ % ‫†د\ ل‬9 ]‫ وذ‬8

6‫ــ* ا‬7 Z 3; #‫ــ‬V‫* ?ــل ا‬, ! ‫ـ‬G‫= أ‬a3 ‫و‬،/

(Value Control Box)*1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.$ % &$ #‫ــ‬V b ‫ي‬.‫ـل ا‬a‫ا‬ :Entering a Length Value ‫ل‬a‫>= ا‬a9 (Value Control Box) *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـــ‬.‫ـ‬$ % &$ #‫ــ‬V‫د ?ـل ا‬7 (Return) ‫( أو‬Enter) ‫ ح‬6; D #Fg‫ وا‬#V *‫ــــ* ا>ا‬a1% =g‫  و‬9 ‫ب‬a‫ا‬ #1$ *,‫* ا‬1‫= ا‬g9 , ‫* ا! * إذا‬1f‫ــات ا‬7‫ * و‬g‫م و‬V3 ; %>‫ا‬. . tF9، ,‫& أي و‬$ *‫ات ا‬7 9 ‫ام أو‬,)‫ ت وا‬%e 9 *1‫ ! ا‬G‫= أ‬a3

.(model units setting )J‫ــات اد‬7‫ـــــ * و‬g‫ و‬N G‫ا‬ 75


:B]R. .B-   "@R â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹO8 S8 ! 0>â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; ŘŁŮ&#x160; اع ادâ&#x20AC;Źq O> ! Eâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź+ â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŮ&#x2020; أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź :Entering a 3D Coordinate &$ #â&#x20AC;Ť * \Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź% =g   â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN (Value Control Box) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % . (exact coordinate in space) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;ŹG6â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ â&#x20AC;Ť& ;!ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź :Entering an Absolute Coordinate *G9â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź3D space) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;ŹfZOâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ اâ&#x20AC;ŹG6â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ *a1â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§?>= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź /1â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ ŘŁءâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź7oâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹD J@!. [x, y, z] JO; (brackets)Pâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§>اآâ&#x20AC;Ź . * !â&#x20AC;Ť ا! Ů&#x2C6;Řą اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť>* ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź3% ( absolute coordinates )

:Entering a Relative Coordinate Nâ&#x20AC;Ť ;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹTâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹN; J,â&#x20AC;Ť   Ů&#x201E; Řą;ز اâ&#x20AC;Ź9 ]aV *â&#x20AC;Ť* ا>اâ&#x20AC;Źa1% Dâ&#x20AC;Ť>* ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź3% â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź7oâ&#x20AC;Ť ء اâ&#x20AC;Ź1% â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź7 .#V *â&#x20AC;Ť* ا>اâ&#x20AC;Źa1% N; *>3% â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 3; , &â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źz â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źy â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źx `7Ř&#x152; <x, y, z> JO;Ř&#x152;

:B]R. Value Control ) B-   "@R â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹOâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź8 S8 "  â&#x20AC;Ť }ŘŻ>Ů&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;ŹBR R â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB1  â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź B.:Q â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źjâ&#x20AC;Ť  اŮ&#x2C6;Řą  Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź.-/,-. Ř&#x152; 3!R B - .}â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB /U â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. -/A (Box . [x; y; z] â&#x20AC;Ť@Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź4  :Drawing Lines by Inference Sketch ) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Řąâ&#x20AC;Źa; &â&#x20AC;Ť ; Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź%> â&#x20AC;Ť ;!Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x192;â&#x20AC;ŹJ 3 (Line Tool ) #â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;ŹG6â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ ]?a\ =â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źgâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;& Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź$ ]  3 (Up's sophisticated geometric *aâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź9 * â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź. (inference decisions) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źeeâ&#x20AC;Ť; ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;ŹZ â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC; ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;ŹfZOâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź (inference engine) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źeeâ&#x20AC;Ť;!Ů&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź b.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źeâ&#x20AC;Ť ء اâ&#x20AC;Ź1%â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. (inference lines) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źeâ&#x20AC;Ťء اâ&#x20AC;ŹaVâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ ا آâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹT

. Jâ&#x20AC;Ť اŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹJâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź/% â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź#â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 *1,â&#x20AC;Ť ء  ;! ذا؊ ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ťء Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;ŹaVâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

:Dividing a Line into Equal Segments â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź,â&#x20AC;Ť  اâ&#x20AC;Źw4 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻ اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź- ,A @-4 (Line segments) E+ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹTb : B4â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . B8R â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. -4â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹLM-  ~â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ř˘â&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ (context menu) â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź-C  w4A â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;ŹDivide)" , â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§>Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC; اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ 76


โ€ซุง  ! โ€ช TNโ€ฌุท โ€ช K.โ€ฌุง โ€ช 4 E+โ€ฌุฃุข ุงโ€ช,โ€ฌู… ุง โ€ช.E+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชX-ูฃโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌู€ู€ุขโ€ช jโ€ฌุง โ€ช 0 . E+โ€ฌุฏ ุง โ€ชX . " ,โ€ฌู€ูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุฅโ€ชXโ€ฌู‰โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช S4โ€ฌุง โ€ช4j E+โ€ฌุฏุฉ ุฏ ุง โ€ช. " ,โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูคโ€ฌุงุข~ โ€ช K.โ€ฌุง โ€ช 04  E+โ€ฌุฏ ุง โ€ช " ,โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช/โ€ฌุฏ ุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ชุŒ w4Aโ€ฌุง โ€ช", ! E+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุฏ  ุงโ€ช,โ€ฌู… ุง โ€ช,-โ€ฌูˆโ€ช B4โ€ฌุง โ€ช.N/ BbA-โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช77โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:Arc Tool =a, โ€ซ ู€ุฉโ€ฌN; โ€ซุงุณ ูˆุง& ู†โ€ฌ,)โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌJ 3 ( Arc Tool) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ7โ€ซุณ ูˆุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌJโ€ซ* ูˆุง& ;ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ13โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌaVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; Drawing ) โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ#โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ู€โ€ฌ+ , N; ( Arc Tool ) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#_% . ( Draw menu) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ุงู€โ€ฌ+ , N; โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌToolbar

:Drawing an Arc :โ€ซุงุกโ€ฌjfโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌBI\I 0-2A 0-2A โ€ซุข ุช ุง ุณโ€ฌ . ( starting point ) B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb-ูก . ( ending point ) B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb -ูข . ( bulge ) โ€ซ ุง ุกโ€ฌ-ูฃ โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง ุณโ€ฌAโ€ซู€ู€ู„ ูˆโ€ฌb N4โ€ซู ุฃโ€ฌ/A B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBbโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb   B8,- โ€ซุฅู† ุงโ€ฌ :โ€ซ !" ุง ุณโ€ฌ. (chord length) T โ€ซุตโ€ฌ:โ€ซ" ุฑโ€ฌ. Kโ€ซ= ุฅ ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ( ุงโ€ฌArc Tool) โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ุณโ€ฌ-ูก . โ€ซุณโ€ฌ . โ€ซุณโ€ฌ. B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb TU ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข . LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ . " , Eโ€ซ >ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ4   8 . โ€ซุณโ€ฌ. B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb TU Bโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌI ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค "  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTqโ€ซ ุง ุก ุฃูˆ ุฃโ€ฌB8, Tโ€ซู€โ€ฌU " ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. 4โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ- LM- โ€ซู€ูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ ุŒ (bulge distance) โ€ซ ุง ุกโ€ฌB8,ุŒ(chord length)โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง ุณโ€ฌAโ€ซู„ ูˆโ€ฌb Value ) B-  โ€ซ@" ุงโ€ฌR โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ8 S8 Tโ€ซู€โ€ฌb โ€ซ ูˆู€ู€ู€ู€ุฏ ุงโ€ฌุŒ ( radius ) โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp  4โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ- - !( straight line) "โ€ซ ู€โ€ฌ, Eโ€ซ >ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ. (Control Box " ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ ุง ุกโ€ฌB8, TU B I ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ 78


: Drawing a Half-Circle

,E; r61 โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซ ุฑุฌโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ( ุฅโ€ฌbulge distance) โ€ซ* ุงุกโ€ฌ$ 3; M!39 โ€ซู…โ€ฌ1 9 Circle ) โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ+โ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌLโ€ซ@ู€โ€ฌ% โ€ซู„โ€ฌeโ€ซ;* ุงโ€ฌZ โ€ซ ู†โ€ฌ9 57e . โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ+โ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌL@% Dโ€ซุฅโ€ฌ .โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ+โ€ซ ุฏุงโ€ฌLโ€ซ@ู€โ€ฌ% โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ; ู€ู† ุงโ€ฌG ( inference ToolTip

: Drawing Tangentially N;  9 โ€ซู…โ€ฌ1 9 โ€ซ& ุงู€ู€ู†โ€ฌ+  โ€ซุณ ; ุณโ€ฌ, T ( Arc Tool ) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ =gโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ ูˆโ€ฌ9 Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ:9โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ู€ู€โ€ฌ7 โ€ซุณ ;ู€ุฏโ€ฌ, Nโ€ซู€ู€* ;ู€ู€โ€ฌa1% โ€ซ* ุฃูˆ >ุฃโ€ฌa> ; K *โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ% โ€ซูƒโ€ฌ7 โ€ซุณ ; ุณ ุฃูˆโ€ฌ,  โ€ซ* ุฅุฐุง ุฃุฑุฏุช ุฅู†โ€ฌO f โ€ซ ;ุฉโ€ฌP>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌf *% Oโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ &โ€ซ* ุงุก ุงโ€ฌ$ 3; =gโ€ซ( ูˆูˆโ€ฌtangent inference) & โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌeeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ3Eโ€ซุงโ€ฌ .*% Oโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ%

: Pushing and Pulling a Curved Face โ€ซุณโ€ฌ,  โ€ซ ุงู€ู€& ุฑโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD ( Push/Pull Tool) :O>โ€ซ= ุง  ู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌa3

(curved face) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซุฅู† ุงู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ. *Tโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซ* ุขโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุงู†โ€ฌN โ€ซุญโ€ฌa3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ (Surface entity) 8โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌa โ€ซ ุขู€ ู†โ€ฌD * โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซูŠ ู† ;ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ.โ€ซุงโ€ฌ )ุŒ *1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; *; โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌbโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌNโ€ซ ูˆ ู† ;ู€โ€ฌุŒ Jโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌJโ€ซ ;ู€โ€ฌ .(curved face set

:Specifying Precise Arc Values (chord length ) โ€ซ ?ู„ ุงโ€ฌT (Value Control Box) *1 9 โ€ซุฉ ุง!ู€โ€ฌ.โ€ซู€โ€ฌ$ % .(* โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1% =gโ€ซ  ูˆโ€ฌ9 ) โ€ซ* ุงุกโ€ฌ$ 3; T fุŒ( *โ€ซ* ุง>ุงโ€ฌa1% =gโ€ซ  ูˆโ€ฌ9 ) โ€ซู€ุณโ€ฌ1 N (Value Control Box) *1 9 โ€ซุฉ ุง!ู€โ€ฌ.โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ$ %

79


lengths for the ) & )â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; ا Ů&#x20AC; اâ&#x20AC;Źa *?>Gâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŻ\Ů&#x20AC; Ů&#x201E; ا)?Ů&#x20AC;اŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Źo   â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź radius ) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źa1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹL@% *,Ř&#x152; (bulge distance) â&#x20AC;Ť* اŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 3;Ř&#x152; (base chord . ( number of segments ) =a1â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;ŘŻ اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(value :B]R. current file units ) Bâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źp.- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;ات اâ&#x20AC;ŹXâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽادات Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź0-/, !  â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ťات اŮ&#x2026; ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹX â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź4RA N4â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹT b,Aâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. E8 B4â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹB-  Tb o- â&#x20AC;Ť( ؼذاâ&#x20AC;Źsetting â&#x20AC;ŤÂ&#x160; ا    ŘĽاداتâ&#x20AC;Ź1 Ř&#x152; â&#x20AC;ŤŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź2A oâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x160; Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹS8 â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź./ â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;اعâ&#x20AC;ŹX â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź: S8 â&#x20AC;Ťاتâ&#x20AC;ŹX â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹX S8 TUA â&#x20AC;Ťاتâ&#x20AC;ŹX â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź.p.- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;ات اâ&#x20AC;ŹXâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź ( Units panel of the Model Info dialog box ) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ř°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

: Entering a Chord Length â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x20AC;* اâ&#x20AC;Ź9 *a1% =gâ&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź9 Ř&#x152; ( chord length) â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť* ?Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x201E; Ů&#x2C6;  اâ&#x20AC;Ź, ! â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;> Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź. (Value Control Box) *1 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ ا!Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź$ % &$ â&#x20AC;Ťبâ&#x20AC;Źaâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Źaâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§?>= اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (-6.5") JO; M 3 9 *1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;ŘŻ اâ&#x20AC;Ź7 & !â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;Źb  e Pâ&#x20AC;Ť ا آâ&#x20AC;Źb  eâ&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$  ]%â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź :B]R. S8 ! 0>â&#x20AC;Ť ا Řł ادâ&#x20AC;ŹA â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źq â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹK â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹjQA â&#x20AC;Ť ( !Ů â&#x20AC;ŹArc Tool) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ ا Řłâ&#x20AC;Ź . (Value Control Box) B-   "@â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹOâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź8

: Specifying a Bulge Distance â&#x20AC;Ť@ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źa, L@% â&#x20AC;Ť ( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źbulge distance) â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;ŤŘĄ اâ&#x20AC;Ź% *$ 3; ! =a3

Value ) *â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź1 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ ا!Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź$ % &$ *;Z â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť  ŘĽŘŻ\ Ů&#x201E; ?Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x201E; Ů&#x2C6;  اâ&#x20AC;Ź9 Ř&#x152; *1,â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź .(Bulge) â&#x20AC;ŤŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź% Dâ&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x201E; ŘĽŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹN;F (Control Box Value Control ) *1 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ ا!Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź$ % &$ ( bulge length) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§?>= ?Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x201E; اŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź ( Return ) â&#x20AC;Ť ( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹEnter ) â&#x20AC;Ť Ř­â&#x20AC;Ź6; D P>â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Źf * â&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Źa1% =gâ&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź9 Ř&#x152; (Box ]â&#x20AC;Ť  Ř°â&#x20AC;Ź9â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Řł اŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;  اâ&#x20AC;ŹZ\ ;â&#x20AC;Ť ( ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Źbulge distance ) â&#x20AC;Ť* اŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 3; â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽŘŻ\Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC; Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źa3 . 80


(Value Control Box ) *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.‫ــ‬$ % &$ ‫ـ‬T ‫* ?ـل اء‬, ‫? ـ‬، ‫ ء‬f‫ي ا ا‬. P‫ ا آ‬b  e‫& ا‬$ ‫س‬,  G‫ ا   ا‬N *>  ‫ء‬% , . . ‫ا‬

: Specifying a Radius Value a1‫ ا‬L@% *, =>?‫ا‬. ‫* اء‬$ 3; N; e9 ‫س‬1‫ ا‬a, L@% ! =a3

( 24r or 3'6"r or 5mr):ZO; ('r',) ‫ف‬7 b 9 M‫ب واآ‬a‫ا‬ N  9 ‫ل ا * او‬Z\ ]‫ ذ‬J =a3 ، (Return ) ‫ ( أو‬Enter ) P>‫ اآ‬f . ‫س ;> ة‬1‫ا‬ :Specifying The Number of Segments =>a9 ]‫ وذ‬،( arc segments) ‫س‬1‫= ا& ن ; ا‬a1‫= ! ـــــد ا‬a3

Value ) *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.‫ـ‬$ % &$ ( 's' ) ‫ ا!ف‬b 9 M ‫ب و‬a‫ا ـــد ا‬ ‫  إد\ـ ل‬9 ( Return ) ‫ ( أو‬Enter ) ‫ ح‬6; D P>‫ اآ‬f . ( Control Box ‫ل ا * أو‬Z\ ]‫ ذ‬J =a3 ، .( arc segment number ) ‫س‬1‫= ا‬a, ‫د‬ . ‫س ;> ة‬1‫ ا‬N  9

81


: Freehand Tool ‫ــــط‬a\، *T; F‫ ل ا‬o‫( ر ا‬Freehand Tool) ‫ ] أداة ا ا!ـــة‬8

‫ ت‬% ‫( وآ‬Curve entities) *1; ‫ ت‬% ‫ آ‬J D 7‫ي وا‬3; &$ =1 *@; (Curve entities) *1‫ـ ت ا‬% ‫ ا‬، ( 3d Polyline entities ) ‫ د‬9)‫* ا‬fZf

G >9 *a> ; ‫ ; دة‬#\ =a, N; ‫ ن‬ &‫وه‬.b‫ و‬D‫ إ‬31 ‫& !ه و‬$ 7‫ وا‬#V‫ ( @ف آ‬curves ) ‫ ا! ت‬b.‫ه‬ *‫ـ‬3‫ـ‬1‫ ت ا‬% ‫ ا‬.0‫ــــ" ا> ر ا @ـــــ‬4  ‫ء‬j‫ــــ‬f ‫  ا> ــر‬/‫ــ‬%‫!` ا‬9 *@; *1 ‫ ا‬#+‫ــا‬V‫& ا‬$ *‫ــط ارــ‬aV‫ ا‬J‫ـ‬O ‫ـــة‬6; ‫( ــن‬Curve entities) ) * >a‫ ا)ــ ل ا‬N‫ه ;ـ‬K‫( و‬contour map) * >a‫ ا‬P‫ ر‬G‫ ا‬JO9 . ( organic shapes N; ‫( أو‬Draw menu ) ‫* ا‬+ , N; ;‫( إ‬Freehand Tool) ‫ أداة ا ا!ة‬#_

. (Drawing toolbar) ‫ أدوات ا‬# : B X\ ‫ات‬jQ ‫ ـــ‬AY ‫ــــــــد‬/}‫ ا‬B I\h ‫ ( ا‬3d Polyline entities ) 4\  ‫آ ت ا‬ S‫ــ‬8 ‫ ا @ ت‬wO‫ هـــ‬. B4q ‫ ي‬0@2 ‫ ا‬K.  IA‫( او‬inference snaps) ‫ل‬Y!‫ا‬ . 3‫ــــ‬f‫ذ‬- K ‫ إ‬B .@L 0 :QA p NA  0:‫ا‬

82


: Drawing Curves โ€ซ ;ุฏโ€ฌJ N *@6; โ€ซ* ุฃูˆโ€ฌg; bโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌD  gโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌN (Curves) โ€ซุง! ุชโ€ฌ . (axes plane) โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ;!ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ( ;! ุฐูŠ ุฅโ€ฌexisting geometry ) : ( Curve) SR "! ". K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Freehand Tool) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง  ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . SR T . SR- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU ~@ โ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข . "!. LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ "! โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- โ€ซูโ€ฌ4} LM- โ€ซุฑ ุงโ€ฌX -ูค

โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌBb!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌy.1 0@L "!  "! โ€ซ ุฃุช ุงโ€ฌS โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. 3b> Sโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ (Freehand Tool) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌR โ€ซุง  ุงโ€ฌ

.

: Drawing a 3D Polyline โ€ซุงุชโ€ฌr6, โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌe โ€ซู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9oโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซ ( ุงโ€ฌ3d Polyline entities ) Ne &>โ€ซู€ ุช ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซุขโ€ฌ J 3 โ€ซ ูˆ ุฏุฉโ€ฌ.*โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ1? โ€ซูŠโ€ฌU9 J_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌfU โ€ซ( ุงูˆโ€ฌinference snaps) โ€ซู„โ€ฌeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ 2D ) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ุงโ€ฌ+ fุŒ.โ€ซุง;ู€ู€ู€ ู‡* ุง\ู€ู‰โ€ฌ9 Nโ€ซุฑุฏุฉ ;ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุฎ ุงู… ุงโ€ฌ3e โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซุท ุง>& ุงโ€ฌa\.โ€ซ ุงู€ู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุงุฑ ู€โ€ฌJS 6 J โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌุŒ (sketching ) โ€ซ ;ุฏโ€ฌJ N *@6; โ€ซ* ุฃูˆโ€ฌg; bโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌD  gโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌN ( 3D polylines) . ( existing geometry 83


: ( 3D polyline entity ) โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/}โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSI\I S  E> โ€ซ !" ุข ู†โ€ฌ T ". K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Freehand Tool) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง  ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . SR . (Shift) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ K. ~@ โ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง  ุงโ€ฌBb!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEb+-. B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb TU ~@ โ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฃ .(Freehand Tool) . "!. LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูค . "! โ€ซู ุงโ€ฌ4} LM- โ€ซุฑ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ : B X\ 3D polyline's ) โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุง}ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌSI\h โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ ! ู‚ >ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌB-C  (Explode) >โ€ซุงโ€ฌ Freehand Sketch ) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb+ 0โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ4R ( context menu . โ€ซุชโ€ฌ8R โ€ซ  " ุงโ€ฌ0@L K โ€ซุฅโ€ฌ.

84


: Rectangle Tool Ja3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุช ูˆู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ% โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ ุขโ€ฌJโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ3 ( Rectangle Tool ) Ja3โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซุจโ€ฌaโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; N3โ€ซ ; ุขโ€ฌNโ€ซ ุฒุงูˆโ€ฌD P> 9 โ€ซูˆ!ุฏโ€ฌุŒ N; โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌDraw menu ) โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ+ , N; ;โ€ซ( ุฅโ€ฌRectangle Too) Ja3โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#_

. (Drawing toolbar) โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ#

: Drawing a Rectangle

โ€ซ* ุง ุฃูˆ ุฑโ€ฌ7 &$ โ€ซ( ;ุฏุฉโ€ฌfaces) bโ€ซ ูˆู€ู€ู€โ€ฌD โ€ซุชโ€ฌZa3โ€ซ ุฑ ุงโ€ฌN .( โ€ซูŠ ุง! ูˆุฑโ€ฌ3; โ€ซ! ุฐุงุฉโ€ฌ9 ) โ€ซ ุงุฏโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN *@6; โ€ซ@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ9 :0 b, "! ". K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. ( Rectangle Tool ) 0 b,- โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .0 b, T .0 b,-. K โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌB4โ€ซุงูˆโ€ฌj โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข .B,โ€ซุขโ€ฌ/- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซุงูˆโ€ฌj โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ . 0 b,-. B h โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซุงูˆโ€ฌj โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU B I ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค

: Drawing a Square :T "! . (Rectangle Tool ) 0 b,- โ€ซ!" ยุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌA โ€ซุชโ€ฌ/- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ Bb Kโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ. โ€ซ ( ูˆุงุข~ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฉโ€ฌRectangle Tool ) 0 b,- โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .K โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌB4โ€ซุงูˆโ€ฌj โ€ซุงโ€ฌ 85


A ) E ‫ـــي‬b E‫!  >ـــــ‬،B,‫آ‬/- ‫ ا‬B‫ـ‬4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬K ‫ إ‬LM- ‫ـك ا‬X -٢ ‫@ن‬A  ( ‫ل‬Y!Y‫ أداة ا‬T‫ ــ‬B4!  ! ( diagonal dotted line .T- ‫ي !   ا‬O ‫ ا‬T- ‫ ا‬S8 .‫ ‹ء‬B I ~‫ اآ‬-٣

:Entering Precise Dimensions . (Value Control Box) *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.‫ـ‬$ % &$ h T Ja3‫ ــــــــ د ا‬9‫أ‬ *‫ أول زاو‬D P>‫ ــ ا‬9 ;‫ة أ‬.$ ‫& ا‬$  >a9 *!!@‫ د ا‬9)‫= إن !د ا‬a3

. ‫ ;> ة‬Ja3‫  ر ا‬9 ‫أو‬ current file units ) B‫ ـ‬R ‫ ا‬p.‫ــ‬- ‫ــــــات ا‬X‫ إادات و‬0-/, ! ‫ا ــــ‬ ‫ات ام أو‬X ‫ ا‬4RA N4‫ أ‬T b,A‫ و‬. E8 B4‫ د‬B-  Tb o- ‫( إذا‬setting . B I ‫ ا‬S8 ‫ات‬X ‫ ا‬B /U‫Š ا    و‬1 ، ‫ء‬2A o‫ أي و‬S8 ‫ار‬ : B X\ Value Control ) B‫ــــ‬-   "@‫ـ‬R ‫ ا‬B‫ـ‬O‫ـ‬8 S8 ( 3') 0h B.:8‫ و‬B‫ـ‬-  o.>‫إذا أد‬ K ! S‫ــ‬h ‫ــــــــ ا‬/ ‫ وا‬، ‫ــــ اول‬/ ‫ ا‬K. ybA ‫ــة !ف‬4Z ‫ ا‬B‫ــ‬-  ‫ ( ا‬Box Sh ‫ ا‬/ ‫ ا‬E8، ‫ة‬O‫ـــــ‬8 ‫ ا‬S8 B-  "I B.:8 o/q ‫ إذا‬B‫ـــــ‬4b ‫~ ا‬Q . y, ‫آ‬ .  1 !

: rawing Rectangles by Inference &‫ل اـــ‬e‫ـ‬e‫ أداة ا‬J 3 ( Rectangle Too ) J‫ـ‬a3‫أداة ا‬ ]  3 ( sophisticated a geometric analysis engine ) ‫ــــــر‬a‫ا‬ .‫ ـ د‬9)‫& ا‬fZُO‫ـ ء ا‬G6‫& ا‬$ /‫ي ر‬.‫ ا‬Ja3‫ــــ= ا‬g *a‫اــ‬9 J‫ ( ـــــــ‬inference decisions) ‫ل‬e‫ـ‬e‫ارات ا‬, ‫ان‬ ‫ل‬e‫ط ا‬aV‫ة ا آ‬.$ % &$ T nference engine) ‫ل‬ee‫;!ك ا‬ .( inference points)‫ل‬e‫ ط ا‬1%‫ ( و‬inference lines)

86


โ€ซู‡ู€ู€ู€โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ช1โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุท ูˆุงโ€ชaVโ€ฌู€ู€ุท  ;! ุฐุงุฉ ุฏโ€ช N9 *1,โ€ฌุงโ€ชa3โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช.โ€ฌูŠ โ€ช /%โ€ฌูˆู€ู€โ€ชJโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุฐุฌ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุขโ€ชh-โ€ฌู„ โ€ช :โ€ฌุฅุฐุง โ€ช7โ€ฌุข ุงโ€ช % *a1% D Eโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* )โ€ช! ( endpointโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ โ€ช; *$โ€ฌุฏุฉ โ€ชfโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช7โ€ฌู€ู€ุข ุงโ€ช 9 Eโ€ฌุง โ€ช$โ€ฌู€& ุง ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ โ€ช!; bโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุฑูŠ )โ€ช\ (an axial directionโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช#โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ ุงโ€ช; #1โ€ฌู€ู€= โ€ช1%โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ ุท ุงโ€ชeeโ€ฌู„ )โ€ชT (ToolTipโ€ฌุงู† โ€ช.โ€ฌู‡ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช b.โ€ฌุงโ€ช1โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุทโ€ฌ โ€ซ _ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช !; ]%โ€ฌุฐูŠ ุฅโ€ช ] Dโ€ฌุงโ€ชa1โ€ฌู€ู€* ุง)\ุฉ ูˆ โ€ช =a3โ€ฌุฃโ€ช Gโ€ฌุฅู† โ€ชFrom ) J 3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ( Point inferenceโ€ฌุงู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ช Ja3โ€ฌุฏ ุงูˆโ€ช &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌุช ุงโ€ช; ; Fโ€ฌุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช. (non-orthogonal planesโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช87โ€ฌโ€ฌ


: Circle Tool Circle ) ‫ة‬+‫ أداة اا‬#_% . ‫ة‬+‫  آ ن اا‬J 3 ( Circle Tool) ‫ة‬+‫أداة اا‬ ‫ أدوات اـــــــ‬#‫ ـــ‬N‫( أو ;ـ‬Draw menu ) ‫ـ* اــ‬+ , N‫ ( إ;ـ ;ـ‬Tool . (Drawing toolbar) : Drawing a Circle ‫ ا) ل‬N‫@ــ* ـــ‬6; ‫@ـرة‬9 ‫ أو‬، ‫ ;دة‬b‫ و‬D‫  ـ‬g‫ و‬N‫ ــ‬+‫اوا‬ : ‫ة‬C‫ !" دا‬. ( ‫ي ا! ور‬3; ‫! ذاة‬9 ) ‫ادة‬ . ‫ة‬C‫" ودا‬. K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! LM- ‫ ا‬. ‫ة‬C‫ ا> أداة ا ا‬-١ . ‫ة‬C‫ ا ا‬j‫ آ‬TU ~‫ اآ‬-٢ p‫ ــ‬B- . ‫ة‬C‫ـ ا ا‬b p 4R ‫ــــــة‬C‫ ا ا‬j‫ ا ـ آ‬/ LM- ‫ـك ا‬X -٣ Value ) B‫ـــــ‬-   "@‫ـــــ‬R ‫ة ا‬O‫ـــــ‬8 S‫ــ‬8  ! ( radius value ) ‫ـ‬b ‫ا‬ T‫ـ‬b B‫ــ‬-  ‫ ا‬4RA 3@-4‫و‬، LM- ‫ ا‬34R 3‫ـء  ــــ‬I‫ ( أ‬Control Box . ( Return ) ‫ ( أو‬Enter ) ‫ح‬Q K. ~‫ـ" اآ‬I ‫ة‬O‫ــــــــ‬8 ‫ ا‬S‫ـ‬8 b ‫ ا‬p‫ـ‬ ( segmentation) ‫ـــــــة‬C‫ا‬. ‫ت‬,Y‫ د ا‬4‫ــــــــ‬RA ‫ـ‬N4‫ أ‬T‫ ـ‬b,A‫و‬ . ‫آرة‬O- ‫ة ا‬O8 ‫ ا‬S8 . ‫ة‬C‫ }ء ا ا‬B I ‫ اآ~ ة‬-٤ :B X\ center of ) ‫ـــــة‬C‫ ا ا‬j‫ آـ‬T‫ـ‬U LM-. 3 ‫ار ذ‬-!‫ـ ا @~ وا‬N4‫ أ‬T b,A ) ‫ة‬C‫ ا ا‬b p TU E1‫ـــ‬N ‫ ا‬B‫ـ دون إزا ــ‬f‫ >ر‬R, ‫" ا‬I ( the circle . ‫ـة‬C‫ل ا ا‬-‫ }آ‬LM- ‫ر ا‬X . ( radius segmentation) ‫ـة‬C‫ا‬. ‫ت‬,Y‫ ( ود ا‬radius ) ‫ـة‬C‫ ا ا‬b p "  (Value Control Box) B-   "@‫ـ‬R ‫ة ا‬O‫ــــــــــ‬8 ‫ل‬-/! ‫ه‬4RA @-4 ( . ‫ة‬C‫ ر!" ا ا‬/ ‫ة‬L

:Inference Locking ‫ة‬+‫ـ& أداة اا‬$ ‫( ـ;ـ ـن‬Shift) ‫ـ ح‬6; D P>‫ ;ــــــ= اار ا‬P‫اآ>ـ‬ .(circle's orientation) ‫ة‬+‫ اا‬/ J61 ( Circle Tool) : Specifying Precise Circle Values ) a1‫ ا‬L‫@ــ‬% *, T (Value Control Box) *‫ـ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.‫ــــــ‬$ % ‫إن‬ ‫ــ‬a1‫ ا‬L‫@ـ‬% *‫ــــــــــ‬, ! G‫= أ‬a3 ‫ و‬. ‫ة‬+‫ اا‬9 ‫م‬1 9 ( radius ‫ة‬.$ ‫   ل ا‬9 (line segments) ‫ـــــة‬+‫ اا‬#‫ــ= \ــــ‬a, ‫ـ* ود‬,9 ( radius ) . 88


: Specifying an Exact Radius Value Value ) *‫ـــــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ـــ‬.‫ـــ‬$ % &$ ( radius ) ‫ـــ‬a1‫ ا‬L‫@ــ‬% *‫ــــــ‬, ‫د‬7 ‫ة‬+‫ اا‬r‫* ;آ‬a1% =g‫  و‬9 ‫ب‬a‫ ا‬a1‫ ا‬L@% *‫ـــــ‬, =>a9 (Control Box ].9 ‫>ل‬1 ( Return ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) ‫ـــــــــ ح‬6; D P>‫ـ اآ‬f (center point) . ‫ة‬+‫و  اا‬ ‫ أداء أي‬J>, ) ‫ ( ;> ـة‬radius ) ‫ـة‬+‫ـ اا‬a, L‫@ـ‬% ! ‫ إ دة‬G‫= أ‬a3 ‫و‬ P>‫ة وا‬.$ ‫& ا‬$ ‫ــــــ‬a1‫ ا‬L@% *‫ـ‬, =‫>ـ‬a9 ‫ة‬+‫  ـ اا‬9 ]‫; م أ\ى( وذ‬ . ( Return ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) ‫ ح‬6; D

: Specifying The Number of Segments ) =‫ــــ‬a1‫ د ا‬T (Value Control Box) *‫ــــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.‫ـــــــــ‬$ % ‫إن‬ #_ ( Circle Tool) ‫ــــة‬+‫ ; أداة اا‬M%‫ ( آا‬number of segments . ( initially activated) ‫أو‬ &$ *1‫>= ا‬a9 ‫ـــة‬+‫ ا‬r‫* اآ‬a1% =g P>‫ ا‬J>, ‫ة‬.$ ‫& ا‬$ M%‫د د اا‬7 . ‫ة‬.$ ‫ا‬

  9 ( *$ g‫ أداء أ ل إ‬J>, ) ‫را‬$ =‫ـــ‬a1‫ـــ إ دة ! د ا‬G‫= أ‬a3

D P>‫ة واآ‬.$ ‫& ا‬$( 's' ) ‫!ف‬9  > ‫ ?* و‬3>9 =a1‫>= د ا‬a9 ]‫ة وذ‬+‫اا‬ . ( Return ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) ‫ ح‬6; 9 ]; , N7 D‫ــــة ر إ‬+‫ أ\ دا‬D‫ ر & إ‬J_9 :>a ‫ ; ت‬31%e‫د ا‬ D :>a ‫ة‬+‫  ر اا‬9 ‫ !د‬3, ‫ أي‬. ( tools) ‫ ا)دوات‬F ‫ة ة أو‬+‫دا‬ . ‫ة ر‬+‫أ\ دا‬

89


:Polygon Tool *‫* ار‬T‫= ا‬G‫ ت ا‬% ‫  آ‬J 3 (Polygon Tool) =G‫أداة ا‬ . M%  ١٠٠-٣ =; (a circle ) ‫ة‬+‫ اا‬Ng N; ‫( أو‬Draw menu ) ‫* ا‬+ , N; ;‫( ( إ‬Polygon Tool) =G‫ أداة ا‬#_

. (Drawing toolbar) ‫ أدوات ا‬#

: Drawing a Polygon ‫ذي‬R ) B.Q ‫ رة‬24 ‫أوان‬، ‫دة‬f w‫ــ‬f‫ و‬K. T‫ـــ‬.N- ‫ ا‬T‫ــ‬U‫@ و‬-4 :(Polygon) T.N "! . (‫ور‬R- ‫ي ا‬,- . T.N T ". K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! LM- ‫ا‬،T.N- ‫ ا> أداة ا‬-١ (enter point of the polygon) T.N- ‫ ا‬j‫ آـــ‬B‫ـــ‬b T‫ـــ‬U ~‫ اآ‬-٢ ) B‫ـ‬-   "@‫ــ‬R ‫ة ا‬O‫ــــ‬8 S8 T.N- ‫ا ا‬f ‫ د‬4RA N4‫ أ‬T b,A . .( Value Control Box b ‫ ا‬p B‫ـ‬R8 . T.N- ‫ ا‬b p 4R j‫آ‬- ‫ ا ـ ا‬/ LM- ‫ـك ا‬X -٣ Tb 4f ‫ـــــ‬b p 4RA T b,، LM- ‫ك ا‬R  ‫ة‬O8 ‫ ا‬S8  A . ( Return ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) ‫ح‬Q ~@ ‫ه‬/ "I ‫ل‬b ‫ ا‬B- 

‫ة‬L ‫ه‬/ . T.‫ـ‬N- ‫ \ء  ا‬B I ‫ ــة‬,4‫ ا‬LM- ‫ ا‬K. ~‫ اآ‬-٤ T8‫ ون ر‬f‫ >ر‬R, ‫ وا‬T.‫ـ‬N- ‫ ا‬j‫ آـ‬T‫ـ‬U B I ‫ ا @~ ة‬T b,A T.N- ‫ل ا‬-‫ }آ‬LM- ‫ـر ا‬X . ‫ــــــ‬b ‫ ا‬p T‫ــ‬U LM- ‫ا @~  ا‬ . ( polygon ) 90


: Inference Locking Polygon ) =G‫ أداة ا‬9 ( Shift key) ‫ــــــ ح‬6; D ]‫& ذ‬$ ‫ وا‬P>‫اآ‬ . (lock the polygon's orientation) =G‫ ا‬/ J61 * $ (Tool

: Entering Exact Radius and Segment Values J6)‫ ا‬N‫ ا)ــ‬M% ‫ــ& اـ‬$ ، ( Value Control Box ) *‫ـ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.‫ــ‬$ % ) L‫ــ& اـ‬$ =G‫ـ ا‬a, L@%‫ و‬M%‫ د ا‬T ، ; %>‫ة ا‬.‫ــ‬$ % N; *‫ــ‬S V‫ـــــار ا ; ت ا‬7 ‫ـوق‬S &‫ـ‬$ (Units panel ) D3‫( ا‬document ‫ة ا!ــ‬.‫ـــــــــــ‬$ % &$ 1‫ ا‬LV; J\‫اد‬، ‫ ت‬G‫ــ ا‬9 ]; , ‫ ء‬f‫ إ‬. ‫ ذج‬9 ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) ‫ــــــــ ح‬6; D‫ ــــــ‬P>‫( واآ‬Value Control Box) *‫ـ‬1 9 .( Return

: Entering the Number of Sides M%‫>ل د ا‬1 *@; ( Value Control Box ) *‫ـــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.‫ــــ‬$ % ‫إن‬ Polygon ) =‫ـــ‬G‫ أداة ا‬#_ ; ( number polygon sides ) =G‫ا‬ ‫آ _ح‬. (radius) ‫ـــــــ‬a1‫ ا‬L‫@ــ‬% ‫ إد\ــ ل‬J>1 ‫ة‬.‫ــــــ‬$ ‫ آ إن ا‬. (Tool f ‫ب‬a‫>= ا د ا‬a9 M%‫ د اا‬J\ ‫ و] إن‬.‫ ] ] ا)ول‬g‫  و‬9 ،b %‫أد‬ ‫  إآ ل‬9 ‫!ه‬9 ‫م‬1 ‫ــ‬, ‫ أي‬. - -h -  ( '8s'): ‫ ل‬O; .('s') ‫ !ف‬9 / > ‫إ‬ . *1‫ ] ا‬D‫= ا)داة إ‬G G‫ وأ‬، /‫=  ر‬G; \‫ أ‬D :>a =G‫ر ا‬

:Entering a Radius Value *1‫د\ ل ا‬o ( Value Control Box ) *‫ــــــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.‫ـ‬$ % ‫ــ= ا ـ ل‬a3

L@% ‫ا?>= ?ــــــــل‬. / r‫* اآ‬a1% ] g‫  و‬9 =G‫ ا‬a, L@ ‫ا& ه‬ ‫ـــــــ ح‬6; D‫ ـ‬P‫ــ اآ>ـ‬f (Value Control Box) *‫ــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.$ % &$ ‫ـ‬a1‫ا‬ =a3 . (radius) ‫ـــ‬a1‫ ا‬L‫ـ* @ـ‬1,‫ـ* د‬, ‫د\ـ ل‬o ، ( Return ) ‫( أو‬Enter ) . (a polygon) =G‫   ا‬9 ‫ ء أو‬f‫ * إ; إ‬g‫ ا‬F

91


T, â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0Q â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź :Modification Tools 04/ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ا) Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹJ  Jâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź3 &â&#x20AC;Ť ( Ů&#x2021;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;& ا)ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Źmodification tools) J â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź 83â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;( Push/Pull Tool) #>â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; â&#x20AC;Ť ا)ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;اتâ&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;ŹNG . * !â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (Select Tool) â&#x20AC;Ť\ Řąâ&#x20AC;Źeâ&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; ( Eraser Tool) . ( Tools menu ) *+ 1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹNg â&#x20AC;Ť ;ŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹJ@6â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŮ&#x2020; ŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź

:Move Tool y3%â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źstretch) #;â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źmove) ]! ( Move Tool) *â&#x20AC;Ť ] أدا؊ ا!آâ&#x20AC;Ź8

.â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ Ů&#x2C6;ا ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź%â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źrotate) â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹGâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹJ 3 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;Ť( ا) Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źcopy) Modification ) J â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź# â&#x20AC;Ť   Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź9 ( Move Tool) *â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ ا!آâ&#x20AC;Ź#_% (Tools menu) â&#x20AC;Ť* ا)ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;اتâ&#x20AC;Ź+ , â&#x20AC;Ť   Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źtoolbar 92


:Moving Geometry . &โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซ( ! ?  ุฃู† ุงโ€ฌentities) โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ! ุฌ ุฅโ€ฌe ]%โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .( ,$ Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN   D7 ) Eโ€ซ ุช >= ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซ ุง\ุชโ€ฌ, ! MK

: Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-/, โ€ซ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ34R Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .wZAYโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . @4RA S8 gA S โ€ซ ุง> ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ-ูข Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ ( Move Tool) Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ .wZAYโ€ซุงโ€ฌ B/โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.(Move Tool)Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- โ€ซ ุง @ ู† ุกโ€ฌK. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูค .( Move point) Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb K-,A  . o,โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌS โ€ซ ุง @ ู† ุงโ€ฌK. . LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ34R 3  โ€ซุกโ€ฌIโ€ซูƒ ุฅโ€ฌRA โ€ซ ุง @ ุช !ูโ€ฌ34R LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ B4 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซ(   ุท ุง ุงโ€ฌinference line) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> N4โ€ซูˆ!  ุฃโ€ฌ T b,Aโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ. (VCB)B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8  โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌBโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8,  !โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR. .XY โ€ซุญโ€ฌ2! -โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌB / B8, TbA โ€ซ ุฅู†โ€ฌN4โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ :B]R. SI\h โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌNQ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซุฐุงุฉโ€ฌR- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0 , (inference lines) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌb> TAโ€ซุงโ€ฌ  โ€ซ @ุช ุฃ>ู‰โ€ฌ4โ€ซุฐูŠ ุฒูˆุงโ€ฌXโ€ซูƒ ูˆโ€ฌRA Bbโ€ซ@ุช ุขโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ4โ€ซ ุง> ุฒูˆุงโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . ( ยƒb- โ€ซุงุช ุงโ€ฌZ โ€ซุฐูŠ @ุชโ€ฌRA  0/QA -โ€ซ ) ุขโ€ฌZ  Z โ€ซุฐูŠ @ุช ุงโ€ฌRA B .-/ โ€ซ ( }ุก ุงโ€ฌdestination point ) B /- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ

93


:Select and Move โ€ซ\ ุฑ ุข ู†โ€ฌe ]โ€ซ ูˆุฐโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ ุฃูŠ ุข ู†โ€ฌJ>, ( Move Tool) *โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ุขโ€ฌ#_ =a3

*  * )โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ8>@ (click point) P>โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌa1% โ€ซุง\ ุฑโ€ฌ.โ€ซุฏ !ูƒโ€ฌ6; : =@4RAโ€ซ> ุฑ ุข ู† ูˆโ€ฌY. *โ€ซุง!ุขโ€ฌ Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ ( Move Tool) Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .wZAYโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . =@4R โ€ซ ุง @ ู†โ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข .LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขโ€ฌX T ! โ€ซู€ู€ุฑโ€ฌ+- โ€ซ ุง @ ู† ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุง @ ู†โ€ฌ34R LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ B .-/ โ€ซ ( }ุก ุงโ€ฌdestination point ) B /- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค :B X\ โ€ซูƒโ€ฌR! โ€ซ ุง @ ุช ุง>ู‰โ€ฌุŒ โ€ซ @ ุช ุฃ>ู‰โ€ฌEA =@4R โ€ซู…โ€ฌA โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซุฅุฐุง ุขู† ุง @ ู† ุงโ€ฌ . 3 O 8โ€ซู„ ูˆโ€ฌ/A โ€ซุฃูˆโ€ฌ

: Inference Locking During Move โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P>โ€ซ ุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ9 (inference lock) โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ6, * โ€ซ ุฒโ€ฌ%โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3

J6, .( Move Tool) โ€ซู„ * ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ูƒโ€ฌZ\ โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌJ>, (Shift key) K (inference engine) โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซ ;!ูƒ ุงโ€ฌD1> (inference lock)โ€ซู„โ€ฌeeโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ) ู„ ุง)\ู‰โ€ฌ9 fU; :Moving Groups and Components &$ D1> โ€ซ ุงุข> ุชโ€ฌุŒ (face) / 9 *1@;( component) โ€ซ ุงุข> ุชโ€ฌ% โ€ซุฅุฐุง ุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุงุข> ุชโ€ฌy3% . /9 *1@; K 8>@ N! โ€ซ ; !ูƒโ€ฌ/โ€ซู‰ ุฐ] ุงโ€ฌ3; P6% โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ Gโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ:@ โ€ซ( ูโ€ฌCopies of a glued component ) *1@โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . &S)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: Stretching Geometry M37 J_โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌstretch) # ; %>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌbF9 #> ; K โ€ซ; !ูƒ @ุงโ€ฌ . *1aโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.9 bโ€ซ ุช ูˆุงโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซ ุทโ€ฌ1โ€ซ= !ู€] ุงโ€ฌa3 . โ€ซูˆุฑุฉโ€ฌGโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:โ€ซู„โ€ฌh

, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-Xโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZA p.+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ@= ุฅโ€ฌ4RA @-4 S  โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌFace entity) =f โ€ซุข ู† ุงโ€ฌ : f- โ€ซ ุงุฒุฑู‚ ุงโ€ฌwZA K.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซุฃูˆ ุฅโ€ฌุŒ

94


S8 . ",Z â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹE- (single line segments) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹQ E> Tb 34RA N4â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹT b,Aâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź SR p! 0-/ â&#x20AC;Ť ازعŮ&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹwZAYâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹS8 K.â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹXâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹE> â&#x20AC;Ť" ا> Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹA Ř&#x152; S  â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Źh- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . ( sloped roof )

:Moving/Stretching With Auto fold *â&#x20AC;Ť ; ; * ا!آâ&#x20AC;Źh (Auto fold faces) bâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Źa ; %>â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź (non-planar) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹP6% &$ =1 e bâ&#x20AC;Ť(  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źstretch) #â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;Źmove) :â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źh. &$ J6)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź/â&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;Ť ( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹMove Tool) *â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘ§ŘŠ ا!آâ&#x20AC;ŹU9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹS Nâ&#x20AC;Ť عآâ&#x20AC;ŹD P>â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ř˘â&#x20AC;Ź .â&#x20AC;Ť @Ů&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹD)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź/â&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;ŹD ( fold line ) /? #\  â&#x20AC;Ť ا)زعŮ&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Źb  eâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

95


: Forcing Auto fold Behavior eโ€ซ* ูˆโ€ฌ3; bโ€ซ ุก = ุงโ€ฌ19โ€ซุถ ุฅโ€ฌK * :  ; %>โ€ซ ู† ; ุงโ€ฌ7)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌt 9 &$ :โ€ซู„โ€ฌh .*$ goโ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌfold lines) &aโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌa\ :V *$ !โ€ซ!] ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ3 #1$ (move tool) *โ€ซุฏุงุฉ ุง!ู€ุขโ€ฌU9 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS *โ€ซู€โ€ฌ$ 7 D P>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ โ€ซ= ุฅู†โ€ฌa3 . ( โ€ซ ุฏูŠ ) ุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌb  โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ Pโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ( G\โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ7โ€ซ& ) ุงโ€ฌ1$โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌb  โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุกโ€ฌJ>, (ALT key) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD ]โ€ซ ูˆุงุงุฑ ุฐโ€ฌP> 9 โ€ซูƒโ€ฌ3โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ู€ ูˆุฒ ู‡โ€ฌ Auto )&[โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซ * ุงโ€ฌJa N; ] โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6 * gโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ. โ€ซ* ุง!ูƒโ€ฌ .b โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb  eโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ *!9 J_โ€ซ!] ุงโ€ฌ9 ] 83 โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌfold

: Making Copies (copies) y3% J    โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN ( Move Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ูƒโ€ฌ19  โ€ซุข ุฐุขโ€ฌ ( Move Tool) โ€ซูƒโ€ฌR โ€ซู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-/! โ€ซยƒ  ุข ู†โ€ฌ, 0-/ .โ€ซ ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌNg โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ%  : "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .Sโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ . >,! โ€ซ !ู…โ€ฌS โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌentities) โ€ซ ุง> ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ-ูข Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ ( Move Tool) Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ .wZAYโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . u AQ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBX S8 (Ctrl key) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~@ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 -!โ€ซ ุงุข~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูค . โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซยƒ ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ, 44 3โ€ซ" ุง  ุงโ€ฌ./! B .-/ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซู‡โ€ฌ . ยƒ,. โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌentities) โ€ซ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฅ LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌRA T ! โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซยƒ ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ, ุŒ โ€ซยƒ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ, LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฆ .

96


oR:тАл ╪гтАмB+,,- тАл╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАм. ┬Г, тАл ╪зтАмB .- тАл┘ДтАм-тАл ╪з}╪б }╪втАмBb K. ~тАл ╪з╪втАм-┘з тАл╪▒╪йтАм+  g B .:тАл╪▒╪й ┘И╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАм+ тАл┘ЖтАмYтАл╪гтАм

: Creating Multiple Copies (Linear Arrays *3 тАл╪г┘ИтАм╪М(arrays) тАл┘БтАм6@тАл&  ╪зтАм$ GтАл ╪гтАмJ 3 ( Move Tool) *тАл╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪з!╪втАм XтАл╪п╪й ╪зтАм/ ┬Г,   . (series of copies of geometry) тАл ╪з) ┘ДтАмy3% N; : тАл  ╪з @ ╪ктАмhтАл╪г┘И ╪г╪втАм "! K тАл= ╪етАм.@L  1 ! LM- тАл ╪зтАм. (Select Tool) тАл> ╪▒тАмYтАл ╪г> ╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм-┘б .SтАл╪▒тАм . >,!тАл ╪зтАмS8 gA S тАл╪з> ╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАм-┘в . ( Move Tool) BтАл╪втАмR тАл╪з> ╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм-┘г BX S8 (Ctrl key) тАл╪нтАмQ- тАл ╪зтАмK. ~@ тАл ╪зтАм3 тАл ╪░тАмS8 -!тАл ╪з╪в~ ┘И╪зтАм-┘д . тАл╪▒╪йтАм+- тАл┬Г ╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАм, 4A 3тАл" ╪з  ╪зтАм./ ! 0-/ тАл╪з ╪зтАмOтАл ┘ЗтАм.u AQ- тАл╪зтАм . ┬Г,. тАл╪▒╪йтАм+- тАл ╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАмK. ~тАл ╪з╪втАм-┘е . LM- тАл ╪зтАмBтАл╪втАмX T! ┬Г, тАл ╪зтАмB .- ╪М тАл┬Г ╪з @ ╪ктАм, LM- тАл┘Г ╪зтАмX-┘ж B+,,- тАл ╪е┘Ж ╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАм╪М ┬Г, тАл ╪зтАмB .- тАл╪▒╪й }╪бтАм+- тАл ╪зтАмBb тАл ╪зтАмS8 ~тАл╪з╪втАм-┘з . 3 OтАл ╪втАмo, B .:тАл( ┘И╪з @ ╪к ╪зтАмselected) тАл╪▒╪йтАм+ тАл┘ЖтАмYтАл ╪гтАмoR:тАл╪гтАм :тАл┘ДтАмh╪МтАл╪йтАм4 = 8UтАл┬Г ╪зтАм,   w4A тАл┘КтАмO тАл┬Г ╪зтАм, тАл ╪п ╪зтАмTqтАл ╪гтАм-┘и B+,   ! 3 тАл┘Ж ╪░тАм8╪М B-   "@R тАл╪й ╪зтАмO8 S8 (*2) тАл(╪г┘ИтАм2x) BтАл ╪втАм . (тАл┘ЖтАм+, тАл╪╣тАм-Z- тАл ╪зтАмu 8) тАл╪йтАмXтАл ┘И╪зтАмB 8UтАл╪етАм : Creating Copies at an Equal Distance Apart *, =>a9 (original) &S)тАл ╪зтАмJ_тАл( ┘И╪зтАмcopy) *V3тАл ╪зтАмN9 *$ 3тАл ╪зтАм31 =a3

тАл ┘И╪▓тАмy3% *3\ $(/5)тАл(╪г┘ИтАм5/) =>?тАл ╪гтАм: тАл┘ДтАмh . (divisor value) *;31; =>a9 тАл╪з╪▒тАмeтАл= ╪зтАмa3 eтАл* ╪г┘ИтАмV33тАл* ╪зтАмV3тАл* ┘И╪зтАмS)тАл* ╪зтАмV3тАл ╪зтАмN9 тАл ┘ЕтАмT% 9 * *тАл╪птАмU9 ]; , N! (multipliers) тАл ╪ктАм6 GтАл( ┘И╪зтАмdistances) тАл ╪ктАм$ 3тАл╪зтАм .тАл╪г\┘ЙтАм

97


:B]R. BZ !Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0hŘ&#x152;(models of items) â&#x20AC;Ťادâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°ŘŹ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-  A S8 â&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źf â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹQ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Źj - â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹwOâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŘŽâ&#x20AC;Ź,!â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź/- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;ااب اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź/- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹO8â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; yâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;ŤŘą Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź,Z â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź . B4â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź8, K. (beams) Bbâ&#x20AC;Ť  ŘŠ ŘŁŘąâ&#x20AC;ŹA 4 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;â&#x20AC;Ť>ع٠â&#x20AC;Źj â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

: Entering Exact Move Values * 1â&#x20AC;Ťات اâ&#x20AC;Ź7 9â&#x20AC;Ť* ( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˛Ř§â&#x20AC;Źoâ&#x20AC;Ť* ا!Ů&#x192; ) اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 3; T (VCB)*1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ťاع ; ; ŘŞ اŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź7 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹS â&#x20AC;Ťاتâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;Ť* Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź7 ! >O; â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘ Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (default units) #; â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źcopying) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŽâ&#x20AC;Ź3eâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;Źmoving) â&#x20AC;Ť !Ů&#x192;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź1 ;Ř&#x152; (Units panel) =a3 (arrays) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź$6@â&#x20AC;Ť  اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť* ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź$ go 9 . (stretching entities) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź *>3% â&#x20AC;Ť@ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źexact displacement ) #>G 9 *7â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˛Ř§â&#x20AC;Źoâ&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Ź, ! Gâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź (absolute 3D coordinate)*1aâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻ اâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;ŹfZOâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź7oâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;Źrelative) move ) â&#x20AC;Ť  * ا!Ů&#x192;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; ;> ŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹZ\ (finishing point)â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź%oâ&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Źa1 .(operation :Entering a Displacement Value â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹL â&#x20AC;Ť( >\Ů&#x201E; ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źnew displacement length) 4f BXâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; ؼزاâ&#x20AC;Źq 4RA T b,A : â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192;â&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB .- / "! K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (Select Tool) â&#x20AC;Ť> Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹYâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁ> أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ .Sâ&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź . @4RA S8 gA S â&#x20AC;Ť ا> ا @ ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ "! K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; ( Move Tool) Bâ&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ .wZAYâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹSâ&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192;â&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB .-/ (start point) B4â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹBb â&#x20AC;Ť> Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹY â&#x20AC;Ť اآ~ ŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź-٤ â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§ @ ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź. u R â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹwZAYâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹS8 â&#x20AC;Ť ا @ ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź34RA â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;ŹLM- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;ŹX -ŮĽ inference ) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹY!Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹE> â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź-â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBâ&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;ŹX T! â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź+- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź (ending) B4 â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBbâ&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źstart) B4â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹBb    ! (line B-   "@R â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹO8 S8  &  ! Bâ&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;ŹR â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB8, â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;اعâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; Bâ&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;ŹR. . (VCB) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹO8 S8 (20' or -35mm): B , â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;ŹBf- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBXâ&#x20AC;Ť اع ا}زاâ&#x20AC;ŹTqâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŚ â&#x20AC;ŤŘ­â&#x20AC;ŹQ â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹEnter)â&#x20AC;ŤŘ­â&#x20AC;ŹQ K. ~â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;اآâ&#x20AC;ŹVCB)B-   "@R â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (Return)

98


: B X\  04 โ€ซ\  ู…  ุณโ€ฌ-/, (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8 "  Tq T b,A . (default system) S!  โ€ซ ุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌB-  โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌR !  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. S.:โ€ซุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌ .S!  โ€ซูŠ ุข ู…โ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌ0-/,A oโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌKX (3' 6") Tq T b,A : \h : Entering a 3D Coordinate : โ€ซ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ34RA T b,4  โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .([]) โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/!โ€ซ ุง @ ู† ูˆโ€ฌ34RA g S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8,- โ€ซุฏ>ู„ ุงโ€ฌ7 _ โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSI\h โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌNQ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌIโ€ซุงโ€ฌX}โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌ-/! (relative) B , wโ€ซ_ ุฃูˆ ุฑโ€ฌ .(<>) โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/!โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌcoordinates in 3D space) : (coordinates in 3D space) โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSI\h โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌNQ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌIโ€ซุงโ€ฌX}โ€ซ}ุฏ>ู„ ุงโ€ฌ "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .Sโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ . @4RA S8 gA S โ€ซ ุง> ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ-ูข "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ ( Move Tool) Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ .wZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซูƒโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .-/ (start point) B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌY โ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉโ€ฌ-ูค โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ. u R โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ34RA โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ  ! (inference line) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> โ€ซ ุฅู†โ€ฌ-โ€ซุขโ€ฌุŒLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขโ€ฌX T! โ€ซ ูˆุงุฑโ€ฌุŒ Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR. (ending) B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBbโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌstart) B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb   . (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8  &  ! Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8, . S, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSIโ€ซุงโ€ฌXYโ€ซ ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌexact) S.:โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSIโ€ซุงโ€ฌXYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTqโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ-ูฆ

: B R โ€ซูˆุฑ ุง  ุงโ€ฌR- [x, y, z]:B - / โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌIโ€ซุงโ€ฌX}โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: *โ€ซ* ุง>ุงโ€ฌa1% Dโ€ซ>* ุฅโ€ฌ3% <x, y, z> :*>3โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซุงโ€ฌ7oโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

99


:B X\ )โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB I\h โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌIโ€ซุงโ€ฌX}โ€ซุก  ุงโ€ฌjZโ€ซู† ุขโ€ฌIโ€ซุฉ ุงูˆ ุงโ€ฌXโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB-  4RA T b,A wZAYโ€ซ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌz) wZAโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ู…โ€ฌูข 0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ34R ุŒ โ€ซู„โ€ฌh-โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ.( 3D coordinate . [,,2'] :(VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8 S  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0>โ€ซุงุฒุฑู‚ ุงุฏโ€ฌ :B X\ /A  1A (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8 TbA S โ€ซ " ุงโ€ฌ. BqN- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB1  โ€ซุงโ€ฌ ยŠ/ (computer's regional settings )3!R B - .}โ€ซ ย‹ุงุฏุงุช ุงโ€ฌ (comma)  Y (semi-colon)Sโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌB.:Q โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌjโ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌB-C  โ€ซ  ุงูˆุฑโ€ฌ.-/,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .[x; y; z] :โ€ซู„โ€ฌh-โ€ซุขโ€ฌ.

: Rotate Tool โ€ซ ู… ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ3)โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌelements)S  โ€ซ( ูˆ ุงโ€ฌRotate Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงูˆโ€ฌJ 3

N โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงูˆโ€ฌ.(single rotation plane)7โ€ซูŠ ุฏูˆุฑุงู† ูˆุงโ€ฌ3; Ng โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ6โ€ซุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ \ ุฑโ€ฌ9 (distort geometry) โ€ซ ุง) ู„โ€ฌL! โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌstretch) # Gโ€ซุง   ุฃโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ# โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9( Rotate Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงูˆโ€ฌ#_% . 3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; #1$ โ€ซุกโ€ฌr . (Tools menu) โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌModification toolbar) J โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: Rotating Geometry 3D ) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌn>โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ *6V; โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ3; โ€ซุซโ€ฌZf &$ โ€ซ= ูˆ ุง) ู„โ€ฌa3

: : 4โ€ซ\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌ-/, 0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ4โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ. ( environment .Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . 4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ. 0@2 โ€ซ ุง> ุงโ€ฌ-ูข T B. K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Rotate Tool) 4โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌ-ูฃ . โ€ซูŠโ€ฌCโ€ซ!" ุฏุงโ€ฌ =f โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAโ€ซุฐุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌR- u 0@2 โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌX ( protractor ) B.- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูค โ€ซุฐุงุฉโ€ฌR-  fA  1! ( protractor ) B.- โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ. w4 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซุงโ€ฌ K. ~@   / = fA K. โ€ซู„โ€ฌQ}โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT b,A . B4 โ€ซ@ู„ ุงโ€ฌLโ€ซูˆุฑ ูˆุงโ€ฌR- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุจโ€ฌ.b- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 B.- โ€ซ@ู† ุงโ€ฌA  (Shift key) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ

100


S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌrotation point) โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌBb TU โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ (inference ToolTips ) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซ ุท ุงโ€ฌ0-/!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ! ูˆุฑโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌW X .โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌjโ€ซุฏ ุขู€ู€โ€ฌZ4โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌK. 3A,- 0h-4 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 (starting point) B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb  LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฆ . โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌB4โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

. โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU B I โ€ซ ุฉโ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูง โ€ซ \ุชโ€ฌQ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌoRA B /8 jQ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุฅุฐุง ุฒุงูˆโ€ฌ.4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ. โ€ซู€โ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูจ B.- โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌB4 โ€ซุขุชโ€ฌX LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌRA -  =โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌPX\!ุŒ (preferences) B.- โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ3.A -  ุŒ(angle snaps) B4โ€ซุงุช ุฒุงูˆโ€ฌjQ K.โ€ซุซ ูˆโ€ฌR! . (free rotation) X โ€ซ ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌu-,! . (โ€ซู„ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌ-โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู† )}ุขโ€ฌB4 Bb K. Bh I โ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉโ€ฌ-ูฉ : B X\ โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌK. ~@  ยL โ€ซุฑ ุฃูŠโ€ฌ+A โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌ0 ( Rotate Tool)4โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌ0 /QA T b,A โ€ซุง> ุฑ ุฏุฉ ยุฏุงุฉโ€ฌุŒ(โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง> ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ  ุฅโ€ฌ1 ! LM- โ€ซ ( ) ุงโ€ฌRotate Tool)4โ€ซุง ูˆโ€ฌ โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ K. ~โ€ซ" ุงุขโ€ฌI ุŒ( B /8 KA 4โ€ซ ) ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌBM- โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌSelect Tool)โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . ( Rotate Tool)4โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌE 2A โ€ซ( }ุฏุฉโ€ฌESC key)

: Rotational Stretching with Auto-Fold stretch ) โ€ซ ุง) ู„โ€ฌ# Gโ€ซ ุง   ุฃโ€ฌN (Rotate Tool) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงูˆโ€ฌ J_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุกโ€ฌr โ€ซ \ ุฑ ูˆ ูˆโ€ฌ9 (geometry

101


/โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌtwist) S &$ M>3 &โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌrotational movement) *โ€ซุข* ูˆโ€ฌ7 โ€ซุฃูŠโ€ฌุŒ &[โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌS \ #_ โ€ซ ( ูโ€ฌnon-planar ) โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3; K 8>@โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ /36% &$ (Sketch Up's Auto-Fold feature.) ; %>

:Copying Objects Using Rotate โ€ซุก * ุงูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌ9 J>, (Ctrl key) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D ]โ€ซ& ุฐโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ N; e9  \โ€ซ* ุง& ุงโ€ฌV3โ€ซ ;  ูˆูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ  (rotation operation) . *S)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Creating Multiple Copies (Radial Arrays radial ) /  โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$6@;    โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN ( Rotate Tool)โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงูˆโ€ฌ .โ€ซ* ูˆุฑโ€ฌa1% โ€ซู„โ€ฌ7 y3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; *3 โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌ.(arrays .(radial array) = /L B8Q   .Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . >,!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 gA S โ€ซ ุง> ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ-ูข T B. K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Rotate Tool) 4โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌ-ูฃ . โ€ซูŠโ€ฌCโ€ซ!" ุฏุงโ€ฌ  โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌ./! B .-/ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซ( ู‡โ€ฌCtrl key) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ K. ~@  -!โ€ซ ุงุข~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูค . โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซยƒ ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌ, gA 3ย 0h-4 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 (starting point) B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb  LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ . โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌB4โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU B I โ€ซ ุฉโ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขโ€ฌX T! โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ+- โ€ซ ุง @ ุช ุงโ€ฌB+,ุŒ โ€ซยƒ ุง @ ุชโ€ฌ, โ€ซ ุฏูˆุฑโ€ฌ-ูง . ยƒ, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- โ€ซ( }ุกโ€ฌdestination point) wZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb K. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูจ . 3 Oโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌo, B .:โ€ซุฑุฉ ูˆุงโ€ฌ+ โ€ซู†โ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌoR:โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌB@- โ€ซยƒ ุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซุงโ€ฌ : โ€ซู„โ€ฌh . B 8U}โ€ซุฏุฉ ุงโ€ฌ/- โ€ซยƒ ุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซ   ุงโ€ฌBQN- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB-  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTqโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฉ ุŒ (โ€ซู†โ€ฌIโ€ซยƒ ุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซุน ุงโ€ฌ-Z โ€ซ@ู†โ€ฌ4 ) โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB 8Uโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌB+,  ! (*2) โ€ซ ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌ2x) Tqโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุฉโ€ฌb+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซู„ ู‡โ€ฌ-/!  โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌo+, B h โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ3.  4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ4 o+, โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ 102


: Folding Along an Axis of Rotation &aโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#\ JO; โ€ซ* ูˆุง& @ูโ€ฌ$ 7 โ€ซ ?ู„โ€ฌD *1โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌg9 J_โ€ซ= ?& ุงโ€ฌa3

โ€ซุฑโ€ฌR โ€ซู„โ€ฌq K. 0@L Sb . #Vโ€ซ& ุฐ] ุงโ€ฌ$ J_โ€ซู‰ ุงโ€ฌa โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ9 f (fold line) : (axis of rotation) โ€ซุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌ .Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก Sb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ0-/,! W.h- โ€ซ ุฉ ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซูŠ ! ูˆุฑโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุง> ุงโ€ฌ-ูข

. T B. K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Rotate Tool) 4โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ูˆโ€ฌ-ูฃ . โ€ซูŠโ€ฌCโ€ซ!" ุฏุงโ€ฌ  ! S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8R โ€ซ ุงูˆุงโ€ฌSb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> โ€ซุชโ€ฌ4 โ€ซู‰โ€ฌXโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌK. ~@ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 -!โ€ซ ุงุข~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูค . 0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 Sb โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ8 E> T B.- โ€ซุฐุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌR- ( fold line) Sb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> โ€ซู„โ€ฌq K. LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ . ( W.h- โ€ซ ) ุฉ ุงโ€ฌSb โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌrotation point) โ€ซ ุง ูˆุฑุงู†โ€ฌBb TU LM- โ€ซุฑ ุฒุฑ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฆ . 0@2 โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ! ูˆุฑโ€ฌ 103


. â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź. B4â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹBb TU B I LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٧

â&#x20AC;Ť \ŘŞâ&#x20AC;ŹNQ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹoRA B /8 (angle snaps) jQ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB4â&#x20AC;Ť ؼذا زاŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;4â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. LM- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;ŹX -٨ B4 â&#x20AC;ŤآŘŞâ&#x20AC;ŹX LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź34R â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹA -  =â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹPX\! Ř&#x152; (under preferences)  â&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Ź/ hâ&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź3.A -  Ř&#x152; (angle snaps) B4â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§ŘŞ Ř˛Ř§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹjQ 0R! B.- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź . (free rotation) R â&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Źu-,! B.- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

.(â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; ا Ů&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź-â&#x20AC;Ť ا Ů&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020; )}آâ&#x20AC;ŹB4 Bb K. Bh I â&#x20AC;Ť اآ~ ŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŠ

:Creating Copies at an Equal Distance Apart *, â&#x20AC;ŤÂ&#x2020;ŘŻ\ Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź9 (original) &S)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť ( Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Źcopy) *V3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 *$ 3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź31 =a3

:â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źh . *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ (divisor value) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź31â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź 104


(original) &S)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹT% 9 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;زâ&#x20AC;Źy3% *3\  (/5) â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź5/) =>? (distances) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 3â&#x20AC;Ť>= اâ&#x20AC;Źa9 â&#x20AC;Ťاعâ&#x20AC;Źeâ&#x20AC;Ť= اâ&#x20AC;Źa3 .(first copy) *V3% â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘ§ŘĄ * ŘŁ\Ů&#x2030;â&#x20AC;ŹU9 ]; , * F (multipliers) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź6 Gâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź

: Entering Exact Angle Values. *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť Řą ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Ź9 T  â&#x20AC;Ť( ا& ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Źdegree of rotation) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘą* اŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź

Gâ&#x20AC;Ť= ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Źa3 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ اŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹVCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ (angular degrees) (slope values) Jâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źangular rotation) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;Ů&#x160;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť* اŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŘŻ\ Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź . â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ ; اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź

:Entering an Angular Rotation Value *1â&#x20AC;Ť ا?>= اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;( degrees) â&#x20AC;Ť Řą ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź9 *1,â&#x20AC;Ť@ع؊ ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9 (angle) *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź, ! â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź7 Eâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹVCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ (decimal) â&#x20AC;Ťاتâ&#x20AC;Ź79 :â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źh. (protractor) *1â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź 1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź.#>G 9 (34.1) â&#x20AC;ŤاعŮ&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź1; (degree angle) *â&#x20AC;Ť] ŘŻŘą* زاŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źa  (34.1) =>?

;â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;* ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť= ! اâ&#x20AC;Źa3 . * 3â&#x20AC;Ť عب اâ&#x20AC;Ź1 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹP *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť >* !Ů&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (rotation operation) â&#x20AC;Ť  * اŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź

:Entering a Slope Value &$ (colon) *;Z 9 N@6; N, =>?â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (slope) Jâ&#x20AC;Ť* زاŮ&#x2C6;* ŘŠ آâ&#x20AC;Ź, ! :â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źh . (VCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % â&#x20AC;Ť عبâ&#x20AC;Ź1 *â&#x20AC;Ťآâ&#x20AC;Ź7 b  â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹP 9 *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť >* !Ů&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (8:12) N1â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§?>= اâ&#x20AC;Ź rotation ) â&#x20AC;Ť  * اŮ&#x2C6;عاŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽ; ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź#>G 9 *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Ź, ! =a3 . * 3â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (operation

105


:Scale Tool โ€ซุงุกโ€ฌrโ€ซ( ุฃโ€ฌstretch) #;โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌresize) ! โ€ซ ุฏุฉโ€ฌo J 3 (Scale Tool) !โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ุฃ\ู‰โ€ฌS  Dโ€ซ>* ุฅโ€ฌ3% J_โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌModification toolbar) J โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ# โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 !โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#_% . (Tools menu) โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 :B X\ 0@2 โ€ซุฐุฌโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0โ€ซ  ุขโ€ฌ8 "ZR4 S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .-/ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌSโ€ซ( ู‡โ€ฌGlobal Scale) S- / โ€ซ " ุงโ€ฌZR โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฅู† ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ. b   B8,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซุจ ุงโ€ฌ.b- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌy b (simultaneously) S& ) 3fโ€ซุฐโ€ฌ- โ€ซุงุกโ€ฌjfโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌK. " ZR โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ.- โ€ซุฏุงุกโ€ฌY E8 Bs  (Scale Tool) " ZR โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .( โ€ซุฐุฌโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌK. ~ :Scaling Geometry "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .Sโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ =- ZRA 4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุง> ุงโ€ฌ-ูข โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌ: K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Scale Tool) " ZR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ โ€ซู„โ€ฌX  ! (Scaling grips) " ZR โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌN . โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌ: 0>โ€ซุฏุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ+- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

BN โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ BN โ€ซ> ุฑ ุงโ€ฌY (scaling grip) " ZR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBN K. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค -Xโ€ซู† ุงโ€ฌ.  โ€ซุกโ€ฌSNA โ€ซ !ูโ€ฌB.- โ€ซ " ุงโ€ฌZR โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซุฑุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ+- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . BQ.+ " ZRA B .-  " ZRA BN 0โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ.(highlight in red) ((VCB)) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 . 0@2 โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌscale) " ZR LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ " ZR โ€ซู…โ€ฌA -  โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ-. (relative size) S, โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌZR โ€ซ!  ุงโ€ฌ . " ZR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-โ€ซ ุฅุขโ€ฌ/ B.b- โ€ซ " ุงโ€ฌZR โ€ซุฏ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุฅุฏ>ู„ ุฅโ€ฌT b,A. โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . 0@2 โ€ซ " ุงโ€ฌZRA 0-@A / โ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉ ุฃ>ู‰โ€ฌ-ูฆ 106


: Scaling Auto-Folding Geometry * =; *h â&#x20AC;Ť@ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź9 J (Auto-fold feature) ; %>â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ &[â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Źaâ&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;ŹS \ â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź19o â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;ع؊â&#x20AC;ŹGâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹM37 (folding lines) &aâ&#x20AC;Ťء اâ&#x20AC;Źa\  ; %>â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. !â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . *3; bâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

: Scaling a 2D Surface or Image Object Image ) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ ا@ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;آâ&#x20AC;ŹTwo-dimensional surfaces) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Ź+ f â&#x20AC;ŤŘ­â&#x20AC;Źa3â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź *fZOâ&#x20AC;Ť ا) Ů&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;ŹD â&#x20AC;Ť* ا& Ů&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź3 9 !â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2030;  * اâ&#x20AC;Źentities !â&#x20AC;Ť ?* )ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹS .(three-dimensional geometry) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź /â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ ! ; ! Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹG>, * 3 â&#x20AC;Ť( !Ů&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹScale Tool's bounding box) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;ŹfZOâ&#x20AC;Ť ?* اâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹS J *1? P69 J â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;ŹG>1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź. â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź+ f . (Ctrl and Shift) J â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź7 6; =; Gâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹJ â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. (3D bounding box) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź6; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź+ f 8a ! ; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź+ f Ja3; â&#x20AC;Ť ?* Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź7oâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A; اâ&#x20AC;ŹS â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź *? 7oâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A; اâ&#x20AC;ŹS .(G\â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź-7â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; ) اâ&#x20AC;Ź3; Ng =1 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź ! â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źsurface) 8a3â&#x20AC;Ť( ؼذا آ Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3D volume ) â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;ŹfZf 7 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź+ Oâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2020; ! اâ&#x20AC;Źg =a3 . (G\â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź-7â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; ) اâ&#x20AC;Ź3; =; â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť\ ع؏ اâ&#x20AC;Ź . !â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ>, /â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť! ذا؊ ;! Ů&#x2C6;Řą ا ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź9

:Scaling Components individual ) *â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź6â&#x20AC;Ť( ! ا! * اâ&#x20AC;ŹComponent entity) Mâ&#x20AC;Ť ! آ Ů&#x2020; ;آâ&#x20AC;Ź 8 *S Vâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź. *â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź6â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§  اâ&#x20AC;Źr9 56! â&#x20AC;Ť ا)\Ů&#x2030;â&#x20AC;ŹMâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŞ Ř§آâ&#x20AC;Źe 7 Jâ&#x20AC;Ť آâ&#x20AC;Ź. (instance . ]â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°â&#x20AC;Ź% &$ Mâ&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;ŹP6 *6Vâ&#x20AC;Ť ا!* اâ&#x20AC;Źy3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN;  â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹD â&#x20AC;Ť] ا!@Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ! آ Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹJO; (component's context) â&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x201A; اŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹNg !â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź. Ř&#x152; Mâ&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;ŹL D f (component) Mâ&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;ŹNg (Line entity) #\ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Źe 7 Jâ&#x20AC;Ť& آâ&#x20AC;Ź$ #Vâ&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹP6% â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Źe 7 Jâ&#x20AC;Ť !  عات ) آâ&#x20AC;ŹMâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŞ Ř§آâ&#x20AC;Źe 7 Jâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘â&#x20AC;Ź . (Mâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§آâ&#x20AC;Ź

:Scaling Options â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.  3 &â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;ŹG>1â&#x20AC;Ť = اâ&#x20AC;ŹT (Scale Tool) !â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; #_â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź J;  9 * D1> â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;E 9 3;  ;  *+; 8>@ J_â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹL\ *6V; *G>, *6V; *G>, â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹL_ (X-ray Transparency) Pâ&#x20AC;Ť* ŘŁ * â&#x20AC;&#x201C;اآâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 6 #% JF.

107


uniform ) Tâ&#x20AC;Ť ا! اâ&#x20AC;ŹN; Zâ&#x20AC;Ť ] أداإ آâ&#x20AC;Ź8 (Scale Tool) !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź #â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x160;  ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Źno uniform scaling) T; K !â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Źscaling â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŘš ا! اâ&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź1 J 3 &â&#x20AC;Ť* ا! اâ&#x20AC;ŹG>, . (stretching operations) . / 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź1

:Corner Grips *3â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;* ا آâ&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN; â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť( ! اâ&#x20AC;ŹCorner grips) *â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;ŹG>, T; ! â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źdefault behavior) & 1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (opposite corner) single scale ) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź6â&#x20AC;Ť ا! اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ; ;â&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹD1> â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 M â&#x20AC;Ť` ŘĽŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Ź7 .(VCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ T (dimension)  >â&#x20AC;Ť( اŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Źfactor

:Edge Grips opposite ) *3â&#x20AC;Ť* ; آâ&#x20AC;Ź$ 7 N; â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť( ( ! اâ&#x20AC;ŹEdge grips) *$ !â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;ŹG>, K ! â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źdefault behavior) & 1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. &%h J_9â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹN >9 (edge â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % &$ . F â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 M â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;Ř°]  & ŘĽŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(no uniform scale) T; .(comma) *S $ 9 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź, T (VCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

: Face Grips 7â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Źb  â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ Pâ&#x20AC;Ť ; آâ&#x20AC;Ź/â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹN; â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť( ( ! اâ&#x20AC;ŹFace grips) /â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;ŹG>, no uniform ) T; K ! â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źdefault behavior) & 1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. #1$ (VCB) *1 9 !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź.$ % .F â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź9)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN9 M â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;Ř°]  & ŘĽŮ&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(scale . #1$ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;Ť* Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź, J>1 â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹT

: Scaling About the Geometry Center P>â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ř˘â&#x20AC;Ź. J_â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť ;آâ&#x20AC;ŹN; â&#x20AC;Ť ع؏â&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť ! ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź9 ] 83 (Scale Tool) !â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;Źso !â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ أداإ * اâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź,â&#x20AC;Ť& ŘŁŮ&#x160; Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź$ (Ctrl key) â&#x20AC;Ť Ř­â&#x20AC;Ź6; D P> 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;ŹG>, N; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹD P>â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (geometry's center point) J_â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źrâ&#x20AC;Ť* ;آâ&#x20AC;Źa1% . ]. 1>? ! J\â&#x20AC;Ť ع؏ ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; ااâ&#x20AC;ŹVâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹM!â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(scaling grips) !â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

:Toggling Between Uniform and Non-uniform Scaling T; K ! â&#x20AC;Ť زâ&#x20AC;Ź%â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹN; K 9 Ř&#x152; !â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ اâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ Jf â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄ اâ&#x20AC;Ź19o â&#x20AC;Ť ! ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź, !â&#x20AC;Ť * اâ&#x20AC;ŹN; ) *Tâ&#x20AC;Ť( * ا! اâ&#x20AC;Źtoggles) #9 (Shift key) â&#x20AC;Ť Ř­â&#x20AC;Ź6;. . ( *Tâ&#x20AC;Ť * ا! اâ&#x20AC;ŹN;) *T; Fâ&#x20AC;Ť* ( Ů&#x2C6;* ا! اâ&#x20AC;ŹT; Fâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

108


:B X\ " - ‫ " ا‬ZR  ‫ح‬-,.  bA - -/!‫@ ا‬-4 (Ctrl and Shift) SXQ . ‫ر‬+- ‫ ا‬0@2 ‫ ا‬j‫ "  آ‬- ‫  ا‬g‫و‬ : Controlling Scaling Direction With The Axis Tool (drawing axis ) ‫= ;! ور ا‬g‫† دة و‬9 !‫ ا‬b  ‫ ا‬D *,9 ‫ة‬a3‫] ا‬ )‫ ا  ه ت‬J 3 (Scale Tool) !‫ أداة ا‬.(Axes Tool) ‫;= أداة ا! ور‬ t>1‫ ا‬b  ‫ ا‬D ‫ة‬a3‫ وا‬، 36% (orient) / ‫ وازرق ( ة‬G\‫ا‬-7‫ا‬ . ‫= ا! ور‬g‫  إ دة و‬9 (grip direction)

‫؛‬Entering Exact Scale Values !‫* ا‬,‫و‬، ! &‫( ا‬axis) ‫ د ا! ور‬9‫ أ‬T (VCB) *1 9 !‫ة ا‬.$ % *% \ ‫ار‬7 ‫وق‬S &$ ‫دت‬7 ‫() آ‬default units) * 1‫ات ا‬7‫& ا‬$،/36% ‫ة‬.$ % &$ !‫* ا‬, =>?‫ ا‬.!‫ل * ا‬Z\ (‫& ; ; ت اذج‬$ ‫ات‬7‫ا‬ . ‫  * ا! ;> ة‬9 ‫ل أو‬Z\ ‫ ;> ة‬J_‫( ! ا‬VCB) *1 9 !‫ا‬

:Entering a Scale Multiplier Value ‫ل‬q ‫}د>ل‬. ‫  * ا! ;> ة‬9 ‫ل أو‬Z\   9 ‫= ! ?ل‬a3

: " ZR ‫ ا‬B .- ‫ (>\ل‬dimensional length value)/ .S‫ !" ر‬K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! LM- ‫ ا‬. (Select Tool) ‫> ر‬Y‫ أ> أداة ا‬-١ . =- ZRA 4A ‫ي‬O ‫ ا‬0@2 ‫ ا> ا‬-٢ 0>‫وق دا‬: K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! LM- ‫ ا‬. (Scale Tool) " ZR ‫ ا> أداة ا‬-٣ . ‫ر‬+- ‫ ا‬0@2 ‫ل ا‬X  ! (Scaling grips) " ZR ‫ت ا‬N . ‫وق‬: BN ‫ا‬، BN ‫> ر ا‬Y (scaling grip) " ZR ‫ ا‬BN K. ~‫ اآ‬-٤ highlight ) -X‫ن ا‬.  ‫ء‬SNA ‫ !ف‬B.- ‫ " ا‬ZR ‫ت ا‬N‫رة و‬+- ‫ا‬ . BQ.+ " ZRA B .-  " ZRA BN 0‫ آ‬.(in red

109


((VCB)) B-   "@R тАл╪й ╪зтАмO8 . 0@2 тАл( ╪зтАмscale) " ZR LM- тАл┘Г ╪зтАмX -┘е тАл╪п╪йтАм- тАл " ╪зтАмZR тАл┘ЕтАмA -  тАл╪п╪йтАм-. (relative size) S, тАл" ╪зтАмZR тАл!  ╪зтАм ." ZR тАл ╪зтАмB .- тАл┘ДтАм-тАл ╪е╪втАм/ B.b- тАл " ╪зтАмZR тАл╪п ╪зтАм/тАл ╪е╪п>┘Д ╪етАмT b,A. тАл( ┘ЖтАм2' 6" ):0h ( dimensional length value) / тАл ╪зтАмB-  TqтАл ╪зтАм-┘ж ~тАл ┘И╪з╪втАм. (VCB) B-   "@R тАл╪й ╪зтАмO8 S8 тАл╪з┘ЖтАм- (2m)тАл╪к ╪г┘ИтАмZтАл ╪зтАмB!тАл┘ИтАм (Return) тАл( ╪г┘ИтАмEnter)

:Mirroring Geometry using the Scale Tool mirror ) тАл ╪з╪г╪йтАмJ_ GтАл ╪гтАмJ 3 тАл ╪е┘ЖтАмN (Scale Tool) !тАл╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм * тАл ╪зтАмb.тАл┘ЗтАм. 7 ! &тАл* ╪зтАмa1тАл┘Д ╪зтАм7 тАл ┘ЗтАм9тАл*  ┘З] ┘ИтАмG>1тАл ╪зтАмM!39 (geometry *>  , DтАл ╪етАмt9 1тАл╪й ╪зтАмr6, тАл ┘ЖтАм9 57e. тАл ╪▒╪мтАмVтАл ╪зтАмDтАл ┘И╪зтАмJ\тАл ╪з╪зтАмDтАл ╪з) ┘Д ╪етАмM! ] 8

(force) тАл╪з┘ЕтАмrтАл= ╪етАмa3 . MтАл ╪зтАмb  eтАл& ╪зтАм$ J тАл( ┘З& ╪втАм-1.5) тАл( ╪г┘ИтАм-1) :JO; . M   9 тАл* ╪г┘ИтАм, =>a9 тАл╪з╪г╪йтАм :Entering Multiple Scale Values ( scaling factors ) !тАл╪к ╪зтАмZ; ; DтАл ╪етАм+тАл( _ ╪п╪зтАмVCB) *1 9 !тАл╪й ╪зтАм.$ % ! тАл ┘ИтАм. тАл╪йтАм7тАл* ┘И╪зтАм, тАл ╪е╪п\ ┘ДтАмDтАл ! ╪м ╪етАм7тАл  ┘И╪зтАм9 ! *. * ; * 9 *a> тАл╪зтАм *T; ! *тАл┘ИтАм. (comma) тАл ╪▒╪▓╪йтАм6 9 тАл@ ┘ЖтАм6; тАл ┘ЖтАм, тАл ╪е╪п\ ┘ДтАмMa N 9 FтАл ╪п ╪зтАм9)тАл* ╪зтАмfZOтАл` ╪е┘Ж * ╪з! ╪зтАм7 тАл╪йтАм7тАл* ┘И╪зтАм, DтАл ╪п ! ╪м ╪етАм9)тАл* ╪зтАмfZf N *@6; *, JтАл ╪втАм, *fZf тАл( ! ╪мтАмNon Uniform 3D scaling) *T; .(comma) тАл ╪▒╪▓╪йтАм69 тАл╪з)\┘ЙтАм !тАл* ╪зтАмa1% N9 (dashed line) =a1; #\ тАл╪▒тАмs !тАл ╪б * ╪зтАмfтАл ╪етАм57ZтАл┘ИтАм !тАл╪й ╪зтАм.$ % &$ *$ 3; тАл╪п╪й ╪г┘ИтАм6; *, тАл╪е╪п\ ┘ДтАм./ \тАл┘К ╪зтАм.тАл ╪зтАмt>1тАл( ┘И╪зтАмscaling point) тАл( ┘ЖтАмgrip distance) *G>1тАл* ╪зтАм$ 3; тАл ╪е╪▒ ╪бтАм#>G ; %>тАл(   ╪зтАмVCB) *1 9 ╪М N 9 ╪М 7тАл  ┘И╪зтАм9 ) #тАл╪╣ ╪зтАм% N TтАл ╪зтАмtF9 .*$ 3тАл* ! ╪з┘И ] ╪зтАм1тАл ] ╪зтАм . #_% тАл┘КтАм.тАл ╪п( ╪зтАм9тАл* ╪етАмfZf (commas) тАл╪з╪▒╪▓тАм6 9 *@6; тАл ; ╪п╪йтАм, =>?тАл╪зтАм╪М тАл

 ┘З ╪к ; ╪п╪йтАм9 ! 9 тАл┘ЕтАм1 ; тАл ┘ЕтАм3)тАл ╪зтАмPтАл  ╪з@┘И┘В ┘ИтАм9 *? 7тАл ╪етАмJ; тАл ╪втАмD тАл╪зтАм3; тАл╪╣тАмgтАл( ╪зтАмresize) ! =a3 ╪М *$тАл* ; ┘ИтАм$ 3; тАл* ; * ╪г┘ИтАм$ 7 D тАл ╪птАмe 9 тАл ┘ЕтАм3)тАл╪п ) ! ╪зтАм6; J_9 . (Tape Measure Tool) тАл ╪│тАм1тАл ╪зтАм# тАл╪з  ┘Д ╪г╪п╪з╪йтАм

110


: Push/Pull Tool Face ) /โ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌM!โ€ซ= ูˆโ€ฌ$ (Push/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌJ 3

โ€ซ= ุง  ู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌa3 . โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซ ุง ุฐุฌ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซู… ;ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ7 โ€ซ* ุฃูˆ ?ุญโ€ฌ$ go (entities ]โ€ซ ุฐโ€ฌJ_ ุŒ bโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; โ€ซุนโ€ฌ% โ€ซ \ ุฑุฌ ุฃูŠโ€ฌ7  (Push/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ # โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 (Push/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#_% . *a3โ€ซ ุงูˆุฑุฉ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌbโ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌModification toolbar) J โ€ซุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ : B X\  0-/A  8 โ€ซุงโ€ฌO ุŒ wf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 E8 (Push/Pull Tool) E  โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ0-/,A Wireframe rendering ) S@., โ€ซุฑ ุงโ€ฌqYโ€ซ ุง  ูˆุฑุฉ ุงโ€ฌE- B /Uโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌS8 ",Z โ€ซ@ู† ุงโ€ฌ4 . (style : Creating a Volume . โ€ซ& ุง ุฐุฌโ€ฌ$ J_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ7 z1 โ€ซ( = ุฃูˆโ€ฌPush/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌJ 3

: wf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR! โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌT8 .Sโ€ซ !" ุฑโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก

. M!3โ€ซ= ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ$ /โ€ซ ุง\ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข SI\I 0 b, K โ€ซ  ุฅโ€ฌ1 ! LM- โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌPush/Pull Tool) E  โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ . "!โ€ซุฏ ูˆโ€ฌ/โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . =f โ€ซู‚ ุงโ€ฌ8 ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค K โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌf- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 "ZX   K.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ . , โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 "ZR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ! 0Q!โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุจโ€ฌ.b- โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌZR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ04 "ZR โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌB I ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ

111


: B X\   LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ4RA "I LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซูˆโ€ฌุŒ E1N โ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-!โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌE1N โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN4โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌT b,A . "ZR โ€ซุงโ€ฌ : B X\  โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌN>โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-Xโ€ซูŠ ุงโ€ฌ,) โ€ซูŠ ุงุฑุถโ€ฌ, K. ุŒ โ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ "ZX  A  . B4. B Uโ€ซ= ุขยุฑโ€ฌf โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซู„ ู‡โ€ฌ-/! โ€ซ !ู…โ€ฌ3โ€ซุถ ุงโ€ฌQ4 ุŒโ€ซุงโ€ฌO . K.x  2A (โ€ซุงู†โ€ฌfโ€ซ= ) ุงุฑโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB Q.>โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ0Q!x  2A ( N>โ€ซ= ) ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBf

R,A 0/Q  oโ€ซุฃโ€ฌุŒ (โ€ซ ุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌwZAโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 ) K.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซุฏ ุฅโ€ฌQ =fโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌpull) R,A  โ€ซ ุงุฑุถโ€ฌoRA ) wZAโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌoM 0@2 0-/4 โ€ซูŠ ุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌ,- โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌุŒ K.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB Q.> K โ€ซุฏ ุง @ ู† ุฅโ€ฌ/4 โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌBf- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB -@ โ€ซ~ ุงโ€ฌQ ybA ุŒ B .-/ โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุก ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซู†โ€ฌA ~@4 โ€ซุงโ€ฌO . ( . = 8 โ€ซูŠ ุฃุชโ€ฌO โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Entering Precise Push/Pull Values .(VCB) *1 9 !โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % &$ T (Push/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซ* * ุงโ€ฌ7โ€ซุฅุฒุงโ€ฌ =$โ€ซ  ุฅุงุก * ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุก ุฃูˆโ€ฌfโ€ซ* ุฅ; ุฅโ€ฌ1,โ€ซ@ุฑุฉ ุฏโ€ฌ9 M!3โ€ซ= ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ$โ€ซุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ1; ! =a3

. Pโ€ซ ุง ุขโ€ฌb  e 9 * โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌr *> 3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. M!3โ€ซุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ :Repeating a Push/Pull Operation =$โ€ซ ุฃ * ุงโ€ฌ:>a (Push/Pull) #>โ€ซ  * ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุฃ\ ;> ุฉโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌD โ€ซ ู†โ€ฌ3>โ€ซุขโ€ฌ . \โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌDโ€ซุงุฑ ูˆโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP69 ุŒ โ€ซ( ;ุฉ ุฃ\ู‰โ€ฌPush/Pull) M!3โ€ซุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ : B X\ ุŒ โ€ซ@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT8 โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌR, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- wZA Iย4 โ€ซู†โ€ฌA = . ~@A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf K. โ€ซู†โ€ฌA o,โ€ซ ูˆุขโ€ฌุŒ (front face) Sโ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. 3 B .- >โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌoโ€ซุฅุฐุง ุขโ€ฌ (Push/Pull) R, โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌT8 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB .- ุŒ (back side face) SQ.+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf =f โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . ~โ€ซุขโ€ฌ/- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซุซโ€ฌR!

: Create New Push/Pull Starting Face โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌf ( *% f โ€ซ ;ุฉโ€ฌP>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌfุŒโ€ซูƒโ€ฌ7ุŒ /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซ )ุงุขโ€ฌ/โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ$โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ/ M! D1> /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ; *, โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ 7 JO &โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌaVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. *% f =$โ€ซ ุงุฏโ€ฌ/ M!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf (Ctrl) =  โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ6; *[โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ.โ€ซ= ุฉโ€ฌ$โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ/ M! *  (starting point) *โ€ซุงโ€ฌ9 *a1โ€ซุขโ€ฌ . :9โ€ซุงโ€ฌaโ€ซ>  ุช ; ุฏุฉ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf ุŒ ( โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ) ุงโ€ฌD)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌM! โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซุง@ุฑ ุง *  ุงโ€ฌ (Ctrl) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf ุŒ( #โ€ซ ) ุงโ€ฌD)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ* ุฅโ€ฌ% f โ€ซ ;ุฉโ€ฌM!3โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌCtrl) . ( Nโ€ซ* ) ุงโ€ฌO f โ€ซ ;ุฉโ€ฌM!3โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ

112


: Creating Voids /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb 

9โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌvolume) 7 Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ( !ู„ ุงโ€ฌPush/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌJ 3 ; (back face of the volume) ! &6Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ 3D ) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌfZf โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌKโ€ซุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌJ_โ€ซุญ ุงโ€ฌa ; %>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. \โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ7 N; โ€ซุกโ€ฌr โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ โ€ซ& ุง) ู„โ€ฌ$ โ€ซ* ! ุขโ€ฌ6Vโ€ซ \ ุฑุฌ ุง* ุงโ€ฌ/; 9 M! , J_โ€ซ( ุฅุฐุง ุข ู† ุงโ€ฌvoid : * โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: B X\

/ โ€ซ ุง); ;& ;ุงุฒโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุง * ; ู† ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ุฅุงุก ู‡โ€ฌN . &6Vโ€ซุงโ€ฌ :Moving Faces Perpendicular โ€ซ ุฏูŠโ€ฌb  โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ bโ€ซ !] ุงโ€ฌD (Push/Pull ) #>โ€ซ= ุฅ> ุฑ * ุงโ€ฌa3

โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌfโ€ซ( ุฅโ€ฌAlt key) โ€ซ ุญโ€ฌ6โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซ ุงุฑ ุงโ€ฌ9 (perpendicular direction) โ€ซ ู…โ€ฌ3)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/_ โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ6; * โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ.(Push/Pull Tool) #>โ€ซุง  ู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ . * โ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ!ุซ ุฅโ€ฌe (Auto fold) &[โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌaโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.(deforming objects)

113


:Follow Me Tool JO; N ; â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź3; â&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹD bâ&#x20AC;Ť  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹJ 3 (Follow Me Tool) & > â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź6; â&#x20AC;Ť ا)دا؊â&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź.(freehand pencil) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘ§ŘŠ ا ا!ŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹU9 /â&#x20AC;Ť  Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź#\ â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źedge) *$ 7 D J@6  ] â&#x20AC;Ť Ř­â&#x20AC;Ź3 9 â&#x20AC;Ť اŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹJS 6â&#x20AC;Ť* اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ gâ&#x20AC;Ť ;  ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹS@\ J  â&#x20AC;Ť ا)دا؊â&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;ا  Ů&#x201E; Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;ŹJâ&#x20AC;Ť& اŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź$ (end of a path) â&#x20AC;Ť & ا Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2030;â&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź D /â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źextrude) :O9 â&#x20AC;Ť= Ů&#x2C6; ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Źa3 . â&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x201E; ا Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹD 3 J@6â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź Follow ) & > â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź#_% . (Follow Me Tool) & > â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹZ 3; â&#x20AC;Ť?Ů&#x201E; ا Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť   Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź9 â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹModification toolbar) J â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź# â&#x20AC;Ť   Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź9 (Me Tool . (Tools menu) â&#x20AC;Ť* ا)ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;اتâ&#x20AC;Ź+ , : B X\ . (context) â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť~ اâ&#x20AC;ŹQ S8 @4 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹZ4 =f â&#x20AC;ŤŘą Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

:Manually Extruding a Face Along a Path â&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹD (extruding a face) /â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź:O> (manual method) *â&#x20AC;Ť اŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź:aâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź * *â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹU â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź/â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź/$ 3 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źb  eâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹD â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Źa3â&#x20AC;Ť ] اâ&#x20AC;Ź8 (path)â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź3; S/Aâ&#x20AC;Ť\ أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-/, (path) â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źq K. =fâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źyh .(extrude) :O>â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź : (Follow Me Tool) (path)â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;Ť !@Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹB8R â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹwOâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź..4/A 4A S â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB8X j  -ŮĄ . (path) â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹT4 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Źw4A â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źprofile) =f. SZ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;Ť اع!" اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ K. â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź- 4A â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źprofile) =f. SZ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;ŤÂ آ Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹA . (path)â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź: K â&#x20AC;Ť= اâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (Follow Me Tool) S/Aâ&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ . â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;!" Řłâ&#x20AC;Ź 114


. =โ€ซูŠ ุขโ€ฌO โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌprofile) =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค

(path)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌSN !  โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ(path) โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌq K. LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ โ€ซุกโ€ฌjf ~-A โ€ซ ุฅู†โ€ฌZ4. 04โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ- โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌX LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR,A -  TA โ€ซ !ูโ€ฌุŒ-Xโ€ซู† ุงโ€ฌ.  S/Aโ€ซ( ุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌprofile) =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌL โ€ซูˆุฑโ€ฌZ- โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌpath) โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ B8Rโ€ซ ุขโ€ฌุŒ (edge) B8X โ€ซ ุฅุฐุง ุง>ุชโ€ฌ. u R โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT-  โ€ซุกโ€ฌ. (Follow Me Tool) ุŒ(profile) =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ~ ุงโ€ฌ- S/4Y 3 โ€ซุฐโ€ฌุŒ (starting edge) B4โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ูˆ ~  ุงโ€ฌุŒ(edge) B8R โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ3.A (extrude) yh โ€ซ !ุฃโ€ฌB .-/ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . (profile)

.(path)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB4 K โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌ0A  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌO Q โ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉ ุฃ>ู‰โ€ฌ-ูฆ 115


:Preselecting the Path â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź3 (select tool) â&#x20AC;Ť\ Řąâ&#x20AC;Źeâ&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹZ 3; ;1; (path)â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť= ا\ Řą اâ&#x20AC;Źa3

. 8!@â&#x20AC;Ť( >= ا Řą اâ&#x20AC;ŹFollow Me Tool) & > â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;Ź :(pre-selected path) â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź+ â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źq K. =fâ&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źextrude) yh . (path) â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹT4 â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Źw4A â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źprofile) =f. SZ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;Ť اع!" اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ K. â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź- 4A â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Źprofile) =f. SZ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;ŤÂ آ Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;ŹA . (path)â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź 0h-A S â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źcontinuous set of edges) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź-,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Ź8R â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB-Z >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ . (path)â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹZ4 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź8R â&#x20AC;Ť اŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات ) اâ&#x20AC;ŹB-C  (Follow Me Tool) S/Aâ&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ . â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x201A; Ů&#x2C6;!" Řłâ&#x20AC;Ź: K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; ( â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź+ KA â&#x20AC;Ť( ع؊â&#x20AC;Źextrude) yh ! ub, â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; =â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; آâ&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źprofile) K. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٤ .(pre-selected path) ! â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź+- â&#x20AC;ŤŘą اâ&#x20AC;Ź,- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Źq K. â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź-,

Automatically Extruding a Face Along a Single Surface â&#x20AC;ŤŘ&#x203A;â&#x20AC;ŹPath & > â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ 3 â&#x20AC;Ť Řą Ů&#x2021; ŘŁŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź3; â&#x20AC;Ť ?Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹD /â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źextrude) :O> *1? â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;ŘŁŘŻŮ&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹJâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź3; 8a D (path)â&#x20AC;Ť Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť Řą Ů&#x2C6; >= اâ&#x20AC;ŹV h (Follow Me Tool) ub! K. (path) â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Źq K. =fâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źyh .(single coplanar surface)â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Ź6; 116


Follow Me ) S/Aโ€ซ\ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-/, (single coplaner surface)โ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ, : (Tool โ€ซ !@ู†โ€ฌB8R โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซู‡โ€ฌ..4/A 4A S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8X Lโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก

. (path)โ€ซ ุฑโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข . (path) โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT4 โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌw4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌprofile) =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซ ุงุฑ!" ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ K. โ€ซุฏูŠโ€ฌ- 4A โ€ซ( ู‡โ€ฌprofile) =f. SZ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0@2 โ€ซยุข ู† ุงโ€ฌA . (path)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ ุงุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌB-C  (Follow Me Tool) S/Aโ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูค (profile) K. ~@A -  (Alt Key) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ K. ~@  -!โ€ซ ุงุข~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ . =โ€ซูŠ ุขโ€ฌO โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:B X\ "I ub, โ€ซ ุง> ุฑ ุงโ€ฌT b,A ุŒโ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ ub! โ€ซู„โ€ฌX โ€ซุชโ€ฌ8X -N4 (path)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซุงุฐุง ุขู† ุงโ€ฌ . ub, โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌX โ€ซุชโ€ฌ8R โ€ซ ุง  ุงโ€ฌT 8 (Follow Me Tool) S/Aโ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ 117


:Creating a Lathed Shape B.โ€ซ( ุขโ€ฌLathed ) โ€ซ@ู„โ€ฌLโ€ซ(   ุฃโ€ฌFollow Me Tool) & > โ€ซ= ุง  ู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌa3

: B4Cโ€ซุฑุงุช ุฏุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/! . (path)โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0h-A (edge) 8X W X โ€ซุฉโ€ฌCโ€ซ ุงุฑ!" ุฏุงโ€ฌ-ูก K. =f โ€ซ@ู† ุงโ€ฌ4 โ€ซูˆุฑูŠ ุฃู†โ€ฌN โ€ซ ูˆ ~  ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌCโ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌK. โ€ซุฏูŠโ€ฌ- =fโ€ซ ุงุฑ!" ูˆโ€ฌ-ูข . โ€ซุฉโ€ฌCโ€ซ~ ุง ุงโ€ฌ-4 โ€ซุฃูˆโ€ฌ  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซ ุงุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌB-C  (Follow Me Tool) S/Aโ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ . โ€ซูˆู‚ ูˆ!" ุณโ€ฌ: K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L

. .! โ€ซุขุฑุฉโ€ฌO- โ€ซู‚ ุงโ€ฌb โ€ซู‰ ุงโ€ฌXโ€ซ\ ุฅโ€ฌ-/, =f โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT โ€ซุฉโ€ฌCโ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌB8X TAโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูค

118


:Offset Tool coplanar ) 7โ€ซูŠ ูˆุงโ€ฌ3; &$ * ,โ€ซุท ูˆุงโ€ฌa\ N; y3%  (Offset Tool) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ ! (Offset) J =a3 . *S)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN; T;  9 D โ€ซ ู†โ€ฌbโ€ซ( ูˆูˆโ€ฌlines  +โ€ซ ุฏุงโ€ฌ/ (Offset) J . &S)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุฃูˆ \ ุฑุฌ ุงโ€ฌJ\โ€ซ ุฃ; ุฏุงโ€ฌbโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌedges) J โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ# โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 (Offset Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ#_% .  /โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ (Tools menu) โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , โ€ซ   ู„โ€ฌ9 โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌModification toolbar)

: Offsetting a Face. : =f โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE RA S โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌ8R โ€ซุฎ ุงโ€ฌ,!Y (Offset Tool) โ€ซุช ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌe  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT ; . (Offset)  4โ€ซ ุฒุงูˆโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Offset Tool) โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ-ูก . = (Offset) 0- 4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข S8  ! (Offset) โ€ซ ุฃู„โ€ฌB8, . (Offset) โ€ซ ุฃู„โ€ฌ/ 4R LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ =f โ€ซ ุฃูˆ >ุฑุฌ ุงโ€ฌ0>โ€ซ( ุฏุงโ€ฌOffset) 0- T b,A . (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 . โ€ซูŠโ€ฌCโ€ซ= ุง ุงโ€ฌf โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ0 b,- โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌf. ุŒ

. T.N- โ€ซ( ุงโ€ฌOffset)  Aโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌOffset) โ€ซุงุข~ ู„ ุฃู„โ€ฌ-ูค

: Offsetting Lines 7โ€ซูŠ ูˆุงโ€ฌ3; &$ =1 โ€ซ ? * ูˆโ€ฌ1; โ€ซุทโ€ฌaV (Offset) Jโ€ซ ุง\ ุฑ ูˆโ€ฌGโ€ซ= ุฃโ€ฌa3

:โ€ซุทโ€ฌb+ (Offset) 0-/ . โ€ซุงุณโ€ฌ,)โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌconnected, co-planar) "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .Sโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซ  ุฃูˆโ€ฌb> โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ+A โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌZ4 . (Offset) 0- gA S โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌb+ โ€ซ ุง> ุงโ€ฌ-ูข )โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ+!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT b,A. Xโ€ซูŠ ูˆุงโ€ฌ, S8 TAโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ N/ B. hโ€ซุฃุขโ€ฌ . โ€ซ  ุง> ุฑูƒโ€ฌ1 (Shift) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌCTRL . (Offset Tool) โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ-ูฃ 119


E> B/b โ€ซ ุงุจโ€ฌK โ€ซ &  ุฅโ€ฌjQ ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ.โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ+ E>  โ€ซุกโ€ฌjf K. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค . (nearest line segment) .(Offset) โ€ซ ุฃู„โ€ฌB-  4R LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ . โ€ซุทโ€ฌb+. (Offset)  Aโ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌOffset) โ€ซ ุงุข~ ู„ ุฃู„โ€ฌ-ูฆ

:B X\ โ€ซ ุฃู„โ€ฌTU LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ โ€ซุฑโ€ฌ+- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ โ€ซุก  ุงโ€ฌjf K. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ@~ ุฉ ูˆุงโ€ฌA โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌT b,A C@ (Offset) 0- .3 O โ€ซู„โ€ฌ. LM- โ€ซุฑ ุงโ€ฌX "I w4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 (Offset) . N4โ€ซ ุณ ุฃโ€ฌCโ€ซ  ุขโ€ฌ4 โ€ซุณโ€ฌ

: Repeating an Offset Operation * :>a (Offset) *  9 โ€ซ ุฃ\ ;> ุฉโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌD โ€ซ ;

ู†โ€ฌP>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP69 /โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP6% D *% f (Offset) :Entering Precise Offset Values

19  โ€ซุงุช ุง& ุฃุฏ\ ู‡โ€ฌ7 9 (Offset) โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ1;  T (VCB) *1 9 !โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌGโ€ซ= ุฃโ€ฌa3 . (Offset) โ€ซ ุก ู† ุฃู„โ€ฌfโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌุŒ Jโ€ซุงุฑ ; ; ุช ุงุฏโ€ฌ7 โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌS &$ . * โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุก ุฃูˆโ€ฌfโ€ซ( ุฃโ€ฌOffset) โ€ซุงุฑ ุฃู„โ€ฌ1; โ€ซ !ุฏโ€ฌ :B X\  04 โ€ซ\  ู…  ุณโ€ฌ-/, (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8 "  Tq T b,A . (default system) S!  โ€ซ ุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌB-  โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌR !  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. S.:โ€ซุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌ .S!  โ€ซูŠ ุข ู…โ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุง  ู… ุงโ€ฌ0-/,A oโ€ซ  ุขโ€ฌKX (3' 6") Tq T b,A : \h

: Entering an Offset Value . โ€ซ( ;> ุฉโ€ฌOffset) *  9 โ€ซู„ ุฃูˆโ€ฌZ\ (Offset) โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ1 โ€ซ* ุฉโ€ฌ, ! =a3

: B .-/ โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌIโ€ซ( ุฃโ€ฌOffset) B-  โ€ซูˆ}ุฏ>ู„โ€ฌ "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Select Tool) โ€ซ> ุฑโ€ฌYโ€ซ ุฃ> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .Sโ€ซุฑโ€ฌ 120


тАл  ╪г┘ИтАмb> тАл╪▒тАм+A тАл ╪г┘ЖтАмZ4 . (Offset) 0- gA S тАл╪╖ ╪зтАмb+ тАл ╪з> ╪зтАм-┘в )тАл╪нтАмQ тАл╪з┘ЕтАм+!тАл ╪зтАмT b,A. XтАл┘К ┘И╪зтАм, S8 TAтАл ┘ИтАм╪М N/ B. hтАл╪г╪втАм . тАл  ╪з> ╪▒┘ГтАм1 (Shift) тАл╪нтАмQ тАл( ╪г┘ИтАмCTRL . (Offset Tool) тАл ╪з> ╪г╪п╪з╪йтАм-┘г #\ * a, тАл╪итАм,тАл ╪зтАмDтАл ╪етАмh r61 EтАл ╪зтАм╪М.тАл ╪▒тАмV; #\ N; тАл╪бтАмr D P>тАл ╪з╪втАм-┘д . (nearest line segment) .(Offset) тАл* ╪г┘ДтАм, ! EтАл┘Г ╪зтАм7 -┘е . ].9 тАл>┘ДтАм1 EтАл ╪зтАмD P>тАл ╪з╪втАм-┘ж тАл╪йтАм.$ % &$ ( 20' or -35mm): *> 3тАл( ╪з>* ╪г┘И ╪зтАмOffset) *, =>?тАл ╪гтАм-┘з . (Return) тАл ╪нтАм6; тАл( ╪г┘ИтАмEnter)тАл ╪нтАм6; D P>тАл( ┘И╪з╪втАмVCB)*1 9 !тАл╪зтАм

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:Intersect With Model Tool тАл ╪г ┘ДтАмN J 3 (Intersect With Model Tool) тАл ?= ;= ╪з╪░╪мтАм1тАл╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм N@ =? 1 J ] 8 тАл ╪з)╪п╪з╪йтАмb.тАл ┘ЗтАм. (complex geometry) тАл╪йтАм1 ; ╪М тАл>╪итАм%тАл┘И┘В ┘И╪гтАмS JO; ╪М (intersect two elements) тАл= ╪г┘ИтАм$тАл ╪г┘И ╪птАмM! J тАл; ┘ЖтАмo 9 . S  тАл ?= ╪зтАм1 `7 h тАл ╪йтАмbтАл ╪к ┘И┘ИтАм$ 7  тАл ╪з)╪п╪з╪йтАмb.тАл ┘ЗтАм#_% . тАл  ╪е ┘Д ╪йтАмbтАл ╪зтАмb. тАл┘БтАм.7 *+ , тАл   ┘ДтАм9 тАл( ╪г┘ИтАмModification toolbar) J тАл ╪г╪п┘И╪з╪к ╪зтАм# тАл   ┘ДтАм9 . (Tools menu) тАл╪з)╪п┘И╪з╪ктАм :Creating Complex Geometry тАл╪░╪мтАм- тАл ╪зтАмT Tq тАл┘Д ╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм-/! (complex geometry) тАл╪йтАм/ тАл@┘ДтАмLтАл ╪гтАм4@ : (Intersect With Model Tool) . тАл┘И┘В ┘И╪г╪итАм: 0h тАл@\┘Ж ┘З! ┘ЖтАмL "!тАл ╪з╪▒тАм-┘б .SтАл !" ╪▒тАмK тАл= ╪етАм.@L  1 ! LM- тАл ╪зтАм. (Select Tool) тАл> ╪▒тАмYтАл ╪г> ╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм-┘в . тАл ╪в ╪к ╪з╪итАмT -f тАл> ╪▒тАмY тАл ╪з╪итАмK. тАл╪ктАм,тАл\╪л ╪втАмI -┘г SтАл !" ╪▒тАмK тАл= ╪етАм.@L  1 ! LM- тАл ╪зтАм. (Move Tool) тАл┘ГтАмR тАл ╪з> ╪г╪п╪з╪й ╪зтАм-┘д . wZAYтАл╪зтАм ) 4A 0@L тАл ┬Б┘КтАмB.тАл ╪з ┘И┘В ╪▒╪й ╪втАмT Tq4 W R тАл┘Г ╪з╪итАмX -┘е wf тАл ╪з ╪б ╪з╪итАмW X тАл╪ктАм8X fAY =┬Б PXY . (oRA тАл┘ЙтАм, тАл╪з ╪▒╪й ╪зтАм -U =тАл" ╪зтАмg  (selected) тАл╪▒╪зтАм+ K4 тАл ╪г┘ЖтАмZ4 тАл ╪з╪итАм. тАл╪з ┘И┘ВтАм . тАл╪з ┘И┘ВтАм . тАл╪▒тАм+- тАл ╪з╪и ╪зтАмK. (Context-click) тАл ! ┘ВтАмB,тАл ╪втАм-┘ж тАл ╪г┘И╪зтАмB-C  (Intersect With Model) тАл╪░╪мтАм- тАл ╪зтАмT Tq тАл ╪з> ╪зтАм-┘з :? тАл& ╪зтАм$ тАл ╪ктАм$ 7  ! тАл ╪з╪п╪з╪йтАм. (context commands menu)тАл ┘ВтАм, тАл╪зтАм .( ! - #тАл>╪и ;= ╪з@┘И┘В ) ╪з@╪▒╪й ╪зтАм%)тАл ╪зтАм$ =? 1 &тАл╪зтАм . ( ! тАУ DтАл ) ╪з@╪▒╪й ╪зтАм+ 1>9 MK e &тАл>╪и ╪зтАм%)тАл╪з╪б ╪зтАмrтАл┘Г ╪гтАм7 тАл┘Б ╪г┘ИтАм.7тАл ╪зтАм-┘и =; тАл>╪итАм%)тАл ?= ╪зтАм1 *1a; &$ тАл* ╪йтАм31; bтАл ;  ┘ИтАм%>тАл ┘Ж ╪зтАм9 57e . тАл╪з@┘И┘ВтАм

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:Intersect With Model, Groups, and Components (Intersect With Model Tool) â&#x20AC;Ť ?= ;= اŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹN; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź$ !â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź : ZO; . (current context) & !â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x201A; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;Ť& اâ&#x20AC;Ź$ â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ?= ;= اŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞ Ř§â&#x20AC;Źr%â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Źgroup) *; â&#x20AC;Ť ? * Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź7â&#x20AC;ŤŘĽŘ°Ř§ آ Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ťءâ&#x20AC;Źa\ Ř&#x152; (group) *â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źediting) * ; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Źfâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹIntersect with Model) ( ! -Dâ&#x20AC;Ť( ) ا@ع؊ اâ&#x20AC;Źgroup) *â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹNg 1>? , â&#x20AC;Ť ?= Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

:Position Texture Tool

â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; ا@ع؊ عاŮ&#x2020; آâ&#x20AC;Ź#â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2020; اâ&#x20AC;Ź9 &  ]â&#x20AC;Ť Ř°â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; â&#x20AC;Ť آ@Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź:>a ; %>â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹNg â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§ادâ&#x20AC;Ź Sketch ) ; %> =,â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x2026; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź. p>@ â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;Ť& > ŘŁŮ&#x160; آâ&#x20AC;Ź1$â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻŮ&#x160; ا Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;ŹJ_9 8a3â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹD =g &â&#x20AC;Ť ااد اâ&#x20AC;Ź#>G J 3 (Up's Position Texture Tool Ř&#x152; (resizing) !â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (repositioning) =gâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽ ŘŻŘŠ Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹNG Ř&#x152; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŠ ?Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź9 D *â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹGâ&#x20AC;Ť ] أداإ ا) Ů&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Ź8 â&#x20AC;Ť ا)دا؊â&#x20AC;Źb.â&#x20AC;Ť] Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź. *$ gâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(distorting) /_â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź *+ , N; â&#x20AC;Ť ا)دا؊â&#x20AC;Ź#_% . â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź% D ? 1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; زاŮ&#x2C6;* ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź7 bâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁ@Řąâ&#x20AC;Źp>S JO; â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§@Řąâ&#x20AC;Ź . (context menu for a Face entity) /â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x201A;  Ů&#x2020; Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź3â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

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:B X\ โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌ04/ E8  -/!โ€ซ@ ุงโ€ฌ-4 (Position Texture Tool) T- โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู… ุงโ€ฌ. ub, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK.  bA T b,AY . (flat surfaces) B4,- โ€ซุญ ุงโ€ฌb, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. yb- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ : โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/!โ€ซ= ู‡ ุงโ€ฌ.- T b,A Kโ€ซ( ุฃโ€ฌcurved surface) โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

View > Hidden Geometry menu item view =f โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-Z- 0-/A S โ€ซุฏุฉ ุงโ€ฌQ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwf โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. (texture) โ€ซ( ุง ุงู…โ€ฌedit) โ€ซุฑโ€ฌX "I . SR- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซู†โ€ฌ8 โ€ซู„โ€ฌX โ€ซ ุฃูŠโ€ฌK.ุŒ โ€ซุงุฏโ€ฌ- โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌB4I B-Z Sโ€ซ( ู‡โ€ฌtexture) โ€ซุฏุฉ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ุฏู„โ€ฌ0@2 0-/,A (texture) โ€ซ ( ูˆ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌmaterial) โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌR.b- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซุนโ€ฌU- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Repositioning a Material . (texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌgโ€ซ  ุช ูˆโ€ฌN; * * &โ€ซ ( ู‡โ€ฌmaterial) โ€ซ= ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌgโ€ซุฅ ุฏุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ : ( material) โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTUโ€ซ}ุฏุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ  ! B-C โ€ซุถโ€ฌ/ ( material) โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. (Context-click) โ€ซ ! ู‚โ€ฌB,โ€ซุขโ€ฌ-ูก . (context menu) B4h โ€ซ ุง ุงู… ุงโ€ฌB-C  (Position option) T- โ€ซ ุง> > ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก  A Bb- โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌb+ โ€ซ(  ุงโ€ฌmatrix) B8Q .(Texture sub-menu) (materials individual tiles) B4โ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌq\ โ€ซุงุฏ ุงโ€ฌ-  2 โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. . ~ โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌB/โ€ซ ูˆุฃุฑโ€ฌ4 K โ€ซ  ุฅโ€ฌ1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. 4A โ€ซ ุงุฐุง ุฃุฑุฏุช ุฃู†โ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌTUโ€ซ }ุฏุฉ ูˆโ€ฌub, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. E1N โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูข โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌRotate) 4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌA >โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌI B I ub, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. โ€ซ ู‚โ€ฌ, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB,โ€ซุฑุฉ ุง \ุท ุขโ€ฌ: . (Flip) >โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌI -4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌLM-  B,โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌุŒ(texture) โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌ04/A  SA  -ูฃ TUโ€ซูˆุฌ  ุฃุฏุงุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ+. (texture) โ€ซ >ุฑุฌ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌE8 ~โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ(Done) .(Position Texture Tool) โ€ซุง ุงู…โ€ฌ : B X\ /Uโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌK โ€ซุงุฏ ุงโ€ฌ- โ€ซ }ุฏุฉ ุงโ€ฌ4R โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌIโ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌoโ€ซ ุฃูŠ ูˆโ€ฌS8 (Esc key) โ€ซุญโ€ฌQ K. E1Uโ€ซุงโ€ฌ . y, โ€ซุงโ€ฌ entire ) โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌTUโ€ซ ุฅุฏุฉ ูˆโ€ฌB .- 0โ€ซุก ุขโ€ฌ1 } โ€ซู†โ€ฌA (Esc key) K. ~โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ T b,A โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌTUโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌB .-/ โ€ซู…โ€ฌA -  . ( texture positioning operation ( Undo) โ€ซ ูˆุง> ุฑโ€ฌ-4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌLM-  ~@  oโ€ซ ุฃูŠ ูˆโ€ฌS8 p.+ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซุฉ ุฅโ€ฌb> โ€ซุนโ€ฌf โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . (context menu)โ€ซ ู‚โ€ฌ, โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB-C  124


:Material Positioning Pins â&#x20AC;Ť(  * ا ŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Źpins)P9 9â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹJ 3 (Position Texture Tool) â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť= اâ&#x20AC;Źgâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. =,; Dâ&#x20AC;Ť ?* ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź3>9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź9â&#x20AC;Ť * ا!] !Ů&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;Ź. >! â&#x20AC;Ť ! ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹN P9 9â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. !â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĽ ŘŻŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹJO; â&#x20AC;Ť ا  ŘŞ  ŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Źt 9 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;ŹE M!3â&#x20AC;Ť * اâ&#x20AC;Ź. â&#x20AC;Ť ا ŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹD \â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź .(skew) â&#x20AC;Ť!ا٠â&#x20AC;Ź%eâ&#x20AC;Ť ( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;Źresize) :â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;Źb-  (Position Texture Tool) â&#x20AC;Ť ا اŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹTUâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠ Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź .(Fixed Pin Mode) oh â&#x20AC;Ť ا Řł اâ&#x20AC;ŹE- .(Free Pin Mode) R â&#x20AC;Ť ا Řł اâ&#x20AC;ŹE-â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź :Manipulating a Material Using Fixed Pin Mode ( skew) L! â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źscale) !9 (Fixed Pin Mode) 9 Oâ&#x20AC;ŤŘł اâ&#x20AC;Ź9â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź#% 83 #% . Oâ&#x20AC;ŤŘł ŘŁŮ&#x2C6; أآâ&#x20AC;Ź9â&#x20AC;Ť> ŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹO9 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź1 ; Ř&#x152; (shear and distort) â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź/_ â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź N; â&#x20AC;Ť ااد ا& Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť>* ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź3 9 JG$)â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2021; اâ&#x20AC;ŹFixed Pin Mode) 9 Oâ&#x20AC;ŤŘł اâ&#x20AC;Ź9â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (roofing textures) L13â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x2026; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źbrick) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201A;â&#x20AC;Ź9 aâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹJO; (tile) â&#x20AC;Ť? ŘŞâ&#x20AC;ŹZ9 : (Fixed Pin Mode) oh â&#x20AC;Ť ا Řł اâ&#x20AC;ŹE- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;Ź-/! â&#x20AC;Ťادâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹBZ /-  ! B-C â&#x20AC;ŤŘśâ&#x20AC;Ź/ ( material) â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. (Context-click) â&#x20AC;Ť ! Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹB,â&#x20AC;Ť آâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ . (context menu) Texture ) B4h â&#x20AC;Ť ا اŮ&#x2026; اâ&#x20AC;ŹB-C  (Position option) T- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§> > Řą اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK.  A Bb- â&#x20AC;Ťء اâ&#x20AC;Źb+ â&#x20AC;Ť(  اâ&#x20AC;Źmatrix) B8Q .(sub-menu LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (materials individual tiles) B4â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹQ â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞ اâ&#x20AC;Źq\ â&#x20AC;Ťاد اâ&#x20AC;Ź-  2 . ~ â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻâ&#x20AC;ŹB/â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;ŘŁŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź4 K â&#x20AC;Ť  ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź1 ! . â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. -4â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹLM-  ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ 3 â&#x20AC;Ť@ Ů&#x2021;â&#x20AC;Ź4 " â&#x20AC;Ť( ؼذاâ&#x20AC;ŹFixed Pins menu) Bh â&#x20AC;Ť ا  ~ اâ&#x20AC;ŹB-C u.b >â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź-٤ Ř&#x152; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŻŘłâ&#x20AC;Ź0â&#x20AC;Ť !  ب آâ&#x20AC;ŹB. â&#x20AC;ŤŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź4â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź. u.b- â&#x20AC;Ť( ب اâ&#x20AC;Źcheck mark) B\ specific position texture ) B:> â&#x20AC;Ť اŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹTUâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹB .- 0h-A B4â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;Ź0â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘â&#x20AC;Ź . (operation

125


. ~  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌXโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. R, โ€ซุฏุฉ  @~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ- โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ :B X\ =@4R 3 u-,4 โ€ซ ุง ุณโ€ฌ0/ZA (pin grabs) โ€ซ ยŠ ุง ุณโ€ฌK. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB,โ€ซุขโ€ฌ E- โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ.-  โ€ซ ูŠโ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ ! @ู†โ€ฌ4Z โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌK. >โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌT K โ€ซุฅโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุง ุณโ€ฌE- S8 Cโ€ซุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ@ ุฅโ€ฌ-4 Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ. (Fixed Pin Mode) oh โ€ซุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌ . (Free Pin Mode) R โ€ซ ุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌE-โ€ซ( ูˆ ูˆโ€ฌFixed Pin Mode) oh โ€ซุงโ€ฌ E 9 P>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ ( modifying the texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ ; * ุงโ€ฌN; & ;-ูฆ * N; โ€ซูˆุฌโ€ฌV (texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ \ ุฑุฌ ุงโ€ฌ#1$ P>โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ (Done) \โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌN)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(Position Texture Tool) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌgโ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ

:Fixed Pin Mode Options โ€ซ* ุง!ุข* ุฃูˆโ€ฌ%1โ€ซ ูˆุง ( ุฃโ€ฌP>โ€ซ )ุงุขโ€ฌM!โ€ซุงโ€ฌ: Move Icon and Pin * ; N; & ; .(reposition the texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ,; โ€ซ ุฏุฉโ€ฌo โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซุงโ€ฌ #1$ P>โ€ซ ุงูˆ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ(Done) \โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌf N 9 P>โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ (modifying the texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . & ; (Enter) D P>โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3 โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌ./1F (texture) โ€ซุงู…โ€ฌ1โ€ซ\ ุฑุฌ ุงโ€ฌ :Scale / Rotate Icon and Pin Dโ€ซ ! ูˆ ูˆ ุงุงุฏ ุฅโ€ฌJ 3 (pin) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌScale/ Rotate icon) *%1โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ (fixed pin location) 9 Oโ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ,; D โ€ซ ; ุฉโ€ฌุŒ (angle) *โ€ซุฃูŠ ุฒุงูˆโ€ฌ โ€ซ( ูโ€ฌbase pin)โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุฉ ุงโ€ฌ, Dโ€ซ  ุฅโ€ฌ9โ€ซุจ ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ,โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM!. โ€ซุณ ;!ูƒโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ; ูˆุฑ ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ  โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุฉ ุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซู„โ€ฌ7 โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ%1โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌM!. โ€ซ! ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฅุฐุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌ/9 โ€ซูŠ ูˆุฑโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb  eโ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$  #1; โ€ซุณโ€ฌ, .(rotate the material) . (scale) ! N โ€ซ ุง ุฏุฉ ู ูˆุฑ ูˆโ€ฌ#1โ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซู‚ ุงโ€ฌ$ Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ3;โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ 126


!โ€ซุณ ] ุง! ุง! & ูˆุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ* ูˆุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌaVโ€ซ ?ู„ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซ ุทโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ู† ุงโ€ฌ9 57e ]!9 &S)โ€ซ ุง! ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ูˆุง ุฏุฉ ุฅโ€ฌFโ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌa3 . =โ€ซ& ุงุฏ ุขโ€ฌS)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ *+ , N; (Reset) โ€ซ= ุง\ ุฑโ€ฌa3 โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌ.&S)โ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ#Vโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌEโ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(Context menu) โ€ซ ู‚โ€ฌ3โ€ซุงโ€ฌ :Scale / Shear Icon and Pin * ;o J 3 (pin) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌScale/Shear icon) !โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ z1โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ%1โ€ซุฃโ€ฌ

9โ€ซ ู† ุฏโ€ฌ9 57e .&%โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌJ_9 โ€ซ( ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌshear and resize) ! โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌz, โ€ซ (ุฃูˆโ€ฌslant) . * โ€ซ ุก ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ> ู† ุฃโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุฉโ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ :Distort Icon and Pin perspective ) โ€ซุฑูŠโ€ฌT; 8!@ โ€ซ )ุฏุงุกโ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซุณโ€ฌ9โ€ซ* ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌ%1)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ . J_โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌS =>a *; *S Vโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุง ุฏุฉโ€ฌD (correction

: Manipulating a Material Using Free Pin Mode 8 (Free Pin Mode) !โ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#% &$ โ€ซ ุฃ\ู‰โ€ฌP9 99 #>   &โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌP9 9โ€ซุงโ€ฌ (stretch) a โ€ซ( ุง ุฏุฉ ูˆุขโ€ฌdistort) L! โ€ซ ุฃูŠ ; ู†โ€ฌDโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌP9 9โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM! ] /_โ€ซ= ูˆุฅุฒุง* ุงโ€ฌg JG$โ€ซ( ุฃโ€ฌFree Pin Mode) !โ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#% . J>? D R โ€ซ ุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌE- โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/! โ€ซุงุฏโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBZ /- . *$โ€ซุงโ€ฌK 6โ€ซ ุง@ุฑ ุงโ€ฌN; (distortion) : (Free Pin Mode) Texture ) B4h โ€ซ ุง ุงู… ุงโ€ฌB-C  (Position option) T- โ€ซ ุง> > ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK.  A Bb- โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌb+ โ€ซ(  ุงโ€ฌmatrix) B8Q .(sub-menu B4โ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌq\ โ€ซุงุฏ ุงโ€ฌ-  2 . โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. -4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌLM-  ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข 3 โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌoโ€ซ( ุฅุฐุง ุขโ€ฌFixed Pins menu) Bh โ€ซ ุง  ~ ุงโ€ฌB-C u.b >โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูฃ .  ! ~ โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌB/โ€ซ(ุฃุฑโ€ฌcheck mark) yRA B\

127


~  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌXโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. R, โ€ซุฏุฉ  @~ ูˆุงโ€ฌ- โ€ซ   ุงโ€ฌ-ูฅ :B X\ =@4R 3 u-,4 โ€ซ ุง ุณโ€ฌ0/ZA (pin grabs) โ€ซ ยŠ ุง ุณโ€ฌK. โ€ซุฉโ€ฌXโ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB,โ€ซุขโ€ฌ E- โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ.-  โ€ซูŠโ€ฌY B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซ ! @ู†โ€ฌ4Z โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌK. >โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌT K โ€ซุฅโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุง ุณโ€ฌE- S8 Cโ€ซุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ@ ุฅโ€ฌ-4 Bโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ. (Fixed Pin Mode) oh โ€ซุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌ . (Free Pin Mode) R โ€ซ ุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌE-โ€ซ( ูˆ ูˆโ€ฌFixed Pin Mode) oh โ€ซุงโ€ฌ LM-  ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ ( modifying the texture) โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌBZ /  SA  -ูฆ B .-  โ€ซูˆุฌโ€ฌ+. (texture) โ€ซ >ุฑุฌ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌE8 ~โ€ซ ุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ฌุŒ (Done) >โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌ-4โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(Position Texture Tool) โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌTUโ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ูˆโ€ฌ

Manipulating a Image as Material Using Free Pin :Mode โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌS โ€ซู…โ€ฌV3 ; *S \ โ€ซ@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ9 6; (Free Pin Mode) !โ€ซุณ ุงโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#%  ; โ€ซ ุจโ€ฌ9 โ€ซ ุณโ€ฌUโ€ซ ุจ ุขโ€ฌ9 D โ€ซุฑุฉ !ูŠโ€ฌS โ€ซ= ุง  ู„โ€ฌa3 : \h . J_ โ€ซ ุณโ€ฌUโ€ซุขโ€ฌ โ€ซู„โ€ฌ-/! โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ: BZ /- . ; %>โ€ซุฐุฌ ุงโ€ฌ% &$ (photo-realistic door) +g : (Free Pin Mode) R โ€ซ ุง ุณ ุงโ€ฌE- . 0 b, =fโ€ซ ูˆ  ูˆโ€ฌ-ูก :\-/, ุŒ S X โ€ซุฑุฉ ุจโ€ฌ: 0h โ€ซุฑุฉโ€ฌ: (Insert) 0>โ€ซ ุงุฏโ€ฌ-ูข Insert > Image as Texture . โ€ซ ุง ุฑุฉโ€ฌT (Paint Bucket Tool) โ€ซ\ุกโ€ฌq B. โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌK โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb TU =f โ€ซู‰ ุฃุฑุขู† ุงโ€ฌXโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฃ (resized) "ZR ! โ€ซ ุงู† ุง ุงู…โ€ฌW R B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌR!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ-ูค . 0 b,- โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซู‚ ูˆโ€ฌ8 . 0 b,- โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌK. (texture) โ€ซ ุง ุงู…โ€ฌTU B I ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฅ B-C โ€ซุถโ€ฌ/ ( material) โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. (Context-click) โ€ซ ! ู‚โ€ฌB,โ€ซ ุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ . (context menu)  ! B4h โ€ซ ุง ุงู… ุงโ€ฌB-C  (Position option) T- โ€ซ ุง> > ุฑ ุงโ€ฌ-ูง  A Bb- โ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌb+ โ€ซ(  ุงโ€ฌmatrix) B8Q .(Texture sub-menu) (materials individual tiles) B4โ€ซุฏโ€ฌQ โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌq\ โ€ซุงุฏ ุงโ€ฌ-  2 โ€ซุฏุฉโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. . ~ โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌB/โ€ซ ูˆุฃุฑโ€ฌ4 K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. 128


. (texture) ‫ ا ام‬K. -4‫ ا‬LM-  ~‫ اآ‬-٨ 3 ‫ ه‬o‫( إذا آ‬Fixed Pins menu) Bh ‫ ا  ~ ا‬B-C u.b >‫ ا‬-٩ .‫دة‬- ‫( ب ا‬check mark)B\ . ~  ‫ ا‬X‫ ا‬K. R, ‫دة  @~ وا‬- ‫   ا‬-١٠ :B X\ =@4R 3 u-,4 ‫ ا س‬0/ZA (pin grabs) ‫ Š ا س‬K. ‫ة‬X‫ وا‬B,‫آ‬ E- ‫ ت‬.-  ‫ي‬Y B4‫ ا ا‬Bb ‫ ! @ن‬4Z ‫ ا‬T- ‫ ا‬. ‫ ا ام‬K. >‫ أ‬T K ‫إ‬ ‫ ا س‬E- S8 C‫ا‬f‫@ إ‬-4 B‫آ‬R ‫ ا‬wO‫ ه‬. (Fixed Pin Mode) oh ‫ا س ا‬ . (Free Pin Mode) R ‫ ا س ا‬E-‫( و و‬Fixed Pin Mode) oh ‫ا‬ ~‫ اآ‬، ( modifying the texture) ‫ ا ام‬BZ /  SA  -١١ ‫وج‬+. (texture) ‫ >رج ا ام‬E8 ~‫ أو اآ‬، (Done) >‫ وا‬-4‫ ا‬LM-  .(Position Texture Tool) ‫ ا ام‬TU‫ أداة و‬B .-  *3>‫ آ‬:Fixed Pin and Free Pin Mode Context Commands Position Texture ) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫ أداة و‬J 3 ; (Context click) ‫ ق‬ . (position texture context menu) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬,; ‫*  ق‬+ , ‫ ر‬so (Tool Position Texture ) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫ أداة و‬N; ‫وج‬V J 3 *+ 1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬: Done . (current texture position) & !‫ام ا‬1‫= ا‬g‫ و‬567‫( و‬Tool D‫( إ‬position of the texture) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫ دة و‬o J 3 *+ 1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬: Reset . (Position Texture Tool) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫ ا  ل أداة و‬:>3 &‫ * ا‬g‫ا‬ ) ‫ ( أو ـد‬N/‫ ر‬3 ) 1$‫ـام أ‬1‫ ا‬M1 J 3 *+ ‫ــ‬1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬: Flip . (J6‫أ‬/D‫أ‬ 90 : 1>3; ‫* ز دات ;!دة‬fZf N; 7‫ام وا‬1‫دارة ا‬o J 3 *+ ‫ــ‬1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬:Rotate . *‫در‬٢٧٠، ١٨٠، !‫س ا‬9‫ ا‬#% &a% N9 ( toggle) #9 J 3 *+ ‫ــ‬1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬:Fixed Pins: . (Fixed Pin Mode) 9 O‫س ا‬9‫ ا‬#% ‫( و‬Free Pin Mode) position texture ) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫& أ\ أوا; و‬F *+ ‫ــ‬1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬: Undo ;)‫ا ا‬.‫ ه‬،!‫* ا‬+ , &$ (Undo command) ;‫ف أ‬Z\ D . (command . #1$ ‫ة‬7‫= * وا‬9  ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫ * و‬7 D‫ و ك إ‬، (Undo) ‫&  ت‬F *+ ‫ــ‬1‫ ا‬b.‫ ه‬: Redo . (Undo command) ;‫ ا  ل أ‬J>, (texture positioning state) :4ORA / $ ƒ J‫ ن آ‬F (Undo button)‫ ء‬Fo‫( وزر ا‬The Edit > Undo );‫أ‬ .(texture positioning session) ‫ام‬1‫= ا‬g‫* و‬3 ‫ل‬Z\ 129


\â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁâ&#x20AC;ŹDâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6; Ů&#x192; ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152;(Edit > Undo) * â&#x20AC;Ť ŘĄâ&#x20AC;ŹFâ&#x20AC;Ť& ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹF (The Edit > Redo) * . bâ&#x20AC;Ť زâ&#x20AC;Ź% 9 , (texture positioning command) â&#x20AC;ŤاŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź, =gâ&#x20AC;ŤŘŁ; Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź

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: \-/, (import an image) â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź: â&#x20AC;Ť ا!عدâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ file----Import-------2D graphic . â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź: T â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊ ا> Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹK â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź. B4â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹBb TU "! â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠ اâ&#x20AC;ŹO8 S8 ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ (resized) â&#x20AC;Ť" ا ع؊â&#x20AC;ŹZX  1 B4â&#x20AC;Ť ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹBb  â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹR!â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٤ . . â&#x20AC;Ť ا ع؊â&#x20AC;Źo h B I ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĽ â&#x20AC;Ť ! Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹB-C  8 Ř&#x152; â&#x20AC;Ť ا ع؊â&#x20AC;ŹK. (Context click) â&#x20AC;Ť ! Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹB,â&#x20AC;Ť آâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŚ .(Image entity's context menu) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘ Ů&#x2020; ا ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť ادâ&#x20AC;ŹB@ S8  ! â&#x20AC;Ť ا ع؊â&#x20AC;Ź. (Use as Material) >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٧ â&#x20AC;Ťادâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹuQ -U (Model material library) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź .(Materials Browser)  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (Paint Bucket Tool) Â&#x2C6; â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB. â&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊â&#x20AC;Ź-٨ â&#x20AC;Ťادâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹuQ E2 !â&#x20AC;Ť( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źpaint bucket) Â&#x2C6;: B. K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L . (Material Browser) 130


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132


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,Q â&#x20AC;Ť @ع؊â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;ŹX  & p.! â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź. â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź-  Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹS.qâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŠ . Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; آâ&#x20AC;ŹX p. â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;ع؊â&#x20AC;ŹN â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź,X .(Display > Hidden Geometry menu) B-C u.b >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄŮ .Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źwfâ&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹXâ&#x20AC;Ť ا> اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄŮĄ â&#x20AC;Ť ! Ů&#x201A; آ Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹB-C  8 Ř&#x152; â&#x20AC;ŤŘąâ&#x20AC;Ź+- â&#x20AC;Ť= اâ&#x20AC;Źf â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. (Context click) â&#x20AC;Ť ! Ů&#x201A;â&#x20AC;ŹB,â&#x20AC;Ť آâ&#x20AC;Ź-٥٢ .(face entity's context menu) =f â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (Texture > Position menu) B-C u.b >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄŮŁ . =f â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. (Reposition) TUâ&#x20AC;Ť ا Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź-٥٤ Bb!â&#x20AC;Ť( اâ&#x20AC;Źrepositioned texture) â&#x20AC;Ť ا اŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹTUâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘĽŘŻŘŠ Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹSample) >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄŮĽ â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (material browser) â&#x20AC;Ťادâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹuQ S8 (eyedropper) â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . (Paint Bucket tool) â&#x20AC;Ť\ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB. â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊â&#x20AC;ŹT (Alt key) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ­â&#x20AC;ŹQ 0-/!â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť@Ů&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹLâ&#x20AC;Ť\Ů&#x201A; اâ&#x20AC;Źgâ&#x20AC;ŤŘĄ ŘĽâ&#x20AC;ŹQq} (Display > Hidden Geometry) K. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄŮŚ .(turn off Hidden Geometry) B  K. ( texture) â&#x20AC;Ť ا اŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;ŹTUâ&#x20AC;Ť ا Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź/ Ř&#x152; (sampled) B / â&#x20AC;ŤÂ&#x2C6; اâ&#x20AC;Ź:â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź-٥٧ K. =/Uâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2020; Ů&#x2C6; ŘŁ  Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹYâ&#x20AC;Ť= !  اâ&#x20AC;ŹA>â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;ŹO â&#x20AC;Ť ( اâ&#x20AC;Źtexture) â&#x20AC;Ť ا اŮ&#x2026;â&#x20AC;Ź. Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . Bâ&#x20AC;Ťاâ&#x20AC;Źb!Yâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź0â&#x20AC;ŤŘ˘â&#x20AC;Ź

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h โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0Q โ€ซุงโ€ฌ :construction tools โ€ซ ; ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง>ู€ู€ ุกโ€ฌ%>โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ ( construction tools) โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง>ู€ู€ู€ ุกโ€ฌJ@6โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ& ู‡โ€ฌaF โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุกโ€ฌ9 *โ€ซู…  ู‡ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌV3 &โ€ซ ( ู‡ู€ู€& ุง)ุฏูˆุงุช ุงู€ู€โ€ฌconstruction tools) physical ) & โ€ซ>ู€ู€โ€ฌaโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ:โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌf ยƒโ€ซ( ูˆ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌconstruction geometry) :0-2A โ€ซ ุงุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌwOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ.(documentation โ€ซ ูˆุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌุŒ (Text Tool) ย‘โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ู€ู€โ€ฌุŒ (Measure Tool) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุงุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ-C S8  A 0โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌQ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ. (Dimension Tool) /โ€ซุง ู€ู€โ€ฌ .(Tools menu) :โ€ซ ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌb.โ€ซุช ู‡โ€ฌe  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ8g & โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ_โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ

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:Measuring Distance โ€ซ  ุณโ€ฌB , Cโ€ซ ุฑุฉ ุฑโ€ฌ0-/,A (Tape Measure Tool) โ€ซ ุง  ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ4L โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ :  b   B8,- โ€ซ ูˆ  ุณ ุงโ€ฌ.  b   B8,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(Tape Measure Tool ) โ€ซ ุง  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ4L โ€ซุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ -ูก . โ€ซ  ุณโ€ฌE4L K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ\ ู€ู€ู€ุท ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ-/, โ€ซ ุณโ€ฌ. Bโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌb TU ~โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ -ูข K. Eโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌN  โ€ซุชโ€ฌLโ€ซ  ุฃโ€ฌ3โ€ซยุข  ุขโ€ฌ. ( inference ToolTip) โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซุงโ€ฌ .(exact point) โ€ซ ุง  ุณโ€ฌB4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb 3 โ€ซ !ู‰ ุฃู† ู‡โ€ฌุŒ =!  4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAY LM- โ€ซู€ู€ู€ูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ 3 โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ+ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌS4 S8โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซ ุง  ุณโ€ฌB4โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ- ! โ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb> K. โ€ซู„โ€ฌA Sโ€ซ ูˆู‡โ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขู€โ€ฌX ,X  1A โ€ซ= ู‰ ุฃุฑโ€ฌ.>โ€ซ ูˆุฏุงโ€ฌุŒ "! 0@L K. ~@  3   R โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌBb โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ  ุงโ€ฌR4 S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8,- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ ูˆู‡โ€ฌุŒ  K โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€  ุณโ€ฌ4A S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB h โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซูŠโ€ฌR4 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ+ โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌRA - Xโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ.  b โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌAโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€   ู‡โ€ฌ/ โ€ซ!  ุฑู€ู€ู€" ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุฑโ€ฌR- โ€ซ = ู€ู€ู€ู† ุงโ€ฌE Eโ€ซู‰ ]ุฑ >ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌA =!  "A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT.N โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ o hAโ€ซ  ุง ู ูˆโ€ฌE- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌSQ+4โ€ซูƒ ุงุฒูŠ = ูˆโ€ฌR  โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู…โ€ฌA โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> โ€ซ@ู†โ€ฌ "โ€ซ !  ุฑู€ู€โ€ฌ.(endpoint) โ€ซ ุง  ุณโ€ฌB4 Bb K. B I ~โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ -ูค . (VCB) B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 S8  b โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌAโ€ซ   ู‡โ€ฌ/ โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

:Creating Construction Lines and Construction Points Bb โ€ซูˆ ุข ุชโ€ฌุŒ (Construction Line entities) โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2}โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซุข ุช >ู€ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌE>   . *,9  โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ6; (Construction Point entities) โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2}โ€ซุงโ€ฌ Eโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ4L โ€ซ\ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ-/, (infinite parallel construction)SCY โ€ซุงุฒูŠโ€ฌ : (Tape Measure Tool) โ€ซุง  ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌ .(Tape Measure Tool) โ€ซ ุง  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ4L โ€ซุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ -ูก . โ€ซ  ุณโ€ฌE4L K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซูŠ ! @ู†โ€ฌO โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒ(line segment) Eโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ+ โ€ซุก  ุงโ€ฌjโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌf K. ~โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ -ูข B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb TU ุŒ (construction line) โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2}โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ >ู€ู€โ€ฌK โ€ซุงุฒูŠ ุฅโ€ฌ Bb   TA S โ€ซ"( ุงโ€ฌOn Edge") Bโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb K. ~@A โ€ซ ุฅู†โ€ฌZ4 3!  . (line segment) Eโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ+ โ€ซุก ุงโ€ฌjZ B4 โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌB4โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌ 137


:B X\ โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌE>   =f โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขโ€ฌR โ€ซ"( ูˆุงโ€ฌOn Edge")โ€ซู„โ€ฌY!Yโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb  โ€ซุง ุกโ€ฌ โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌE>   ( "Midpoint") โ€ซ(ุงูˆโ€ฌEndpoint")  โ€ซ ุง ุกโ€ฌ. SCY โ€ซุงุฒูŠโ€ฌ (construction point) โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌBb T (finite construction line ) โ€ซุฏโ€ฌR . B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 - ! โ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌb> 3 โ€ซ !ู‰ ุฃู† ู‡โ€ฌุŒ =!  4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAY LM- โ€ซู€ู€ูƒ ุงโ€ฌX โ€“ ูฃ "! 0@L 3 โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌE+ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ู‡ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌS4 Sโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ8โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌุŒ LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซ ุง  ู€ู€ุณโ€ฌB4โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ8,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. โ€ซู„โ€ฌA Sโ€ซ ูˆู‡โ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซุขู€ู€โ€ฌX ,X  1A โ€ซ= ู‰ ุฃุฑโ€ฌ.โ€ซูˆุฏุง>ู€โ€ฌุŒ Bโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~@  3   R โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ  ุงโ€ฌR4   / โ€ซ ูˆู‡ !  ุฑ" ุงโ€ฌุŒ  K โ€ซ ุงูˆโ€ฌBb โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซ  ู€ุณโ€ฌ4A S โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB h โ€ซุงโ€ฌ =!  "A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT.N โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌ/ โ€ซูŠ ุงโ€ฌR4 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ+ โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌRA - Xโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ.  b โ€ซ  ุงโ€ฌAโ€ซู‡โ€ฌ = โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ูƒ ุงุฒูŠโ€ฌR  โ€ซู…โ€ฌA โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซู€ู€ุฑ ุงโ€ฌR- โ€ซ = ู† ุงโ€ฌE Eโ€ซู‰ ]ุฑ >ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌA . / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE> โ€ซ @ู†โ€ฌo hAโ€ซ  ุง ู ูˆโ€ฌE- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ โ€ซุง ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌSQ+4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุกโ€ฌ2}โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ >ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌTโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌUโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ4A Sโ€ซ ุง ู€ู€โ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌKโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌ. Bโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌI ~โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค B-   "@R โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌOโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ8 S8  ! B C โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌB8,- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (construction line) .(VCB)

:B X\ โ€ซุกโ€ฌ2โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb โ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ4 ( "Midpoint") โ€ซ(ุงูˆโ€ฌEndpoint") โ€ซุง ุก ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ .(Construction Point)

:Entering Exact Values !โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ %ุŒ(drawing construction lines) โ€ซ_ู€ ุกโ€ฌ%oโ€ซุท ุงโ€ฌa\ 9 โ€ซู€ู…โ€ฌ1 9 &โ€ซู€ู€ุงุช ุงโ€ฌ7 9 โ€ซ( ุงุงุฒูŠโ€ฌoffset)โ€ซ ุง ูˆุงู„โ€ฌ#Vโ€ซ ุฃ; ?ู€ู€ู„ ุงโ€ฌT (VCB) *1 9

 \โ€ซย†ุฏโ€ฌ9 (different values) *6V; , ! =a3 . โ€ซ!ู‡โ€ฌ9 , โ€ซ ูˆุงู†โ€ฌ:> &$ #Vโ€ซูŠ  ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌM  โ€ซ= ุฅุฏ\ ู„ ?ู„โ€ฌa3 โ€ซ( ูˆโ€ฌVCB) *1 9 !โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌ.$ % &$ . Eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#V Pโ€ซ ; ุขโ€ฌb  โ€ซุงโ€ฌ

138


:Scaling an Entire Model ، (more-precise dimension) *,‫ د‬O‫  أآ‬9 D‫ذ] إ‬% ‫ س‬, ‫= إ دة‬a3

#‫   ل أداة ــ‬9 Na1% N9 *9a‫* ا‬$ 3‫! ا‬9 ‫ ء ــــ* ا ض‬f‫إ‬ ،(Tape Measure Tool) ‫ــ س‬1‫ا‬ .(reference line) ‫ رة‬o‫ ا‬#\ D‫  د إ‬#V‫ا ا‬.‫ه‬ : 04‫د‬- ‫ ا‬0‫  س آ‬ LM- ‫ ا‬.(Tape Measure Tool) ‫ ا  ــس‬E‫ــ‬4L ‫ا> أداة‬ -١ . ‫  س‬E4L K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! ‫ل‬Y!Y‫\ ـــط أداةا‬-/, ‫ س‬. B‫ــ‬4‫ ا ا‬B‫ــ‬b TU ~‫اآ‬ -٢ B4‫ ا‬Bb K. EN  ‫ت‬L‫  أ‬3‫آ  آ‬. (inference ToolTip ) .( exact point ) ‫ا  س‬ E‫ـــــــ‬+ ‫ء ـ ا‬j‫ـ‬Z ‫ـ~ ا‬Q B4‫ ا ــ‬B‫ـ‬b K ‫ـ إ‬LM- ‫ــــك ا‬X -٣ /‫ ا  س ـ‬B‫ــ‬4‫ ــ ا‬- ! ‫ـــــــــ‬b> 3 ‫ !ى أن ه‬.(line segment) (VCB) B-   "@R ‫ة ا‬O8 ، "! 0@L 3 ‫ ه‬E+ ‫ا ا‬O‫ ه‬S4 S8‫ و‬، LM- ‫ا‬ . ‫ــــــذج‬- ‫ل ا‬X ‫ـ‬LM- ‫ ا‬34‫ـ‬R ‫ـم‬A -‫ ا  س  ـ‬E‫ـ‬4L ‫ل‬q  ‫!  ا‬ B8,- ‫ ا‬. E‫ــــ‬+ ‫ء ا‬j‫ــــــ‬f  ‫ ا>ى‬B4 ‫ ا‬K. B I ~‫اآ‬ -٤ . (VCB) B-   "@R ‫ة ا‬O8 S8  ! B C ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬O‫ ه‬.(VCB) B‫ــ‬-   "@R ‫ة ا‬O‫ــ‬8 S8 E‫ـــ‬+. 4f "ZX 0>‫اد‬ -٥ proportional ) ‫!ـ‬- ‫ آ!ـس }ــــدة ا  ــــــــــس ا‬0-/, ! "ZR ‫ا‬  ‫ آا‬o‫ إذا آ‬- 8 \C,  4 ‫ـــار‬X ‫ـــــوق‬: . 3f‫ــذ‬- (rescale . ‫ذج‬- ‫ " ا‬ZR "/ ~‫اآ‬. ‫ذج‬- ‫ ا‬0‫ " آ‬ZRA ‫ إدة‬4A 3‫آ‬ :B X\ uQ  BR,- ‫ ا‬o, ) S R ‫ذج ا‬- ‫ ا‬-U ‫ت‬2‫ أ‬S ‫@ــــــــت ا‬- ‫ ا‬E8 ‫د‬/4 ‫@ إن‬-4. (Sf‫ >ر‬p.  B.-R- ‫ وا‬-Component Browser - ‫@ت‬- ‫ا‬ . - ZRA

139


: Protractor Tool #\ ‫ ت‬% ‫( و  آ‬angles) ‫وا‬r‫ س ا‬1 J 3 (Protractor Tool) *1‫أداة ا‬ . (Construction Line entities) ‫_ ء‬%o‫ا‬ ‫_ـــــ ء‬%o‫ أدوات ا‬#‫ ـــــــ‬N‫( ;ــ‬Protractor Tool) *‫ــــــ‬1‫ أداة ا‬#‫ _ــــــ‬ . (Tools menu) ‫ــ* ا)دوات‬+ , N; ‫ أو‬، (Construction Toolbar)

Measuring an Angle and Placing Angled Construction : Lines . ‫وا‬r‫& ر ا‬$ ‫ ة‬3 *‫او‬r9 ‫_ ء‬%o‫ ا‬#\ ‫ ت‬% ‫= آ‬g‫وري و‬G‫ ا‬N; ‫ دة‬ : B4‫او‬j ‫ء‬2‫ إ‬E> TU‫  س وو‬ ‫ذي‬X ، B. K ‫  إ‬1 ! LM- ‫ ا‬B.‫ـــ‬- ‫ا> أداة ا‬ -١ LM-  j‫آ‬- ‫ ا‬oI‫ و‬-N>‫ا‬/-X‫ي –ا‬,- ‫( ا‬aligned) B.- ‫ ا‬. 04‫ــد‬-. u‫ ـــــ‬R ‫ ا‬w‫ـ‬ZAY‫ــذاة ا‬R- 04‫ـد‬- ‫ــــل ا‬X B.‫ــ‬- ‫ـك ا‬X -٢ ‫ــــــــل‬Q}‫ ا‬T b,A . B‫ــ‬4 ‫@ـل ا‬L}‫ـــور وا‬R- ‫ـذي ا‬RA ‫ـ‬-  ‫ـه‬ZA‫  ا‬1! -  (Shift key ) ‫ــــــح‬Q K‫ـ‬. ~@  ‫ >ص‬w‫ــــــــــــ‬ZA‫ ا‬K‫ــ‬. ( lock ) . ‫ب‬.b- ‫ ا‬wZAY‫ ا‬S8 B.- ‫ا‬ 140


B4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬B‫ــــــــ‬- B‫ـــــ‬b K. B.- ‫ ا‬j‫ آ‬B‫ـــــ‬b TU ‫ـــــة‬X‫ اآ~ ـة وا‬-٣ ) ‫ل‬Y!Y‫ را أداة ا‬.!  ‫ـــ‬4 S‫( ا ــــ‬vertex point of the angle) . EN  w4A ‫ي‬O ‫@ن ا‬- ‫ ا‬S‫ــــ‬8 B.- ‫آ ن ا‬. ( inference ToolTips

S ‫ ا‬B4‫او‬j. E‫ أول >ــــ‬T (base of the protractor) B.- ‫ذي ـــة ا‬X -٤ E‫ـــــــ‬+ ‫ـل ا‬q K. . (vertex) B‫ــ‬4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬B‫ــــ‬-  ‫ ا‬/ R,  !  4A ‫آ‬. (inference ToolTips) ‫ل‬Y!Y‫ را أداة ا‬. B.‫ــــــــــ‬- ‫ور ا‬A ‫ـ‬-  . BR R: ‫ ـــــرة‬E‫ــــــ‬+ ‫ ا‬o/U‫ و‬3‫ـــ‬

. B4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬B4 TU B I ~‫ اآ‬-٥ ‫ء‬2‫ إ‬E‫ >ــ‬. , A S ‫ ا‬B4‫او‬j. Sh ‫ ا‬E+ ‫ ا‬T ‫ذي‬RA W R B‫ ــــ‬I B.- ‫ ادر ا‬-٦ ‫ ن‬P‫ــ‬XY . B.- ‫ل ا‬X LM- ‫ ا‬T ! (dotted construction line ) E )‫ إل‬wO‫ ه‬K ‫ إ‬jQ! B4‫او‬j ‫ا‬. B‫ــــ‬f‫( در‬١٥ ) ‫دة‬4‫ ز‬K ‫  إ‬2A ‫  \ت‬B.- ‫ا‬ 0- .  X =‫ـــآ‬RA ‫ء‬I‫ إ‬B‫ـ‬.- ‫ ـ ا‬4 LM- ‫(  ا‬tick marks  B.- ‫ ا‬j‫  آ‬/‫ ا‬LM- ‫@ن ا‬4 ‫ـــ ـ‬h‫ أآ‬B ‫ك‬R! B‫ــــ‬4‫او‬j ‫ا‬ . B.- ‫ل ا‬X ‫ك‬R4 ‫ة‬O8 S8 B4‫او‬j ‫ }]ر ار ا‬، B4‫او‬j. Sh ‫ ا‬E‫ـــــــ‬+ ‫ ا‬K. Bh h ‫ة ا‬-. ~‫ اآ‬-٧ dotted construction ) E ‫ــء‬2‫ إ‬E‫ >ــ‬. (VCB) B‫ـــــ‬-   "@‫ــ‬R ‫ا‬ S8  A S ‫ ا‬B-  ‫ ا‬. B4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬B4‫ ا‬K ‫ إ‬B‫ــــــ‬4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬wO‫ ه‬K. N4‫ أ‬TU4 (line

141


the angular ) ‫اوي‬j ‫ ا وران ا‬B-  ‫ض‬/A (VCB) B-   "@R ‫ة ا‬O‫ــ‬8 .(rotation value.

:B X\ E1N ‫( وا‬VCB) B-   "@R ‫ة ا‬O8 S8  >‫د‬7 4‫و‬4 B‫ــــــ‬4‫او‬j ‫ ا‬B-  TU (34.1) 0h B42/ ‫ت ا‬f‫@ـــــن  ر‬A ‫@ـ إن‬-4 B-  ‫ ا‬. ( Enter ) ‫ح‬Q K. . 4f ‫اء أ‬f‫ إ‬0 ‫ة‬4 ‫  ات‬1A ‫@ أن‬-4 B‫ـ‬-  ‫ ا‬wO‫ ه‬. (1:6) 0h 0  ‫أو‬ :Locking the Protractor . & !‫ ا‬b  e‫ ا‬D *1‫ ا‬J61 (Shift key) ‫ ح‬6; J ‫ا‬ : Entering Exact Angle Values ‫ ر ت‬9 ‫ـ‬T ‫ه‬U9 , &‫( ا‬degree of rotation ) ‫درــــــــ* اوران‬  ‫ ء‬f‫( إ‬VCB) *‫ــــ‬1 9 ‫ة ا!ـــ‬.$ % &$ (angular degrees) *‫اوــ‬r‫ا‬ *‫ــــــ‬1‫ أداة ا‬Z 3; (drawing construction lines) ‫_ــ ء‬%o‫ــــــط ا‬a\ the angular ) ‫اوي‬r‫* اوران ا‬, ‫ إد\ ل‬G‫= أ‬a3 ، (Protractor Tool) *1 9 !‫ة ا‬.‫ــــ‬$ % &$ ‫ ( و ;> ة‬slope) J‫( أو ا‬rotation value. . (construction line)‫_ ء‬%o‫ ا‬#\ =g‫او* وو‬r‫ س ا‬19 ‫م‬1 ; (VCB)

:Entering an Angular Rotation Value *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـ‬.$ % &$ *_ , =>?‫ أ‬، ‫ ر ت‬9 *?>G; *‫! زاوـــــــــــ‬ #>G 9 ]a  (34.1) =>?: ‫ ل‬O‫ آ‬. *1‫ل ا‬7 E‫ ور ا‬9 (VCB) ‫ب‬1 ‫ دوران‬P *‫او‬r‫ >* !ك ا‬3‫ـــــــ ا‬1‫ ا‬. (34.1) ‫اره‬1; *‫زاوــــــ‬ ‫  * اوران‬9 ‫ل أو‬Z\ *1,‫@رة د‬9 *‫ــ* زاوــــــ‬, ! =‫ـ‬a3 . * 3‫ا‬ .(rotation operation) :Entering a Slope Value (colon) ‫@ ن ب‬6; ‫ ن‬, =‫ أ?>ـــــ‬، (slope) J‫! زاوــــ* ـــــة آ‬ *‫اوـ‬r‫ >* !ك ا‬3‫ ا‬1‫ ا‬. (8:12) : JO; ،(VCB) *1 9 ‫ة ا!ـــ‬.‫ــ‬$ % &$ ‫ل‬Z\ *1,‫@رة د‬9 *‫* زاوــــــ‬, ! =a3 . *‫ ـ‬3‫ رب ا‬1 ‫ دوران‬P .(rotation operation) ‫  * اوران‬9 ‫أو‬ 142


โ€ซโ€ช:Axes Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ู€ู€ู€ู€ ูˆุฑ )โ€ช! J 3 (Axes Toolโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€] ุฃูˆุง ุฏุฉ โ€ช!; /โ€ฌู€ู€ ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช% Ngโ€ฌุฐ โ€ช .โ€ฌุขโ€ช Oโ€ฌู„ โ€ช, :โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ โ€ช ]!9 MKโ€ฌุง! ูˆุฑ ; _โ€ช Uโ€ฌุฃโ€ช 3โ€ฌู… ;โ€ช*a3โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุงู€& ู† ;!ู€ู€ู€โ€ช G 9 (skewed) *$โ€ฌู€โ€ช . t 9 Nโ€ฌุฃูˆ โ€ชV3 ,โ€ฌู… ู‡ู€ู€ู€โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช 3โ€ฌุญ โ€ช 19โ€ฌุณ ุฃุขโ€ช Oโ€ฌุฏโ€ช 3~ *,โ€ฌู… ุง&  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช? D /โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ ;โ€ช 3โ€ฌุช ุงโ€ช7oโ€ฌุงโ€ช fโ€ฌุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ช. (default coordinate planes) * 1โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช #_%โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง! ูˆุฑ ;โ€ช Nโ€ฌู€โ€ช #โ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ช_%oโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุกโ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุฃูˆ ;โ€ช *+ , Nโ€ฌุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชR 34R : Moving the Drawing Axesโ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง !" โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌูˆุฑโ€ช .โ€ฌุง โ€ช w@L  1 ! LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชR T-Z Kโ€ฌูˆุฑ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชX -ูกโ€ฌู€ู€ูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชb Kโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช S8 Bโ€ฌุฑ!โ€ช gA 3-โ€ฌุฅู† โ€ช ./ZAโ€ฌุขู€ู€ู€โ€ช jโ€ฌุงโ€ชXYโ€ฌุงโ€ช Iโ€ฌุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช4Zโ€ฌู€ู€ ) โ€ช! . ( coordinate originโ€ฌู‰ !โ€ช jQโ€ฌูˆโ€ชR S2-Aโ€ฌุฐโ€ช4โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุฅ โ€ชKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช ุŒ LM-โ€ฌุง!โ€ช 0-/โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชY!Yโ€ฌู„ )โ€ชTU (inference ToolTipsโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู€ู€ู€ุขโ€ช jโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช S8 4โ€ฌุง โ€ช@-โ€ฌู† ุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช. EN  w4Aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูขโ€ฌุงุข~ โ€ช.โ€ฌู„ โ€ช. 3 Oโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูฃโ€ฌุง!โ€ช Rโ€ฌุง โ€ช / LM-โ€ฌุง ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุขโ€ชR TU jโ€ฌุฐุงุฉ โ€ชR-.โ€ฌุฑ ุงโ€ชุŒ -Xโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง!โ€ช 0-/โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชY!Yโ€ฌู„ )โ€ชย. (inference ToolTipsโ€ฌุข ยโ€ช 3โ€ฌุฃโ€ชo4fโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช .-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ุฑุฉ ุฏ โ€ช. Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูคโ€ฌุงุข~ โ€ช.โ€ฌู„  โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูฅโ€ฌุง!โ€ช Rโ€ฌุง โ€ช / LM-โ€ฌุง ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุขโ€ชR TU jโ€ฌุฐุงุฉ โ€ชR-.โ€ฌุฑุงโ€ช ุŒ N>Yโ€ฌุง!โ€ช0-/โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชY!Yโ€ฌู„ )โ€ชย. (inference ToolTipsโ€ฌุข ยโ€ช 3โ€ฌุฃโ€ช .- o4fโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชBโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ ุฑุฉ ุฏ โ€ช. Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช -ูฆโ€ฌุงุข~ ุฉ ุฃ>ู‰ โ€ช.โ€ฌู„  โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฐุงุฉ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ  โ€ช o-โ€ฌุฃโ€ชYโ€ฌู† โ€ช  1โ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌูˆุฑ โ€ช ุŒโ€ฌุง โ€ชR-โ€ฌุฑ ุงุฒุฑู‚ ! @ู† โ€ช-โ€ฌุฏโ€ช K. 4โ€ฌุง โ€ช,-โ€ฌูŠโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช 4Zโ€ฌุงโ€ช/-Xโ€ฌุง>โ€ช.Nโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช143โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซ\โ€ช:B Xโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช  1Aโ€ฌุงโ€ชR Tโ€ฌูˆุฑ ุง !"  โ€ช,  14โ€ฌูŠ ุงุฑุถ ุง โ€ช\ . S Rโ€ฌู„ ูˆุฅ]ุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุฑุถโ€ช /โ€ฌุง โ€ช-,โ€ฌุกโ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Resetting the Drawing Axesโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข>ู€โ€ช E 9 Pโ€ฌุง)ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Nโ€ฌูˆุง\ู€ ) โ€ช; ( Resetโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช+ , Nโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€* ุงโ€ช 3โ€ฌู‚ ) โ€ชcontextโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชo (menuโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฏุฉ ุง!ู€ู€ู€ ูˆุฑ ุฅู€ู€ู€โ€ช ,; Dโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุงโ€ช. (default position) & 1โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช144โ€ฌโ€ฌ


:Dimension Tool โ€ซ ุช ุง> ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ% โ€ซู€= ุขโ€ฌg J 3 ( Dimension Tool ) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง> ู€ู€โ€ฌ . ]โ€ซุฐโ€ฌ% &$ (Dimension entities) โ€ซ_ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุกโ€ฌ%oโ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุงโ€ฌ#โ€ซ ู€โ€ฌNโ€ซ ( ;ู€ู€โ€ฌDimension Tool ) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง> ู€โ€ฌ#_

. (Tools menu) โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , N; โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌุŒ (Construction Toolbar) :Placing Linear Dimensions โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซ ุงู€ู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ ู€โ€ฌ3 โ€ซ ;ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ%>โ€ซู€ู€ู€& ุงโ€ฌ$ ( Dimensions ) โ€ซ ู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ .โ€ซ )\ู€ู€โ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซ ุฃู†โ€ฌNโ€ซ( ู€โ€ฌpoints) โ€ซู€ ุทโ€ฌ1โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌEdges) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ ุชโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. (3D model) end ) โ€ซู€ ุท ุง)\ุฉโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ:NG *> โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซุงโ€ฌ. ( Dimensions ) โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซุงโ€ฌ (edge points) โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ$ !โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1% ุŒ (midpoints) *aโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ (points (circle centers) โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ+โ€ซ ุงุงโ€ฌrโ€ซ( ูˆ;ุงุขโ€ฌarc) โ€ซุณโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌุŒ (intersections) โ€ซ ?ู€ ุชโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒ *a\ Fโ€ซ ุท ุงโ€ฌ1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌN9 โ€ซ;ุงุฏโ€ฌZ /a>g N (Dimension leaders) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJโ€ซุฏโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุกโ€ฌG6โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ; ู†โ€ฌoโ€ซุฑ ุงโ€ฌ, โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ6; โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ& ุงุฐุฌ & ู† ุงโ€ฌ$ ( non-linear ) .(3D) โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌfZOโ€ซุงโ€ฌ

: 3fโ€ซุฐโ€ฌ- S8  b   / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌO> ."! K โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Dimension Tool) / โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . /. B4โ€ซ ุง ุงโ€ฌBb TU ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข . / โ€ซ  ุณ ุงโ€ฌ4A โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌwZAYโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ . / โ€ซ ุฅุก  ุณ ุงโ€ฌ4A W X B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb K. B I โ€ซ ุงุข~ ุฉโ€ฌ-ูค . โ€ซุฐุฌโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุง  ุงโ€ฌ/ / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE > R, LM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฅ . / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT o h Bh I โ€ซ ุฉโ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูฆ โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌX โ€ซูˆู‚โ€ฌ: S8 / โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBX  = . โ€ซุฉโ€ฌb , โ€ซ" ุงโ€ฌ4โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ/4 โ€ซุฏโ€ฌ/โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT -f   . โ€ซุฐุฌโ€ฌ- โ€ซุช ุงโ€ฌ./

:Dimension Plane NG โ€ซุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซูˆู‡โ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุชโ€ฌ3; โ€ซ ุฉโ€ฌN; 7โ€ซ& ูˆุงโ€ฌ$ ( dimensions) โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9)โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.โ€ซ= ุง\ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌa3

: &โ€ซ( ูˆู‡โ€ฌcurrent axial planes) * !โ€ซ ุช ุง! ูˆุฑ ุงโ€ฌ3;

31 &โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซูŠ ุง! ุฐูŠ !ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ3โ€ซุงุฒุฑู‚( ุงูˆ ุงโ€ฌ/N>โ€ซุงโ€ฌุŒโ€ซุงุฒุฑู‚โ€ฌ/-Xโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌุŒN>โ€ซุงโ€ฌ/-Xโ€ซ) ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ+โ€ซุณ ุฃูˆ ุงุงโ€ฌ1 9 โ€ซูŠ ุง ู€ู€ู€ูโ€ฌ3โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซู€ู€ู€ !ุฏ ุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซู€ู€ู€ ูˆุงโ€ฌa1โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌL@% โ€ซ ุฏโ€ฌ9โ€ซ ุฃโ€ฌ. โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3โ€ซ& ุฐ] ุงโ€ฌ$ #1$ /! Nโ€ซ ู€ู€โ€ฌุŒ โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ3โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€& ุงโ€ฌ$ =โ€ซู€โ€ฌgโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ.โ€ซ\ู€ู€โ€ฌE โ€ซ ู€ู€ ุง> ู€ู€โ€ฌ7. . :Placing Radius Dimensions : โ€ซ ุข ู† ุณโ€ฌK. (radius dimension) b โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌp / TU ."! K โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Dimension Tool) / โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก 145


. â&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020; ا Řłâ&#x20AC;ŹK. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ . â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť >ع؏ اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹE> TU LM- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;ŹX -ŮŁ . â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź+- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB8,- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. / â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źo h Bh I â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹLM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٤

:Placing Diameter Dimensions : â&#x20AC;ŤŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹCâ&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020; ا اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. (diameter)b â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ TU ."! K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L  1 ! LM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. (Dimension Tool) / â&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊ اâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ . â&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020; ا Řłâ&#x20AC;ŹK. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٢ . â&#x20AC;ŤŘ°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť >ع؏ اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹE> TU LM- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192; اâ&#x20AC;ŹX -ŮŁ . â&#x20AC;Ťع؊â&#x20AC;Ź+- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹB8,- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. / â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Źo h Bh I â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŠâ&#x20AC;ŹLM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹK. ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-٤ -ŮĽ : Diameters to Radius, Radius to Diameter Type > Radius or ) \â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC; اâ&#x20AC;Źf (dimension)  >â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹD N)â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹE 9 P>â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§Ř˘â&#x20AC;Ź â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź9 Dâ&#x20AC;Ť( ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Źradius dimension) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źa1â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹLâ&#x20AC;Ť@Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź9 F ( Diameter . P  9 â&#x20AC;Ť( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Źdiameter)â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źa1â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź

146


:Text Tool Dโ€ซ( ุฅโ€ฌText entities) zโ€ซ ุช ุงโ€ฌ% โ€ซุฏุฑุงุฌ ุขโ€ฌo โ€ซู…โ€ฌV3 (Text Tool) zโ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ โ€ซ_ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุกโ€ฌ%o โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ#โ€ซ ู€โ€ฌN; (Text Tool) zโ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ#_% . โ€ซุงุฐุฌโ€ฌ . (Tools menu) โ€ซ* ุง)ุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ+ , N; โ€ซ ุฃูˆโ€ฌุŒ (Construction Toolbar) :  โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌS8 โ€ซ ู†  ุง ุตโ€ฌ3 โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ .(Leader Text) 0  โ€ซุง ย‘ ุงโ€ฌ . (Screen Text) BL2 โ€ซูˆย‘ ุงโ€ฌ :Creating and Placing Leader Text โ€ซูŠโ€ฌ.โ€ซ( ูˆุงโ€ฌleader line) *eโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ#โ€ซ( !ูŠ ุฅ ุฑุงุช ูˆ\ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌLeader Text) Jโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌzโ€ซุงโ€ฌ :(Leader Text) B Y โ€ซ ย‘ ุงโ€ฌTโ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌUโ€ซ   ูˆูˆโ€ฌ. โ€ซ ุงู€ ู†โ€ฌDโ€ซ_ ุฅโ€ฌ 0 b, T "! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ. (Text Tool) ย‘ โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . โ€ซูˆูโ€ฌX โ€ซ\ุซโ€ฌI =.>โ€ซุฏุงโ€ฌ leader ) Bโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌY โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ ุฅุก >ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌBโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌb K โ€ซุฑุฉ ุฅโ€ฌLย‹ โ€ซ ุข ู†โ€ฌ4โ€ซ ุฃุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข . 0  โ€ซ  ุฅ = ุงโ€ฌ24 โ€ซูŠโ€ฌO โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌT- โ€ซ( ุฃูŠ ุงโ€ฌline .= 8 ย‘ โ€ซ ู€ู€ ุงโ€ฌ4 โ€ซ ุฅู†โ€ฌ4A W X BL2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. Tโ€ซู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌLM- โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ 34R 3โ€ซย“ >\ู„  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ-@4โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌ- ! ( leader line) Bโ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌY โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ>ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ . BL2 โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌX LM- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ text ) ย‘ โ€ซูˆู‚ ุฅุฏ>ู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ ุงโ€ฌ: . (text) ย‘ โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌTโ€ซู€ู€โ€ฌU K. Bโ€ซ ู€ู€โ€ฌI ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูค "!โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ0h ุŒ ( default text) S!โ€ซ ุง ู€ย‘ ุง  ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌTโ€ซ( !  ู€โ€ฌentry box B Y โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBb oโ€ซ ( ุฅุฐุง ุขโ€ฌname of a component ) โ€ซ@ู€ู€ู€ู€ู†โ€ฌ- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ ( square footage ) T- โ€ซ" ุง ุงโ€ฌ.Q โ€ซ( ุฃูˆ ุงโ€ฌcomponent) โ€ซ@ู†โ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌo,-  . T- โ€ซ= ุงโ€ฌfโ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌo,-  B Y โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌE+ B4 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌBโ€ซู€โ€ฌb oโ€ซ ุฅุฐุง ุขโ€ฌT-.

147


l .(text entry box) ‘ ‫وق إد>ل ا‬: S8(text) ‘ ‫ ا‬0>‫اد‬

(Enter key) ‫ح‬Q K. ~‫ أو اآ‬، (text) ‘ ‫وق ا‬: ‫ اآ~ >رج‬-٥ . ‘ ‫ل إد>ل ا‬-‫}آ‬، ‫ن‬A :B X\ : (leaders) B Y ‫ط ا‬b>  ‫ ن‬3 ‫ه‬ .View Based .Pushpin 148


2D screen ) ‫د‬/}‫ ا‬B Ch ‫ ا‬BL2 ‫ ا‬w‫ـــــــ‬ZA y./4 :View Based leader .(orientation ‫ذج‬- ‫ ا‬T ‫ور‬4‫( و‬3D space)‫د‬/}‫ ا‬SI\h ‫ء ا‬NQ ‫ذي ا‬R4 :Pushpin leader . 2- ‫  ا‬1A  ‫ذج‬- ‫ت ا‬./ ‫ار‬X ‫وق‬: S8 ‘ ‫ ا‬BX  ‫م‬+,A ‫ أي ع‬4RA T b,A . : ‫@ة‬8 =f ‫ }]ر ا‬، (Text Tool) ‘ ‫ أداة ا‬S8 ‫@ن‬A  ، =‫ــــــ‬f ‫ ا‬K. ‫ن‬,‫آ‬ . (Text entity) ‘ C@‫آ‬

:Placing Screen Text . ‫  ن‬9 *a> ; 3 &‫* وه‬9 ‫( !ي آ ت ا‬Screen Text) z‫ * ا‬ :(Screen Text) ‘ ‫ ا‬BLL TU‫   وو‬ 0 b, T "! K ‫= إ‬.@L  1 ! LM- ‫ ا‬. (Text Tool) ‘ ‫ ا> أداة ا‬-١ . ‫وف‬X ‫\ث‬I =.>‫دا‬ ‘ ‫ ا‬BLL ‫ ــــــــــ‬A ‫ إن‬4A W X BL2 ‫ ا‬K. T‫ـ‬- ‫ ا‬K ‫ إ‬LM- ‫ك ا‬X -٢ .(Screen Text) text entry ) ‘ ‫وق إد>ل ا‬: . (text) ‘ ‫ ا‬TU K. B I ~‫ اآ‬-٣ ‫ك‬.  ! (box .(text entry box) ‘ ‫وق إد>ل ا‬: S8(text) ‘ ‫ ا‬0>‫ اد‬-٤ Enter ) ‫ح‬Q K‫ـــــ‬. ~‫ أو اآـ‬، ( text ) ‘ ‫وق ا‬: ‫ اآ~ >رج‬-٥ (Screen Text) ‘‫ ا ــ‬B‫ـــ‬L‫ـ‬L . ‘‫ل إد>ـــل ا ـ‬-‫}آـ‬، ‫ن‬A ( key 4‫و‬A‫ و‬B‫ــــــــــ‬Z / ‫م = ـ‬A -   ‫Š ا‬1 BL2 ‫ ا‬K. BI K! . ‫ذج‬- ‫ا‬ :Editing Text ) ‫\ ر‬e‫( أو أداة ا‬Text Tool) z‫ أداة ا‬#_ =; ،( text ) z‫ ا‬D ‫ ن‬3>‫آ‬ ‫ آ ن‬D N‫ ا)ـــــ‬E 9 P>‫ـ ا‬G‫= أ‬a3 . z‫ ! ا‬، (Select Tool *+ , N‫ ( ;ــ‬Edit Text menu) z‫* ! ا‬+ , \‫( وا‬Text entity) z‫ا‬ .(Text entity's context menu) z‫ ق آ ن ا‬

:Text Settings &$ ‫( ادة‬settings) ‫ادات‬o‫   ل ا‬9  (Text entities) z‫ ت ا‬% ‫آ‬ . ‫ار ; ; ت اذج‬7 ‫وق‬S &$ (Text panel ) z‫ ا‬J17

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:Section Plane Tool ) =â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źa1â&#x20AC;Ť= اâ&#x20AC;Źa, â&#x20AC;Ťاتâ&#x20AC;ŹfU  J 3 (Section Plane Tool ) =a1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3; â&#x20AC;ŤŘŁŘŻŘ§ŘŠâ&#x20AC;Ź Section Plane ) =â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źa1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3; â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŞâ&#x20AC;Ź% â&#x20AC;Ť آâ&#x20AC;ŹZ 3; ( Section Cut Effects . ( section slice ) =a1; *!â&#x20AC;Ť ( Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹEntities ) â&#x20AC;Ť_ ŘĄâ&#x20AC;Ź%oâ&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŘŻŮ&#x2C6;ات اâ&#x20AC;Ź#â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹNâ&#x20AC;Ť ( ;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹSection Plane Tool ) =a1â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź3; â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊â&#x20AC;Ź#â&#x20AC;Ť_Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź% .(Tools menu) â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;* ا)ŘŻŮ&#x2C6;اتâ&#x20AC;Ź+ , N; â&#x20AC;Ť ( ŘŁŮ&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹConstruction Toolbar :Creating Section Cut Effects : (section plane entity) Tb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹB8U}  1 ! â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹLM- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;Ź. ( Section Plane Tool ) Tâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť ا> أدا؊â&#x20AC;Ź-ŮĄ . LM T Tb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź, K â&#x20AC;Ť= ŘĽâ&#x20AC;Ź.@L â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160;â&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť أدا؊â&#x20AC;Ź.â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ř°ŘŹâ&#x20AC;Ź- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹS8 â&#x20AC;ŤŘŻâ&#x20AC;Źf- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹwZAYâ&#x20AC;Ťذا؊ اâ&#x20AC;ŹR- â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E;â&#x20AC;ŹX Tâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x192;â&#x20AC;ŹX -٢ â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Řąâ&#x20AC;ŹR- â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź0@2 â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ř°Ů&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;ŹR =â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2021;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹZAâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x201E; اâ&#x20AC;Ź/!( Section Plane Tool ) Tâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Źb â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź K. ~@ â&#x20AC;Ťاع اâ&#x20AC;Ź-!â&#x20AC;Ť   @~ Ů&#x2C6;اâ&#x20AC;Ź/ wâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;Ů&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;ŹZAâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹKâ&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x20AC;â&#x20AC;Ź. 0QA â&#x20AC;Ť ŘŁŮ&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹT b,A . B4 â&#x20AC;ŤŘ§â&#x20AC;Ź . â&#x20AC;Ťبâ&#x20AC;Ź.b- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹwZAYâ&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹS8 Tb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź,  ( Shift key ) â&#x20AC;ŤŘ­â&#x20AC;ŹQ BR4L  â&#x20AC;Ť Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;Ź. ( section plane entity ) Tb â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x160; اâ&#x20AC;Ź, â&#x20AC;Ť آ Ů&#x2020;â&#x20AC;ŹTU ~â&#x20AC;Ť اآâ&#x20AC;Ź-ŮŁ . (section cut effect)Tb- â&#x20AC;Ť اâ&#x20AC;ŹTb  I A  â&#x20AC;ŤŮ&#x2C6;Ů&#x2C6;â&#x20AC;ŹŘ&#x152; (section slice) Tb

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152


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155


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:Orbit Tool J_โ€ซู„ ุงโ€ฌ7 โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฏโ€ฌ9โ€ซ* ุฃโ€ฌfZf &$ @โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌh โ€ซุฏุงุฑุฉโ€ฌo J 3 (Orbit Tool) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงุงุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ#ู‘_ . โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุฑุฌโ€ฌVโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌNโ€ซ ;ู€โ€ฌJ_ T ; โ€ซุฉโ€ฌ6; โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ุฅู† ู‡ู€ู€โ€ฌ.โ€ซ ุงู…โ€ฌ3โ€ซุงโ€ฌ . โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง ;ุงโ€ฌ#โ€ซ ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌN; โ€ซ* ุง ;ุง ุฃูˆโ€ฌ+ , Jโ€ซ ุฏุง\ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌNโ€ซ( ;ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌOrbit Tool) โ€ซุงุงุฑโ€ฌ :Orbiting the View โ€ซู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ-/! โ€ซ ุงุฑโ€ฌ-U 34R. . (3D orbit ) โ€ซุฏูŠโ€ฌE ( Orbit Tool )โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู€ู€ุงุฑโ€ฌ :(Orbit Tool)โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ- โ€ซุงโ€ฌ โ€ซู† !ู†โ€ฌ-! K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.โ€ซ@ู€โ€ฌL  1 ! LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.( Orbit Tool )โ€ซุงุฑโ€ฌ- โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก .โ€ซุง>\ู†โ€ฌ . -4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข (drawing area) "! โ€ซุฉ ุงโ€ฌO8 jโ€ซู„ ุขโ€ฌX 4โ€ซูˆโ€ฌ. wZAโ€ซ ุฃูŠ ุงโ€ฌK โ€ซุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ

:Pan Tool D ู‹1$โ€ซ ( ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฏู‹ ุฃูˆ ุฃโ€ฌcamera tools ) โ€ซ* ุง@ู€โ€ฌh ]โ€ซ !ู€โ€ฌJ 3 โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉโ€ฌb.โ€ซู‡โ€ฌ .(picture plane) โ€ซู‰ ุง@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ3; โ€ซ?ู€ู€ู„โ€ฌ *+ , N; โ€ซ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌCamera Toolbar) โ€ซ* ุง@ู€โ€ฌh โ€ซ ุฃุฏูˆุงุชโ€ฌ# N; ;โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉ ุฅโ€ฌb.โ€ซ ู‡โ€ฌ#ู‘_

. ( Camera menu ) @โ€ซ* ุงโ€ฌh .  Dโ€ซ ุฅโ€ฌEโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌJ โ€ซ ุง)ุฏุงุฉ !ู„โ€ฌb.โ€ซูˆ ุง\ ุฑ ู‡โ€ฌ :Panning the View 3 โ€ซ ูˆุฏุงุก ุฐโ€ฌ. ( pan operation) *โ€ซุฏูŠ * ุง!ุขโ€ฌE (Pan Tool) โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ูƒโ€ฌ : (Pan Tool) โ€ซูƒโ€ฌR โ€ซู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-/! . 4 K โ€ซ= ุฅโ€ฌ.@L โ€ซู„โ€ฌR4 LM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ.(Pan Tool) โ€ซูƒโ€ฌR โ€ซ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ฌ-ูก . ,4โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌK. ~โ€ซ ุงุขโ€ฌ-ูข . 0@2 โ€ซ ุงโ€ฌ34R โ€ซ ุฅูŠ @ู†โ€ฌK โ€ซุงโ€ฌLM- โ€ซูƒ ุงโ€ฌX -ูฃ :Panning While in the Orbit Tool (3 Button Mouse) โ€ซ * ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌgโ€ซ& ูˆโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ( ;ู€ ู€ู€ู€ู†โ€ฌShift key) โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุญโ€ฌ6; D P>โ€ซ& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซ ูˆุงโ€ฌP>โ€ซุงุขโ€ฌ P>โ€ซุฃูˆ ุงุขโ€ฌ. *,E; โ€ซ@ุฑุฉโ€ฌ9 (Pan Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ู€ู€ู€ูƒโ€ฌ#_ ( Orbit Tool) โ€ซุงุงุฑโ€ฌ Eโ€ซ ุฒุฑ ุงโ€ฌDโ€ซ] ู€ู€โ€ฌ.9 3 โ€ซ ูˆโ€ฌP> โ€ซู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ9 3eโ€ซุงโ€ฌEโ€ซ ุงโ€ฌD P>โ€ซู€& ุงโ€ฌ$ โ€ซูˆุงโ€ฌ . (Pan Tool) โ€ซ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง!ูƒโ€ฌ#_ #โ€ซุง)ูˆโ€ฌ

157


:Zoom Tool E‫ ا‬J ‫ ا)داة >ل‬b.‫ هـ‬#ّ_ ; $ ،‫ اــ‬F@ ‫ ا)داة > و‬b.‫ هـ‬J 3

*h *+ , N‫ ا)داة إ; ;ــــــ‬b.‫ هــ‬#ّ_ ‫ أن‬N .( -‫ و‬+) *;Z =‫ * ;>ة ;ــ‬D‫إ‬ b>  J_‫ ا‬N‫ب ا * ;ــ‬1 ‫;ــ‬.@‫* ا‬h ‫ أدوات‬# N‫ا@ أو ;ـ‬ * 9 ]‫ ذ‬J 6 ‫ وإذا أردت أن‬،ً ‫ ر‬bF@  J_‫ ا‬N ‫ رً و;ـ > ه‬ F@ $ LV‫ ا‬D‫ أدِر ا * إ‬،ً ‫ ر‬J_‫> ا‬$ ‫ ا); م‬D‫ أدر ا ـ* إ‬E‫ا‬ *‫ ـــ‬J 3 ; (Zoom) ‫ــــ= إل‬,; ‫ر‬1 E‫ــــ= ا‬,; ‫إن‬. ً‫ ر‬J_‫ا‬ . 3)‫ ا‬E‫ ا‬J 3 ; (Zoom) ‫ اـ‬r‫ر ;آ‬1 * _‫ ا‬r‫ ;آ‬9 ،E‫ا‬ r‫ ا آ‬D‫ ـ‬3)‫ ا‬E 9 N ; P> 9 ‫ـ‬, T‫ـــــ* ا‬a1% ! ‫ض‬F‫و‬ . ‫& ا‬$ J_‫ا‬ :Perspective Adjustment (Field of View) ‫( أو  ت‬exact perspective) ‫>ط‬G‫ر ا‬T‫ ا‬D‫( إ‬screen) *‫ ا_ ـ‬#>g‫ا‬

; *1 9 ‫ة ا!ــ‬.$ % &$ *?>G‫ـ* ا‬1‫>ـ= ا‬a9 (camera lens)@‫* ا‬h *3V9 ‫ــــ= ; ل‬G ( "45 deg) :‫ ل‬O‫ * آ‬$ (Zoom Tool) >‫ ن أداة ا‬ @ *[ ƒ$ ; ‫ري‬E9 ‫= ?ل‬G ‫( _ و‬45 degree Field) *‫ ن در‬9‫وأر‬ (visually) T‫* ا‬a‫ا‬9 @‫* ا‬h ‫ ــــ ت‬#‫>ـ‬g =a3 ‫ و‬. (35mm) ‫ــع‬% J‫ ـ‬3 ‫( ;ــ‬Shift key ) ‫ ح‬6; D P>‫ واار ا‬P> 9 _‫أو ; ل ا‬ (Field of View) *‫ ; ل اؤ‬F ‫ ن‬9 ‫آـــــ‬. . (Zoom Tool) >‫أداة ا‬ . (3D space) ‫ د‬9)‫& ا‬fZO‫ ء ا‬G6‫& ا‬$ =‫ــ‬,‫ ا‬P6% &$ @‫* ا‬h &1>

:Zoom Window Tool /‫ رؤ‬% ‫ي‬.‫ ا ا! & وا‬N‫ء ;ـ‬r‫ ـــــ‬D (Zoom) J  J 3 ‫ ا)داة‬b.‫هــ‬ *+ , :? N ‫* ا@ أو‬h ‫ أدوات‬# :? N ;‫ ا)داة إ‬b.‫ ه‬#ّ_ . ‫;>ًا‬ . b>  ‫ي‬.‫ء ا‬r 9 #! Z ً a3; ‫ ار‬f ،@‫* ا‬h

Keyboard Hot Key: CTRL + Shift + W :Zooming in on a Portion of Your Model  ‫ء‬j‫ــــ‬f ‫ل‬X B. b,  @A ‫ة‬O‫ــــ‬8 ‫أداة‬. ‫ة‬O8 ‫ة ا‬O "!‫ ر‬3 u A ‫ اداة‬wO‫هــــ‬ 0>‫ دا‬T4 ‫ي‬O ‫ء ا‬j‫ـ‬Z ‫ ( ه !@ ا‬Zoom Window Tool )  @ ‫ا‬

: ‫ة‬O8 ‫ ا‬0>‫ دا‬T4 ‫ي‬O ‫ء ا‬jZ ‫ @  ا‬. ‫ة‬O8 ‫ا‬

158


โ€ซโ€ช-ูกโ€ฌุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ โ€ช8โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุฉ ุง @  ) โ€ช . (Zoom Window Toolโ€ฌุง โ€ชLM-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ! โ€ช =.@L  1โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช@ B! Kโ€ฌุฉ โ€ช.  1: T Tโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูขโ€ฌุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ช. 3 O -โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุงโ€ช B4 B8,- ,4โ€ฌู€ ุง @ ู€ู€ุชโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช 4A Sโ€ฌุฑุคโ€ช8 S8 4โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุฉ ุง @  โ€ช.โ€ฌู‡โ€ชb wOโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุง ุงโ€ชO8 B4โ€ฌุฉ ุง @ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-ูฃโ€ฌุง!โ€ช Rโ€ฌุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง ุข ุง โ€ช/-โ€ฌุข~ โ€ชbโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุงโ€ช4โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช8 Bโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุฉ ุง @ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชX-ูคโ€ฌุฑ ุง โ€ช@A  LM-โ€ฌู† โ€ช T -fโ€ฌุง โ€ช  :/โ€ฌุฃโ€ช oR:โ€ฌุฏุง>โ€ช8 0โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซุง @  โ€ช.โ€ฌู‡โ€ช wOโ€ฌุง @ ุช !โ€ช ย.-โ€ฌุง โ€ช. BL2โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:Zoom Extents Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ โ€ช > J 3โ€ฌุง_ ุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุงโ€ช *7 3โ€ฌุง&  โ€ช = Jโ€ฌุง ;โ€ช ู‹+โ€ฌูˆ;ุขโ€ชู‹rโ€ฌุงโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช.$ % &$โ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ _ู‘โ€ช #โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ ุฅ; ;โ€ช # Nโ€ฌุฃุฏูˆุงุช โ€ช *hโ€ฌุง@ ุฃูˆ ;โ€ช *h *+ , Nโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ชKeyboard Hot Key: CTRL + Shift + Eโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช:Position Camera Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;@โ€ช+ , 8aโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€* ;โ€ช,โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€= โ€ช *hโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช ย3โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ;โ€ช,โ€ฌู€ู€ู€= โ€ช *hโ€ฌุง@ ูˆุง& โ€ช] 83โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช! 9โ€ฌูŠ ู€ู€ู€โ€ช; Nโ€ฌุงโ€ช,โ€ฌู€= โ€ช *9 fโ€ฌุงโ€ชTโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ ุฐุฌ );โ€ช3; _; JOโ€ฌู‰ ุงโ€ช Tโ€ฌุงุฑ( โ€ช .โ€ฌูˆู‡ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช.โ€ฌุงโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ชVโ€ฌู€ู€ ุฑ โ€ช; J 3โ€ฌู€ู€ู€= ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู€ู€ู„ ) )\โ€ช3; .โ€ฌู‰ ุงโ€ชTโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุงโ€ช.( J *7 3โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Walk Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู‡โ€ช.โ€ฌุง ุง); โ€ช G!3โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู„ ูˆุง_& ุฏุง\ู€ู€ู€โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงุฐุฌ ุข  ุฃโ€ช1 ]%โ€ฌู… โ€ช*117 *9โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฏุง\โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงู€ู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌ โ€ช .โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู„ โ€ช  J 3โ€ฌูˆุฑุฉ \โ€ชZโ€ฌู„ ุงู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌ ุขโ€ชZ\ &_ ]%Uโ€ฌู„โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช%โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุฐ] \@โ€ช ู‹Sโ€ฌูˆุฃู† ุฐ] !ุซ ;ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€= โ€ช *h >Oโ€ฌุง@ ู€ู€โ€ช Dโ€ฌุงุฑ ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช 6โ€ฌุน \ ุตโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆโ€ช 9โ€ฌู‡ โ€ช *[ 83โ€ฌุง@ โ€ช  9โ€ฌูˆุฑุฉ โ€ช7โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ ุงุฐุฌโ€ชU9 ู‹ ุŒโ€ฌู† ุฐ] !@โ€ช &$ Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช#โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงโ€ชTโ€ฌุฑูŠ โ€ช. #1$โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช159โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซุง!โ€ช-/โ€ฌู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชZ. S2-โ€ฌู„ โ€ช S8โ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ ) โ€ชUsing the Walk Tool toโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช: (Tour Your Modelโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌู„ โ€ช+,ูAโ€ฌู… ุฑุฉ ุฃ!! โ€ช . Bโ€ฌู… โ€ช\> S.QA S2-โ€ฌู„ ุฃูˆ โ€ชXโ€ฌู„ ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช-/!Yโ€ฌู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌู„ โ€ช S8 BX ,.โ€ฌุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ โ€ช:โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูกโ€ฌู€ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ ) โ€ช : ( Walk Toolโ€ฌุงโ€ช .@L  14 B4โ€ฌุฅ โ€ชX 0@L Kโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชOโ€ฌุงุกโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆโ€ช PXYโ€ฌุฃู† โ€ชO8โ€ฌุฉ ุง โ€ชย LMA (VCB) B-   "@Rโ€ฌู† ุงุฑโ€ชQAโ€ฌุน ุง   โ€ช8โ€ฌู‚ ุงุฑุถ ู‡ ) โ€ช2โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชZA 3@7 ( feetโ€ฌู‡โ€ช 0โ€ฌุฐ โ€ช 3โ€ฌูˆุฅุฏ>ู„ ุงุฑโ€ชQAโ€ฌุน โ€ช,โ€ฌู‰ ุง   ุขโ€ช2A -โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุก โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูขโ€ฌู€ ุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ช Rโ€ฌุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุฃูŠ @ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู† โ€ชO8 S8โ€ฌุฉ ุง !"โ€ช\ ุŒโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช 1: T-f Bโ€ฌุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช S8 TU! (Tq /Lโ€ฌุง โ€ช@-โ€ฌู† ุง โ€ชOโ€ฌูŠ โ€ช. = . ~@Aโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูฃโ€ฌู€ โ€ชXโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช) K.x LM-โ€ฌุฃู…( ูˆุง!โ€ช,4 (p.+. ) 0Qโ€ฌุฑู‹ุง ) โ€ชO.โ€ฌู‡ุจ ุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช,โ€ฌุฑ( ุฃูˆโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชO. ) ู‹  -4โ€ฌู‡ุจ ุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช\> S2-. ( -โ€ฌู„ ุฃูˆ โ€ชXโ€ฌู„ โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐโ€ชfโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ช ุŒ3โ€ฌุขโ€ช/ -.โ€ฌุช  )โ€ช/Lโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง โ€ช (Tqโ€ฌุขโ€ช -.โ€ฌุขโ€ช oโ€ฌุฃ!ุน โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซ\โ€ช Xโ€ฌู€โ€ช: Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ชQ K. ~@  -โ€ฌู€ู€ุญ )โ€ชRA -  (Shiftโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุงโ€ช K.โ€ฌุฃูˆ ุฅ โ€ชKโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุง!โ€ช ุŒ0Qโ€ฌุฐ โ€ช  3@-4 3โ€ฌุง โ€ช/โ€ฌุฏ ุฃูˆ ุง โ€ชjโ€ฌูˆู„  ู‹โ€ช Yโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ ุง โ€ช  ,โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุงู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู… ุฃูˆ ุง โ€ช. p.+โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ชQ K. ~@  -โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ุญ ) โ€ช. ( CTRLโ€ฌุขยŠ  ู‹โ€ช  Yโ€ฌุง โ€ช. S2-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ชQ K. ~@  -โ€ฌุญ )โ€ชQ (ALTโ€ฌุฏูŠ ุง โ€ช\> S2-โ€ฌู„ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌุฑุงู†โ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช]R.โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช: Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซู€ ุง โ€ชg-โ€ฌุจ ุฏ ู‹ุฉ ุง โ€ชZโ€ฌู„ >\ู„ ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ุฐุฌ ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€โ€ชZ Tโ€ฌู„ โ€ช. ยŠ4โ€ฌุคโ€ชWide ) B4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช E2 ุŒ(Field Of Viewโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง ู€ )โ€ชุŒ (Zoomโ€ฌุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ชQ K. ~@  -โ€ฌู€ู€ุญโ€ฌ โ€ซ)โ€ช "I (Shiftโ€ฌุงุข~ ูˆุง!โ€ช Rโ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุงโ€ช K.โ€ฌูˆุง!โ€ชZ ยŠ4/ 0Qโ€ฌู„ ุง ุคโ€ช4โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช 0 Bโ€ฌุง โ€ชS2-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ>\ู„ ุง โ€ช-โ€ฌุฐุฌ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช160โ€ฌโ€ฌ


โ€ซุง  โ€ช+,A  3 Xโ€ฌู… ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ช: S2-โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข>โ€ช Pโ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช D P> 9โ€ฌุฒุฑ ุงโ€ช Eโ€ฌุง)ูˆโ€ช J 3 ; #โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู„โ€ชo ุŒโ€ฌุฏุงุฑุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Zโ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชTโ€ฌู€ู€ู€ โ€ช7โ€ฌู„ ) โ€ช( Look Around Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;_ ุงโ€ชTโ€ฌู€ู€ ] โ€ชู‹  3; *39โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ชU9 eโ€ฌุฏุงุฉ ุง_& โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Sโ€ฌุฏู‹ุง ูˆโ€ชr%โ€ฌูˆ ู‹โ€ฌ โ€ซุจ ูˆุฅ ุจ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุง!ุฑุงุชโ€ชุŒโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู„ โ€ช `!9 Sโ€ฌุฃโ€ช! ]%โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ูƒ โ€ช &$โ€ฌุฐู‡ ูโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆ @  โ€ช Dโ€ฌุง โ€ช gโ€ฌูˆุงุง& โ€ช *h D1> 9โ€ฌุง@ โ€ช 9โ€ฌุฑ โ€ช 6โ€ฌุน ุงโ€ช.Tโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Look Around Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฃุฏุงุฉ ุงโ€ชTโ€ฌู€ู€ โ€ช7โ€ฌู„ ) โ€ช *h >O J 3 ( Look Around Toolโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช7โ€ฌู„ โ€ช*a1%โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช *a1% D *9 fโ€ฌุง_โ€ช@ ุŒโ€ฌู ู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ ุข_โ€ช zVโ€ฌูˆุงโ€ช7 Z9 L,โ€ฌุงูƒ โ€ชู‘! 9โ€ฌูƒโ€ฌ โ€ซุฑุฃโ€ช /โ€ฌุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุง)โ€ช Dโ€ฌูˆุฅโ€ช Dโ€ฌุง)โ€ช J6โ€ฌูˆโ€ช M%  N; Jโ€ฌุฅโ€ช. (Pan) M%  Dโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ ;โ€ช6โ€ฌุฉ ู‹ โ€ช Tโ€ฌุฏุง\โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงโ€ช G6โ€ฌุกุงุช ุฃูˆ โ€ช 1โ€ฌุงุค* โ€ช  9โ€ฌุง  ู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช *h =gโ€ฌุง@ ) โ€ช. ( Position Camera Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† _โ€ช #โ€ฌู‡โ€ช b.โ€ฌุง)ุฏุงุฉ ู† ุฅ; ;โ€ช+ , Nโ€ฌู€ู€ู€* ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุง_& \โ€ชZโ€ฌู„ ) โ€ชWalkthroughโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช (Toolโ€ฌุฃูˆ ;โ€ช *h *+ , Nโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช:Looking Aroundโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุฅู† ู‡โ€ช wOโ€ฌุงุฏุงุฉ โ€ชMAโ€ฌุฏูŠ โ€ช  .-โ€ฌุง โ€ช ( Tilt ) 0 -โ€ฌูˆุง โ€ชRโ€ฌุขโ€ช( Tilt ) B ย‹ ุŒ( Pan ) Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซูˆุง โ€ชRโ€ฌุขโ€ช-/! (Pan) Bโ€ฌู„ ุฃุฏุงุฉ )โ€ช: (Look Around Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูกโ€ฌู€ ุง> ุฃุฏุงุฉ ) โ€ช 0@L  1 ! ุŒ ( Look Around Toolโ€ฌุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช  Kโ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ฌ โ€ซยุฑโ€ช/โ€ฌู€ู€ู€โ€ช Bโ€ฌุฃ!"โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูขโ€ฌู€ ุงุข~  โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุงโ€ช. ,4โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช ูฃโ€ฌู€ โ€ชXโ€ฌูƒ ุง โ€ช LM-โ€ฌุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุงโ€ช K.โ€ฌูˆุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง!โ€ช ุŒ( Tilt ) 0 -. 0Qโ€ฌูˆุฅ โ€ช Kโ€ฌุง โ€ช  -โ€ฌูˆุง โ€ช,โ€ฌุฑโ€ฌ โ€ซ โ€ชR.โ€ฌุขโ€ช. (Pan) Bโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช 4RAโ€ฌุงุฑโ€ชQAโ€ฌุน โ€ช,โ€ฌู‰ ุง   )ุงุฑโ€ชQAโ€ฌุน ุง โ€ช-: ( /โ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุฏ\โ€ช Jโ€ฌุงุฑ โ€ช 6โ€ฌุน ;โ€ช3โ€ฌู‰ ุงโ€ช *eTโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช.$ % &$โ€ฌุฉ ุง! โ€ช ู‘ f (VCB) *1 9โ€ฌุงุข>โ€ชD Pโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซ;โ€ช6โ€ฌู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ู€ ุญ )โ€ช (Enterโ€ฌุฃูˆ )โ€ช ; ุŒ(Returnโ€ฌู† โ€ช &$โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ )โ€ช(Look Around Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซโ€ช Fโ€ฌุงุฑ โ€ช 6โ€ฌุน โ€ช *hโ€ฌุง@ โ€ช$โ€ฌู‚ โ€ช 8aโ€ฌุง)ุฑุถ โ€ช.โ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซูˆ โ€ช E 2โ€ฌุงุฏุงุฉ  โ€ช@Aโ€ฌู† โ€ช S8โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ุง โ€ช2-โ€ฌู€ู€โ€ช: Sโ€ฌโ€ฌ โ€ซุงุข>โ€ช Pโ€ฌุฒุฑ ุงโ€ช #_ E #โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉ ) โ€ช ; ( Look Aroundโ€ฌู† โ€ช &$โ€ฌุฃุฏุงุฉโ€ฌ โ€ซุงู„) โ€ช.( Walk Toolโ€ฌโ€ฌ

โ€ซโ€ช161โ€ฌโ€ฌ

Sketchup learning part 1  
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