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UK: ÂŁ5.50 / Australia: A$7.99 Issue 213 May 2017 - ISSN 1366-9028

I explore t he world

have s l r i g All o to g o t t h the rig like boys! , school

Text: Pascale BouchiĂŠ. Illustrations: Christine Ponchon.

The incredible story of

Malala

Nobel Peace Prize winner Girls and boys around the world

Khalid lives in a migrant camp


… it’s all about EVOLUTION In most animal species there are males and females. But the differences between them are not always easy to spot.

Sometimes males and females look exactly the same… like goldfish, for example.

Most male mammals are bigger than females of the same species.

Hi, Philip!

Er… no, I’m Philippa!

That’s no reason why I should do all the housework!

Male spiders are usually smaller than female spiders.

Male birds are often more colourful than female birds.

Predators can spot me from a distance and… that’s not good!!!

There are male and female humans too.

2

We are different but we all have the same rights!

Help! She’s a really great striker!

Text: B. Fichou, illustrations: Jérôme Anfré.

Do you love me?


Contents ZOOM IN

INVESTIGATE!

Girls and boys around the world

My life in a migrant and refugee camp

Find out what life is like for children in other places.

Page

4

Page

PICS & FACTS This brave school girl was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

23

© Bayard Presse – Images Doc No. 337 January 2017. Cover illustrations: Javi Rey (Malala), Bruno Pilorget (Zoom in) Fred Sochard (in logo). Photo: © M. Beynié (Investigate). Contents illustrations: B. Pilorget (Zoom in), J. Rey (Pics & facts). Photos: © D. Pattyn/naturepl.fr (Wild life), A. Houdou (children).

Male or female?

It’s not always easy to tell with some species of animals.

Page AND MUCH MORE

Text: B. Fichou, illustrations: Jérôme Anfré.

15

WILD LIFE

Malala

Page

Khalid shows you where he lives.

Funfacts, cartoons, pet care, eco activity, games, your mail

30

Find out about the Convention on the Rights of the Child on page 20.

New fun interactive quizzes and glossaries available at www.bayard.com.hk/en/box Please give us your comments and feedback. Fun prizes to be won!

3


Girls and boys around the world Yuma and Yelen in Brazil Most of the Amazon rainforest is in Brazil.

NORTH AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA

Brazil

The forest is about 20 times bigger than the UK. There are not many roads or big cities. The Yanomani people have lived there for thousands of years. They still live like their people did long ago.

Yuma is 9 years old.

It’s very hot in the rainforest so he wears only a cloth tied around his hips.

Elsewhere in America‌ In Canada,

Akiak plays ice hockey on a frozen lake in winter. But sometimes he prefers to stay warm indoors and play video games! 4

In the United States, Abigail

takes food to school in her lunchbox. Today she is having a chicken sandwich, crisps and fruit.


s

Children around the world have very different lives… But you also all have plenty of things in common!

Yuma and Yelen’s day

Yanomamis live in one big house. Up to 300 people live together in a large round hut that has an open space in the middle. Each family has their own fire. They cook on the fire and hang their hammocks around it at night.

Yelen is 11 years old.

Like other Yanomami women she has decorated her face with thin sticks. Today is a special occasion so she is putting on body paint.

7AM: hunting and gardening Every day, Yuma and the other boys spend 4 hours hunting and fishing with the men. Yelen helps the women to look after the vegetable garden.

11AM: after work it’s time to play

Yelen and her friends have fun climbing trees. Their fathers teach them to recognise plants and animals. Meanwhile, Yuma plays with his little pet monkey.

In Mexico, Joseph

goes to school only in the morning. In the afternoon other children go to the school for lessons. In this way, one school can teach many more children.

4PM: time for school!

For 2 hours a day, the whole family goes to school – both children and adults. They learn in their own language and in Portuguese, the language of Brazil. 5


Mariam and Sekou in Mali The Sahara Desert stretches through Mali. AFRICA Mali

It’s very hot there – in fact Mali is one of the hottest countries in the world! It doesn’t rain very often and there are not many trees. Most people in Mali are farmers and live in small villages in the countryside.

Mariam is 12 years old.

She used to go to school when she was younger. Now she helps her mother in the house.

Sekou is 9.

Elsewhere in Africa… In Morocco,

Nour often goes to the hammam (steam room) to wash, relax and meet her friends for a chat. Women and men don’t use the hammam at the same time. 6

He gets up at 5.30AM because he has to walk for an hour to get to school. There are 65 children in his class.

In Cameroon,

Akang’s family live in 6 houses that are all inside one big fenced yard. Akang can’t wait to be 12 because then he will have his own house.


Malian houses are made of mud bricks.

Mariam and Sekou’s day

For a long time people in Mali have used river mud to make buildings. There are beautiful palaces and mosques from the 14th and 15th centuries when Mali was a rich trading empire.

12PM: lunch time

When Sekou comes home, the family share food from one large dish. They usually have a grain, such as rice, millet, sorghum or fonio, served with a stew.

Mariam and Sekou’s house is made of mud bricks too.

They share it with their 4 brothers and sisters, their parents and their grandparents.

1.30PM: time for a rest!

Mariam and Sekou get up very early and by the middle of the day the temperature is more than 40 degrees! They fall asleep on a mat listening to their mum telling a story.

In South Africa,

Caitlin and Robyn are best friends. This would have been impossible 30 years ago. In those days black people in South Africa were not allowed to be friends with white people.

3.30PM: work or play?

If Sekou doesn’t have to help his father in the fields in the afternoon, he plays football with his friends. Mariam plays dolls with her little sisters or makes toys out of wire. 7


Josh and Amy in New Zealand New Zealand is an island.

Indonesia

Australia

New Zealand

SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN

In fact all the countries in the South Pacific are islands. Some are huge, like Australia, and many are formed of chains of small islands. New Zealand has two big islands and over 500 small ones. It’s in the southern hemisphere so December, January and February are the hottest months.

Josh is 8 years old.

He and his father are rugby fans. They support the All Blacks, the national team.

nds‌ la Is c fi ci a P th u o S e th in Elsewhere In Vanuatu,

Yans takes part in an old tradition called land diving. He jumps from a wooden tower with lianas tied around his feet. It means that he has become a man!

8

In Australia, whenever Liam has free time, he goes to the beach with his friends to surf. This sport was invented in the Pacific island of Hawaii.


New Zealand sheep farms are huge! Amy and Josh’s parents’ farm is in the hills far from any towns.

Amy is 11 years old. She has a wallaby as a pet, just like people in other countries have a dog or a cat.

Josh and Amy’s day

8.30AM: off to school!

Every morning, Amy and Josh go to school on a school bus. Amy sits with her best friend Hinemoa who is Maori. Her ancestors were the first people to live in New Zealand.

11AM: at school

Josh and all the other children take off their shoes when they arrive at the school. During lessons, Josh can get up, go and have a drink and choose to work on his own or with a group.

In New Caledonia,

Maeve practises traditional dances. She is a Kanak. They were the first people to live on the chain of islands that are now called New Caledonia. These islands are a part of France.

3PM: time for sport!

New Zealanders play a lot of sport. After school, Amy plays netball or touch, a type of rugby. Josh plays cricket or rugby. 9


Roona and Kashi in India India is the 2nd largest country in Asia.

ASIA

India

It also has the 2nd biggest population in the world! Huge numbers of people from the countryside are moving to the towns and cities to find work. They build homes where they find space.

Roona is 8 years old. She makes her own toys. She uses a tyre as a hoop and a piece of cloth to make a kite…

Elsewhere in Asia… In Mongolia,

Yuna and her family live in a yurt on the steppe (grassland). They are nomads who move twice a year with their horses, yaks and their yurts of course!

10

In China,

Chung is a ‘leftbehind’ child. His parents have gone to work in the big city. So he has been left with his grandparents in their village in the countryside.


Mumbai is the largest city in India.

There are modern skyscrapers and huge old buildings in the centre of town. Roona and Kashi live in a poor neighbourhood where, the roads are not tarmacked and houses are made of old wood and metal.

Roona and Kashi’s day

Kashi is 10 years old. His parents are proud to have a boy. This is very important for an Indian family.

5AM: already up!

Their parents leave very early to go to work in a dye factory. The children work too. Roona polishes people’s shoes and Kashi collects rubbish to sell.

6PM: school in the evening

Kashi goes to school for an hour after work. He sits on the ground and uses a slate and a piece of chalk. Roona doesn’t get the chance to go to school.

In Iran,

Seema wants to study so she can become an engineer. Many other girls her age also dream of this. In Iran, girls and boys have to go to separate schools.

8PM: dinner time!

Roona and Kashi and their parents sit cross-legged around a large plate of rice and spicy vegetables which they scoop up with chapati bread. Then the children go to bed. They are exhausted… 11


Ellin and Linus in Sweden Sweden

EUROPE

Sweden is in the far north of Europe.

It stretches all the way to the Arctic so it gets very cold. In winter the days are short and the sun only comes up for a short time. Most Swedes live in the south, in cities such as Stockholm the capital.

Ellin is 8 years old.

She started school a year ago. Before that, her dad stayed at home to look after her.

Linus is 10.

Text: Estelle Vidard. Illustrations: Bruno Pilorget.

He wears warm clothes to go to school in winter. When he leaves home at 7.30AM it’s still dark!

urope… Elsewhere inIn ERomania, Brishen is proud to be learning to read. He is Roma and in their tradition stories are passed on by word of mouth. Many older people don’t know how to read.

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In Germany,

Ludmila has the chance to do different activities after school. She can choose from gardening, sewing, acting, writing stories…


Ellin and Linus’s day

8AM: lessons begin

Linus and Ellin study around 14 subjects. They are lucky because in Sweden, pupils are not given marks! They are encouraged to evaluate their own work.

11.30AM: lunch time!

A warm house for icy weather.

In the dinner hall, Ellin and Linus can choose a non-vegetarian or a vegetarian dish. They choose the vegetarian meal because, like many Swedish people, they don’t eat meat.

In Sweden’s long winters the days are short and dark. People spend a lot of time indoors. Their houses are built to keep out the cold!

In Portugal,

Anita lives with her grandparents and her parents. This is not unusual in Portugal where people are close to their families. The grandparents help look after the children.

4PM: sports fans

After school, Linus does his homework in the library. He doesn’t have much and Ellin has none at all. Then they go and play their favourite sports – ice hockey for Linus and football for Ellin. 13


Cooking and crafts

All you need is in DiscoveryBox

Geography

Games and quizzes

Ages 9 to 12

Fun facts History and general knowledge

Nature

Science

Text: Pascale Bouchié. Illustrations: Caroline Jaegy.

Text: P. Bouchié. Illustrations: Benjamin Lefort.

Why are glaciers melting?

The story of

Volcanoes

flying Hélène Boucher, adventurous young pilot

I explore the world

On board an aircraft carrier

The eruption of Mount Pelée

What does a volcanologist do?

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A project on climate change

I explore the world

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Why is the Earth getting warmer?

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I explore the world

I explore the world

Life in the Middle Ages Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine

Hunting with birds of prey

Illustration: Stépahnie Mattern (Astrapi No.874).

Cartoons

I explore the world

Dogs Barry, mountain rescue dog

A ride in a dog sled

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with

My life in a migrant and refugee camp

Khalid

Khalid is an orphan. He’s from Sudan in Africa. He had to leave his country because there’s a war there. He’s living in a centre for women and children in France.

Hello! I’m going to show you where I live.

Migrant, refugee… what do these words mean?

. A migrant is a person who has left their country.

© M. Beynié.

They are living in another country and have asked for the right to remain there and be able to work.

. A refugee is a person who has run away from their country

where their life was in danger… because of war, for example. They have been granted asylum (given protection) and can stay in the country where they have taken refuge. 15


1

Khalid lives in this building. His three older brothers live in the main Calais camp* where there are 7,000 people. Some of them want to come to England to work or to join their families that are already living here.

I wash here in the morning and at night.

* it has been closed down, since this article was written.

2

3

What fruit juice have you got, Jamal?

Aid workers have given Khalid the keys so he can open the gates of the Centre. Sometimes women come back late from visiting family members in the main camp.

At 9.30AM, breakfast is served in the dining hall. Khalid sits with his friends Jemal, Jalil and Jamal, three brothers from Afghanistan.

Jamal

Jalil

Aid worker

Jemal

This is my brother’s wife, Hiba and our friends.

Fyori Hawa

Somaya Hiba

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Some of the faces in the photos above are blurred. Some people don’t want to be identified as this might cause problems for their families back home in countries that are at war.


*

4

At 11.30AM, Khalid and ten children, all different ages and nationalities, go to a classroom. “I liked going to school in Sudan. I want to become an engineer for the building industry,” says Khalid sitting down at his desk.

* sleep, wake up, brush your teeth, comb your hair, get dressed in French (Khalid is at school in France).

How did you cross the Mediterranean Sea?

In a big inflatable** rubber boat.

10th August

– arrived in Calais

France On foot then by train

5th August

– arrived at the Italian-French border Lorries, bus and train

Italy

25th July

– arrived on Italian island of Sicily

5

Khalid draws his journey on a map. “It took us a month to get to Calais,” he says. “We saw sharks in the sea. But the hardest thing was walking over the mountains between Italy and France.”

Boat

Mediterranean Sea 23rd July

– arrived at the Mediterranean coast

Libya Lorry

** filled with air. Sudan

15th July 2016 – left Sudan

6

12.30PM. The Centre’s aid workers serve lunch. There are paper plates and plastic cutlery. On the menu: chicken and rice with carrots and peas, bread, fruit and a yoghurt. 17


7

Start with the numbers from 1 to 1,000, then the verbs such as find, ask, understand…

1.30PM. Back in class. “I had never used a computer in Sudan,” says Khalid. “I love it.” The teacher explains, “Today you are going to read the words on the screen and repeat them out loud when you hear them through the headphones.”

8

4PM. The children talk to Karen and Gretchen, psychologists from a London hospital. “We come here on Friday afternoons to help the children who have lived through the horrors of war,” explains Gretchen. Khalid is busy making a building out of Lego.

In August, Hiba and I lived here.

Where are you from?

Syria.

Texts and photos : M. Beynié.

9

18

4.30PM. At the same time, in the Centre’s office, a youth worker fills out forms for a woman who has just arrived in Calais. Her husband has gone to the main camp.

10

When women and children first arrive at the Centre, they stay in a tent village near the dining hall. Each tent houses 10 people. In the winter, there are radiators to heat the inside of the tents. In the summer, the tents can get very hot.

Khalid t


I sleep on the top and Hiba sleeps on the bottom.

11

Here, Khalid, pop this sleeping bag into the dryer.

Khalid and Hiba have been living in this building for a few weeks. As people leave for England or are granted asylum in France, they move out of the Centre. Their beds are given to the people in tents.

12

Gonzague,

Mel,

teacher

aid worker

Michael, aid worker

Fyori,

aid worker and translator

Dylan,

aid worker

Estelle,

aid worker

Khalid took this photo

of some of the people

who work at the Centre.

Bochra,

aid worker

My family has asked for asylum in France. I am going to live near Bordeaux in southwest France.

5.30PM. Khalid helps an aid worker in the laundry room. Later he will go on a bike ride, have dinner and then go to his room to sleep.


All the children in the world ha In 1989 the Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted by the countries of the United Nations*. Here are some of the important rights. REN CHILD S RIGHT

’S

What are children’s rights?

In the past, children were seen as miniature adults. They worked like adults and had no protection. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is a human rights agreement. It sets out the rights that children have, including the right to be looked after, the right to go to school and to play… Countries that have signed the treaty are checked to make sure they are keeping to the rules.

The right to re spect and equality Countrie

s must treat all ch ildren equally, whether they are girls or boys, in go od health or physical ly challenged and whatever their sk in colour, religion or language…

20

* international organization that promotes co-operation.

The right e and m a n a e v a h to a nationalityt be

us are born they m When children ey must Th d a surname. given a name an nationality. ed and given a er st gi re be so al that are protected in This means they country.

with e v i l o t t The righ parents their ated by n badly tre

bee rate, they have rents sepa … unless a p ir e h t y. If e their their famil right to giv fect them, e h t e v a s that af children h t decision u o b a n io ve. opin they will li re e h w s such a


ld have the same rights! The right to be fed and cared for

Children need to be looked after so they can be healthy. They have a right to medicines and vaccines. They should be properly fed, housed and clothed.

The right NOT to be exploited

children All countries must make sure that not uld are not forced to work. They sho k that is have to do dangerous work or wor bad for their health.

The right ool to go to sch t is

coun ad, write and Learning to re can then that children so ry o ls u p m d a job co study and fin . Too that they like in many children ork w the world still g in to instead of go school!

The right to play

All children have the right to play, rest and take part in sporting or artistic act ivities to help develop their imagination.

In some countries, children have to work or are not looked after. Even in rich countries, not all children have happy lives. Some are beaten or don’t get enough to eat. We should all know about children’s rights so we can help children in need. 21


The right to give their opinion

ir opinion Children have the right to give the ool or sch at m on decisions that affect the in their family. They must be taken nion, seriously. When they give their opi they must respect other people’s rights.

The right NOT to suffer violence

Children’s private life means their photos, their house, their mail, their phone etc. Their private life must be protected , including on the internet and soc ial media.

The right to protection in case of war

t be war, children mus If a country is at ould olence. Nobody sh vi om fr d te ec ot pr war. soldiers and go to force them to be

Tex t: P. Bouchié. Illustra

tion s: Fre d Sochar d.

Nobody has the rig ht to mistreat ch ildren, to insult them or to abuse them. Ch ildren must be protecte d from neglect, se xual abuse, accidents and seeing violen t images.

The right to protect their private life

If you have a problem, what should you do? • Call 0800 1111 (Childli ne) in the UK This free telephone se rvice for children in da nger is open 24 /7. People will listen to you and help you. • Visit ww w.childline.o rg.uk This website has a lot of useful information. The service is free and the counsello rs will not tell anyone else about anything you have said. They can also help you keep your visits to Childline priva te. 22

• It may be helpful to talk to adults close to you, such as your teachers and school counsellors. • Many other countries also have similar services for children. You can find them on the internet.


Malala a brave school girl © DR

Malala Yousafzai lives in the UK now. Five years ago, terrorists tried to kill her in her country, Pakistan. Here is Malala’s story.

Malala was born on the 12th of July 1997 in Mingora in Pakistan.

Mr Yousafzai, you must be disappointed that you have had a daughter?

UK

EUROPE

Not at all! I love Malala dearly and I’m so glad to be her dad.

Mingora

AFRICA

PAKISTAN

23


ln 2004, Malala is 7 years old. Like almost all Pakistanis, her family is Muslim*.

Allah** protect my family and make this a good day for me!

Malala now has two brothers called Khushal and Atal.

Some people think boys are more important than girls. But we believe you are all special.

Stop annoying me, Khushal or I won’t read you a story this evening!

ln the morning, the children salute the flag of Pakistan.

24

* a follower of Islam. ** God.

He can sleep in your old cradle, like Khushal did. We want to treat all of you in the same way.

Our neighbour’s son sleeps in a beautiful new cradle. Will you get one for Atal?

I’m going to the school. I have to repair a door.

Study hard, Malala. I was never taught to read or write.

Look, Moniba! Dad has given me a phone. I love it, even if it’s only a toy one.

I hope the teacher asks me to recite the poem. I learned it by heart.

You are so clever, Dad. You know how to fix things, how to sweep, how to be a head teacher… Bye!

Wow! Pink… my favourite colour.

I hope she asks me! You always get good marks!


At break time

Well, my father is the head teacher of this school and he protects girls’ rights. Come on, let’s play together!

My father says that girls should stay at home to cook and have children instead of playing.

One day Malala takes some rubbish to the dump.

I hope I don’t come across any nasty rats!

Go, Moniba! Throw the ball hard!

Back at home

Oh, no. That poor girl!

I have never seen that girl at school.

She helps her family by sorting and selling rubbish. That’s so sad.

ln October 2005

We are going to start a collection to help the people who have lost everything in the earthquake.

Quick! Leave the classroom! It’s an earthquake*. Go to the playground!

I was so worried! But you are safe and well. Allah be praised.

Malala's father takes aid to the victims.

I will find some blankets. Winter is coming and people will be sleeping outdoors.

* there are often strong earthquakes in Pakistan.

Be careful! Some roads have collapsed.

I put in two of my books so the children can go on studying.

25


A few months later

They are Islamic fundamentalists*. Their leader says that Allah made the earthquake happen because we do not follow Islamic law.

There are more and more Taliban around!

Hello, Sir, we would like to buy a CD…

The Taliban say that music is bad for the mind. So they made me close my shop.

But we love music and dancing.

Another day

I don’t think the Quran** forbids nail polish…

No nail polish! I told you already. The next time we will cut off your hand!

Instead of playing, you should be learning the Quran by heart.

Go home, boys!

Shush!

Later at school

What’s that letter stuck to the door of my school? Who wrote it?

You are teaching girls. Their uniform is not Islamic. They must wear a headscarf and keep their heads covered when they go in and out of school.

Now the Taliban are attacking girls’ schools. They are blowing them up. I am frightened for our school.

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* people that believe in a very strict kind of Islam. ** the holy book of the Muslims.

Oh no!

I will help you fight to defend our rights.


Malala gives talks in other schools. A journalist comes to listen to her.

I have come to tell you that you must continue to come to school… even though the Taliban don’t want you to!

ln 2009, Malala is 12 years old. Another journalist calls her.

It is very brave to write about your life since the Taliban came to power. But you should use a false name so that no one will know who you are. It’s safer. How about Gul Makai*?

Malala is brave. Many of us adults no longer dare to speak out because we are terrified of the Taliban.

These are our weapons!

Malala agrees.

One day I heard someone behind me saying, “I will kill you!” To my relief… he was talking on his phone. But I was so scared! We hear shots at night and I have nightmares about it. Malala speaks on the radio and writes a blog called Diary of a Pakistani school girl. Thousands of people hear about her.

But at the beginning of 2012…

Daughter, you must stop speaking out. The Taliban are threatening to kill you!

9th October, 2012

When night falls

I refuse. I want to carry on defending the right of girls to go to school. I will fight for peace too! Anyway, you can’t walk to school anymore. It’s too dangerous!

Okay, the gate is locked and bolted. Tomorrow I will go to school by bus with my friends.

Which one of you is Malala?

BANG! BANG! BANG!

* means wild flower.

27


Malala is sent to Birmingham, in the uk for specialist medical care.

At the hospital

Allah, take my life instead of my daughter’s. She is only 15 years old!

A week after the shooting.

Malala is awake at last!

We will operate again and I hope we can save her…

She is seriously hurt. But her brain has not been damaged. At the beginning of 2013, Malala's family joins her in Birmingham.

You have had millions of letters from all over the world! I am so happy that you are all here with me!

10th October 2014, at a school in Birmingham.

Girls, I have some wonderful news. Malala has just been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Amazing! She’s only 17!

* an international organisation for co-operation. Almost all countries in the world are members.

At the end of the day

You are the youngest Nobel Peace Prize winner. How do you feel about it?

I offer this prize to all the children who do not have the right to speak but who need to be heard.

old. a is 19 years Today, Malal s for the right She still fight n everywhere of all childre ol, to go to scho in the world ys, bo are girls or whether they or th al in good he rich or poor, . ed ng alle physically ch study at to ng oi g She is r ople respect he university. Pe . what she says and listen to THE END

28

© DR

I saw weapons of war in my country. But I believe that the real weapons are books and pens.

Yes, a little. All these operations on my head make me tired. But after the next one, I should be able to hear better.

Text: C. Loizeau. Illustrations: Javi Rey.

ln July 2013, Malala is invited to the United Nations*.

Does it hurt, darling?


A short history of school There were already some schools in ancient times. But in Europe, until around 200 years ago, most people could not write their own names! School in ancient times

The first schools appeared in Egypt when people started to write around 3,000 BCE. There were also schools in ancient China, Greece and the Roman Empire. Children who went to school were often the sons of kings or other important people.

School for churchmen

In Europe the Catholic church had schools to train priests and monks. Boys were taught songs and prayers. They learned Latin because the Bible and other church books were written in that old language. They also learned to count and to read and write.

School in the Middle Ages

Boys from noble families were taught at home. Merchants sent their children to school with the monks to learn to read and count. Poor farmers’ children had to work for a lord. Sometimes they were allowed to go to school for a short time.

School for everyone

For a long time, most children had to work to help their parents. They worked on farms, in shops or factories. In the 1860s one third of children in England and Wales – especially girls – didn’t go to school.

School is compulsory

ading If you enjoyed re her fight d about Malala an hy not for education, w or draw write about her a picture of her. me of We will publish so x, to: DiscoveryBo your letters. Send 9, x 6126

, PO Bo Bayard Magazines K London N17 1DF, U

Text: C. Loizeau, illustrations: Gwenole Le Dors.

© DR

alala Write about M

In most countries around the world today children have to go to school for a number of years. In the UK, school became compulsory in 1880. In 1918 (nearly 100 years ago) children had to attend school until they were 14. Children now have to stay in school until they are 16. They must continue to study or do training until they are 18 years old. Each country has its own rules about how many years children must do in school.

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Š J. C. Munoz/naturepl.fr

Wild life

Howler monkeys show their colours!

Young howler monkeys have an attractive golden coat. The females stay this colour. But once the males are around 3 years old and become adult their fur turns black.

30


Male or female?

We usually think of male animals being stronger than females and looking different. Well, nature has a few surprises for us! Let’s visit the animal kingdom to find out‌

31


Š L. Coetzer/naturepl.fr

A male pin-tailed whydah (above) looks very different from a female (right).

The long tail feathers are to impress the females and help them choose a partner.

Male fur seals are 3 times heavier than females.

Š A. Shah/naturepl.fr

The males fight each other and the strongest will be able to mate with more females. As the years go by, fathers pass on their large size to their sons.

32


© M. Gabriel/naturepl.fr

These fearsome weapons are heavy and awkward to carry around. But a beetle that can beat other males has a better chance of reproducing.

© Visual s Un

limite d/natu

repl .fr

Male stag beetles use their large mandibles (jaws) to fight.

Sometimes males are smaller than females of the same species.

© M. Poinsignon/naturepl.fr

It’s true for these frogs from Madagascar and these European praying mantises (right). In both species the females need to be fatter and well fed so that plenty of eggs develop in their abdomen after mating.

33


© D. Pattyn/naturepl.fr

Female mallard ducks have dull brown feathers. They are more difficult for predators to spot when they are sitting on their eggs. The males have brightly coloured, shiny feathers. They don’t sit on the eggs.

Animals don’t only use colour or shape to choose a mate.

© A. Sands/nature

pl.fr

Small emperor moths find their partner by smell. The males are smaller than the females.

34


Stags’ antlers show they are strong and healthy.

© K. Echle/naturepl.fr

It isn’t easy to run through the forest with heavy antlers on your head! Stags that grow new antlers every year are strong and in good health. Female deer know that if they mate with healthy stags they will have healthy babies.

35


c Creative/Naturepw © T. Laman/National Geographi

In the mating season , the feathers of male birds of paradise are very bright.

The females’ feathers are plainer so predators ca n’t spot them easily. It’s importa nt for females to stay safe. Th ey need to live long enough to look after their young.

They build large webs for catching insects. The male orb-weaver spiders are tiny. They live on the edges of a female’s web. They don’t want to be mistaken for prey and be eaten by her. So they are careful about when they approach the female. After mating, they run off and stay well away from her! 36

© T. Heald/naturepl.fr

Female golden orb-weaver spiders are huge!


© Fotolia

© F. Gill/2020 Vision/naturepl.fr

Sometimes males and females look alike…

ldfish Male and female go look alike. ,

season But during the mating lem working they don’t have a prob o is female! out who is male and wh

Equality for these Eurasian tree sparrows!

Males and females look exactly the same. They take turns to sit on their eggs and raise their brood together.

Hares hide their differences well.

Text: N. Tordjman.

© A. Parkinson/naturepl.fr

It’s difficult to tell male and female hares apart from a distance. During the mating season males and females chase each other. The female will box the male with her front paws if he gets too close. Males are called jacks and females are called jills.

37


Š Exploring the invisible

1 a shoal of krill seen from a plane

3 marshland 38

2 pink flamingoes seen from the sky

4 a fingerprint (magnified)

Answer on page 51.


Tusko Livingroom Leopold Stanley

Tarzine Well, in some species there are big differences between males and females… Sometimes the female is huge and the male is tiny… Male and female animals often look different…

Him a Lod lay a ge

What do you mean?

But sometimes the male is much bigger and more colourful than the female.

Like male and female peacocks!

Like cockerels and hens!

Oh yes, I know!

Exactly! Here you are my dears, a delicious yak stew! Thank you!

Wow! What sort of animal is she?

Text and illustrations: Corcal.

Ah! That will be my husband coming back from work! I will go and let him in.

Enjoy your meal, everyone!

Hello my dear Yeti. Did you have a good day? Grumpf

39


© Fotolia

A piano is a keyboard

Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the piano around 1700. He was an instrument maker in Florence, Italy. He described his instrument as a keyboard that could play piano and forte. (In Italian piano means ‘quietly’ and forte means ‘loudly’.) Over time the name became pianoforte and then was shortened to piano. Wow! Have you seen all these strawberries?

Where?

When you press a black or white key, you make a small hammer strike a string to make a sound. You can play loudly or quietly by pressing hard or gently. You can also play the same note again and again quickly. Today, most pianos have 88 keys: 52 large white keys play notes A to G and 36 small black keys play sharp or flat notes.

Colour blindness means you don’t see some colours The retina at the back of our eyes is made up of cells that react to light. Some of them are cone cells that detect colours. Some cones see green, others see red or blue. Different kinds of colour blindness make people see colours in different ways. The most common kind is when people can’t see any difference between red and green, or colours that have red and green in them.

40


Your body makes blood cells to help it work properly. Every day, it makes 150 billion red blood cells, 100 billion platelets and several billion white blood cells. The red blood cells carry oxygen around your body and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs so you can get rid of it when you breathe out. Platelets help your blood clot and stop bleeding. White blood cells fight viruses and bacteria.

When satellites fall towards Earth… … they usually burn up before they reach the ground! A satellite is anything that’s in orbit around the Earth. It travels at a speed that keeps it going round and round on the same path. But satellites can hit something in space or can go wrong. If a satellite doesn’t all burn up, spacecraft operators can make it land somewhere safe… such as the middle of the Pacific Ocean where there are no people.

© Nasa Illustration, (ID329).

Illustration: Éric Meurice, (ID329).

Blood cells

© National Science

We need protection!

These Adelie penguins live in the biggest marine reserve in the world. This sanctuary has been created in Antarctica to protect animals threatened by pollution and over-fishing. It’s the size of France, Germany and Spain put together. 41


Mirror, mirror on the wall To make a mirror you need a sheet of glass. One side of the glass is scraped to make it rough. Then a thin layer of aluminium or chrome is sprayed on the rough side. This is covered with waterproof protective paint to stop it getting scratched. The layer of aluminium is only 0.0001 millimetres thick! It’s this layer that makes mirrors reflect.

The guillotine It was a machine for cutting people’s heads off! It became famous during the French Revolution (1789–1799). This was when the French people got rid of their king and set up a republic. It was a very violent time. The new government had many enemies they wanted to get rid of. Dr Joseph Guillotin suggested this machine as it was quick. Tens of thousands of people were guillotined at this time. NEXT!

© La Légende des chevaliers/www.equestrio.fr, (ID330).

© Fotolia/Mat Hayward

You go!

You first!

Back to the Middle Ages!

Have you ever wondered what life was like in the Middle Ages? Well, there are plenty of societies that stage Medieval battles and knights’ tournaments with feasts and music. People dress up like they did in the Middle Ages and act out events that happened long ago. 42


Barn owls live in… barns!

Hey! No swearing!

Barn owls live in many parts of the world. They like to make their nests in barns as well as old trees. They are also known as white owls, ghost owls, death owls and screech owls… People used to be afraid of them. They killed barn owls and nailed them to doors to keep ghosts out! Now these birds are protected but are often killed by pesticide poisoning or road traffic.

oo! Oh p

Cows are ruminants

1

Ruminants such as cows, sheep and goats have several parts to their stomach. Grass is difficult to digest. So, to get as much energy from their food as possible, ruminants chew it twice. When a cow swallows, the grass goes into one part of its stomach. There it’s broken down into soft mushy balls that we call cud. The cow regurgitates (brings back up into its mouth) the cud. It chews the cud and swallows it again.

Time was divided up 5,000 years ago. In those days, people in Mesopotamia (Iraq today) counted on their fingers using ‘base 60’. They touched their thumb to each of the 3 bones on their 4 fingers (3 x 4 = 12). When they got to 12 they raised a finger on the other hand (that meant 12), then the next and so on… 5 x 12 = 60. We still follow their system today.

4 5 2 3 6

7 8 9 11 12

24

10

36

© Colondrino/DR

© A. Houdou

60 minutes in an hour

48 60

12

© Bayard Presse - Images Doc No.337 - Text: Marc Beynié, Pascale Bouchié, Nathalie Tordjman; Illustrations: Christine Ponchon, 2017.

© Fotolia

People sometimes use swear words when they are irritated or angry. Scientists think swear words help us feel better because we know we are not supposed to use them. Swear words are often rude so children are not allowed to say them. Swear words can also be hurtful insults that upset people… and that’s unkind.

43


Caring for an unhappy budgie

You should first check that your budgie is not sick. If its nostrils are runny or its droppings are soft, if its feathers are ruffled or it sleeps huddled up in a ball, take it to the vet for a check-up. Make sure you always keep its cage clean.

When you buy a new budgie, make sure you put it in quarantine. That means keeping it in a cage on its own for around a month. This is to be sure it doesn’t have any illnesses that it could spread to the other budgies.

Sad or lonely?

If your budgie is healthy but alone in its cage, try moving the cage to another spot. If that doesn’t work, think about getting a friend for your H budgie. Choose a budgie that is the opposite sex and if possible, around the same age as yours. That way the two budgies will be more likely to get on. ELLO

Bullied or pestered?

If you have several budgies in one cage, take out the one that seems unhappy and put it in a cage on its own. The other budgies may be bullying it so it may not be getting enough food. Give it time to get its strength back.

Text: N. Tordjman. © : O. Diez/Arco/Age Fotostock. Illustrations: Gaëlle Duhazé.

Is your budgie unhappy or sick?

45


E

Krogg and Alienna

Probing questions Do you think he will be able to help us? I hope so.

The Earthling hasn’t seen us. Go down slowly, Alienna.

Oh no! It’s the Martians again!

Earthling... We need you to answer our questions. I’m a busy man, you know.

Would you like some cake?

Right... Where does Queen Elizabeth live? Er... in London. What’s the highest mountain?

Everest. Thanks, Earthling!

that gives you spots?

Chickenpox?

So... 1 across is LONDON. 3 down is EVEREST...

QUACK!

???

What is The Land of the Rising Sun? And... Umm... an illness Japan?

Perfect! This Earthling game is lots of fun!

I wonder what those Martians are plotting!

The end © Bayard Presse – Astrapi No.860 -Text: P. Martin. Illustrations: N. Hubesch, 2016.

46


Eco activity Ink made from vegetables!

Text: N. Tordjman. © DR. Illustrations: Gaëlle Duhazé.

Find out how you can use different coloured vegetables to make your own natural inks.

Some cooking…

You need raw beetroot and red cabbage, carrots, spinach, onions and peppers. Keep each vegetable separate and grate it or cut it into little pieces. Put one of the vegetables in a juicer with a little water to make a strong coloured juice. Wash the juicer between vegetables!

A spot of painting

You can paint with the cabbage, beetroot and spinach juice. Carrots and peppers make paler juice. If you cook dry onion skins for 5 minutes in a little water you will get brown ink. Filter out the skins when it is cool.

Some chemistry…

Make new colours by mixing. Red cabbage juice turns blue when you add lemon juice to it. It turns deep purple when you add grated soap. If you add ash from a fire to it, red cabbage juice turns green. To get a bright yellow, juice some onions and add bicarbonate of soda.

How about you? Do you do any eco activities Bo x that use natural materials Discovery gazines a and are not too hard? Bayard M ox 61269 F, UK B O P Write to us and your idea 17 1D Lo n d o n N might be published. Don’t forget to tell us your name. 47


Surprising Tibet! 1

Getting to school is not easy!  Help these children to arrive at school on time.

2

Tibetan prayer flags

The coloured flags on these four prayer strings are arranged in a special order‌ except on one string. Which one?

a b c d

48


Buddhisttemples One of these 9 temples is different to the others. Which one?

4

A

B

TheBuddhahas brokenhisarm! Which of these blocks completes the statue?

D C

E

Concept and illustration: Ola Artymowska.

3

Answers on page 51.

49


us email wings: r o d dra S en s and yarde k o j your t@ba

Some of your jokes and pictures Hee, hee! Ha,

k c conta zines.co.u maga

How did th e snail cros s the road? It took a wh ale!

ha!

Imo gen Lydia

! Knock! Knock ?” re e “Who’s th “Abby!” “Abby who?” ay to you!” “Abby birthd

a! h , a H Ha, ha!

Molly Which period did the Cryingdinosaurs come from? The Crytatious!

Ha,

Elisabeth

ha!

Mar

orn a unic l l a c do you iffs? What t always sn tha acorn. A Snif f

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Kayla

What’s a crocodile’s favourite game? Snap!

a! h , a H

B r ia n

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hee! , e e H

What does the cat re ad in the morning? A mewspaper!

Sarah

This machine tells lies. Hello!

50

Your haircut is great!

Yeah… it only tells kind white lies. I adore you!

Story and illustrations: Patrick Cerf.

PROFESSOR BATTY’s mad machines


© F. LantingMint Images/Biosphoto

In your next issue of

Life at the

Poles

Answers What can you see? (p.38) No.4 – a fingerprint (magnified). The white dots are the pores in the skin.

Surprising Tibet (pp.48–49) 1, 3 and 4: look at the drawing below. 2: the flags on string B are in random order.

Managing publisher: Christophe Mauratille. Editor in Chief: Simona Sideri. Art Director: Clare Shedden. Text and research: Liz Shepherd. Sales and promotion: Tatiana Joly. For editorial queries please contact: Bayard Magazines, PO Box 61269, London N17 1DF, UK. For a subscription in Switzerland: Edigroup SA - 39, rue Peillonnex - 1225 Chêne-Bourg (Switzerland) - tel: (0041) 22 860 84 02 - fax: (0041) 22 349 25 92 email: abobayard@edigroup.ch

Illustration: Ola Artymowska

DiscoveryBox is published by Bayard Presse Asia – Le Grain de Sénevé Publishing Co. Ltd, located at Room 8, 9/F, Block A, Hong Kong Industrial Centre, 489-491 Castle Peak Road, Cheung Sha Wan, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Printers: Ayregraf Artes Graficas, Spain and Allion Printing Co. Ltd, Hong Kong. ISSN: 1366-9028. All rights reserved to the publisher © Images Doc, Astrapi – Bayard Presse. The name, surname and address of our subscribers are passed on to our in-house departments and all organisations under agreement with DiscoveryBox unless we receive a formal instruction not to do so from the subscriber, in which case the above information will only be used to carry out the subscription. Such information may be accessed or modified by the subscriber as specified by the law.

Follow us on (BayardKidsMags) and (Bayard Children’s Magazines).

Quiz (back cover) 1-A, 2-A, 3-A, 4-C, 5-B, 6-A, 7-A, 8-A.

TO SUBSCRIBE: UK (freephone number) 0800 055 6686 from other countries please write to: contact@bayard-magazines.co.uk For more information go to our website www.bayard-magazines.co.uk

51


UK: £5.50 / Australia: A$7.99 Issue 213 May 2017 - ISSN 1366-9028

Quiz 1 The piano was invented by:

2 Cows chew their food twice because:

A Bartolomeo Cristofori

A grass is hard to digest

B Lady Gaga

B it keeps them busy

C Mr Pianoforte

C that’s how they

3 In Swedish schools children:

4 The Yanomami people live in the rainforest in:

A do not get marks

A China

B have no holidays

B Africa

C have chips for lunch

C South America

5 In New Zealand some people have pet:

6 When Malala talks about her weapons, she means:

A camels

A books and a pen

B wallabies

B sticks and stones

C sperm whales

C the radio

7 In 1918 children in Britain had to go to school until they were:

8 Male praying mantises:

A 14

A are huge

B 10

B carry the eggs

C 21

C are smaller than females

Answers on page 51.

Text: Pascale Bouchié. Illustrations: Christine Ponchon.

every day

communicate

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DiscoveryBox #213  

A journey of discovery through nature, science and history. Your child is curious and wants to know more and understand everything. Discove...

DiscoveryBox #213  

A journey of discovery through nature, science and history. Your child is curious and wants to know more and understand everything. Discove...

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