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Contents

Acknowledgment

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The Power of Policy The ACP-EU Energy Facility: improving access to modern energy services for rural and peri-urban areas The Energy Facility Team, Water and Energy Facility Unit, European Commission: EuropeAid

1

Ecosystems for Total Energy Access: unlocking the virtuous circle of energy, growth and employment Steven Hunt, Senior Energy Consultant, Practical Action

7

Approach to investing in Africa- the ‘elephant in the room’ Neil Upton, Partner, Greenberg Traurig Maher

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Is nuclear power a critical and timely option for Africa electricity production? Latsoucabé Fall, Regional Manager: Africa, World Energy Council

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Recolonizing Africa on the power grid David McDonald, Professor of Global Development Studies, Queens University, Canada

19

Practical Power Renewable Energy for African Cities and Towns Ralph Sims, Professor of Sustainable Development, Massey University, New Zealand

23

Renewable energy policy developments and hold ups in South Africa Lucy Baker, School of International Development, University of East Anglia

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Energy Management and Sustainability: the Revoluform Khalil Elahee, Lecturer, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mauritius

33

Developing a sustainable sub-Saharanelectricity sector starts with quality training an opportunity for new partnerships? Christine Heuraux, Director, Access to Energy Division, EDF

37

Renewable energy feed-in tariffs Andrew Gray, Partner, Gowlings (UK) LLP

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Rural electrification in Africa: strategies for progress Simon Rolland, Secretary General, Alliance for Rural Electrification

47

The Power of Climate Climate change and energy poverty in Africa Teodoro Sanchez, Energy Technology and Policy Advisor, Practical Action

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Climate finance – opportunities for project co-financing Guido Schmidt-Traub, Climate Change Advisor, Africa Progress Panel

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A model for clean energy innovation in Africa Jonathan Coony, Climate Technology Program Coordinator, infoDev, World Bank Alexander L. Alusa, Climate Change Policy Adviser, Office of the PM, Government of Kenya

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Fueling Development Biofuels, rural development and food security Rodney Cooke, Director, Policy and Technical Advisory Division, IFAD Vineet Raswant, Senior Technical Advisor, Policy and Technical Advisory Division, IFAD

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How the new developments in the gas sector can impact Africa's energy sustainability Latsoucabe Fall, Regional Manager: Africa, World Energy Council

67

Mitigating energy risk through bioenergy Meghan Sapp, Secretary General, PANGEA - Partners for Euro-African Green Energy

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South African petroleum industry efforts to improve air quality Avhapfani Tshifularo, Executive Director, South African Petroleum Industry Association – SAPIA

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Financing Power Elephants in the Room Dave Smit, Manager Structured Finance - Energy, FMO

83

Finding a sustainable power solution for Africa Dario Musso, Senior Transactor, Rand Merchant Bank Daniel Zinman, Senior Transactor, Rand Merchant Bank

87

Public-private partnerships and delivering transformational infrastructure projects Pankaj Gupta, Manager, Financial Solutions Group, The World Bank Katherine C. Baragona, Senior Infrastructure Finance Specialist, The World Bank

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Wind energy in Africa: a sustainable business? Youssef Arfaoui, Energy Expert and Senior Investment Officer, African Development Bank

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Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

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Energy • Environment • Development • Energy • Environment • Development • Energy • Environment • Development • Energy • Environment • Development

Contents The tipping point Paul Eardley-Taylor, Head of Energy, Utilities & Infrastructure Coverage, South Africa & Africa, Standard Bank Nicholas Green, Analyst: Energy, Utilites and Infrastructure, Standard Bank

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Banking on energy Power & Energy Team, ABSA Capital — With comments from, Omar Vajeth, Head of Power and Energy

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Artists’ Biographies

107

Directories Conventional Thermal Generators Temporary Power Hydropower Wind

109 119 124 125

African Power Projects Conventional Power Projects Temporary Power Projects Renewable Power Projects

127 161 162

African Power Investors

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Index of Advertisers African Development Bank Andritz Hydro GbmH Norton Rose Greenberg Traurig Maher Mott MacDonald Vestas Concentrix Solar (Soitec) Gowlings (UK) LLP Globeleq International Development Corporation Lucy Switchgear FMO Rand Merchant Bank Nedbank Fieldstone Africa Swiss Investment Risk Insurance (SERV) Proparco Africa Finance Corporation Futuremap Wartsila Caterpillar SARL Aggreko Energy Rental South Africa (Pty) Ltd Energyst APR Energy African Energy Sofreco London & Bamako - A Contemporary Art Exhibition

Inside front/back cover Outside back cover 6 10 27 28 32 42 46 50 78 82 86 90 94 98 102 105 106 108 110 117 120 122 126 168 170

Index of images ‘Oops’ - Wangari Mathenge

IV

5

‘Afternoon Walk With Gary In Haute Couture’ - Wangari Mathenge

45

‘Who Is The Girl I See Where I'm Supposed To Be’ - Wangari Mathenge

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‘Red Guitar’ - Nyemike Onwuka

66

‘Funkadelic’ - Wangari Mathenge

73

‘Absolutely Fabulous’ - Wangari Mathenge

74

‘Even Caterpillars Want To Be Butterflies’ - Wangari Mathenge

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‘Reunion I’ - Nyemike Onwuka

81

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The Power of Policy

Is nuclear power a critical and timely option for Africa electricity production?

Dr Latsoucabé Fall Regional Manager: Africa World Energy Council

Dr. Latsoucabé FALL is senior expert in the energy sector with about 30 years of experience. His knowledge embraces all aspects of the energy sector, and his related experience extended in Africa and worldwide. He is currently World Energy Council (WEC) Regional Manager in Africa and before that WEC Coordinator for Africa. In the framework of these positions, he is planning, managing and/or coordinating all WEC’s activities in Africa. Dr. FALL has delivered several international papers, technical reports and presentations in the energy sector, as author, consultant or expert.

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

Introduction

1. Why Nuclear Power?

eeting the growing energy demand over the long term and delivering costeffective power supply solutions, in harmony with the global and local climate requirements would require secure, reliable, affordable, clean and sufficient energy supplies; and among them nuclear power (NP) is set as a valuable option. Although NP is not an easy alternative energy source to develop and implement; many uncertainties and hurdles are surrounding the related industry. And for Africa to adopt NP, many critical challenges should be addressed (political, technical, managerial, financing, human resources, etc.). Thenceforth, the right questions to answer in this article are: • What should be the place of Africa in the global nuclear scene? • Is NP a compelling option for Africa’s sustainable energy supply? • What are the obstacles and barriers to roll out NP in Africa? • What are the key factors most responsive to the needs of African countries to adopt NP? • What could be the right time-frame for NP deployment in Africa?

Until recently (i.e. before the Japanese nuclear crisis), NP had generated considerable enthusiasm worldwide as a cost-effective, reliable and climate friendly power supply option, with the following advantages and intrinsic qualities: • Suitable for base-load power generation, aiming at contributing to meeting countries’ growing electricity demand, while “decarbonizing” electricity production; • Low carbon technology, suitable for GHG emissions reduction and allowing most developed and emerging economies to meet their national targets for CO2 emissions reduction; • Affordable, with low production cost per kWh and offering cheap electricity prices to consumers and industries; • Stable fuel source, with low price volatility / fluctuation; • Capable of contributing significantly to ensuring a secure energy supply, with an increased energy diversity; • Contributing significantly to reduce countries’ dependence on fossil fuels; • High and proven reliability, high performance record and high capacity factors;

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Practical Power

Fits and starts: renewable energy policy in South Africa

Lucy Baker PhD School of International Development University of East Anglia

Lucy Baker is a PhD researcher in the School of Development Studies at the University of East Anglia. She was a fellow with the Institute of Security Studies in Cape Town during 2010. Her working thesis title is ‘the governance of clean energy in South Africa'. Prior to taking up her PhD Lucy worked for seven years as researcher and policy officer with environment and development organisations. Her areas of expertise include: energy governance in South Africa; the World Bank and energy sector reform; climate change financing; and the environmental and social policies of international financial institutions. Lucy holds an MSc in Development Studies from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London and undergraduate degree (MA Hons) in Hispanic Studies and French from the University of Edinburgh.

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

emystifying the complexities of South Africa’s renewable energy policy in a context of constantly moving goal posts is an enormous challenge. Numerous policy uncertainties and delays still remain for independent power producers (IPPs) waiting to construct and connect their renewable energy projects to the country’s electric grid. Despite intense interest from IPPs and national and international investors over the past few years, not one renewable energy power purchase agreement (PPA) had been licensed at the time of writing. Though greater clarity and hope has been provided by the imminent approval of the country’s long-awaited Integrated Resource Plan (IRP 2010), which could result in 42 per cent of new generation capacity coming from renewable energy up to 2035, increased uncertainty has now been created by the National Energy Regulator’s (NERSA) Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff (REFIT) consultation paper of March 2011 which proposes to reduce tariffs to replace those approved by NERSA in 2009 for REFIT phase 1 and 2. In 2010 alone South Africa’s energy policy arena witnessed a bewildering series of twists and turns, preceded in December 2009 by President Jacob Zuma’s commitment as part of the Copenhagen Accords that the country would reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 34 per cent below business as usual by 2020 and 42 per cent by 2025. On 31 December 2009 the Department of Energy (DoE) published its first Integrated Resource Plan (IRP1) for the next three years- a mere three pages. In February’s State of the Nation’s Address President Zuma announced that an independent system operator separate to Eskom Holdings would be established. In February and March 2010, NERSA sought public comments on REFIT selection criteria for which the final version, one year on, is still pending. On 24 February 2010 NERSA announced a price increase in electricity of approximately 25 per cent per year for the next three years starting on 1 April 2010, swiftly followed by public outcry over preferential tariff deals for energy intensive users that had been agreed before the end

D

of apartheid. Amidst great national and international controversy, the World Bank’s board then approved a $3 billion loan for the Medupi coal-fired power plant, alongside $260 million for Eskom’s Sere Wind Farm and Upington Solar Power Plant. The first draft of the long-awaited second Integrated Resource Plan (IRP 2010), which is to shape the country’s energy mix for the next 20 years, was released for public comment in May 2010 with public hearings taking place in Pretoria in June. A second draft was released in October followed by another set of hearings at the end of the year. In September the DoE announced that it was starting its procurement process for REFIT and released a ‘request for information’ for potential private developers of renewable energy projects intending to apply.1 Revised Electricity Regulations on New Generation Capacity were released by the DoE on 30 November 2010, making significant changes to the previous version, approved a mere thirteen months before. The status of the country’s Integrated Energy Plan which is required annually by the National Energy Act of 2008 and of which the IRP is meant to be a subset remains unclear. Meanwhile, the Green Paper on the National Climate Change Response was gazetted for public comment on 25 November 2010 by the Department of Environmental Affairs, followed by a discussion document released for comment by Treasury on the introduction of a national carbon tax. South Africa’s director-general for electricity, nuclear and clean energy Ompi Aphane recently admitted that delays to REFIT were likely to result in South Africa failing to meet its renewable energy white paper target of 10 000 GWh of renewable energy consumption by 2013.2 Yet credible interest in South Africa’s renewable energy industry is vast, has the potential to form a major part of national energy development and make significant contributions to key national priorities on carbon emissions reduction, job creation, energy access, rural development, inward investment and regional energy development.

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The Power of Climate

A model for clean energy innovation in Africa

Executive summary Jonathan Coony Climate Technology Program Coordinator infoDev World Bank Group

Alexander L. Alusa Climate Change Policy Adviser Office of the PM Government of Kenya

Jonathan Coony is the Coordinator for the Climate Technology Program at infoDev in the World Bank Group. Previously, Jonathan was a Sr. Energy Specialist at the World Bank where he led efforts to formulate strategy to accelerate energy technologies for partner countries; supported several Investment Plans for the Clean Technology Fund (CTF); and was team leader of the China Technology Needs Assessment (TNA).

Alexander Alusa graduated from Oregon State University with a B.Sc. in Mathematics in 1969, and from State University of New York at Albany with a M.Sc. in Atmospheric Science in 1971. He has worked in the East African Meteorological Department in several roles and ultimately as Director Kenya Meteorological Department in 1984-187. Late in 1989, he joined the United Nations Environment Program as a Program Officer responsible for the Climate Change Impacts and Response Strategies Programme, responsible specifically for Climate Change Convention and its Kyoto Protocol negotiations) 1989-2007. Since 2007 he has been the Climate Change Policy Adviser in the Office of the Prime Minister, Kenya.*

Before joining the World Bank, Jonathan worked five years at the International Energy Agency (IEA) in Paris where he led teams on comprehensive country energy sector reviews and published several books on energy policy. Jonathan holds an MBA from INSEAD (France), and MS and BS degrees in mechanical engineering from Brown University (USA). Jonathan In addition to this, he holds two patents in renewable energy technology.*

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

*With special thanks to coauthors Anthony Lambkin (Project Lead, infoDev, World Bank Group) and Joseph Nganga (CEO, Renewable Energy Ventures Kenya Ltd) for their contribution to the article

he Government of Kenya and the World Bank Group’s infoDev unit are working together to pioneer a new model to help transform energy and climate challenges into market opportunities leading to economic development and job creation. By supporting new and existing skills sets – and especially by tapping countries’ entrepreneurial spirit – Kenya and other African countries can take a more pro-active and profitable approach to addressing their own local challenges. The Government of Kenya and infoDev have designed and are now implementing the world’s first Climate Innovation Center (CIC), to be operational in the second half of 2011. The CIC will support local capacity – targeting the private sector – to develop profitable, innovative solutions to domestic clean energy and climate challenges through early stage financing, business advisory services, technology information, office and technical facilities, government policy advisory, smallscale grants, business-to-business brokering and other services to promising local firms. It will be part of the larger Greening Kenya Initiative coordinated by the Office of the Prime Minister (OPM). Innovative technologies and business models are needed to solve the energy and climate challenges of Africa where unique circumstances - including severe energy access problems, rich renewable energy endowments and uneven fossil fuel distribution – call for novel approaches. Local private sector, especially smaller companies, have unique skills and information and must play a key role to originate, develop and deploy solutions addressing local conditions. The Kenyan CIC will be first among several of CICs in selected countries, with the goal of making a global network. In Africa, development of CICs is now being pursued in Ethiopia, South Africa, Rwanda and Morocco. Each CIC will follow a basic template then tailored to local needs. The global network will link the national CICs to allow for synergistic innovation, shared experiences and technologies, international business-tobusiness linkages, common knowledge platforms and global financing opportunities.

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Fueling Development

Biofuels, rural development and food security

Dr Rodney Cooke Director Policy and Technical Advisory Division IFAD

Vineet Raswant Senior Technical Advisor Policy and Technical Advisory Division IFAD

Dr. Rodney Cooke has been Director of the Policy and Technical Advisory Division of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) since 2000. This Division’s role is to enhance the quality of IFAD’s programme and to ensure learning, networking and knowledge sharing associated with the organization’s development activities.

Vineet Raswant (BSc Engineering, MBA Finance) has over 30 years experience in the development field and has led multisectoral missions designing development projects around the world. He is currently a Senior Technical Advisor in the Policy and Technical Advisory Division of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in Rome, Italy. In this capacity he is involved in reviewing all IFAD projects in the areas marketing, enterprise development, value-chain development and the involvement of the private sector, with a view to ensuring that project design ensures that development objectives are met. He is also supervising a study on mainstreaming value-chain development in IFAD’s operations and is spearheading an effort to promote and develop biofuels to benefit the poor. Prior to working with IFAD, Mr. Raswant worked with the World Bank and American Airlines, formulating their strategies for investing funds for staff retirement plans.

Prior to joining IFAD Dr Cooke was Director of the EU-ACP Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), The Netherlands, from 1995 to 2000. He also previously worked in the UK Department for International Development, his last post being Deputy Director of the Natural Resources Institute in charge of the Resource Assessment and Farming Systems Programme.

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

iofuels divide opinion like few other topics. A search on Google for “biofuels and food crisis” results in over a million pages. Many cite biofuel as the demon, driving up food prices and taking up land and crops that could otherwise have fed people at a time when a billion people go to bed hungry every day. Others emphasise their potential as an energy option that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and therefore mitigate climate change, by promoting the transition toward a low carbon economy. Almost as many promote biofuel as a driver of development and an opportunity to reduce rural poverty – which in turn are drivers of improved food security. Analyses of the causes of the 2007–08 food price crisis identify biofuel production as one of the culprits, but also recognise a plethora of other drivers, including a “perfect storm” of shifting consumption patterns, rising oil prices pushing up inputs such as fertilizer, increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events and changed climatic conditions, and speculation on commodity markets (Oxfam 2008). Much of the impact of biofuels on food prices derives from the adoption of polices in the European Union and the United States that suddenly increased demand for biofuel (Ewing and Msangi 2009) using food crops as feedstock. However, it is useful to ask: should that blame rest on the product or the policies that were pursued in developing it? Some 2 billion people around the world do not have access to modern energy supplies such as electricity and liquid fuels. In sub-Saharan Africa more than half a billion people do not have electricity in their homes. They have to rely instead on traditional biomass fuels – wood, charcoal and dung and the like. But using these fuels is environmentally unsustainable and bad for human health. It has been estimated that more than 1.5 million deaths each year in developing countries – mostly women and children – can be linked to the effects of cooking and heating homes with these “dirty” fuels.

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Financing Power

Public-private partnerships and delivering transformational infrastructure projects Pankaj Gupta Manager Financial Solutions Group The World Bank

Katherine C. Baragona Senior Infrastructure Finance Specialist The World Bank

Mr. Gupta specializes in public and private financing for power and oil and gas projects. He has been involved in numerous private project finance transaction that have been supported by the Bank Group through both loans and guarantees. Most recently, he has led the World Bank’s US$3.75 billion loan to Eskom of South Africa, structured risk mitigation instruments for the $1.5 Billion Nam Theun II Hydropower Project in Laos. Since joining the World Bank in 1996, Mr. Gupta has also closed many key capital market guarantee transactions notably in Thailand, Colombia and Argentina.

Ms. Baragona is a senior bank executive / US lawyer / UK solicitor with over 20 years of international practice and experience. She recently joined The World Bank's Finance, Economics and Urban Development Group in the role of Senior Infrastructure Finance Specialist. A graduate of the UOPMcGeorge School of Law’s JD program in Sacramento, California, Kate also participated in McGeorge's LL.M studies and internship programs in Salzburg, Austria and London, England. As an undergraduate, Kate studied Economics & Finance at St. Edwards University in Austin, Texas, and Graphic Design at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Prior to joining The World Bank, she held positions with Richards Butler (in London & Brussels), Hunton & Williams (in Brussels & New York) and Citibank (in New York & London). Kate has extensive work experience and travel in Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Central Asia.

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

Public-Private Partnerships recognizing the need for “shared opportunity and shared risk” he amount of project financing required to extend the reach of infrastructure services to all citizens stretches beyond the budgetary means of most developing governments. Official Development Assistance (ODA) funding, including World Bank Group commitments for infrastructure, is expected to decline in real terms over the next few years. The private sector will need to play a more prominent role in supporting solutions to infrastructure deficits, and in most cases may be even better positioned to provide the technology and skills that drive operational efficiency. Yet, governments will need to stay engaged, as many of the risks associated with long-term investments are beyond the ability of the private sector to manage. Leveraging public funds through PPP investments will become more necessity than nicety.

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The world of PPPs has experienced dramatic shifts Between 1990 and 2009, investment commitments to successful PPP projects averaged 1.2 percent of GDP in developing countries—many times short of the needs. The geographic scope of private investment in infrastructure has been relatively narrow, with almost 50 percent concentrated in Mexico and the BRICs, and little progress in low-income countries. Likewise, the sectoral scope of PPP projects has been limited, with almost 50 percent in the telecommunications sector. Overall private participation in infrastructure (PPI) volumes have remained relatively steady in the face of the global financial crisis, although this masks a flight to quality that appears to be hurting poorer countries most. This has placed greater emphasis on risk mitigation instruments. In contrast, local markets have proven more robust and liquid than the global financial markets, creating new opportunities to mobilize local currency financing for PPPs.

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Directory

Conventional Thermal Generators Company: A.E.Z S r.l. Head Office location: Crespellano, Itlay Generator Type: Low/medium voltage power solutions Fuel: Diesel/Gas Size: up to 2000kVA Top 5 African countries of operation: Contact: Beatrice Tassi Position: Sales Manager Telephone: +39 051739099 Email: beatrice.tassi@aezitaly.com Website: www.aezitaly.com Aksa Jenerator Sanayi A.S Istanbul, Turkey Portable, marine auxiliary and Onan marine gensets Diesel/Gas up to 2,500kVA Algeria, Nigeria +90212 4786666 export@aska.com.tr www.aksa.com.tr Ascot International Gela, Italy Single/ dual-use gensets Diesel 10-1500kVA +39 0933 913003 www.ascot-italia.it Atlas Copco Ghana Ltd Accra, Ghana Portable gensets Diesel 12-1250kVA Ghana +233 (0)302 77 45 12 info.ghana@gh.atlascopco.com Atlas Copco Portable Air Ltd Aartselaar, Belgium Portable compressors and generators Diesel 12-1250kVA Angola, Botswana, Congo. D.R, Egypt, Kenya Elsie Vestraets +3234506117 elsie.vestraets@be.atlascopco.com www.atlascopco.com Autogen Technologies Incorporated County Tyrone, Northern Ireland Open-set, sound attenuated, standard or

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

be-spoke generators Diesel 10kVA-4MW +442 887747500 sales@autogen-technologies.com www.autogen-technologies.com Balton CP Ltd Watford, UK High speed reciprocating enginesDiesel 5kVA- 2,000kVA Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal +441923 228999 tk@baltoncp.com www.baltoncp.com Barloworld Power Boksburg, South Africa Diesel and Gas 4kW - 16MW South Africa, Angola, Namibia, Mozambique, Botswana, Zambia, Malawi Nicola Morgan-Evens Key Account Manager (011) 323-2413 nevens@barloworldpower.com www.barloworldpower.com Bredenoord Handelsmy Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Diesel 5-2000kVA +31 553018501 hm.schimmel@bredenoord.com www.bredenoord.com Briggs & Stratton Corperation Dubai, U.A.E Portable, home and standby generators Diesel 7-45kW Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Egypt, Ethiopia +971 42994944 bascodxb@emirates.net.ae www.briggsandstratton.com Broadcrown Ltd Stafford, UK High and medium speed reciprocating engines Diesel/Gas 6kVA-30MVA Angola, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya +44 188 9272200 info@broadcrown.co.uk www.broadcrown.com

Bruno S.r.l. Grottaminarda, Italy Perkins, Cummins, John Deere, Volvo, Honda Diesel 2-2000kVA +39 0825 421005 export@brunogenerators.it www.brunogenerators.it C Woermann GmbH & Co.KG Hamburg, Germany Prime and Standby Deutz engines Water and air-cooled 10-2000kVA Ghana, Nigeria, Angola +4940 3281110 info@c-woermann.de www.c-woermann.com Calsion Power System Co. Ltd Dangguan City, China MTU, Cummins, Volvo, Leroy Somer Diesel 20kw-3,000kw +86769 22713999 angelo@calsion.cn www.calsion.cn Caterpillar Electric Power Illinois, USA Diesel, gas, FHO Any Fuel Across Africa Robert Rankin Tertiary Manager AME, Electric Power Projects +41 22 849 4758 cat_power@cat.com www.cat-electricpower.com Caterpillar Power Generation Systems Texas, USA Medium speed diesel engines and equipment, turnkey diesel power plants up to 150MW Heavy fuel oil, diesel oil, liquid bio fuels, natural gas Diesel engines from 2 to 14MW, gas engines upto 6.5MW Cape Verde, Guinea Conakry, Mali, Mauritania, Sierra Leone Mikko Bergqvist Sales Manager Bergqvist_Mikko@cat.com www.catpowerplants.com

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2x220MW gas turbines + 220kV substation; Sonelgaz. Contracts: Ansaldo Energia [Italy] (turnkey including $150m; [completed 6/2002]. turbines), Fichtner [Germany] (consultant).

300 MW turnkey, gas; 123m Euros Sponsor: Sonelgaz. Contract: Alstom (civil work and supply of gas [construction due to start Q4 03, completed turbines--two GT13E2--, generators, high-voltage substation and in 2004] other equipment).

Sonatrach. Contract: EdF (pre-feasibility study); Sargent & Lundy 1,227MW gas-fired power plant [1st 600MW US Trade & Development agency grant for feasibility [US] (feasibility study) Mubadala has a co-controlling stake (codelayed in 2003, completed in 2009]. study ($561,000). developer) GE Energy (turbines)

Berrouaghia

El Hamma

F’Kirina Ain Beida Power Plant

Hadjret IPP

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011 Sonelgaz Contracts: General Electric, Iberdrola, Alstom-Orascom (construction)

Skikda Power Company specially set up by Algerian Energy Company (AEC) (20%), Sonelgaz (50%), Sonatrach (30%). Contract: SNC-Lavalin [Canada] -11% of Skikda’s Power Company’s share - Sonelgaz and Sonatrach to reduce holding to EIB, Ex-Im Bank of USA $192m long term loan accommodate - (EPC & O & M contract for 12 years with possible 12 year extension), General Electric and Alstom (turbines and generator for first 314MW).

2x600MW gas CC; US$900 million [completion due 2011].

Refurbish 220/90kV and 60kV high voltage substations El Aouinet and Ramdane Djamel; install and commission 220kV air insulated and 90kV and 60kV gas insulated switchgear; supply local dispatch centres Sonelgaz. Contract: Areva Transmission and Distribution [France] (SCADA systems), remote terminal units for (formely Alstom T&D) (two new turnkey projects) substations in Algiers, Oran, Annaba and Setif coastal districts, and power line carrier devices, teleprotection devices and line matching units; Euro32m Sonelgaz. Contract: Telecommunications Consultants of India (TCIL) (system integrator); Pirelli [Italy] (supply overhead optical cable)

125MW [completed]

3,000km optical ground wire and 1,000km of lashed cable to be installed on 220kV overhead transmission lines; $20m

880MW ; $562m, combined cycle [completed in 2006]

Sonelgaz. Contract: Alstom (engineering, procurement, 2x600MW combined cycle plant; [completion construction and maintenance) Orascom Construction Industries due 2011] (civil works & construction)

Hassi Massaoud

Koudiat Draouch

National grid upgrade

Optical cable systems

Skikda Power Plant

Terga

Arranger: Société Générale; Export credit agencies: SACE, ERG ($34m); Syndicated Finance: Natexis, Arab Banking Corporation, Bayerische Landesbank, ABB Export Bank, UBAF.

$200m project. Saudi Fund for Development [$22m 10-yr loan], Islamic Development Bank [$20.2m] & Arab Fund for Economic & Social Development [$175m loan].

13:44

Anadarko Petroleum, Sonelgaz. Contracts: GE Nuovo Pignone 3x110MW gas turbines; $120m; [three units [Italy] (construction), ABB Adda [Italy], ABB High Voltage completed]. Technologies [Switzerland] (sub-contracted by GE).

Sonelgaz. Contract: Siemens (planning, two gas tubines, two generators, associated electrical, instrumentation & controls systems) Siemens (operation & maintenance over 7 years)

500MW gas turbines (ability to run on fuel oil) [Completed]

Arzew IWPP [Independent Water/Power plant]

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Hassi Berkine

Kahrama SpA owned by Black & Veatch International Energy [South Africa] & Algerian Energy Co (jointly owned by Sonatrach and Sonelgaz) (Equity split 20% parastatals / 80% Black & Veatch). Contracts: IHI (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co) + Itochu [both Japan] (turnkey).

300MW gas-fired power plant with 86,714 cm/d desalination plant; $200-250m; [delayed as equity structure finalised by developer, completed 2005].

Arzew / Skikda gas fired plant

COFACE, Opic + Japan Bank for International Cooperation. ABN/Amro (lead arranger for debt finance). Fuji Bank [London & Japanese branch] (advisers). Export credit expected with Black & Veatch SA. Sonatrach and Sonelgaz to provide payment guarantees.

Algerian Energy Company (90%) - 10% still available. Endesa [Spain], Enelpower [Italy], SNC Lavalin [Canada] AES [US], EDF submitted technical bids. Contract: CESI - Enel subsidiary [Italy] (power export feasibility study).

2000 MW combined (1200 for export) tenders for both projects issued at same time. [Technical bids submitted, commercial bids delayed, power export feasibility study awaiting further Algerian/Spanish negotiations]

FINANCE AND LEGAL

DEVELOPMENT

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

PROJECT DETAILS ALGERIA

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Conventional Power Projects

Sources: African Energy Newsletter provided invaluable information for this summary of African power projects. For an encylcopaedic list of African energy projects, covering oil, gas, power generation and transmission, and renewable energy, the African Energy Newsletter is the definitive publication. For details see the advert opposite.

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Power Investors

African Power Investors Project

Stake

Start up date/ purchase date

ABB Equity Ventures Ivory Coast

Azito: 300MW thermal

33%

2000

AES

Cameroon

AES Sonel: 930MW hydro/diesel/HFO & additional 85MW to Limbe HFO plant. 56% Distribution: 23,679km

Jul-01

AES

Cameroon

AES Sonel: investment plan for rehabilitation/expansion of production, 56% transmission and distribution system

2006

AES

Nigeria

Ebute: 306MW gas-fired bargemounted

100%

Dec-01

Agip

Nigeria

320MW increasing to 800MW

20%

Feb-05

Agip

Nigeria

Afam: 980MW

5%

Unspecified startup date

Aldwych International

Kenya

Rabai: 90MW heavy fuel

2009

Aldwych International

South Africa

Kelvin: 600MW coal previous owners: City of Johannesburg, AES, Globeleq

2007**

Aldwych International

Zambia

Copperbelt Energy Corp: owns minority stake through shareholding in Zambia Energy

2006

AMCK

DRC

Lubumbashi distribution network: Anvil & Mining Company of Katanga joint venture to construct 27 km 120kV transmission line between the mine site and Lubumbashi & 300 MVA station

2009

Artumas

Tanzania

Mtwara: 300MW gas

80%

Aviva Corporation

Botswana

Mmamantswe: 1000MW coal

100%

Black & Veatch

Algeria

Arzew: 300MW gas

5%

Nov-05

BTU Ventures

Tunisia

Carthage Power Company Rades II: 471MW gas

60%

2002 04**

Candax Energy

Tunisia

SEEB: 27MW gas combined turbines bought Centurion Oil stake in Jan-05

50%

May-03

Caterpillar Power Ventures

Tunisia

SEEB: 27MW gas combined turbines

50%

May-03

Company

Country

Africa Energy Yearbook 2011

May-

167


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Africa Energy Yearbook 2011