ORNL4575, Volume 2
C o n t r a c t N o . W-7405-eng-26
METAU AND CERAMICS D I V I S I O N
CORRCEION I N POLYTHERMAL LOOP SYSTEMS 11. A SOLID-STATE DIFFUSION MECHANISM WITH AND WITHOUT LIQUID FILM EFFECTS
R. B. Evans I11 J. W. K o g e r J. H. D e V a n This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Atomic Energy Commission, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty. express or implied. or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
OAK RLDGE NATIONAL LA3ORATORY Oak R i d g e , Tennessee operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION f o r the U. S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
......... .................... ...........................
........................... 5 8 Fundamental Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Basic Diffusion Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Equilibrium Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u 16 Mass Transfer Across Liquid Films . . . . . . . . . . . . Combined Reaction Rate-Film Resistances . . . . . . . . . 17 Surface Effects Referred t o the Alloy . . . . . . . . . . 18 Transient Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Review of the Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Introduction
.......... Temperature Profiles and Loop Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . Application t o Sodium-Inconel600 Systems
................ The Reference Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Prototype Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quasi-Steady-State Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statement of the Problem and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . Solution i n Terms of t h e Prototype Loop . . . . . . . . . . . Predicted Results f o r Sodium-Inconel 600 Systems . . . . . . . Discussion of Sodium-Inconel600 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reference and Prototype Loops
................ ................... Redox Corrosion Equilibria and Systems Selected f o r Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quasi-Steady-State Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion of Molten-Salt Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application t o Molten-Salt Systems Thermal Convection Loops
24 26 26 26 28 32 32 36
54 55 59
CORROSION I N POLYTHEFMAL LOOP SYSTEIB 11. A SOLID-STATE DIFFUSION MECHANISM WITH AND WITHOUT LIQUID FILM EFFECTS
R. B. Evans I11
J. W. Koger J. H. DeVan ABSTRACT
The corrosion resistance of alloys exposed t o nonisotherml circulating liquids i s an important consideration i n the design of reactor systems t h a t employ liquids as either coolants or coolant-fuel combinations. Accordingly, several mathematical descriptions have been developed t o explain selective transport of corrosion-labile constituents of nickel-base alloys. This report i s the second of a series t o correlate results of corrosion behavior observed i n polythermal loop systems. The present report specializes t o cases i n which solid-state diffusion i n the alloy, as influenced by coolant characteristics and composition, dominates the corrosion mechanism. Equations are derived f o r both transient and steady-state cases. Since transients, which are induced by liquid films, are negligible, analysis of steadys t a t e behavior i s of greatest importance.
Applicability of t h e derived equations i s demonstrated by comparison of predicted values w i t h experimental r e s u l t s f o r two d i s t i n c t l y different systems. The f i r s t involves hot-to-coldzone transfer of nickel i n Inconel 600 pumped loops circulating liquid sodium. Comparisons revealed that actual corrosion i s much higher than predicted by the equations; t h i s suggests t h a t t h e t r u e corrosion reaction overrides a slow solid-state diffusion process. The second system considered i s transfer of chromium i n Hastelloy N loops with molten s a l t flow induced by
thermal convection. Three hypothetical examples are considered, namely: (1) chromium corrosion a t a n points, transfer t b salt only; (2) hot-to-cold-zone chromium transfer; and f i n a l l y (3) cold-to-hot-zone chromium transfer. While complete data t o substantiate t h e r e s u l t s computed for the above cases a r e not available, t h e success of early 51Cr t r a c e r experiments (example 1) suggests that t h e solid-state diffusion mechanism does apply t o certain molten-salt systems when the s a l t cons t i t u e n t s (and impurities) a r e subjected t o stringent control. I
a = Subscript denoting alloy; superscript denoting a c t i v i t y .
a = Activity of alloy constituent M, no units. M
% = Total AXS
liquid exposed area of loop alloy, cm2. = Cross-sectional area of loop tubing, cm2.
AZ = Internal peripheral area of loop tubing, cm2. b = Slope of a linear T versus z segment, "K/cm.
c = Subscript denoting cold zone. c = Integration constant with respect t o w, i = 1, 2, Wt. frac. sec. i
= Constant group, 4 x a p a r t ~ ,g cm-1 sec-1/2.
Constant group, (K /%IC, g cm-1 sec-1/2. P d = Symbol f o r dissolved metallic species.
D = Diffusion coefficient of M(s) i n a l l o y , cm2/sec.
Do = Preexponential term, D/exp(-ED/RT),
Mutual diffusion coefficient of M(d) - i n liquid metal, cm2/sec.
......., no units.
e = The transcendental number 2.7l828
exp(z) = The exponential function of T, e , no units. 2 erf(v) = The error function of v, e-T d T , no units.
erfc(v) = The complementary error function of v, 1- erf(v), no units. 03
E1(u.) = First-order exponential function of u., J ..J
./ (e"/T)dT, Uj
j '-IJ (e"/.t)dr,
Ei(u.) = The "i"exponential function of u J
ED = Activation energy f o r solid-state diffusion of M( s)
Esoln = Energy required t o dissolve M i n liquid metal, cal/mole. f = Fraction of %; when Axs i s constant, f = z/L. f ( p ) = Location of balance point where jM = 0 and k = %. -f ( w , s ) = Laplace transform of F(w,t), 03 F(w,t)e -st'dtf P
F(w,t) = An a r b i t r a r y function of w and t. g = Symbol denoting gram mass.
Symbol denoting gas.
G = Gibb' s potential or f r e e energy, cal/mole. ir
h = Film coefficient f o r mass transfer, cm/sec.
h = Combined solution r a t e
- film coefficient,
3 h' = Subscript denoting hot zone.
H = m e product %(h/D)(Pj/Pa>(ma/%),
AH = Enthalpy difference, cal/mole. i = Index 1 at f = 0 f o r function below.
I. .(a/E) = An integrated function along extended z coordinate from 1J
Ei t o tj,rcm.
j = Index p or 2 a t balance point or f = 1f o r function above.
s f lsu x of species M, g cm-2 sec-1/2.
JM= Atomic or molecular f l u x of species M, mole k = Boltzmann constant = 1.38 X
g cm2 sec'l
seco1i2. O r 1 ,
kl = Solution rate constant, cm/sec. . kla = Solution r a t e constant, mole
k2 = Deposition rate constant, cm/sec. k2& = Deposition r a t e constant, mole sec'l. I? =' Equilibrium constant, k, a/k2 a no units.
Ky = Activity coefficient r a t i o> YM(d)/YM(g)> units depend choice of standard states f o r %.
= Preexponential factor %/exp(-Esoln/RT),
K = Balance point value of no units. P = Ekperimental s o l u b i l i t y constant, no units.
1 = Subscript denoting liquid. L = Total loop length, cm. m = Molecular o r atomic weight, @;/mole.
M = Symbol denoting m e t a l constituent subject t o corrosion.
AM(t) = Mass o r weight of M transferred,
NRe = Reynolds number, 2r'Vzp/p. Nsc = Schmidt number, p/pDm,
Nsh = Sherwood number f o r mass transfer, 2hrf DMe, no units. p = Symbol or subscript denoting balance point.
q = A transformation variable, (s/D),l2,
f l a w rate i n loop, cm3/sec. r = Radial distance measured from the center of the loop tubing, cm.
Q = Volumetric
rM = Atomic radius of M(d) - i n liquid metal, cm. r' = Inside radius of loop tubing, cm.
4 R = Gas constant used i n exponential terms, 1.987 c a l mole-’
O r ’ .
s = Laplace transformation variable, sec‘l. s = Symbol denoting solid solution.
t = Time, sec. T = Temperature, OF, or OK. AT = Temperature drap along a segment of z, OC, or O K . u = Dimensionless variable, a/! no units. j 3’ v = The argument w / ( 4 ~ t ) 1 / 2 , no units. Vz = Liquid flow velocity, &/Axs, cm/sec. w = Distance of linear diffusion, normal t o AZ, of M(g) in alloy, cm. x = Concentration of M (s ) i n alloy expressed as weight fraction,
xa = Concentration of M (s ) i n as-received alloy.
Surface concentration of M ( s ) as a function of T along z.
x ( w , t ) = Concentration of M (s ) i n diffusion region as a function of c
position and time.
x* = Alloy concentration of M(g) equivalent t o liquid concentration
of M(d) - a t the liquid side of the liquid film. = Alloy concentration of M (s ) equivalent t o equilibrium liquid
concentration a t liquid-solid interface. Concentration of M (s ) i n alloy expressed as atomic fraction,
no units. AX = The concentration difference,
yn, (O,t) - xa,
Lm* = The concentration difference, fi
no units. - i n bulk liquid expressed as weight y = Concentration of M(d) fraction; it corresponds t o y* when transients are discussed,
no units. fl= Concentration of M(d) a t metal-film interface, no units. Y = Equilibrium or saturation concentration of M(d) i n a unit
a c t i v i t y container.
Concentration of M(d) i n bulk liquid expressed as weight fraction, no units. -
z = Linear f l a w coordinate f o r v or Q, cm. a! =
The factor (ED)/(2bR), cm.
a!’ = The factor ( E ~ a!’f
= The factor a!’
> 1, cm.
< 1, cm.
B(uj) = The factor u exp(u.)El(u ), no units. j J j 7 = Activity coefficients, units selected t o make aM dimensionless.
A = Sylnbol t o denote difference. E = Extended z coordinate = a!/uj, cm. p = Viscosity coefficient of t h e liquid metal, g cm-l sec’l. I [
= The transcendental number 3.l416...,
p = Mass or weight density, g/cm3. T = Dummy
variable of integration, no units.
= Concentration difference f o r hot zone, @hr
ynf (0,t) - % (w,t),
@E’ = Concentration difference f o r hot
- yn, (w,t),
zone when liquid f i l m i s
concentration difference f o r cold zone with and without presence of liquid film, xe(w,t) - xa, no units.
INTRODUCTION In a previous report1 (hereafter referred t o as Report I) atten-
t i o n was given t o interpretations of corrosion behavior i n systems composed of liquid sodium c
ained i n the nickel-base a l l o y Inconel 600.
Specific i n t e r e s t focused on experimental pumped loops that gave d e f i n i t e evidence that nickel and chromium moved from hot t o cold regions of the
Only nickel transfer was considered, because l i t t l e was known
about the s o l u b i l i t y of chromium i n liquid sodium; furthermore, the major component undergoing corrosion and transfer was nickel. w
information i s of major importance because the manner i n which s o l u b i l i t y lR. B. Evans I11 and Paul Nelson, Jr., Corrosion i n Polythermal Systems, I. Mass Transfer Limited by Surface and Interface Resistances as Compared with Sodium-Inconel Behavior, -4575, Vol. 1 (March 197’1).
increases with temperature governs the steady-state driving force for
mass transfer around t h e loop. The major e f f o r t i n Report I was t o develop a simple system of equations t h a t might describe the mass transfer as observed experimentally.
The approach i n Report I was t o assme t h a t t h e mass-transfer equations would f a l l i n t o the same patterns as those t h a t describe heat transfer from hot t o cold zones under conditions of known external-temperature profiles and rates of f l u i d f l o w around the loop.
For heat flow, the
only resistances involved would be an overall coefficient t h a t would comp r i s e t h e thermal conductivity of the walls and a heat-transfer film.
An analogous situation was assumed f o r mass transfer with the exception t h a t t h e thermal conductivity term was replaced by a reaction-rate constant t h a t was presumed t o be associated with a first-order dissolution react ion. Predictions of corrosion based on t h e heat-transfer analog showed t h a t transient mass transfer effects decayed a f t e r negligibly short times (fractions of an hour). Steady-state corrosion r a t e s calculated from t h e film coefficient alone were much greater than measured values. It w a s necessary t o invoke t h e reaction-fate constant t o increase the resistances and lower the computed r e s u l t s i n order t o match experiment a l results. While t h i s "matching" could be done f o r r e s u l t s of individual experiments, a consistent set of reaction constants f o r a l l results t h a t would lead t o a general correlation could not be obtained. One of t h e prime reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of the mechanisms covered i n Report I i s t h a t the loop walls were not pure nickel. Rather, the walls were of an alloy wherein solid-state diffusion effects influenced t h e overall behavior. These effects were ignored i n t h e equations of Report I. The present report i s devoted t o another mathematical treatment of an idealized mass-transfer process wherein corrosion rates depend d i r e c t l y on the rate a t which consituents of alloys d i f f u s e i n t o or out of container walls, a s influenced by the condition of wall surfaces exposed t o a high-temperature liquid. Specifically, consideration i s given t o cases for which solid-state diffusion controls mass transfer at a l l points i n a polythermal loop system containing circulating liquids. The container constituents of i n t e r e s t a r e nickel-base alloys.
7 We have also considered t h e contributions of liquid-film resistances
acting simultaneously with the solid-state mechanism t o ascertain whether o r not a suitable combined mechanism (our ultimate goal) could be attained.
Unfortunately, t h i s approach was unsuccessful.
Three rather important assumptions are made i n our present derivations.
First, effects of changes i n w a l l dimensions can be neglected.
Second, the r a t e of diffusion i s unaffected by composition changes i n t h e diffusion zone of t h e alloy; i n other words, the diffusion coeff i c i e n t i s not a function of concentration.
Third, the circulating
liquid i s pre-equilibrated with respect t o the amount of dissolved components so t h a t the concentrations i n the liquid do not vary appreciably w i t h position or time. This l a t t e r boundary condition i s embodied i n both t h e "transient" and "quasi-steady-state"
conditions t h a t a r e
covered i n t h i s report. It should be mentioned that, although many liquids have been studied
r e l a t i v e t o reactor applications, .the basic approach i n assessing corrosion properties remains t h e same.
One employs either thermal convection
loops or pumped systems t o collect the data required.
A t t h e time of
t h i s writing, sodium systems, which are of i n t e r e s t t o the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder R e a ~ t o r , ~are , ~ under intensive study. We should note a treatment similar t o that t o be covered here was i n i t i a l l y roughed out i n 1957 under the auspices of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project.4 The liquids of interest i n t h i s early e f f o r t were molten fluoride salts.
The objective of the work leadi'ng t o the present report kas been
t o carry out refinements of the early ANP treatments,4 and t o generalize the results t o permit t h e i r application t o many systems t h a t might 2Argonne National Laboratory, Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Volume 1. Overall Plan, WASH-1101 (August 1968).
(LMFBR) Program Plan.
3Alkali Metal Coolants (Proceedings of a Symposium, Vienna, 28 November 2 December, 19661, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1967.
4R. B. Evans 111, ANP Program Quart. Progr. Rept. Dec. 31, 1957, oRNL2440, pp. 104-1l3. 5R. C. m i a n t and A. M. Weinberg, "Molten Fluorides as Power Fuels," i
Nucl. Sci. Ehg. 2 -2, 797-803 (1957).
8 operate within t h e solid-state mechanism under consideration.
term and immediate objective i s t o determine whether a mechanism of t h i s type applies t o the migration of nickel i n the sodium-Inconel system i n high-velocity pumped loops. One of t h e central conclusions of the present study i s t h a t the solid-state mechanism clearly does not explain the observed corrosion behavior of the sodium-Inconel 600 system.
On the positive side, haw-
ever, t h e analytical work t h a t was done i s immediately and d i r e c t l y applicable t o Hastelloy N-molten salt thermal convection loops, i n which t h i s solid-state mechanism clearly does operate. includes two separate topics:
Thus, t h e present work
one covering corrosion induced by liquid
metals, another covering corrosion induced by constituents i n moltensalt systems.
For ease of presentation, a rather unorthodox outline has been adapted for t h i s report. F i r s t , we discuss basic diffusion relationships, variables, and the type of transients one might encounter. Then we turn t o a discussion of liquid mass-transfer films and t h e i r effects on t h e corrosion rates.
Next, we derive and present equations f o r the cumula-
t i v e corrosion a t quasi-steady-state (i.e., when the transient effect associated with liquid film resistance has diminished).
The term "quasi"
appears because t h e predicted corrosion varies with the square root of the.
These make up the most irrrportant aspect of the report.
t o emphasize the meaning of the analytical results, detailed "example calculations" are given.
Separate discussions a r e presented f o r the
liquid-metal application and three molten-salt applications. The f i n a l section i s a summary of t h e more important features of t h e equations and t h e i r applications.
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS It would be most convenient, f'rom the authors' standpoint, t o .
proceed directly t o t h e task of setting up the diffusion relationships t h a t take liquid phase mass transfer into account, show t h i s t o be of l i t t l e importance, and proceed d i r e c t l y t o the quasi-steady-state solut i o n based on the diffusion relationships.
This i s the conventional
method of presentation, but one immediately encounters fractionalapproach variables introduced by the nature of the alloys and chemistry of the liquids.
Accordingly, we shall jump ahead of the film p a r t o f -
the problem and start by writing dam some of the well-known expressions for solid-state diffusion i n order t o introduce the i.deas behind
fractional-approach variables and t o enable recognition of integrated forms t h a t emerge when f i l m resistances a r e encountered.
Basic Diffusion Relationships
The basic relationships required a r e the concentration-profile
equations that express the weight or mass fraction x(w,t) of an alloy
constituent as a function of position across the w a l l , w, and time, t. We l e t w = r - r', where rf i s the inner radius of t h e loop tubing.
The relationships derive from Fick's second l a w of diffusion, sometimes
called t h e Fourier equation, and apply t o both hot and cold zones of
These relationships a r e developed elsewhere.6J7
It i s suf-
f i c i e n t here t o point out j u s t a few important features of the equations c Y
First, x(0,t) i s assumed t o be constant with time.'
Only linear diffusion along a single coordinate,g w, s h a l l be considered. The direction of w i s normal t o the l i q u i d exposed surface, Az, where
w = 0.
The container walls are i n f i n i t e l y thick r e l a t i v e t o the effect i v e depth of the profile; thus x(w,t) = xa' the bulk concentration of the constituent, f o r a l l times.
6R. 1st ed., 7H. 2nd ed.,
V. Churchill, Modern Operational Mathematics i n Engineering, pp. 109-Il2, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. S. C a r s l a w and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, pp. 5841, Oxford University Press, New York, 1959.
'The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s assumption w i l l become evident as we discuss t h e relationship between the concentration of an element a t t h e metal surface and i t s concentration i n the corrosion medium. 'The reader should not infer t h a t use of w = r - rf means t h a t a radial flow system i s t o be employed; we use w as a linear flow coordinate, even though t h e container i s a cylindrical tube, because most of the alphabet has been reserved for other notation.
Two f'unctions evolve from the solution of the Fourier equation; these hold f o r t h e hot and cold zones, respectively:
-@h' - - x(O,t)
- Xa - xa
Consider now a hypothetical case (somewhat implausible f o r an actual loop) i n which given points i n the hot and cold legs have the same v. A rather important identity can be demonstrated by adding Eqs. (1)and (2), namely, ( @ h'
This happens because t h e definitions
of the error flmctions take t h e form shown below: V
- [ f eCr2 dr
erfc(v) = 2 f
dr] = 1
As v approaches zero, Qhf/Ax approaches unity, and as v approaches infinity, Oh' /Ax approaches zero. The reverse i s t r u e f o r @ /Ax. This C means t h a t x(wp) = x(0,t)
i n t h e hot zone, and x(w,4 = x(O,t)
= x(w,o) + xa
i n the cold zone. The necessity of introducing variables l i k e 4 and parameters l i k e
Ax should begin t o emerge at t h i s point. From a physical point of view, the concentration of a constituent i n t h e alloy can never be unity i n a "compatible" alloy-liquid system. The purity of t h e liquid should be high while i t s a b i l i t y t o dissolve alloy constituents should be minimal.
Thus, values l i k e x(w,m) = 1 or 0, and x(0,t) = 0 or 1, are seldom
Yet, from a mathematical point of view, t h e solution m u s t vanish a t a l l boundaries except one. Stated i n the language of p a r t i a l dif'ferential equations, the heat equation must be homogeneous; the same i s t r u e f o r a l l but one of the boundary conditionslO,ll unless an additional equation i s involved. The nonhomogeneous conditions usually concern an i n i t i a l or particular surface condition. For these reasons, f'ractional-approach variables are employed. The problem a t hand requires use of x(w,t) as prescribed f o r Fick's first law, the l a t t e r being evaluated a t the surface t o obtain an expression f o r t h e flux traversing w = 0: encountered i n practice.
If we assign z as the directional f l a w coordinate o f t h e circulating
l i q u i d normal t o w, then Ax a t each point is a function of z and of temperature, and Eq. (5) w i t h x(0,t) =
The f l u x , j is positive f o r the hot zone and negative f o r t h e cold zone.
One of the basic assumptions stated i n t h e Introduction, namely, t h a t the concentration of the circulating l i q u i d remains fixed with t h e ,
means that the r a t i o ?/xa varies w i t h related time-temperature points i n a special way. This i s t h e reason Eq. ( 5 ) has been cast i n t o the form of Eq. (6).
Irrespective of t h i s , Eq. (6) may be integrated with
respect t o time without concern about the %/xa relationship, since x(0,t) and, therefore, %/xa do not vary w i t h time. AM(t)/A Z =
jM dt' = -2paxa( 1- %/xa) (Dt/n)1/2
'OR. E. Gaskell, Engineering Mathematics, 1st. ed., p. 358, Dryden Press, New York, 1958. '1H. S . Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, 2nd ed:,.pp. 99-101, Oxford University Press, New York, 1959.
Under t h e usual sign convention, a positive value of AM/A means t h a t the metal constituent diffuses i n t o the a l l o y (cold zone); negative values mean outward diff'usion (hot zone).
We s h a l l reverse t h i s Conven-
tion, since we desire a balance of M with respect t o t h e liquid.
The solution behavior of most acceptable systems i s such t h a t t h e liquid
gains material i n the hot zone and loses material i n t h e cold zone. In other words, xa > % i n t h e hot zone; xa < 5 i n t h e cold zone; notice t h a t Eqs. (6) and (7) follow the adopted convention automatically.
next mathematical operation involves integration along z, but t h i s requires some knuwledge of the manner inwhich z varies with T and, of greater importance, t h e manner i n which T varies with x(0,t). t e r i s a problem i n chemistry t o which we nuw turn.
Surface Behavior Equilibrium Ratio A good example i s the reaction t h a t gives rise t o chromium migra-
t i o n i n Inconel 600 loops circulating UF4-bearing molten salts. 12,13 The reaction of i n t e r e s t i s C r (s)
UF,(d) + CrFz(d) -
The symbols (E) and (d ) a r e intended t o denote t h e respective states: "solution i n the alloy" and "solution i n t h e liquid." The equilibrium constant i s
12R. B. Evans 111, ANP Program Quart. Progr. Rept. Dec. 31, 1957, o m 2 4 4 0 , pp. lU-lJ3. 13W. R. Grimes, G. M. Watson, J. H. DeVan, and R. B. Evans, "RadioTracer Techniques i n t h e Study of Corrosion by Molten Fluorides," pp. 559-574 i n Conference on the Use of Radioisotopes i n t h e Physical Sciences and Industry, September 6-17, 1960, Proceedings, Vol. 111, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1962.
. Brackets are used t o denote concentration variables.
If the concentra-
tions can be related t o appropriate a c t i v i t y values, one may write, i n
terms of t h e standard f r e e energy change f o r the reaction above, NO
= -RT an
may be computed w i t h the aid of information summa-
rized by Baes.14 We have assumed that a l l points along z are exposed t o the same concentration of dissolved species of i n t e r e s t .
Thus [ C r ] = 3 adjusts
t o compensate f o r temperature-induced changes i n
balance points f(p) and f(p' ) exist along z and have the property jM
These points delineate the boundaries of the hot and cold zones.
Clearly, then [ C r ] -0 i
= xa a t f ( p ) , and an equation equivalent t o
Eq. (sa) can be written with I$replaced by K when quasi-steady-state P conditions are attained. The r a t i o i n Eq. (7) i s
F" Units of the concentrations i n t h i s r a t i o cancel out; those of xa, which
i s factored out t o form t h e paxa product, should be weight fraction because j i s a mass flux. M We s h a l l now consider nickel migration i n Inconel 600 loops containing liquid sodium. Although it i s generally accepted that t h e nickel reaction i s a simple dissolution process, very few r e l i a b l e data e x i s t on the s o l u b i l i t y of nickel i n sodium. About t h e best one can do a t t h i s time i s t o write an equation of t h e form: Ni(2) ==
and then assume a reasonable temperature relationship of t h e form:
1 4 C . F. Baes, "The Chemistry and Thermodynamics of Molten-SaltReactor Fluoride Solutions," pp. 409-433 i n Thermodynamics, Vol. I, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1966.
u Values for K, and Esoh 6.794 x
used i n t h e present report are, respectively,
weight fraction and 6.985 kcal/mole.
With these values
Eq. (U), cast i n t h e form of Eq. (9), passes through a set of s o l u b i l i t y data reported by Singer.15
It i s clear t h a t t
yr = YIYX ,
where we assume the a c t i v i t y coefficient 7 t o be unity and t h e mole fraction of nickel t o be unity, since t h e s o l u b i l i t y experiments were conducted i n a pure nickel pot.16 In t h i s case, Y (the saturation value
In a Thus once again t h e form of Eq. (11)holds true. loop, x = (%/ma)Y/%. We might point out by way of conclusion t h a t we r e a l l y don't know what reaction E represents, as we did f o r the fluoride case, Eq. (10). soln In certain i d e a l cases, Esoh would be nearly equivalent t o the heat of fusion of nickel (= 4 kcal/mole), but i n the present case the solubilLt i e s are s o l o w and t h e data a r e so scattered it would seem d i f f i c u l t t o attach definite physical significance t o t h i s variable. Note a l s o t h a t hot-to-cold-zone transfer requires t h e energy term t o be positive. If it i s negative, material would tend t o move from t h e cold t o t h e hot zone. i n the pot experiments) i s equivalent t o the experimental
React ion Rates Consider an alloy with constituent M t h a t tends t o undergo a reversible solution reaction governed by a positive solution energy
k2 "R. M. Singer and J. R. Weeks, "On the Solubility of Copper, Nickel, and Iron i n Liquid Sodium," pp. 309-318 i n Proceedings of t h e International Conference on Sodium Technology and Large Fast Reactor Design, November 79, 1968, -7520, Part I.
I6We have written Eq. (l3) i n terms of a selected standard s t a t e f o r dissolved nickel i n t h e saturated solution with t h e concentration expressed as ppm (by weight). A more conventional choice would have been t o express Y i n terms of mole fraction such t h a t the corresponding a c t i v i t y would be unit a t s a h r a t i o n . "his choice would have avoided a "split" definition of K which appears later.
A s stated e a r l i e r the symbols (s) - and (d) denote t h e respective s t a t e s
solution i n the alloy and solution i n the liquid.
One may s e t f o r t h
t h e c l a s s i c a l r a t e expression f o r the net amount of Mthat reacts i n
terms of t h e molecular or atomic flux as a JM = k1 'M(2)
a M ' (d-)
The units of ka must take on those of JM(mole
m u s t be dimensionless according t o established conventions. cm2 r e f e r t o a u n i t or peripheral area along z.
A t equilibrium, J = 0, and one obtains the correct thermodynamic M expression f o r the equilibrium constant, which i s
Although Eqs. (U) and (15) a r e c l a s s i c a l expressions
- i n a thermo-
dynamic sense - f o r first-order reactions, they seldom appear i n t h i s form i n corrosion practice. Mass fluxes are most frequently used, and the concentrations and equilibrium constants involve weight or mass fractions. Furthermore, t h e constants usually have velocity units. These conventions require the use of mass density terms. Therefore, additional modifications of Eqs. (14) and (15) a r e clearly i n order. It i s convenient f o r present purposes t o take aMas t h e product
of an a c t i v i t y coefficient and the mole fraction.
mole fractions i n t h e solid and liquid, respec-
Now i f new r a t e constants a r e defined such t h a t ,
then the expression f o r the mass f l u x becomes
The s u p e r s c r i p t o a p p e a r s as a reminder that the l i q u i d concentration
that governs the dissolution reaction i s the value that e x i s t s between
Assuming t h e absence of a film, h m, w i t h j, = 0 (equilibrium); then -+ Y, and the relationship between K and Ka may be readily found. It turns out t h a t exp t h e metal and mass transfer film.
Notice that t h e units of k, and k, are cm/sec.
Mass Transfer Across Liquid Films The accepted and usual approach f o r explanations of the masstransfer phenomenon i s t o invoke the close analogies that e x i s t f o r various m o d e s of heat and mass transfer. In t h i s case we are interested i n t h e mass-transfer analog of heat t r a n s f e r as it occurs under Newton's
l a w of cooling. write,
In terms of the concentrations i n t h e liquid, one may
and if surface reactions a r e fast
The interested reader i s referred t o discussions given by Bird e t a1.17 O f particular importance i s the analogous way i n which h's f o r mass and
heat t r a n s f e r a r e c0mputed.l'
Many think of h as a representative of
a diffusion parameter because a binary diffusion coefficient ( f o r example, Ni(d) i n sodium) appears i n the correlations concerning h f o r mass transfer. 17R. B. B i r d , W. E. Steward, and E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, pp. 267, 522, Wiley, New York, 1960. 181bid., pp. 636-647, 681.
17 Combined Reaction Rate-Film Resistances In some instances, a complete description of surface e f f e c t s may require coupling of the effects of both chemical kinetics and liquid film transport such t h a t the associated resistances t o f l u w a c t i n
The relationships sought are not new.19
t o gain generality and completeness.
We repeat them here
We note that the coupled r e s i s -
tance i s a most important aspect of the following presentation regarding corrosion i n liquid-metal systems. Since a large portion of the combined surface effects involve l i q u i d behavior, we shall develop a r a t e term that gives the w a l l related input t o an increment of f l u i d passing a unit area of w a l l . This term w i l l be altered t o conform t o solid-state diffusion convention
by changing c e r t a i n l i q u i d concentrations t o pseudo-wall concentrations. Three reference concentrations, each referred t o the liquid, are involved. These are: Y, y0 and y. Consider a unit area i n the hot zone. The same j passes both t h e resistances associated w i t h the
and the f i l m equation,
Thus, one m y solve f o r y0 using Eq. (20), substitute t h i s r e s u l t i n Eq. (181, and, using manipulations alluwed by Eq. (19), obtain:
l/h + l/k2
19J. Hopenfeld and D. Darley, Dynamic Mass Transfer of Stainless S t e e l i n Sodium under High-Heat-Flux Conditions, NAA-SR-12447 (July 19671.
Surface Effects Referred t o the Alloy The next point t o consider i s t h e application of Eq. (21) t o solve
Equation (21) may be a l t e r e d as
a solid-state diffusion problem. follows with Y = I$x
The superscript 0 appears on the
x as a reminder t h a t t h i s i s a t r u e
alloy concentration a t t h e surface.
We have a l s o substituted subscript T
= % varies exp with temperature. A basic assumption stated i n t h e Introduction permits one t o treat y as independent of temperature. If .we a r e a t a balance
f o r subscript exp. (experimental) as a reminder that k
=Q, = and I$ = K where subscript p denotes balance M P point. Thus, y = K and for a l l other points along z other than p we P a' may write point, j
where xo= x K /% "P
Before writing dam t h e f i n a l forms, one w i l l r e c a l l t h a t Eqs. (21) through (21b) were s e t up i n terms of positive f l a w i n t o a salt volume. This i s opposite t o the direction of f l a w i n t o t h e metal, so the sign
of Eq. (21b) m u s t be reversed.
The surface condition can be set f o r t h i n terms of a derivative
19 The variable & i s t o be treated i n general as x, so we s h a l l drop t h e superscript 0 i n Eq. (241, from t h i s point on. It i s of some i n t e r e s t t o note that, if k, i n Eq. (17) had been defined as k2a*YM(d)%/ma, Eq. (18) would have involved only weight fractions and the Fatio ma/% would not have appeared i n Eq. (25). TRANSIENT SOLUTIONS
The Introduction s t a t e d t h a t t h e loop operation was t o be initiated with t h e y corresponding t o the quasi-steady state. invokes two conditions:
Quasi-steady s t a t e
(1)t h a t t h e bulk concentration of the liquid
and, hence, the concentration of surface elements, x(O,t), remain fixed with time, and (2) t h a t the effects of the liquid film resistance on
mass t r a n s f e r remain fixed with time. Fâ€™romthe r e s u l t s of Report I, we conclude t h a t t h e bulk concentration of the l i q u i d w i l l have a constant value i n some small f r a c t i o n of an hour. We nuw wish t o examine t h e point i n time t h a t t h e second transient condition,
&- x* f
f(t), w i l l
be realized. t
To find t h e answer, we m u s t solve a somewhat complicated solid-state diffusion problem. Review of the Equations A succinct statement of the problem i s as folluws:
F i r s t , find a
solution, x(w,t), of the Fourier equation,
- f - -
1 ax D a t
incorporating Eq. (24) and other appropriate boundary conditions; then manipulate the r e s u l t s t o produce an expression l i k e Eq. (7). Solutions f o r Eq. (26) with (24) have been given f o r the hot zones2â€™ using c l a s s i c a l techniques, and f o r the cold zone alone2I using S. C a r s l a w and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, 2nd ed., pp. 70-73, Oxford University Press, New York, 1959. L
211bid., pp. 305-306.
20 Laplace transforms.
We could start with these results; however, l i t t l e
would be gained and complete familiarity would be l o s t i f t h i s approach t
In fact, it i s just about as easy t o start from the
beginning, since the f l u x expressions turn out t o be t h e same ( w i t h the exception of different signs) f o r both zones.
Attention may be
r e s t r i c t e d t o one zone, and we shall choose the cold zone.
conditions are x(w,O) = xa, x(w,t) = xa, x ( 0 , ~ )= Xn; finally, X(O,t) must satisfy Eq. (24). Let
t o be solved w i t h t h e boundary conditions:22 @(w,O) = 0
, @(0,4 = Ax!+ , @(-,t)
Notice that nothing i s said about
t h i s point.
Figure l p r e s e n t s the variables involved f o r both t h e simple cons t a n t potential and t h e present problems. We shall not use the subscript c 22With the variable change indicated, the solution f o r the concent r a t i o n p r o f i l e could be written i n a form analogous t o E q s . (1)and (2); of course aXn would replace Ax. It turns out that t h i s solution w i l l be bypassed i n passing d i r e c t l y t o the expression for AM(t)/AZ.
ORNL- O W 0 69- I0089
% 2 I 8
0.8 - - w
COLD ZONE ALLOY
$ 2 nIX
v ) -
j,,, ( t)
HOT ZONE ALLOY
w , DIRECTION OF LINEAR DIFFUSION
Fig. 1. The Relative Positions of Various Concentration Parameters and Variables. These quantities govern t h e concentration profiles i n t h e tubing w a l l s under transient, then steady-state conditions; they control concentration profiles and the migration rates i n t h e alloy. An individual representation of reaction r a t e contributions i s not shown; thus the difference, fW-Ax, r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o h or E. f o r cold zone i n the expressions t o follow since we have already stated
t h i s restriction. We now turn t o transformed versions, s t a r t i n g with t h e notation of C h ~ r c h i l and l ~ ~then converting t o that of Carslaw and Jaeger.24
view of boundary condition (a), t h e transform of Eq. (26a) i s
23R. V. Churchill, Modern Operational Eilathermtics i n Engineering, 1st ed., pp. 109-112, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1950. L
24H. S. C a r s l a w and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, 2nd. ed., pp. 5841, &ford University Press, New York, 1959.
The general solution of Eq.
ma) i s
where q = (S/D)I/~. To s a t i s f y condition (b), c2 must be zero.
derivative of the particular solution with respect t o w i s
= -qcle 4
A t t h e surface, S(0,s) = c1
Thus t h e transform of Eq. (24a) evaluated a t w = 0 i s ?((O,S)
This may be rewritten as
The inverse of @(w,s) = c,ew i l l demonstrate t h a t condition ( c ) is s a t i s f i e d . This implies t h a t aXn + A x as t + 0 3 . In other words, Xn + & i n view of the associated film condition
Now, since c
it i s clear t h a t
23 The s t a t e d goal i s a form l i k e Eq. (7).
In transformed coordinates
t h i s will be
The inverse25 transform of Eq. (27) i s
To go back t o sign conventions associated w i t h the corrosion medium, we
merely reverse signs by redefining
aXn t o be
Equation (23) was used t o write the last form. Comparison of the f i r s t term of Eq. (27a)
the new ver-
sion of M - w i t h the r i g h t side of Eq. ( 7 ) reveals t h a t both forms a r e equivalent. One may r e c a l l that Eq. (7) was developed on t h e basis of negligible film or surface effects, whereby &d e. This a c t u a l l y happens over a period of time, depending on the H value, because exp(-u2) erfc(u)
0 as u
forming the r a t i o of &Az neglected).
Clarification i s gained by (where H i s accounted) t o AM/A, (where H i s
The r a t i o is:
25The inversion formula i n t h i s case i s tabulated as item 15, Appendix V, p. 405, i n H. S. C a r s l a w and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, 2nd. ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1959.
24 Several somewhat fortuitous distinctions evolve when the results are put f o r t h as a r a t i o . The results come out i n compact form as
l m h u s a remainder; the remainder obviously fades out as time increases. This clearly demonstrates that surface effects, r e l a t i v e t o diffusive
effects, a r e inportant only i n the i n i t i a l phases of the loop operation. An a t t r a c t i v e feature of Eq. (28) i s t h e cancellation of M. This means that specification of the balance point (manifest through K ) i s P not required t o prepare a p l o t shuwing the e f f e c t s of h or H. The reader w i l l discover i n later sections that determination of the balance points i s an involved procedure, even under quasi-steady-state conditions. Furthermore, we have no idea as t o where the balance points reside a t various times during t h e transient period. Thus, elimination of K conP s t i t u t e s an important simplification a t t h i s point i n the report. Whether M i s l o s t or gained by the alloy makes no difference when the r a t i o i s
The p l o t s of t h e r a t i o versus t i m e are always positive. Application t o Sodium- Inconel 600 Systems For demonstrative purposes, we have concocted an i l l u s t r a t i v e
example f o r the Inconel-sodium system shawing rates and degrees of approach t o equilibrium, assuming that t h e only surface e f f e c t s of importance a r e those associated w i t h the liquid f i l m .
In other words, we assume that k2 + m; thus 6 + h. This i s assumed because no information e x i s t s as t o t h e values of k, and k2 f o r the system. In f a c t , the values
Details of the computation of H are given We have compared two values of H corresponding t o typical maxinot above question.
mum and minimum temperatures f o r experiments w i t h Inconel 600 loops containing sodium, namely, 1089째K (l5OO"F) and 922째K (1200째F). The example i s presented i n F i g . 2.
Note that the film coefficient,
h, i n t h i s example was assumed t o be the same at a l l surface points
around t h e loop, while D and
% i n H were
assumed t o vary according t o
t h e l o c a l liquid (actually w a l l ) temperatures.
A comparison of these
curves c l e a r l y indicates that film coefficients a r e of greatest importance i n t h e hot zone where solid-state diffusion r a t e s are r e l a t i v e l y high.
Nevertheless, transient effects associated w i t h the liquid-film
ORNL-DWG 69-40090 4.00
. a 3. a'
4 . 2 7 ~ 4 4 ~4.27.40-2
[EXPOSURE TIME (hr)Ih
Fig. 2. Operating at results from becomes less with time.
Predicted Transient Behavior in a Sodium-Inconel 600 Loop Typical Forced-Convection Conditions. The transient feature the presence of a constant liquid-film resistance that important as solid-state diffusion resistances increase
resistance become diminishingly s m a l l after about 24 hr. Since ~ e r ating times for pump loops currently range fkam 1000 hr to one year, we may neglect such'transient effects without significantly affecting the calculation of the overall transfer of M from one zone to another. simplifies the problem; only the quasi-steady-state solution need be considered. The major task is integration of jM along z. Of course the work required is minimized if one selects a simple, yet reasonable, temperature profile (variation of T with z).
26 TEMPERATURE PROFILES AND LOOP CONFIGURATIONS
Reference and Prototype Loops
Our ultimate goal is t o develop steady-state solutions f o r a variety of loops having a r b i t r a r y temperature p r o f i l e s along z. For reasons of mathematical t r a c t a b i l i t y , we assume t h a t the texperature p r o f i l e may be approximated by several straight-line segments. The number of segments i s of no importance i n the f i n a l analysis.
However, f o r conve-
nience the connected segments should be drawn such t h a t t h e overall p r o f i l e w i l l exhibit only one maximum and one minimum. A "typical" pump-loop configuration and p r o f i l e w i l l be considered f o r p r a c t i c a l reasons; t h i s w i l l be called the reference loop. Next we s h a l l consider a very simple p r o f i l e designed t o possess a f a i r degree of equivalence t o t h e reference loop; t h i s w i l l be called the prototype loop. A simple and symnetrical prototype i s desirable t o minimize the necessary mathematical calisthenics, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard t o t h e numerical examples. The Reference Loop Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram of the reference forced-convection loops used i n early liquid-metal corrosion t e s t s . Each loop consisted of a pump and cold t r a p with a heat exchanger between t h e cold and hot legs
(surge tank attached).
The inner tube of the heat exchanger contained
t h e hot liquid while the cold liquid traveled through the annulus.
the cold l i q u i d was contained between two walls each a t a s l i g h t l y different temperature. The cold t r a p was used t o remove traces of oxide impurities, mainly Na20, from the sodium. main flow was diverted t o the cold trap.
Only a small portion of t h e
The trap design along with t h i s
l o w flow, coupled w i t h return-Pine heaters, mitigated major temperature perturbations i n the main f l o w stream. Furthermore, the trap did not materially a f f e c t the deposition of metal constituents i n t h e cold leg. The maximum and minimum loop temperatures were 816째C (1500째F) and 649째C (1200째F), respectively, w i t h a f l o w r a t e of 2.5 gpm and a t y p i c a l operating time of 1000 hr.
The temperature p r o f i l e and dimensional
information for the experimental (reference) loop are given i n Table 1.
NOTE :DIMENSIONS IN INCHES
PACKED WITH INCONEL
F i g . 3. Reference Pumped Loop Used i n Corrosion Experiments. Most of the acceptable sodium-Inconel600 r e s u l t s were obtained with loops as shown above, although different configurations were sometimes used.
28 Table 1. Geometrical-Temperature Characteristics of Forced-Convection Pump Loops f o r Liquid-Metal Corrosion Experiments Wall Area (in.2)
-action of Area, A% '
Hot leg loopa
Economizer Central tubeC Cold leg loopd TOTALe
0.75 i n . OD
Shell and loop tubing:
0.065 in. wall.
bEntrance temperature: 1200째F. C Central tubing: 0.5 in. OD X 0.020 in. wall. dIncludes pump area of 7.05 in.2; see Fig. 3. e T o t a l length: 349 i n . Before operation, the loop was flushed with sodium a t about 650째C f o r several hours t o remove surface oxides. The cold t r a p was not used during t h i s operation. For the actual run, fresh sodium was introduced. After operation, sections of t h e loop were cut and analyzed by various methods. A Prototype Loop
Table 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the temperature p r o f i l e and geometrical characteristics of the reference loop a r e quite complicated, especially if one wishes t o apply a mathematical treatment of the diffusion process
Work of t h i s type requires a more simplified configuration, which we s h a l l c a l l a prototype loop. (We employ t h e designation "prototype" t o suggest t h a t future designs of forced-
using numerical examples.
convection loops incorporate l e s s complicated f l a w paths and temperature profiles.)
As stressed i n Report I, we again avoid the overworked word
"model," as t h i s might suggest t h a t calculations of the overall corrosion
r a t e , nM(t), depend on t h e f l o w characteristics of t h e prototype. Except f o r transients, which a r e handled i n these reports, t h e solids t a t e diff'uion mechanism depends only on the w a l l temperature and t h e concentration of dissolved alloy chnstituents.
We care nothing about
t h e f l o w i t s e l f o r i t s direction. Our purpose here i s t o propose a simplified configuration whereby
a l l the geometrical complexities engineered i n t o early forced-convection loops w i l l be removed; yet the features important t o the mechanism under t e s t w i l l be retained. Actually, we a r e s t r i v i n g f o r a maximum degree of equivalence between the reference and prototype loops.
most l o g i c a l prototype t h a t i s e a s i l y envisioned i s the "tent-shaped" p r o f i l e over a constant-diameter loop used by Keyes.26 This "tentshaped" p r o f i l e appears t o display t h e u t i l i t y desired, although it is somewhat awkward when applied t o other mechanisms, where perhaps a sawtooth p r o f i l e might be most appropriate.
The idea t h a t a tent-shaped
p r o f i l e composed of two straight-line segments cannot be experimentally 8
obtained has been dispelled by DeVan and Sessions.27
They used p r o f i l e s
that were tent-shaped but showed some asymmetry. 1
I n long-term pwnp loop experiments we s h a l l eventually establish t h a t liquid-film contributions a r e not of great importance; thus, t h e primary consideration i s acquisition of a loop with an equivalent area. In Table 1we see t h a t the t o t a l area exposed t o l i q u i d i s 784 in.2 or 5050 cm2. If we assume a constant diameter of 0.70 i n . a l l around the loop, the t o t a l length w i l l be 906 cm, which is not too far removed
f r o m the actual value of 886 cm f o r t h e reference loop. The average Reynolds number, (NRe>, weighted according t o the f r a c t i o n a l areas involved, i s 5.06 X lo4. Thus, we inquire as t o t h e (NRe) f o r the prototype loop. Based on cm2/sec, r' y DNi-Nay Vz, pa, and CI values of 0.89 a, 3.3 X 26
J. J. Keyes, Jr., Some Calculations of Diffusion-Controlled Thermal Gradient Transfer, CF-57-7-115 (July 1957). 27J.H. DeVan and C. E. Sessions, "Mass Transfer of Niobium-Base Alloys ' i n Flowing Nonisotherml Lithium, " Nucl. Appl. 102-109 (1967).
30 63.5 cm/sec, 0.772 g/cm3, and 1.80
one may compute the h as well as the ( NRe> using 0.33 Nsh = 0.023(NRe>0*8Nsc
. 9 C
along with the variables t h a t make up t h e dimensionless constants,
whose definitions may be found i n the Nomenclature. t h a t h = 4.27
l o ' *
Details appear i n Appendix A of Report I.
The r e s u l t s a r e f o r the prototype.
The value of (NRe> compares
favorably with t h a t calculated above for the reference loop.
compares the temperature p r o f i l e s f o r the prototype and reference loops.
Fig. 4. Comparison of Temperature Profiles f o r Pumped Loops. The s o l i d curve approximates temperatures around the "reference" loop; the dotted curve represents a "tent-shaped" prototype loop.
We now wish t o calculate the H's of Fig. 2, since these quantities a r e based on the geometry of t h e prototype.
We r e c a l l t h a t
H = (2.70 X log6)
f-z) = 3.98
A t 649째C
The density and viscosity of liquid sodium were based on extrapolation of appropriate handbook values. 28
The equilibrium r a t i o s were estimated
from data assembled by Singer and Weeks.29 The diffusion coefficients f o r nickel were obtained from work done by K. Monma e t aL3'
s i t y of t h e Inconel 600 was acquired from a vendor's handbook3' and t h e molecular weight of the alloy was computed fromthe information presented i n Table 2, which is based on data reported by DeVan.32 The DNi-Na used i n t h e computation of h was obtained fromthe Stokes-Einstein eqwtion; 28R. R. Miller, "Physical Properties of Liquid Metals," pp. 4 2 4 3 i n Liquid Metals Handbook, 2nd ed., rev., ed. by R. N. liyon, "EX(XP-733(Rev.) (June 1952). "R. M. Singer and J. R. Weeks, "On t h e Solubility of Copper, Nickel, and Iron i n Liquid Sodium," pp. 30%318 i n Proceedings of t h e International Conference on Sodium Technology and Large Fast Reactor Design, Navember 7-9, 1968, -7520, P a r t I.
Gakkaishi 28, 188 (1964); as cited by J. AsM11, A Bibliography on Tracer Diff'usGn i n Metals: P a r t 111. Self and Impurity Diffusion i n Alloys, ORNL3795 Part I11 (February 19671, p. 15.
30K. Monma, H. Suto, and H. Oikawa, Nippon
31The Huntington Plant Staff, Handbook of Huntington Alloys, 4 t h ed., Bulletin T-7 (Inconel 600), the International Nickel Company, Inc., Huntington, W. V., January 1968. 32J.H. DeVan, "Corrosion of Iron- and Nickel-Base Alloys i n High Temperature N a and NaK, I f pp. 643459 i n Alkali Metal Coolants (Proceedings of a Symposium, Vienna, 28 November 2 December 1966), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1967.
32 Table 2.
Nominal Composition of Inconel 600
Weight or Mass Fractiun 0.7635
Molea 100 g
= lOO/C(col. 4 ) = 100/1.7623
= 1.24 x
low8 cm. QUASI-STEADY- STATE SOLUTION
Statement of the Problem and Objectives We seek a relationship that w i l l permit computation of the amount of M migrating f'romthe hot zone t o the cold zone of t h e loop, assuming, of course, that Esoh i s endothermic; i f not we seek the t r a n s f e r i n t h e opposite direction.
Diffusion out of and i n t o the container w a l l
i s expected t o be slow, and, if the liquid i s pretreated t o eliminate
transients associated with buildup of M i n the liquid, a l l t h a t remains i s a transient induced by the mass transfer film resistance.
We have previously shown that film transients become negligible a f t e r a day or less.
It follaws then t h a t our steady-state conditions
M concentrations i n the liquid and the positions of the mean that the -
balance points separating the hot and cold zones a r e both steady (do not vary) w i t h time.
The term "quasi" steady s t a t e must be employed, how-
ever, because the point rates a r e proportional t o
t+lI2,and t h e
33 t r a n s f e r is proportional t o t-1/2. Therefore, both the r a t e s and t h e i r time integrals vary with t h e .
Huwever, i n view of the quasi-steady-
s t a t e features of the problem, the time and position integrations may be performed independently of one another.
This constitutes a great
simplification of the tasks t h a t l i e ahead. Our s t a r t i n g point i s Eq. (7) in which the time integration has
already been performed f o r single points along z.
The next step is
integration along z. Since dAz = 2flr’dz and %/xa = K p / S
we may integrate Eq. (7) as
D a r e f’unctions of temperature, and z‘ i s a dummy variable
A d i f f e r e n t i a l form of Eq. (7a) i s
where f = z’/L.
The integrand evaluated a t several points around the
loop i s plotted i n Fig. 5. Notice t h a t Fig. 5 r e f e r s t o the p r o t o t h e loop, which is actually an ad hoc device f o r the present discussion.
One could stop here, insofar as t h e mathematics i s concerned, and integrate graphically as was done i n the original work.33 The procedure adopted a t that time was t o assume a balance point, prepare a plot of
the integrand as indicated i n Fig. 5, and then ascertain the area under the hot zone portion of the curve. cold zone.
The procedure was repeated f o r the
Unfortunately it was necessary t o i t e r a t e u n t i l the two
areas balanced. Use of p l o t s similar t o those i n Fig. 6 speeded the work; but t h i s approach required many t r i a l s , and it was tedious and boring t o say the l e a s t . The only major difference between the e a r l i e r and present problems 8
was u t i l i z a t i o n of a sinusoidal temperature p r o f i l e
i n the e a r l i e r work.
33R: B. Evans I11 ANP Program Quart. Progr. R e p t . Dec. 31, 1957, oRNL2440, pp. 104-113.
34 ORNL-DWG 69-2953A
-- 10 n
e W K
- 980 'J I I
I I 1
g W W
f , FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR
Fig. 5. Profile of Cumulative Mass Transfer Contributions Expressed as a Ratio Involving Loup Length and Time. The p r o f i l e applies t o t h e rototype loop operating under quasi-steady-state conditions. Areas ?integrals) corresponding t o hot and cold zones a r e equal; thus, t h e balance points are properly located. This same approach was used by E p ~ t e 5 . n . ~This ~ difference i s of considerable importance because a f t e r t e n years it i s s t i l l quite d i f f i c u l t t o achieve a sinusoidal p r o f i l e i n the laboratory.
About the most mathe-
matically tractable p r o f i l e seen t o date by the authors was t h a t obtained recently by DeVan and Sessions35 and by Koger and Litman.36,37 t h i s p r o f i l e was s l i g h t l y skewed.
In other words, a s e r i e s of s t r a i g h t
34L. F. Epstein, "Static and Dynamic Corrosion and Mass Transfer i n Liquid Metal Systems, Chem. Eng. Progr. Symp. Ser. 2, - 6 7 4 1 (1956).
35J. H. DeVan and C. E. Sessions, "Mass Transfer of Niobium-Base Alloys i n Flowing Nonisothermal Lithium," Nucl. Appl. 2, 102-109 (1967). 36J. W. Koger and A. P. Litman, MSR Program Semiann. Progr. Rept. Feb. 29, 1968, ORNL-4254, p. 224.
37J. W. Koger and A. P. Iiitman, MSR Program Semiann. Progr. Rept. Feb. 28, 1969, ORNL4396, p. 249.
Graphical Presentation of Temperature-Dependent Parameters
That Control the Idealized Diffusion Process a t Quasi-Steady-State Conditions. l i n e segments represents the most r e a l i s t i c approximation t o experimen-
t a l cases. Of greater Importance, straight-line profiles a r e the easiest t o integrate: i n fact, the r e s u l t s using straight-line segments a r e exact i n an analytical sense. No serious compromises, such as straight-line approximation of exponential functions over extended ranges, a r e required. Our problem divides i t s e l f i n t o two d i s t i n c t parts: (1) find t h e balance points and (2) compute the aslount of material entering or leaving e i t h e r zone. Both parts depend on obtaining the position integral. Our
36 approach w i l l be t o carry out the manipulations using the prototype
loop; present computations f o r the prototype loop using numerical examples, hopefully t o c l a r i f y the overall procedure and nomenclature; and finally, discuss extension t o cases l i k e t h e reference loop. Solution i n Terms of the Prototype Loop Equation (â€œa) is our starting point for the integrations that w i l l produce a solution
The reader w i l l r e c a l l that the time integration was performed e a r l i e r . A factor of 1/2 appears on the l e f t side as the symmetry of t h e t e n t
p r o f i l e permits consideration of only half the loup.
Also we have
introdaced t h e expression f o r the diffusion coefficient i n t h e form of (D)I/â€™ = (Do)1/2
( 4 ).
The equilibrium constant may be written similarly as e i t h e r
% = KO
Thus Eq. (7c) can be divided conveniently i n t o two parts: ,
C'= CK /K P O
The next p a r t of the problem i s the key t o the whole solution. concerns t h e relationship between T and z.
In terms of "C (or
O F )
obvious relationship is T(z) = Tc + bz
where z runs from 0 t o 0.5; thus b = 2(TH
This would be an i d e a l form i f the exponential terms i n Eq. (7c) were
However, they a r e indeed present; also they demand values
of T expressed i n
Consider an extension of the segments on the pro-
f i l e s i n Fig. 5 whereby the distance 5 would be zero a t absolute zero (-273째C: or 0째K).
What w i l l happen i s not d i f f i c u l t t o visualize if one
r e c a l l s t h e t r i v i a l relationship, AT( O K ) = AT( "C), which means t h a t k i s valid f o r both temperature scales. One immediately envisions the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of an extended coordinate k such t h a t
k = (L/2AT)(273 + T째C) = b'l(273 + Tmin + A T )
, (35 1
w h i c h in turn simply means t h a t we have adopted t h e relationship
T = b 5 ,
f o r t h e extension.
From Eq. (35) dk = dz, and the new variable 6 may
be introduced i n t o Eq. (7c) with t h i s and follawing definitions: (2 =
O K ,
Then t h e right side of Eq. (7d) becomes
or, in abbreviated form,
- C' Il2(j
We a r e now ready f o r integration.
Whether one operates on the
' > 1. urrprimed or primed term is of no consequence as long a s a or a Thus we choose the former. t h i s point.
However, a change of variable is userul a t
L e t u = a/! or E = a/u; then dE = -(a/u2)du;
Integration i n terms of u can be performed by p a r t s with the formula
We l e t
A l s o we note t h a t u + 03 as
0. The r e s u l t i s
39 Notice, v i a Eqs. (35a) and (36), that u = %/2RT in t h i s case. the integration does not involve position
- only temperature.
L does enter the r e s u l t s through the factor
a. The i n t e g r a l term
broken up i n t o two parts, each with i n f i n i t e limits, t o cast t h e r e s u l t s i n t o a form that brings f o r t h the so-called exponential integrals of the f i r s t order. These a r e tabulated i n the l i t e r a t u r e . 3 8 In our work, values of the argument a r e large, and in t h i s case the tabulations a r e i n the form
in this case i s the dimensionless dummy variable of integration
T = uf =
C%/tf. One can shuw, using uf
The minus sign i s accounted f o r by suitable arrangement of terms.
suggested by t h e form of the tabulated values, the f i n a l r e s u l t may be written as
which c l e a r l y shows t h e contribution of t h e position variables. Values of B(u ) a r e plotted on Fig. 7. An accurate interpolation
of t h e values i s clearly required because t h e r e s u l t s contain the d i f -
ference 1 @ ( u), and B(u ) values are not too far removed from unity
38W. Gautschi and W. F. C a h i l l , "Exponential Integral and Related Functions," pp. 228-231 and p. 243 i n Handbook of Mathematical Functions, ed. by M. A b r d t z and I. A. Stegun, U.S. D e p t . of Commerce, NES publication M - 5 5 (June 1964).
Fig. 7. Plot of f3(uj) f o r Large Values of u j . The function p(uj) carries contributions of El(u-); t h e i n t e r v a l of u j i s dictated by values of parameters peculiar t h e sodium-Inconel 600 system.
Thus far we have outlined a solution f o r a l l cases where the reactions leading t o mass t r a n s f e r a r e exothermic, also cases where the reaction i s endothermic up t o the point where Esoln
A t this
point the second term i n Eq. (7c) is s i m p l y
which s t a t e s t h a t the second term i n Eq. (7c) or (7b) i s a constant. The probability of t h i s happening i s quite law i n practice, so we s h a l l pass immediately t o the cases where the solution reaction i s endothermic 1 enough t o bring about the inequality Esoh
41 When the energy of solution overrides the contribution of the energy of activation f o r diff'usion, the second term in Eq. (7c) becomes
Note that C' remains the same.
In terms of g coordinates, using t h e
same substitutions, one obtains t h e following:
where it may be h e l p f i l t o think i n terms of the equality,
which may be rearranged t o conform t o tabulated functions as
Collection and rearrangement of terms permits one t o write
The last function, E. (u ) i s the exponential integral; values of
1 3 -
h(uj) appear i n the same tables38 as those f o r B(u ).
The presence of
42 u1 functions before u2 functions should be expected i n Eq. (39b) because ul
and exponentials with positive arguments appear.
of h ( u ) against u . f o r large values of the argument appears i n Fig. 8 .
"he balance point i s located by integrating over t h e e n t i r e loop. One assigns 1and 2 i n Eq. (7d) as t h e terminal points of t h e loop.
mass balance requires t h a t t h i s integral be zero i f the liquid i s essentially pre-equilibrated. Thus, Eq. (7d) can be rearranged t o yield
- i.io 6
Fig. 8 . Plot of A(uj) for Large Values of u Application of t h i s p l o t i s required when 2ESoln exceeds ED. This si$uation i s encountered when molten-salt systems a r e discussed i n sections t o follow.
One may back calculate t o find T and then successively z, f , tp, and The AM may be evaluated by application of Eq. (7d) using finally, u P either the limits (1,p) over the cold zone or (p,2) Over the hot zone.
Details concerning these manipulations appear i n the next section.
FVedicted Results f o r Sodium-Inconel 600 Systems
Two objectives a r e associated with t h i s section of t h e report. F i r s t , we hope t o attach some physical r e a l i t y t o equations developed i n the previous section through presentation of numerical examples, thereby demonstrating that t h e equations a r e easy t o use i n s p i t e of t h e i r formidable appearance. Second, we desire t o predict corrosion r a t e s under our assumed condition t h a t diffusion controls both i n the hot and cold zones and that a predictable balance point does exist, as suggested by the microprobe data shown i n Report I. To p a r a l l e l t h e procedures f o r the preceding derivations, we may specialize t o the case of t h e prototype f o r simplicity without too much loss i n generality. One may start by considering the f i r s t and t h i r d columns of Table 3. The f i r s t computation required involves b. One finds, using Eq. (34a): b"
= L/2AT = 906/2 X 167 = 2.71 cm/"K
Related equations give
= (2.715 crn/'K)(922"K)
EZ = ( 2 . 7 E cm/'K)(1089"K) = 2956 cm
Computation of u1 and u2 requires a knowledge of a and a'.
i n turn, require parameters associated with the curves of Fig. 6. L
Functions of 5 5
u = a/l(a)
5 e 3 [ i - p(uj)]
4.77, x 2.160
5.69 x 10'~
2.120 x 10'~
= 5/2bR = 4.797
(b)cz' = (ED
E, = 2503
tj, cm E, = 2 8 x 6
- B(Uj) 1- B(u;)
Values Used t o Compute Balance Points and Mass Transfer i n Prototype Loop
3.15 x 10-5
- 2Esoln )/2bR
= 3.842 X
and r e l a t e d computations, diff'usion parmeters f o r nickel,
i n an a l l o y similar t o Inconel 600, as reported by M o m e t al.,' appear adequate, namely: Do = 3.3 cm2/sec and = 70.2 kcal/mole. For d and related computations, estimates of parameters based on s o l u b i l i t y data f o r nickel i n sodium as reported by Singer and Weeks4' = 6.794 X loo5 weight fracwere employed. Pertinent values here a r e t i o n and Esoh = 6.985 kcal/mole. Application of a l l these values as indicated i n the footnotes of Table 3 produces the values shown.
39K. Monma, H. Suto, and H. O i k a w a , Nippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi 28,
188 (1964); as c i t e d by J. Askill, A Bibliography on Tracer Diff'ussn i n Metals: Part 111. Self and Impurity Diffusion i n Alloys, 0-3795 Part I11 (February 19671, p. 15. 4 0 R . M. Singer and J. R. Weeks, "On the Solubility of Copper, Nickel, and Iron i n Liquid Sodium," pp. 309-318 i n Proceedings of t h e International Conference on Sodium Technology and Large Fast Reactor Design, November 79, 1968, ANL7520, Part I.
various values of g
could be converted t o the corresponding u. values. 3
The l a t t e r allowed calculation of t h e exponential functions; they a l s o
allawed acquisition of appropriate 1 B(u ) values with the aid of c
enlarged versions of Fig. 7.
In t h i s regard, note t h a t both a! ando!
a r e positive; thus, functions related t o t h e El(u ) values apply here.
The operations necessary t o complete t h e f i r s t and t h i r d columns are straightforward and require no additional c m e n t . The next and perhaps most important t a s k i s a computation of t h e j = 0). balance points (the points a t which ,
Since t h e prototype i s
under consideration, j u s t one point i s needed because symmetry permits treatment of only half t h e loop. The c r i t e r i o n i s t o set m ( t ) = 0 i n Thus t h e appropriate sum of the i n t e g r a l t e r m must a l s o be
zero when t h e integration i s carried out over the e n t i r e loop.
facet of the solution i s discussed around Eq. (40), reference t o which
c l e a r l y indicates t h e method of approach; namely, we seek T or f ( p ) P through K The latter i s given by:
The temperature corresponding t o K i s 1036째K; thus C = (2.715)(1036") P P Computation of the values i n the = 2813, and f ( p ) (of L/2) i s 0.683. middle column corresponds t o E information. P Finally a value for AM(t) may be found by use of i n t e g r a l terms f o r t h e cold zone (Umits: 1,p) and f o r the hot zone (limits: p,2). Values f o r both zones were computed and averaged since a l l the differences involved introduced same uncertainties i n "hand calculations. " Everything required t o calculate m ( t ) appears i n Table 3 except values of C and Cf
The l a t t e r a r e evaluated through Eqs. (32) and (33).
= (3.37 X 10'2)(70.9)
For t h e cold zone, using Eq. (7c) again,
- 0.569) x 10'6 - (2.39)(2.12 - 0.315) x = -5.8 x l o ' * g / s d 2 (3.73 - 4.31) X
AM(t)/2t1/2 = (70.9)(5.83
For the hot zone,
- 5.83) X loo6 - (2.39)(4.509 - 2.12) x = +5.5 X ' l O W 5 g/sec1I2 (6.26 - 5.71) x
AM(t)/2t1/2 = (70.9)(14.66 =
The different signs mean that the liquid sodium loses nickel i n the cold zone, but it gains nickel ( i n principle, an equal amount) i n t h e hot zone.
The t e s t period of i n t e r e s t i s 1000 hr, 2t1/2 = 3.8
therefor e :
1000 h r ) = (3.8
10+3)(5.65) = 0.215 g N i
A very high value of transport could be obtained by assuming that no balance point w o u l d exist because a l l the l i q u i d could be forced
through a 100$-efficient
nickel t r a p placed a t the coldest point of the In other words, the e n t i r e loop would be a hot zone. One obtains
= 3.8 g N i
This value was computed f o r comparative discussion.
DISCUSSION OF SODIUM-INCONEL 600 RBSULTS The manner i n which the material has been presented up t o t h i s point almost demands t h a t some camparisons be made between predicted (computed) r e s u l t s f o r the prototype loop and those f o r the reference loop.
In t h i s connection, we digress t o note t h a t extension of the
mathematics t o actual loops with temperature p r o f i l e s as indicated by the s o l i d l i n e segments i n Fig. 4 i s r e l a t i v e l y simple i n principle, but tedious i n practice
symmetry is l o s t and several straight-
l i n e segments (each w i t h i t s own b, a, and a' values) a r e present.
course, each must be accounted.
developed t o handle a l l cases where E,, L 2Esoln.
Accordingly, a computer program41 was
There were several reasons whereby use of a program could be
As sham i n our i l l u s t r a t i v e calculations, the balance
point i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine precisely by hand; we might add that acquisition of predicted corrosion and deposition p r o f i l e s i s a l s o desired.
The program permits an accurate prediction of these because
the computer can evaluate many "point" jM1s quite rapidly a f t e r locating the balance points [and evaluating AM(t) i n passing]. The reader i s invited t o inspect Fig. 9, i n which computer program r e s u l t s f o r the actual loop and t h e prototype are presented together. The 1000-hr AM(t)'s computed frm the i n t e g r a l forms are 0.232 g f o r t h e
actual p r o f i l e and 0.213 g f o r the prototype.
Recall that t h e hand
calculations based on Table 3 gave a value of 0.215 g f o r the prototype. The locations of the balance points f o r each case a r e a l s o i n close agreement. Thus we may conclude that t h e prototype i s an excellent device f o r estimating AM, even though the profiles themselves t u r n out t o be somewhat different i n appearance. The point of greatest importance i s whether or not the mechanism under discussion here gives a reasonable representation of what happens i n an experimental loop.
The answer t o the question, as was the case
f o r Report I, is, "No, it does not!"
The amount we must account f o r
ranges between 10 t o IA g N i . The computations produce values considerably less than 1 g N i i f one assumes that a balance point e x i s t s and about 4 g i f one assumes t h a t the e n t i r e loop a c t s as a hot zone under the dominance of t h e mechanism proposed.
In regard t o the latter, micro-
probe data show that deposition occurs i n a t least half the loop. Deposition tendencies are, i n fact, so great that a region of nickel deposits appears, and f'urthermore samples of loop sodium suggest that the liquid i s e i t h e r supersaturated o r contains suspended metal particul a t e s a l l around t h e c i r c u i t .
Thus we can forget 'about the value of
4xThe computer program was devised by D. E. Arnurius and
V. A. Singletary of the Mathematics Division a t ORNL. The authors acknowledge this important contribution t o t h e present study.
48 ORNL-DWG 69-2953
1080 1060 c
$ a W
2 w I-
920 f , F R A C T I O N O F WALL AREA AND/OR
Fig. 9. Profiles for Cumulative Chromium Corrosion as Computed f o r t h e Reference Loop, a t Top, and the Prototype Loop Below.
g and base our conclusions on a predicted value ranging about 0.242 g.
Other shortcomings of the mechanism described here stem from the i n i t i a l assumptions t h a t AM i s not a function of f l u i d velocity tempera.ture
- only of w a l l
root of time.
t h a t AM should be d i r e c t l y proportional t o t h e square Both assumptions a r e i n opposition t o experimental behav-
i o r as described i n Report I. A t t h i s point we must consider which of the two limiting cases
(treated individually i n Report I and i n the present report) might be most responsive t o alterations t o form the basis f o r an empirical
In other words, if we were t o concoct a combined mechanism
accounting solid-state and liquid-film diffusion effects together, where should we start? Intuitively, we lean toward the idea of going t o work on thC liquid-film mechanism, simply because it i s t h e faster of t h e two considered thus far. We are attracted t o t h i s point of view because resistances associated with a fast mechanism can always be reduced by addition of a time-variable resistance t h a t a c t s i n series with t h e liquid film. On t h e other hand, it would be most d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y decreasing t h e resistance of the slower mechanism. We should mention here t h a t inclusion of a f i l m resistance i n t h e usual manner gives r i s e t o a transient effect, which decays with time.
Although such an effect
i s fortuitous, t h e overall r e s u l t was t o reduce further the already low
value of material transported. Two p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r altering t h e diffusion mechanisms under dis-
cussion might seem feasible. value of D
The f i r s t would involve increasing t h e
such t h a t the predicted r e s u l t s and experimental data
The factor of increase would have t o be about
t h i s might be tempered by the use of higher s o l u b i l i t y values.
theless, increases of t h i s magnitude do not appear reasonable, and one tends t o r u l e out t h i s possibility. A second p o s s i b i l i t y f o r increasing the predicted values w u l d be
t o invoke solid-state diffusion equations where t h e point a t which w = 0 moves around the loop. In other words, assume t h a t the walls grow s l i g h t l y thicker i n cold regions and s l i g h t l y thinner i n t h e hot zones. This would accrue from corrosion reactions t h a t w i l l not " w a i t for" a
However, the solution x(w,t), even f o r
t h e case where t h e w = 0 boundary moves a t a constant r a t e (a simple case),42 i s too cmplex t o be effectively applied t o a makhematical treatment of t h e mass transfer process. "A solution of t h i s kind i s given by E. G. Brush, Sodium Mass Transfer; XVI. The Selective Corrosion Component of S t e e l Exposed t o Flowing Sodium, GW-4832 (March 19651, Appendix 11, pp. 105-110. More general forms of t h i s solution appear on pp. 388-389 of H. S. C a r s l a w and J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat i n Solids, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, New York, 1959, along with citations of t h e original work ( i n 1955), which also involved diffusion i n liquid metals.
50 For both possibilities, a large amount of experimental data would be required t o j u s t i f y the selection of t h e approach and the evaluation of the parameters required.
It would seem that, on the basis of the
data available, the best approach i s t o resort t o an empirical treatment. This i s t h e objective of the next report. We may now turn t o an applicat i o n of the solid-state diffusion mechanisms t o molten-salt systems, f o r which the corrosion reactions a r e well understood and the diffusion mechanism appears t o apply - as demonstrated i n early experiments. APPLICATION TO MOLTEN-SALT SYSTEMS The r e s u l t s of experiments carried out over the past few years on t h e temperature gradient migration of metal i n a molten-salt environment indicate t h a t the overall rate of movement i s controlled by diffusion rates within the metal.
Hence, we w i l l apply the equations derived
e a r l i e r t o several molten-salt systems t o demonstrate the usef'ulness of t h e method. A t the beginning of t h e operation of a molten-salt loop that con-
as reactant, chromium w i l l be removed from the e n t i r e loop
u n t i l t h e CrF2 concentration i n the circulating salt reaches equilibrium w i t h t h e chromium concentration of t h e w a l l surface a t the coldest
position of the loop.
A t t h i s time t h i s position i s the balance point.
Then, as the concentration of CrF2 i n the circulating salt increases even more, t h i s i n i t i a l balance point develops i n t o a gruwing deposition area bounded by two balance points.
Steady s t a t e i s attained when t h e
balance points become stationary and t h e CrF2 concentration i n the c i r culating s a l t ceases t o vary with time. Our mathematical analysis i s valid for t h i s l a s t condition we c a l l the quasi steady s t a t e . Quasi steady state can a l s o be obtained by pre-equilibrating t h e s a l t before
is, adding t h e amount of CrF2 required so t h a t
the concentration w i l l be constant. Thermal Convection Loops A schematic diagram of the reference thermal convection loop used
i n molten-salt experiments, particularly the 51Cr t r a c e r experiments
is shown in Fig. 10. The thermal convection loop differs f r o m the pump loops mentioned in the earlier sections in that flow is achieved by convection forces resulting f r o m heating one leg and an adjacent side of the loop while exposing the other portions of the loop to ambient conditions. The flow velocities in the thermal convection loop are 2 to 10 fâ€™pm, depending on the temperature difference and dimensions of the vertical sections. The total tubing length of the loop under d i s cussion is 254.0 cm and the diameter is 1.383 cm. Q)*L-LI-D*b 49844p.
Fig. 10. Thermal-Convection Loop Used in 51Cr Tracer Experiments. Circled numbers and letters denote thermocouple designations and locations.
The maximum temperature of t h e two actual (reference) thermal convection loops i n which our calculations a r e based was 860째C (1580째F) and t h e minimum 685째C (1265째F). Both loops were constructed of Hastelloy N, whose n&al composition i s given i n Table 4 . As noted i n an e a r l i e r section, the actual loop temperature profiles were not conducive t o a simple analytical expression, so we have proposed a simplified configuration ( "tent-shape" profile), which we designate t h e prototype profile.
Figure 11 shows t h e average temperature p r o f i l e for
the two loops and the p r o f i l e assumed f o r t h e prototype. ,
p r o f i l e was constructed by drawing s t r a i g h t lines from the minimum temperature a t f = 0 and 1.0 t o the maximum temperature a t f = 0.5. This construction provided the same maximum temperature f o r the actual and prototype loop while allowing some small difference i n t h e areas under t h e curves. The diffusion coefficient of chromium i n Hastelloy N as a ~ c t i o n of temperature i s given i n Fig. 12. These values are based on determinat i o n ~ " , ~of~ the self-diffusion of chromium i n Hastelloy N using t h e tracer 51Cr i n thermal convection loops l i k e those previously mentioned. The appropriate Arrhenius relation constants a r e Do = 6.068 x
= 41.48 kcal/mole
43W. R. Grimes, G. M. Watson, J. H. DeVan, and R. B. Evans, "RadioTracer Techniaues i n the Study of Corrosion by Molten Fluorides," pp. 559-574 ii Conference on the Use of Radioisotopes i n the Physical Sciences and Industry, S e p p , International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1962. 1
44R. B. Evans 111, J. H. DeVan, and G. M. Watson, Self-Diffusion of Chromium i n Nickel-Base Alloys, ORNL-2982 (January 1961).
53 Table 4. Typical Composition of Hastelloy Weight or Mass Fraction
Cr Ni Mo Fe
Mole or At om Fraction
0.088 0.765 0.096 0.051
52.00 58.71 94.95 55.85
0.0741 0.7270 0.I500
aDensity of Hastelloy N
I I LOOP NUMBER
/ / 4400
t265 685.0 958.2
f=0.25 f s 0 . 5 3 13tO 1580 860.0 740.0 983.2 lf33.2 f = 0.90 1410 765.6 1038.8 f D= t.00 1265 685.0 958.2
I I I 1 I I 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 f , FRACTION OF WALL AND/OR LOOP LENGTH
Fig. ll. Temperature Profiles for Two Experiments with Loops as Illustrated in Fig. 10. The "average" curve (solid line) drawn through the two sets of data was taken a s a reference for all molten-salt examples considered. The dashed line represents the simplified "prototype" loop more amenable to mathematical treatment.
LJ -11 -
A COEFFICIENTS BASED ON TOTAL SPECIMEN COUNTS COEFFICIENTS BASED ON ~ r 5 CONCENTRATION ' GRADIENT MEASURED BY COUNTING ELECTROLYTE o COEFFICIENTS BASED ON ~ r 5 CONCENTRATION ' 0
9.50 ~O,OOO/T (OK
Fig. 12. Diffusion Coefficients of 51Cr Obtained from a Tracer Loop Experiment (1248 on Fig. 11). The average curve was t h e basis for DO and 5 used i n a l l computations r e l a t i v e t o molten-salt examples. i
Redox Corrosion Equilibria and Systems Selected f o r Discussion In our examples we s h a l l consider three different molten-salt systems. Table 5 lists the significant reacting components of t h e salt and a l s o t h e alloy constituents sensitive t o oxidation by the salt.
Also shown a r e the equilibrium values and constants of the corrosion The three corrosion reactions have been designated as examples I, 11, and 111. reactions.
In example I the salt was composed of NaF-47 mole $ ZrF4 with 6720 ppm FeF2.
The salt of example I1 i s assumed t o be primarily a
LiF-BeF2-UF4 mixture typical of a f u e l s a l t for a reactor with no impurit i e s such as FeF2 present.
Example I11 involves the same b a s i c - s a l t as
example I1 but with HF present instead of uranium o r iron fluorides. In molten-salt mixtures HF can be formed by a reaction with water or
55 Table 5. Salt
System (mole $1
Equilibrium Constants f o r Molten-Salt Corrosion Reactions
Reacting Species -9,470
B q l e 11
other hydrogenous impurities and i s u s u a l l y present t o some extent i n
a l l fluoride salt mixtures a t the start of loop operation.
In regard t o
the ZrF4 present i n t h e salts of examples I1 and 111, c e r t a i n amounts of
ZrF4 were added t o LiF-BeF2 mixtures that contain UF4 t o prevent precipi t a t i o n of U@
through inadvertent contamination of the system with
oxygen. Transient Factors Certain transient factors that are associated with surface conditions, even w i t h a quasi steady state, w e r e discussed e a r l i e r f o r the sodium-Inconel pump loop system. We w i l l now perform calculations and discuss these transient factors f o r t h e molten-salt systems. The conditions under which the calculations, both transient and quasi-steady-state case, were made f o r example I were reallzed experimentally in an a c t u a l thermal convection loop, designated as loop l249. In t h i s loop an excess of FeF2 was added t o the salt so that the e n t i r e
loop acted as a hot zone. No balance point existed, since chromium was removed f r o m t h e a l l o y a t a l l positions. For example I, the controlling corrosion reaction i s
C r (s ) + FeFz(d) *'CrF2(d)
+ Fe(s) -
On a mass basis Eq. (21b) becomes
where [CrF2] E x
a r e the molecular weights of t h e respective species; [FeFz] ?Fey%eF2 and [Fe] a r e the concentrations, 6720 ppm and 5$, respectively. From Eq. (251,
As i n t h e liquid metal case, H was calculated f o r t h e maximum and m i n i mum loop temgeratures, -3 and 958째K.
= 4.83 X 10IO/cm H958 O
= 3.0 X 1OX2/cm
I$was calculated f r o m t h e equation, log
K = 1.73 + 2.07
was obtained f r o m combining experimental equilibrium quotients of t h e react ions45 CrF&)
+ H2(g) FfCr(s) + 2 HF(g)
M. Blood e t al., Reactor Chem. Div. Ann. Progr. Rept. Jan. 31, ORNL-2931, pp. 39-43.
57 i n NaFA7 mole $ ZrF4.
We used pQ(salt) = 3.71
l W 4 T('C) = 2.945 g/cm3 at 1133"Ky pa f'rom Table 4, and D f r o m Fig. 12. The l i q u i d film coefficient, h, i s obtained from a combination of X
dimensionless groups, and we have calculated it f o r both turbulent and laminar flaw. For turbulent flow, Nsh = 0.023NRe0'8Nsc0*33, where Nsh = dh/D, NRe = m/cI, Nsc = p/pD,
or h = 3.065 x
and d = 1.383 cm.
1.383(1.422) (2.945) 2.62 X loo2
2.62 X lo'* .945(4.166 X loo5)
extrapolated f'rom experimen-
t a l values46: T, "C p, centipoise
The liquid diffusion coefficient is calculated f r o m the StokesEinstein equation, where
11133째K = %r(d)-salte =
1.38 x 10-16(1133) 2.62
and the velocity of the s a l t = 2,8 f'pm = 1.422 cm/sec i s taken from t h
loop operating conditions. There i s always the question of whether the f l a w i n a thermal convection loop i s laminar or turbulent. For t h e case of Laminar flowy a mass transfer equation can be written and h can be calculated. Its value is s u f f i c i e n t l y close t o the h calculated with t h e equation f o r turbulent f l a w so t h a t the former h w i l l be used i n subsequent calculations. 4 6 ~ .Cantor,
ORNL, personal communication.
58 The transient calculation for example I1 i s made somewhat d i f f e r -
ently because of t h e pre-equilibration and the presence of balance points. The corrosion reaction i s
Cr(s) + 2 UF4(d)== 2 UF3(g) + CrFa(d) and
H = -K% P
% and KP were
calculated from the equation log K = 3.02
which -was obtained from combining experimental equilibrium quotients47 of the reactions
i n LiF-33 mole Pa(salt)
Values of these quotients a r e tabulated l a t e r . 5.13 X 10'4t(0C) ( r e f . 46), pa i s from Table 4,
m m a r e the molecular weights of the alloy and salt, respectively, a' a D is f'rom Fig. 12, h i s calculated as before and = 2.308 X d = 1.383 cm, and
= 0.0916 eq(4098/T) centipoise ( r e f . 46). Again the diffusion coefficient i n t h e liquid i s calculated from
the Stokes -Eins t ein equation: 47C. F. Baes, "The Chemistry and Thermodynamics of Molten-SaltReactor Fluoride Solutions," pp. 409433 i n Thermodynamics, VOl. I, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1966.
and the velocity of the salt is 1.422 cm/sec from loop operating data. We calculated H t o develop a curve such as Fig. 2 f o r t h e molten s a l t s . However, it became quite evident that, because of t h e high value of H f o r each example, the transient effect would be even l e s s than that seen f o r t h e l i q u i d metals. Thus, we again shuw t h a t t h e transient e f f e c t s may be neglected and t h a t only the quasi-steady-state solution need be considered. Quas i-St eady- S t a t e Solutions
Again, as i n the liquid metal case, we a r e required t o find the balance points ( i n examples I1 and 111) and t h e amount of material entering o r leaving t h e hot and cold zones. The calculations w i l l be made f o r t h e actual and prototype loops using the equations derived earlier.
The variables affecting t h e r e s u l t s of these calculations w i l l
then be discussed.
We w i l l present computer calculations f o r two of
the examples and w i l l shuw the d e t a i l s of a "hand" calculation f o r example I1 t o demonstrate the useflilness of the equations.
As already noted, the conditions under which t h e calculations were made f o r example I represent actual conditions encountered i n loop l%9, namely, an excess of FeF2 was added t o the s a l t so t h a t t h e e n t i r e loop acted as a hot zone. No balance point existed, and chrumium was depleted from all surfaces. Figure l3 shows t h e positional dependence of mass t r a n s f e r r a t e s i n the reference and prototype loops as determined by ~
The t o t a l mass removed i n 1000 hr i s 0.595 g i n
t h e reference loop, compared w i t h 0.6122 g i n t h e prototype.
In example 11, balance points exist, and, as i n the liquid metal section, we have tabulated the values of the various variables and w i l l demonstrate the arithmetic involved for the prototype loop. The obvious difference between t h i s molten-salt calculation and the liquid metal calculation i s the f a c t that Esoh > 5 / 2 . This necessitates t h e use of the Eqs. (391, (39a), and (39b). program t o handle the Esoh
We did not compile a computer
> %/2 case, so we have used the approach
W E 3
0.i 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 LOOP LENGTH
f , FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR
f. FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR LOOP LENGTH
Fig. 13. Profiles f o r Computed Chromium Corrosion of HasteUoy N when High)FeF2/CrF2 Ratios a r e Present i n a Molten-Salt Mixture. Prof i l e s a r e based on wall temperatures s h m by dashed lines. The s a l t ZrF4. Reference loop r e s u l t s a r e a t left;; prototype was NaF47 mole r e s u l t s are a t right. of i t e r a t i v e balance point calculations.
The terms used i n these
calculations a r e l i s t e d i n t h e first and t h i r d columns of Table 6. The value b i s computed with Eq. (34a) : b = m / L = 2(ll33 and
is computed with Eq. (35a) :
E, = 958/1.38 = 695 cm
= 1133/1.38 = 822
Next, we calculate u1 and u2, which require values of a and a". For these next calculations, we use the values f o r the diffusion cm2/sec, of chromium i n Hastelloy N as given i n Fig. 12: Do = 6.068 X ED = 41.48 kcal/mole. The values of a! and a!" a r e shown i n the footnote of Table 6 and are used along with the E's t o obtain u and ut!. From
5 J the l a t t e r we acquire the exponentials and thus can obtain t h e 1- f3(uj) values from Fig. U. The values of A(u ) a r e found in Fig. 8. One i s j
now able t o complete the calculations of the last two functions.
Values Used t o Compute Balance Points and Mass Transfer i n Prototype Loop
tap Functions of 5 i
5, = 695.36
d e (j a )
u!' = att/g (b) 3
exp ( +ut1)
- B(Uj) A(u!!) - 1 1
10.281 1 x 101~
11.1916 4.427 X
12.175 1.862 X
0. l o l l
,1.935 x 10+5
We next calculate the balance point, where jm = 0 or, more simply, where material i s neither removed nor deposited.
Since we have delib-
erately constructed a symmetrical prototype loop, only one point need be calculated.
The approach for t h e calculation of the balance point
was discussed earlier, and i n t h i s case a form of EQ. (40) was used; n?,melY, K = $112(QI/S)/I~2(CV~/S)= 1.047 X lO'(7.445 P
lo7 - 0,303
The temperature corresponding t o K i s lW1"K; thus 5 = 755 and P P f ( p ) = 0.233. The values corresponding t o the balance point temperat u r e a r e given i n column 2 of Table' 6. To calculate the t o t a l amount of material transported, AM(%), we use i n t e g r a l t e r m for the hot and cold zones.
Again we averaged the values for both zones because of uncertainties i n the "hand calcula-
Table 6 l i s t s a l l quantities needed except values of C and C'.
Using Eqs. (32) and (33) we find
ORNL- DWG 69-40096
-2- 0.947 Q
Fig. Ut. Values of @(u ) over an Intermediate Range of u Values. jthat This lower projection of Fig.j 7 was required by values of a/[. 3 occur in all molten-salt examples.
C = (4)(0.0741)(8.878)(0.6915)(3.U20 X 0.607
10-4)1/2 = 2.519
and C; = (2.519 x 10'2)(6.0815
= 1.532 X
For the cold zone, using Eq. ( 7 ~ ) ; AM(t)/2t1I2 = 2.519
- 1.532 X
- 1.015) X lom3
lo7 = -6.96 x
63 For t h e hot zone ~lM(t)/2t’/~= 2.519
lo6 = 6.97
The negative sign indicates t h a t the salt loses chromium i n t h e cold zone (by deposition on metal) and gains i n chromium i n t h e hot zone (by metal dissolution).
After 1000 hr 2t1/2 = 3.80
AM(t=1000 hr) = 3.80
= 0,264 g C r ,
Figure 15 gives t h e chromium corrosion p r o f i l e s f o r the actual and prototype loops.
P =I s
I I I
1 1 t 940
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 07 0.8 0.9 4.0 t. FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR LOOP LENGTH 0.1
I I I
I lI l
0.t 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 4.0 f. FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR LOOP LENGTH
Fig. 15. Computed Chromium Corrosion Profiles Resulting from t h e UF~/UFI, Redox Reaction. The salt i s a modified LIF-BeF2 mixture con-
taining no FeF2. lines. ’ ’
Profiles assume w a l l temperatures given by dashed
In example I11 a balance point exists, and computer calculations
were carried out using t h e equilibrium constants given i n Table 5. It i s noted t h a t AH i s negative, and Fig. 16 shows t h a t the mass t r a n s f e r occurs i n t h e opposite direction; material i s deposited i n t h e hot zone and renioved i n t h e cold zone.
64 ORNL- DWG 69
t a W
940 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.o f , FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR LOOP LENGTH
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 f , FRACTION OF WALL AREA AND/OR LOOP LENGTH 0
Computed Chromium Corrosion Profiles Resulting from a Carried out Under Hypothetical Conditions. Prof i l e s a r e based on w a l l temperatures given by dashed lines. In t h i s case, chromium moves fYom cold t o hot region. The s a l t considered i s a modified LiF-BeFz mixture containing no dissolved uranium or iron.
H2.m Redox Reaction
DISCUSSION OF MOLTEN-SALT RESULTS In the past, t h e mss transfer equation was integrated graphically, and areas under t h e curves were determined by planimeters.
introducing the prototype loop, we can perform a r e l a t i v e l y slmple exact integration of a l l the equations as detailed i n an earlier section.
A computer was used t o generate several of t h e mass transfer
curves, since t h i s allows integration over many smaller segments than is otherwise practical. T,Etble 7 gives the t o t a l amount of chromium remuved i n 1000 h r f o r each reaction.
For examples I1 and 111, where balance points exist, AM(t = 1000 h r ) a l s o corresponds t o the amount of material deposited. A l s o included i s t h e AMvalue f o r example I with balance points and no
This calculation i s given as an example of what could hap-
pen i n a coolant c i r c u i t where FeF2 i s t h e only impurity t h a t would cause corrosion.
The balance points would r e s u l t when only a small
amount of FeF2 i s present; weight losses would r e s u l t a t higher temperatures and weight gains a t luwer temperatures i n the system.
Integrated Mass Transfer Flux (AM) f o r Molten-Salt Loops After 1000 hr C h r o m i u m Transferred, g Integrated Planimeter Integrated Planimeter Computer on Computer Formula on "Hand" Results Curve by Hand Curve
Actual Loop Cr(s) + FeFz(d)(xs) 0.595
+ UFb(d) -
Cr(s) + H F ( ~ )
+ FeF2(d)' c
0.062 Prototype Loop
Cr(s) - + FeFn(d)(xs)
C r ( s ) + FeF2(dla
a Assuming a balance point with AH = +10,370 cal/mole and KO = 1.0 X low1'.
under t h e p l o t s of AM w a i n s t distance were a l s o determined with a planimeter, and t h e results are given i n Table 7. It i s f i r s t noted that graphical and numerical integration gave values quite close t o one another. This i s gratifying because i n t h e p a s t much dependence had been placed on graphical integration methods, and now we see t h a t t h e numerical calculations agree quite w e l l . Although t h e agreement i s not quite as good as i n the liquid metal case, again the AM's are about t h e same f o r t h e actual and prototype profiles, so t h a t good estimates of AM may be made using t h e s h p l e prototype.
The disagreement i s proportional t o t h e difference i n the
Also, it makes no difference i n t h e f i n a l r e s u l t whether t h e p r o f i l e i s l i k e t h a t of t h e proto-
areas under t h e temperature p r o f i l e curves.
type or i s a sawtooth.
In Fig. I5 (example 11), the balance points
were f(p) = 0.U. and 0.90 and T = 1036째K f o r the actual loop and P
66 In Fig. 16 = 1042°K for the prototype. P (example 111), the balance points were f(p) = 0.43 and 0.71 and = 1083°K f o r the actual loop and f(p) = 0.36 and 0.64 and T = 1083°K TP P f o r the prototype. Again, although t h e shapes of the p r o f i l e obviously f (p) = 0.23 and 0.77 and T
a f f e c t the location of t h e balance points, t h e balance points and balance temperatures a r e quite close i n a l l cases. We a l s o point out t h a t although maximums of weight loss and gain do occur a t t h e maximum temperature point i n examples I1 and 111, other maximums (ga;in or loss) may occur a t positions other than t h a t of the minimum temperature. This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fig. 16, where the maximum weight loss occurred at t h e intermediate value of 1030°K. The worst possible condition with respect t o the t o t a l amount of material removed was i l l u s t r a t e d i n example I, where corrosion occurred on a l l portions of t h e loop.
f o l d difference i n the value of AM corresponding t o material removal and deposition obtained i n the same reaction without excess FeFz i s shown i n Table 7 f o r both t h e prototype and actual loops. Several "rules" f o r mass transfer follow from these results. The common areas among the three examples are temperature, f l o w conditions, and selective chromium removal from the Hastelloy N.
i s endothermic f o r examples I and 11, the mass transfer i s from higher
t o lower temperatures.
More material i s removed and deposited i n
example 11, which has the largest energy of solution.
In example 111,
where dissolution i s exothermic, t h e mass transfer occurs from low t o high temperature.
Because temperature enters t h e mass-transfer func-
t i o n as an exponential term, an increase i n the maximum temperature greatly increases AM. double t h e AM.
For example, an increase of 50°K would about
Table 8 shows t h e constants A and B used t o calculate equilibrium constants from log
+ B(103/T); also shown i s the sign of the
energy function f o r various reduction-oxidation reactions i n LTF-BeF2base fluoride salts. an NaF-ZrF4 salt.
Example I calculations discussed e a r l i e r were f o r
From the values given i n t h e table, we w i l l discuss
the mass-transfer aspects of the various reactions.
As mentioned e a r l i e r and shown i n the calculations, one of t h e requirements t h a t must be met f o r mass transfer i n t h e direction of
67 Table 8. Equilibrium Constant Parameters' for Reactions with HF and With Salt Constituents and Impurities in LiF-BeF2 Base Molten Fluorides
2.03 X 103 1.83 X 1 0 ' 9.52 X 6.06 X loo1' 1.43 x 10-13 1.23 X 2.84 X 10-l' 5.56 x 103 2.ux 108 3.32 X 10-l' 7.77 x 10-l4 8.8 X lo4 5.76 x 10-15 1.35 X a Constants of equation log
decreasing temperature is a positive energy of solution.
respect, the reactions of the alloy constituents with UF4 and BeF2 and the reduction of UF4 and BeF2 by hydrogen meet this criterion. It is noted that in all these cases, with the exception of the oxidation of chromium by UF4, the calculated value of K is quite small, so these reactions would be unfavorable and the yields would be quite small. In reference to mass transfer in the opposite direction, as favored by the other reactions, most of the equilibrium constants are quite large. The relative ease of chromium movement, followed by iron and then nickel, is pointed out by the relative values of the equilibrium constants. For example, for reactions with UF4, K107,0K = and respectively. Reactions of molybdenum are not included because equilibrium
68 constants are not available.
However, because t h e free energies of
formation of molybdenum and nickel fluorides are nearly equal, we would f
expect the equilibrium constants t o be about the same. With respect t o t h e UF4 corrosion reaction, methods are now being
considered t o measure the U(III)/U(Iv) r a t i o and thus determine t h e oxidizing or reducing potential of the UF4-containing molten salt. Additions of beryllium a r e being used t o adjust t h i s potential and cont r o l the corrosion rate.
Investigations a r e a l s o under way for the
possible application of 95Nb deposition as the redox indicator.
We also wish t o consider i f loop conditions a r e actually the same as those under which the equilibrium quotients were determined. Actually we beg the question:
can mass transfer occur i n a loop i n the direction
of luw t o high temperature as i s theoretically shown from the FeF2 and HF reactions with balance points i n LiF-BeF2 salts? Recent experimental
work4’ i n s a l t systems containing UF4, FeF2, and €€I? show evidence of
mass transfer only from high t o lcrw temperature.
However, nothing is
knuwn about t h e effects of the canbinations of the reactants or what
effect removal of elements other than chromium from the a l l o y m i g h t have on the overall process. It would be interesting t o speculate what r a t i o of CrF2 t o FeF2 would be needed i n a UF4-containing s a l t t o stop the mass-transfer (and the corrosion) process altogether.
A promising future
goal w m l d be t o carefully i s o l a t e t h e above components and t o run the verifying experimental tests i n loops.
I n salts proposed f o r use i n a breeder reactor systen, ThF4 i s includLed. The ThF4 w i l l not oxidize chromium, so i t s presence w i l l not affect t h e corrosion process.
It must be again emphasized t h a t there is a p a r a l l e l b e t w e m the r e s u l t s i n Report I and here.
The mass-transfer equations of Report I
were derived as analogs of heat f l o w equations.
Rate equations of t h i s
type consist of driving forces and resistances.
The resistances i n
Report I were based on the first-order reaction r a t e constant and the 48R. E. Thoma, ORNL, personal communication.
49J. W. Koger and A. P. Litman, MSR Program Semiann. Progr. Rept. Feb. 28, 1969, 0-4396, pp. 243-253.
f i l m coefficient. i n both mechanisms.
The driving forces a r e differences that a r e involved For example, when solution rate is controlling,
the important difference is that between the equilibrium corrosion
product solute concentrations at the high and low temperatures of the system, while, when diffusion controls, the difference i s that between t h e bulk alloy concentration and the surface alloy concentration of the active alloying element.
The results do not depend on the shape of t h e
p r o f i l e i n the mechanism of Report I and only sometimes i n the mechanism given here.
The corrosion product concentration differed with tempera-
t u r e (position) i n Report I, while here we assume constant concentration of the corrosion product throughout t h e loop. This i s quite important, because t h e use of t h e equilibrium constant allows us t o change only one variable with temperature.
This was not possible i n Report I.
As we mentioned earlier, liquid velocities i n pump loops are orders of magnitude greater than those i n thermal convection loops. Throughout t h i s report we have assumed that conclusions about pump loop corrosion behavior are good f o r thermal convection loops and vice versa. O f course, i f the process i s t r u l y controlled by solid-sta6e diffusion i n the alloy, then velocity w i l l not a f f e c t the mass transfer. SUMMARY
We have elected t o summarize t h e molten-salt r e s u l t s since we wish t o i l l u s t r a t e s e v e r a l cogent points.
I n t h i s portion of t h e report our
main purpose was t o discuss the molten-salt corrosion (mass transfer of chromium) of Hastelloy N i n polythermal loops f o r cases where solids t a t e diffusion controls throughout the system. We have demonstrated t h e v e r s a t i l i t y of the method by showing three different examples: removal of chromium from a l l portions of the loop, hot-to-cold leg transfer, and cold-to-hot leg transfer. Calculations for both transient and quasi-steady-state conditions were based on a mathematical development of the idealized diffusion process, wherein corrosion r a t e s depend d i r e c t l y on the r a t e a t which b
constituents of alloys diffuse into, or out of, container walls as influ-
enced by the condition of w a l l surfaces exposed t o a high-temperature
The transient effects (the effects of mass transfer across t h e
liquid films on corrosion) w e r e negligible because of t h e i r short duration.
The quasi-steady-state condition assumed a pre-equilibration of
t h e s a l t w i t h CrF2 such that the concentration of CrF2 did not change. The balance points and the amount of material entering or leaving the various zones of t h e loops f o r the various systems were determined for t h e quasi steady state.
The calculation was adaptable f o r both t h e
prototype "tent-shaped" and a c t u a l loop temperature profiles.
r e s u l t s obtained from t h e prototype, which were qQite
simple t o calculate, agreed very well with t h e r e s u l t s from t h e actual profile. Impor-
t a n t variables discussed i n t h i s treatment w i t h respect t o the mass transfer process were t h e energy of solution of t h e corrosion reaction, the energy of activation f o r diffusion, the equilibrium constant of the corrosion reaction, and i t s temperature dependence. I n conclusion, the practical importance of the calculations lies i n the f a c t that, i f the proper experimental data are available, one may determine, before running a loop test, t h e magnitude and manner i n which t h e mass transfer w i l l occur. One may a l s o predict the changes expected i n a completed experiment i f the temperature conditions are varied w i t h the developed equations.
O f perhaps even greater importance
i s the f a c t that a p r i o r i calculations of t h i s type a r e required t o
predict the concentration t h a t w i l l give a pre-equilibration condition a t the beginning of an experiment.
This i s necessary f o r one t o run a
systematic well-developed test. ,
1-3. 4. 5-24. 25. 26.
27. 28. 29. 30.
31. 32. 33.
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40.
41. 42. 43. 4.4. 45. 46. 47.
50. 51. 52. 53.
Central Research Library ORNL Y-12 Technical Library Document Reference Section Laboratory Records Laboratory Records, ORNL RC ORNL Patent Office G. M. Adamson, Jr. J. L. Anderson R. F. Apple D. E. Arnurius W. E. Atkinson C. F. Baes C. E. Bamberger C. J. Barton H. F. Bauman S. E. Beall M. J. Bell C. E. Bettis D. S. Billington R. E. Blanco F. F. Blankenship R. Blumberg E. G. Bohlmann G. E. Boyd J. Braunstein M. A. Bredig R. B. Briggs H. R. Bronstein G. D. Brunton S. Cantor D. W. Cardwell ,
H. P. Carter W. L. C a r t e r
54. 0. B. Cavin
Nancy Cole C. W. Collins 57. E. L. Compere 58. W. H. Cook 59. J. W. Cooke 60. L. T. Corbin 61. J. L. Crawley 62. F. L. Culler, Jr. 63. D. R. Cuneo 6 4 . J. E. Cunningham 65. J. M. Dale 66. H. J. de Nordwall
70. 71. 72. 73. 74-78. 79.
80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85.
86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99 *
J. H. DeVan J. R. DiStefano S. J. Ditto W. P. Eatherly J. R. Engel R. B. Evans I11 J. I. Federer M. Feliciano D. E. Ferguson B. Fleischer M. Fontana A. P. Fraas J. H Dye, Jr. W. K. Furlong C. H. Gabbard D. A. Gardiner R. E. Gehlbach L. 0. Gilpatrick G. Goldberg W. R. Grimes A. G. Grindell R. H. Guymon W. 0. H a m P. N. Haubenreich R. E. Helms R. F. Hibbs J. R. Hightower M. R. H i l l E. C. H i s e
104. H. 105. D. 106. P. 107. W. 108. J. . 109. H. 110. W. 111. P. 112. R. 113. C. 1%.
u5. S. 116. 117-121. u2. 123.
W. Hoffman K. Holmes P. Holz R. Huntley E. Inman Inouye H. Jordan R. Kasten J. Ked1 R. Kennedy J. Keyes, Jr. S. Kirslis L. Klueh W. Koger
H. W. Kohn R. B. Korsmeyer 3.24. A. I. Krakoviak
72 S. m e s s A. Lane B. Lindauer B. Lloyd L. Long, Jr. I. Lundin N. Lyon E. MacPherson P. Malinauskas L. Manning R. Martin E. McCoy L. McElroy 138. C . K. McGlothlan 139. * C . J. McHargue u0 H. A. McLain 141. B. McNabb u.2. L. E. McNeese u3. J. R. McWherter 14.4. A. S. Meyer 145. A. J. Miller 246. R. L. Moore u7. D. M. Moulton 148. T. R. Mueller u 9 . Paul Nelson, Jr. 150. C. W. Nestor, Jr. 151. H. H. Nichol 152. J. P. Nichols 153. E. L. Nicholson 154. T. S. Noggle 155. L. C. Oakes l56. 0. S. Oen 157. S. M. O h r 158. R. B. Parker l59. P. Patriarca 160. R. B. Perez 161. A. M. Perry 162. T. W. Pickel 163. H. B. Piper 164. C. B. Pollock 165. B. E. Prince 166. G. L. Ragan 167. D. M. Richardson
T. J. R. D. E. M. R. R. A. l34. D. 135. W. 136. H. 137. D.
126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133.
168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179.
180. 181. 182. 183. 184.
187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195. 196. 197. 198. 199. 200201. 202203. 204. 205. 206. 2W. 208. 209.
R. K. M. G. H. W.
C. Robertson A. Romberger W. Rosenthal
Samuels C. Savage F. Schaffer Dunlap Scott 3 . L. Scott J. H. Shaffer W. H. Sides V. A. Singletary G. M. Slaughter A. N. Smith F. J. Smith G. P. Smith 0. L. Smith I. Spiewak R. A. Strehlow J. R. Tallackson R. E. Thoma M. L. Tobias D. B. Trauger W. E. Unger G. M. Watson J. S. Watson H. L. Watts C. F. Weaver A. M. Weinberg J. R. Weir M. E. Whatley J. C . White R. P. Wichner L. V. Wilson Gale Young H. C. YOW J. P. Young E. L. Youngblood F. C . Zapp C. M. Adms, Jr. (Consultant) Leo Brewer (consultant) Jan Korringa (Consultant) Sidney Siege1 (Consultant)
210. 211. 212-213.
R. E. Anderson, SNS, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 W. Brehm, WADCO, P. 0. Box 1970, Richland, WA 99352 E. G. Case, Division of Reactor Standards, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545
214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234-235, 236. 237-239. 240.
241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249.
250. 251. 252.
R. L. koats, Sandia Corp., P. 0. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87115 K. P. Cohen, General Electric, BRDO, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 D. F. Cope, RDT, SSR, AEC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory D. R. deBoisblanc, Ebasco Service, Inc., 2 Rector St., New York, NY 10006 C. B. Deering, EUack and Veatch, P. 0. Box 8405, Kansas City, MO 64lU A. R. DeGrazia, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 L. F. Epstein, LMFBR Program Office, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, I L 60439 J. E. Fox, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 K. Goldman, United Nuclear Corp., Grasslands Rd., Elmsford, NY 10523 D. H. Gurinsky, -Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 Norton Haberman, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 E. E. Hoffbn, General Electric, Nuclear Systems Program, P. 0. Box 15132, Cincinnati, OH 45215 K. E. Horton, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 T. F. Kassner, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, I L 6N39 E. C. Kovacic, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 Kermit Laughon, RDT, CSR, AEC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory A. P. Litman, SNS, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 G. Long, UKAEA, Harwell, England H. G. MacPherson, Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. TN 37916 C. L. Matthews, RDT, CSR, AEC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory T. W. McIntosh, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 J. M. McKee, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Ave., Argonne, I L 60439 P. A. Morris, Division of Reactor Licensing, FDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 P. Murray, Westinghouse, ARD, Waltz M i l l Site, P. 0. Box 158, Madison, PA 15663 J. Neff, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC
20545 H. Pearlman, Atomics International, P. 0. Box 309, Canoga Park, CA 91305 T. K. Roche, S t e l l i t e Division Cabot Corp., 1020 W. Park Ave., Kokomo, I N 46901 H. M. Roth, AEC, Oak R i d g e Operations D. W. Shannon, WADCO, P. 0. Box 1970, Richland, WA 99352 M. Shaw, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 A. A. Shoudy, Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc., 1911 F i r s t Street, Detroit, M I 48226 J. M. Simons, FDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 E. M. Simons, Battelle Memorial Institute, 505 King Ave., Colunibus, OH 43201 3. Singer, RDT, AEC, Washington, DC 20545 W. L. Smalley, AEC, Oak Ridge Operations E a r l 0. Smith, Black and Veatch, P. 0. Box 8405, Kansas City, MO 64lU
74 253. 254. 255. 256. 257. 258. 259. 26C-454.
J. A. Swartout, Union Carbide Corp., 270 Park Ave., New York, NY
10017 A. Taboada, RDT, A E C , Washington, DC 20545 C. Tyzack, UKAEA, Culcheth, England J. R. Weeks, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 G. A. Whitlaw, Westinghouse, ARD, Waltz Mill S i t e , P. 0. Box 158, Madison, PA 15663 Iaboratory and University Division, AFC, Oak Ridge Operations Patent Office, AEC, Oak Ridge Operations Given distribution as shown i n TID-4500 under Metals, Ceramics and Materials category (25 copies NTIS)