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Low Carbon City Planning and Energy Management Xiangrong Wang (Prof. & Dr.) Center for Urban Eco-Planning & Design Fudan University, Shanghai 200433,China E-mail :xrxrwang@vip.sina.com

Shixiong Wang (M.A.student) Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Boston University Boston, MA 02215, USA, E-mail:wangsx@bu.edu

2011-5-19

May 2, 2011

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Outline 1. Introduction 2. Modes of Low Carbon City and Energy Saving Planning Responding to Climate Change 3. A Case Study of China 4. Strategies of Low Carbon City Planning and Energy Management

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1. Introduction Global climate change has been no doubt a world wide focus for governments, international organizations and scientists in the recent years, it becomes especially important after Copenhagen Climate Conference at the end of 2009.

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1.1 Alert of Climate Change in the World The third edition of IPCC (2001) assessment report also stated that globally, average ground temperature has been increased 0.6Âą0.2℃ throughout the past century.

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Facts It makes the 20th century possibly the one with the most obvious temperature increase in the recent centuries.

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1.2 The CO2 Emission and Energy Consumption  Based on the international research in resent years, carbon dioxide accounted for 77 % in greenhouse gas caused by human activity, mainly concentrated in the production (44.5%), building (19.8%), transportation (17.5%) and forest reduce (18.2%).

50 45 40 35 Production Building Transportation Forest Reduce

30 25 20 15



The energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases in urban areas occupied 75% and 80% separately.

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10 5 0 %

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 The urban areas are one of the major sources of carbon emissions in the world, which has the deep effects on climate change and social development as well as policy formulation.

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7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1990

2000

2002

2003

Wor l d Chi na Japan Canada USA Fr ench Ger many Br i t ai n Aust r al i a

The carbon dioxide produced at Unit of GDP in principal year (kg / 2000 price, dollars) Source: International statistics Year Book(2005-2010) 2011-5-19

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25 20 15 10 5 0 1990

2000

2002

2003

Wor l d Chi na Japan Canada USA Fr ench Ger many Br i t ai n Aust r al i a

Per capita co2 emissions (tons) Source: International statistics Year Book(2005-2010) 2011-5-19

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1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0

1990

2000

2002

2003

2004

Worl d Chi na Japan Canada USA French Germany Bri t ai n Aust ral i a New Zeal and

The statistics of world's energy consumption in principal year (Consumption (10 kilotons of standard oil equivalent, Source: World Bank 2005, International statistics Year Book(2005-2010) )

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9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

1990

2000

2002

2003

2004

Wor l d Chi na Japan Canada USA Fr ench Ger many Br i t ai n Aust r al i a New Zeal and

Energy consumption per capita (kilograms of standard oil equivalent) Source: International statistics Year Book(2005-2010) 2011-5-19

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Vulnerability of Some Estuary Cities About 60% of the world populations live in the estuary cities and the areas, which have great importance and effects in different scales.

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â—? The impact of climate change on this area is most directly and severe, and at the same time, with the most obvious change and fast urbanization, it makes the research here especially important and urgent

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 According to the forecast, China's urbanization ratio by 2020 will reach to 58% 60%, and the national carbon emissions will also increase 60% than that in 2005.  According to McKinsey (MGI) 2008’s report, about 1 billion people in China by 2025 will live in cities (which will include 219 one million-population cities, and 24 five million mega-city)

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â—?

Rotterdam

Hong Kong

Singapore

London 2011-5-19

It is a scientific base to understand the low carbon city planning and energy management in the estuary areas under climate change

New York

Shanghai

Sydney

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2.Modes of Low Carbon City and Energy Saving Planning Responding to Climate Change In general, Britain, as a representative of Europe could be considered as the birthplace of the low carbon cities. British government promulgated white paper on “Our Energy Future: Creating a low carbon economy” in 2009, officially proposed the concept of “Low Carbon Economy ".

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The distribution of the typical estuary areas in the world

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Low carbon city:  It is refers to the city can maintain the energy consumption and carbon emissions at a low level in the premise of economic development.  Many scholars have carried out the research on the development, economy, energy, traffic, spatial structure, community, lifestyle, planning policy, and management etc of low carbon city.  Low carbon development requires for the fields including the production, construction, life and ideology of low carbon. 2011-5-19

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 The study and practice in many countries have showed the necessity and feasibility of low carbon city construction and new energy application.  For example, Germany in 2007 had occupied a dominant ratio of solar heating in Europe (Fig.1).

France Spain 11% 12% Italy 11% Greece 13%

MWth 0% Germany 41%

Austra 12%

Fig.1 Proportion of Germany Solar Heating in Europe (2007) 2011-5-19

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 In addition, Melbourne, Australia is underway the "zero emission city" and put forward the definite index and target.  Recently, the application and practice for wind energy technology patents in Australia gets more and more (Fig.2).  EU, England, Italy, Denmark, Japan, Portugal and other regions and countries have put forward the relative means.

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Fig.2 Application and practice for wind energy technology patents in Australia (1990-2009)

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Comparison of Different Actions in the World EU

Strongly called for more radical emission reduction measures, quantified emission reductions. Opposed to take immediate quantified emission reduction measures,

USA, Japan, Australia, etc Developing countries

Island countries

insist on setting no reduction standard and making use of technology to take more relaxed measures. Opposed to commitments of further emission reduction, do not want the emission reduction measures impede their own development. The international community should provide help to the island nation suffering from climate change as far as possible.

Petroleum export countries

China

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Being low-pitched or against emission reduction.

We can take mandatory emission reduction measures according to 2005 level

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2.1 Western Mode and Its Practice 2.1.1 British Mode: city action to cope with climate change  Britain is a pioneer of planning and practice for low carbon city. In order to promote Britain fast transformation to a low carbon economy, the British government set up the “Carbon Trust Foundation” and "Energy Saving Foundation" in 2001, jointly promoted the British low carbon city project.  The planning of three demonstration low carbon cities in the first-group under the expert’s technical support was formulated.

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■ Thames Estuary, London Objectives:  Reduce 60% of GHG release by 2025 based on 2006  low-carbon capital Response Strategies----- Mitigation         

Low carbon economy Low carbon energy Family energy saving Low carbon release Zero carbon capital construction Low carbon transportation Flooding Control Environmental restoration Risk management

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●Bed Zed’s Practice for Low Carbon Community Planning  BedZED low carbon community was founded in 2002. It is the first "zero energy consumption" community initiated by WWF and British Ecological Regional Development Group, and has become the British leading model in urban sustainable development.  The zero energy development idea in Bed ZED community is maximum utilization of natural energy, reduce environmental destruction and pollution, and make true the zero use of fossil energy and basically realize 2011-5-19 recycling in energy demand and waste treatment.

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In community energy utilization, the planning is combined to environmental, social, economic and other aspects of the demand, and utilizes energy-saving technology to reduce energy consumption, water consumption and automobile usage, utmost save energy and reduce carbon emission.

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2.1.2 American Mode - Action plan for low carbon city  The United States claimed through technology way to solve climate change issues.  Car energy-saving is considered as the main aspect of energy saving. In addition, the United States copy with vigorously climate warming by through a series of energy conservation and environmental protection measures.  Under the financial crisis to bring reorganization and influence of Obama’s government strategy, the low carbon emissions reduction has become the most important development strategy.

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■Hudson Estuary, New York City Response Strategies -----Adaptation      

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Protect the water sources Reduce the water demanding Flooding Control Water Treatment Water quality engineering Energy Saving

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■ Mississippi

Estuary, New Orleans

Response Strategies ----- Adaptation & Mitigation Five steps plan: •Carbon emission inventory •Reduce release plan for 2015 •Local climate act •Policy and countermeasures •Monitoring

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2.1.3 The French Model: urban energy saving  The French government enacted the No.2005781 law in July 2005, and established the wind development as French energy development strategy. The French government has set a regulation of wind-power into national power grid in July 2006 in order to ensure the normally market development.  There is tremendous development in wind power capacity in France in recent two years. The installed wind power already rapidly rose to total 10000MW in 2010 from 382MW in 2004.

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2.1.4 Denmark mode: urban energy-saving by taking the energy-saving strategy for the pilot  The Danish government attaches importance to national energy strategy planning in energy development strategic objectives under the guidance of energy policy and energy utilization way change.  It has established the clear incentive mechanism of energy-saving, and pay attention to the management of energy use process and energy strategy implementation.

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(1) Make long-term goal of energy strategy (2) Improving energy efficiency by paying attention to the legislation (3) Government leads to energy management (4) Enhance the combination organically of government policy and market mechanism

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■ Others cities Rhine Estuary, Rotterdam

Objectives:  Reduce 50% of GHG release by 2025 based on 1990  Zero-carbon city

Response Strategies----- Mitigation     

Sustainable city plan Energy port and carbon trade Sustainable transportation plan Public participation Innovation laboratory

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■Sydney Objectives: Reduce 70% of GHG release by 2025 based on 1990 Zero-carbon city

Response Strategies ----- Adaptation •Reduce GHG release •Water saving •Waste recycling •Green energy •National bicycle strategy 2011-5-19

•Environmental policy

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2.2 Chinese Mode:Low carbon city planning  Although the idea and practice of eco-city and low carbon city originated in western countries, their hotspots have been transferring to China in recent years.  The Chinese government plans to develop 15 to 20 ‘low carbon cities’ in the next three to five years for exploring and establishing a development mode of low carbon economy in order to promote the carbon dioxide emissions reducing to copy with climate change.  This is the great demand from the state and local government.

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The abundant wind and solar energy resources in China provide with the favorable conditions for the development of low carbon cities (Fig.3~4).

Fig.3 Effective wind power density distribution in China

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Fig.4 Solar energy resource distribution of China 34


Urbanization Spatial Distribution in China

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Mohe

HU Huanyong Line Tenchong 2011-5-19

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Carrying Capacity of China’s Environment

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DENSITY OF TAWN (number/100KM2)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

GDP (100 million RMB) 2011-5-19

RELATION BETWEEN URBANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

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工业化和城市化水平(%)

60

工业化

50

城市化

40 30 20 10 0 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 年份

Industrialization vs. Urbanization in China 1952-2000 Source:State Statistics Bureau,《National Statistics Yearbook》(1993-2000) 2011-5-19

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■ Pearl river estuary, Hong Kong Objectives: •Reduce 30% of GHG release by 2030 based on 2005

Response Strategies ----- Adaptation •Reduce fossil fuel •Develop renewable energy •Green building •Reduce transportation carbon release •Reforest •Saving energy

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 According to statistic data, China currently has at least 100 cities proposed the goal of construction "low carbon cities".  Shanghai and Baoding are trying to create low carbon cities, and issued a series of construction measures and indexes.  These practices indicated that the way to plan and build low carbon city basically included low carbon economy, low carbon society and low carbon social management.  Specific measures involved total energy consumption reduction, new energy and the use of renewable energy, low carbon community, low carbon traffic, low carbon construction, low carbon consumption, etc. 2011-5-19

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3. A Case Study of China  

China's low carbon cities and ecological cities are emerging in the trends of practice, a mutual influence, osmosis and fusion. According to the statistics, more than 170 cities throughout the country had in different levels, different aspects of sustainable development, and the construction of ecological city or green city, including the target of low carbon cities as Baoding, Shanghai, Guiyang, and Wuhan and so on. As the examples of eco-city, such as Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, Dezhou city in Shandong Province and 2010 Shanghai Expo, their overall planning of land layout, energy utilization, green traffic, ecological community, etc, are required to confirm the requirements of low carbon cities.

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3.1 Sino- Singapore Tianjin Eco-city  It was a linkprogram between China and Singapore Government to explore the low carbon city mode to cope with global climate change, and strengthen environmental protection and resource conservation and energy, constructing the harmonious society's strategic 2011-5-19 cooperation projects (2007).

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Key points for planning:

â—?The new low carbon cycling industrial system

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 Compact effective urban layout  Safe and healthy ecological environment system  Beautiful natural urban landscape system  Convenient green traffic system  Circulation efficient resource energy system  Livable friendly ecological community mode It aims to actively explore new urbanization and new type industrialization way 2011-5-19

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The planning area of this low carbon eco-city will cover approximately 30 km2 and its planning resident population will be controlled to 0.35 million. It would be built within next 10-15 years.

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3.2 2010 Shanghai World Expo

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The connotation of the Green expo and low carbon expo reflected in 5G concept and features , namely: 1G: Green 2G: Green 3G: Green 4G: Green 5G: Green

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Landscape Energy Source Transportation Building Consumption

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1GďźšGreen landscape

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Green Eco-Safety Pattern

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Landscape Pattern

外滩 外滩

老城厢 老城厢

陆家嘴 陆家嘴

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世博会 世博会

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Waterway Planning

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白莲泾河口

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2GďźšGreen Energy (Reduce carbon emission)

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3G: Green Building (Eco-Building)

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Old Dockyard Transformation

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4G:Green Transportation (Zero carbon emission)  Fuel cell bus  Super capacity bus  Fuel cell vehicle  Hybrid  Electric vehicle

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5GďźšGreen Consumption

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4. Strategies of Low Carbon City Planning and Energy Management 4.1 Optimize industrial structure, and construct low carbon industry support system 4.2 Optimize energy consumption structure and raise energy efficiency 4.3 Insist on the public bus priority policy in urban transportation development

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4.4 Vigorously develop low carbon buildings 4.5 Set carbon foundation and encourage the low carbon technology research and development 4.6 Promote legal system construction 4.7 Enhance carbon sink ability by urban forest planning

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It aims to provide with the scientific basis for the layout of low carbon sink urban forest, and ecological function optimization.

Master Planning

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Ecological Safety Pattern 65


â—?Enhance the Master planning for Green space System

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Objectives: â– 45% green coverage ratio and 50% of whole land resource as ecological space will be kept by 2020 â–  To increase the carbon sink function

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Developing the cooperation with Disney Land on the Planning & Development of Carbon-Sink Forest in China

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■Conclusion  As an important and special type, the planning for low carbon city should be paied much more attention to response the impact of global climate change, and carry out the main strategy of low carbon city development, as well as enhance the ability of preventing the adversely impact of climate change on urban construction, the economic and social development and eco-environment protection 

Low carbon development strategy should be put into practice from low carbon energy, low carbon industry, low carbon city space, low carbon forest and low carbon lifestyle, etc. The urban ability to response climate change should be improved by constructing the urban ecological security pattern.

It is a long-term task and needs to be paid much more attention by both government and all publics, as well as to enhance the international cooperation, which will be very helpful to improve the relationships between man and nature, man and environment.

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Thank you !

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