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Mauricio Espinosa |

Plasticity in Arcadia

Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

Tutor: Phil Watson 18 June, 2010 Project Report Blog: [http://mespinosa.tumblr.com] email: espinosaproject(at)yahoo(dot)com Master of Architecture [Architectural Design] – Candidate 2010 [AVATAR] Advanced Virtual and Technological Architecture Research Bartlett School of Architecture | University College London


“This apple is a little universe in itself, the seed of which, being hotter than the other parts, gives out the conserving heat of its globe; and this germ, in my opinion, is the little sun of this little world, that warms and feeds the vegetative salt of this little mass.”

—Cyrano de Bergerac (Schuhl & Capek 1947, p.169)


1. Culbin Butte dune with blown top and surrounding indurated sand (Steers 1937, p.516)

parcels and Loch of Spynie


CONTENTS METHODOLOGY 6 8 Aims and Objectives 9 List of Principal Characters SITE ABSTRACT & 10 HISTORICAL ANALYSIS 12 Geomorphology of Moray Firth 14 Culbin Mythology & the Kinnaird Barony THEMATIC LANDSCAPES 18 20 The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia 22 Shifting Geometries 24 Perception of Views 26 Construction of Views COMMUNICATING ECOLOGIES 28 30 Responsive Landscapes 34 A Plastic Architecture 38 Degradation, Viability, Reassembly PROJECTING CULBIN’S ARCADIA 40 42 Virtual Topologies & the Ecological Matrix 44 Abstract-Concrete Topography CONCLUSION 46 REFERENCES 48 APPENDIX 50 52 Technical Data / Calculations 66 Word Count / Image Credits / Additional Sources [CD]


I.Methodology 2. Overall Site Plan | Culbin Forest, Moray Firth


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3. (Opposite-Top) Deformation cage sketch 4-7. (Opposite-Bottom) Fitzcarraldo’s tackles translate ship over a mountain (Fitzcarraldo 1982)

Methodology

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES A tattered sand-dune environment— filled with rich physical and ephemeral qualities—involves topical conditions in the discussion of ‘man and nature.’ The project attempts to clarify ideas of time, object, and location by utilizing Jarry’s (1896) ‘science of exceptions’ * to interrogate an empirical† understanding in the fabrication and construction of architecture. Artistically, data gaps‡ may be translated into a real-world context through the use of narrative§ in order to reassess traditional goals in construction, and one’s response to evolving ecologies.¶ Moray Firth’s Culbin Forest—located in Northern Scotland—is a rich, geotechnical environment which is used as a device to translate between a realworld landscape, and the imaginary thematic landscape set forth in Sir Philip Sidney’s The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia (1593). Its primary tactic for assimilating disparate elements is Nicod’s (1930) geometric exercise in logic which discusses spatio-temporal * Alfred Jarry’s definition of ‘pataphysics in, Exploits and Opinions of Dr Faustroll, Pataphysician which describes: “. . .(the science that added to metaphysics as). . .the science of imaginary solutions that symbolically attributes to their lineaments the properties of objects described by their virtuality.” † Relying on or derived from observation or experiment; (also) verifiable or provable by means of observation or experiment. (The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language). ‡ Geomorphological / historical studies of the Culbin Forest which posit a difficulty in establishing “fact” and “fiction” within empirical data sets (Ross 1992 et al.) § Sir Phillip Sidney’s renaissance masterpiece The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia is a thematically-colorized, literary work discussing involvements between ‘man and nature.’ ¶ Study of relationships between people, social groups, and their environment . . .in areas of human settlement (Oxford English Dictionary).

resemblance as a normative measure of bridging sensory perception. One attempts to construct a set of conditions to deal with issues of: site, narrative, technology, mathematics, and largely, one’s response to local ecologies. These ecologies are reconstructed as interdependent, virtual topologies or deformation cages** which reassemble Culbin’s Arcadia into a rich ecological matrix of architecture, within a trans-objective site.†† Programming language‡‡ is seen as a primary tool for projecting the virtual context of Culbin’s Arcadia into an actualized, computer-landscape topography.

** Lexicon of plastic geometric topologies showing abstract and concrete shifts in space over time. Reference to Nicod’s idea of spatiotemporal resemblance in sense data outlining a definitive border of metaphysics. †† Computer environment embodying Arcadian topologies where ‘objects’ are removed within a new landscape. ‡‡ Reference to both Wittgenstein’s linguistic accounts of communication in Philosophical Investigations (1958), and programmable computing-software utilizing geometric deformers to construct objects in space(s) and time(s) (via Autodesk Maya 2010 software).


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

List of Principal Characters ALEXANDER KINNAIRD, Scottish landowner who loses his barony between 1694-1695 due to land mismanagement ANNEALING TACKLE, technological silt-melting device used to fabricate and translate Arcadia’s lighthouse ARCADIA, Sir Philip Sidney’s imaginary landscape narrative, discusses six themes of man & nature BASILIUS LIGHTHOUSE, “ordinary Arcadian king’s” construct for returning night fighting vessels BARONIC TUB, freshwater pond for Dorus’ bathing sheep communicates a signal to Findhorn BURNING LENS, Archimedes lens “burns” surrounding soil to anneal glass structures CLODDYMOSS LENS, viewing analogue into Arcadia through a Nicodian Lens, triangulated with Drumbeg and Moy Fishing Lenses CROWN GRANGE HALL, place of recording for the amorous courting of two lovers CULBIN FOREST, diverse geomorphic site located on the Moray Firth, North Scotland DORUS’ SHEEP SHEARS, glass shears constructed in the landscape with wind and seawater, reference to Sidney’s pastoral exercises

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DRAGONFLY POND, cathode linked through culverts to propagate a lighthouse battery DRUMBEG LENS, viewing analogue into Arcadia through a Nicodian Lens, triangulated with Cloddymoss and Moy Fishing Lenses DUNE CROWN, primary sand dune converted to a Fresnel Lens through Annealing Tackles EUARCHUS LIGHTHOUSE, the “good ruler’s” beacon of hope supports neighboring fishing town of Nairn FINDHORN, neighboring ‘Spiritual’ Foundation famous for giant 40-lb cabbages FRESNEL LENS, lighthouse lens is inverted to capture the sun’s rays and harness energy HUGH KINNAIRD, distant cousin of Alexander Kinnaird responsible for re-mapping Alexander’s lost barony KINNAIRD BARONY, lost barony excavated for wrought-iron in the construction of a lighthouse battery LOCH OF SPYNIE, original freshwater body mapped by Hugh Kinnaird MAYA, computer software constructs geometries in virtual space and time MORAY FIRTH, seaward stretch between Forres and Nairn harboring the Culbin Forest Preserve MOY FISHING LENS, viewing analogue into Arcadia through a Nicodian Lens, triangulated with Cloddymoss and Drumbeg Lenses NAIRN, small fishing town neighboring Culbin Forest has threatened economy NICODIAN LENS, logical platform demonstrating geometry as spatio-temporal resemblance of sense data NIGHT FIGHTING VESSELS, valorous ships returning to Basilius’ lighthouse, reference to Sidney’s theme of valorous fighting SALT MARSH, anode linked to Kinnaird Barony through culverts propagates a lighthouse battery TIMOTHY PONT, draws map of Culbin in 1590, imprecise map referenced in research data TRACK OF THE FERRY BOAT, Hugh Kinnaird’s 1783 trajectory used to map barony


II.Site Abstract &

Historical Analysis 8. Iron and stone splays define volumetric location of Kinnaird Barony


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Site Abstract & Historical Analysis


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

SITE ABSTRACT & HISTORICAL ANALYSIS Geomorphology of Moray Firth

9-11. (Opposite) Geomorphology of Culbin Forest - gravel ridge shifts from post-Holocene to present. Top: active sand dune (green), Middle: primary ridge locations, Bottom: combined ridge and dunes. Key: a: narrow ridge belt extends westwards across the NE flank of Culbin before splaying out southwards into a “fan”; b: parabolic dunes of Maviston, near Loch Loy West of site attain max. ht. of 15m, with flanks up to 400m(L), 400(W), making these among the largest in Europe c: landwards, approx. parallel ridges splay out markedly into (2) distinct groups towards SW, ridge belt extends W across NE flank of Culbin before splaying SW into a “fan”; d: formation of The Bar e: up to (13) major recurving gravel ridges occur landwards of active ridge, represents recently abandoned shoreline features; f: extensive intertidal northern sandflats and saltmarshes in the shelter of spits and barriers (Hansome 1994, pp.3-4, 8-10)

Culbin Forest is Britain’s largest dune system, with approximately 50-million tons of dune sand below its heavily thatched surface (Hansom 2007, p.1). The area is intensively researched due to its ‘active’ geomorphic features and traces, most notably its shifting gravel ridges [fig.59] from the postHolocene period as well as its active sand dunes [figs.9-11](Comber 1995, pp.54-57). The primary dune-deposit is an accumulation of silt which was deposited down the mouth of the River Findhorn (or “River Lossie” as described by Hugh Kinnaird) in Early Holocene near the top of Mt. Carn na Saobhaidhe (Gauld 1981, pp.199208). During the 1920s, the Scottish Forestry Commission undertook a large effort to stabilize this dramatic shifting landscape by planting plots of marram grass and Scottish Corsican Pine trees to contain the soil (Ovington 1950, p.305). This method presently remains the sole strategy in mitigating sand dune movements in Culbin Forest. Perhaps its most imminent effects are felt within the neighboring towns of Findhorn and Burghead, whose built environment and agricultural land are subject to adverse environmental effects from the geomorphology of Moray Firth (Forestry Commission Scotland 2010). Previous site research data on gravel ridge movements is based on partial evidence from Timothy Pont (Abandoned Communities 2010). Pont’s 1590 map of Culbin [fig.21] shows location mapping which several geologists have used to study the “Bar,” “Gut,” and the Findhorn Bay, located East of Culbin Forest (Steers 1937, p.503, 511-512, 517-519, 524525). Non-empirical data sets such as Pont’s map and Hugh Kinnaird’s parcel studies leave gaps in objective records,

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introducing the idea of individual or “subjective perception” within empirical data. These sets have been used in speculating sedimentary deposits, shifts, and outside forces from Late Devensian glacial, glacifuvial, to Early Holocene foreshore deposits noted by Comber (1995, pp.54-56). As sited in Ross’ (1992, p.33-36) research (Ross, an academically-respected, self-taught geologist), this evidence can be used to speculate origins of freshwater bodies—such as the Dragonfly Pond— and continues to be a rich reference for geologists at the present date (Gunson et al. 1993, p.124).


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Site Abstract & Historical Analysis

Culbin Mythology & the Kinnaird Barony

12. Geomorphic force path diagram of primary gravel ridge shifts with seaward propagation and annual sand dune paths under wind averages 13. (Opposite) Various iron, bronze, and clay artifacts collected from Culbin dunes. The majority of artifacts are yet to be discovered in Culbin Forest (Ross 1992, p.89)

According to D.P. Willis, Culbin has always been a fascinating area for researchers, artists, and writers, as its rich mix of colorful tales and dramatic earth shifts have often made it difficult to distinguish between fact and fiction (Gunson et al. 1993, p.124). Tales of a buried barony lost after the Scottish landowner, Alexander Kinnaird, removed the stabilizing marram grass from atop the dune surface caused him to eventually lose his entire estate in a great storm between 1694 and 1695 (Forestry Commission Scotland 2010). Folklore presents a tragic loss of the Kinnaird Barony to: a judgment bestowed upon Kinnaird for Sabbathbreaking, Kinnaird’s previous wrongdoings with smuggling, and to a potential curse bestowed from pirates for Kinnaird’s imprisonment of a Fair Maid of Norway (Bain 1890, pp.1415). In present times, area locals are said to have heard screams through the clay chimneys tops of the underground barony, yet research into the exact location of the buried structures is still underdeveloped, as splays in the structures and a difficulty in scanning gravel ridges below the soil, makes it a challenging endeavor in determining precise locations of sediment, and ‘like’

materials (Steers 1937, pp.500-502, 504, 508-511, 518-523). Particular importance is paid to a series of found artifacts excavated in previous digs, including: coat of arms blocks, bronzed brooches [fig.12] & axes, roman coins, and cinerary urns, to name a few. According to Ross, many pieces were stolen for private collections, while the majority of remains continue to reside beneath the enormous dune surface (Ross 1992, pp.86-93).


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

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Site Abstract & Historical Analysis

14-15. 1694-5 Alexander Kinnaird Church with 10-year incremental shifts resulting from advancing sand dunes and seaward gravel ridge shifts. Top: Church perspective looking North, Bottom: Transverse section with splays locating iron (1694-1794) and congealing stone / gravel (1694-1894)

A geomorphic force path diagram [fig.13] is drawn to illustrate the difference between “like” and “non-like” materials in order to find the trajectory of the lost Kinnaird Barony [figs.8, 14-15]. The analysis of prevailing gravel ridge shifts show movements at approximately 11.3cm/ day based on evidence from postHolocene to 1990 [fig.59]. Its material density is likely comparable to the stone church in the Kinnaird Barony and would therefore begin to combine its trajectory pattern as it approached a lower depth in the soil. To reach this depth, a timeline is established to compare vertical distance, leaving approximately 140 years before the gravel ridge and church’s stone might begin to conjoin with one-another. Wrought-iron, wood, and light-weight textile materials would follow a more generalized direction of the propagation of the parabolic sand dunes toward the Northeast (average movement at 54cm/day, prevailing wind direction per Met Office 2010). This analysis allows one to interpret the “current” location range of the barony splays within the present year of work.


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III.Thematic

Landscapes 16. Mythical church geometries translated through Nicodian spatiotemporal lens: path, point, and object attributes


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Thematic Landscapes


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

THEMATIC LANDSCAPES The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia

17. (Opposite) Nicolas Poussin’s Les Bergers d’Arcadie (163738) | figures trace shadows of death under supervision of Lady Arcadia 18. Guercino’s Et in Arcadia Ego (1618-22) | Medieval literary reference to J. Sannazzaro’s Arcadia referenced by Davis & Lanham 1965

Sidney’s pastoral masterpiece sets four literary themes that the project uses as a point of departure from the technical research data of Culbin Forest. According to Davis & Lanham (1965, pp.44-48, 55-58), Sidney’s five books discuss the evolution of several characters who instigate varying, yet seemingly-disparate events tied together by a clear and orderly literary structure: amorous courting, pastoral exercises, valorous fighting, and sage counseling. Character names also change as lives parallel other themes within books I-V. Its general thematic shift is from a classical regiment of Virgil’s imaginary landscape and Jacopo Sannazzaro’s medieval version [ref. fig.18] to a renaissance version filled with rich coloration and a simultaneous discussion of both utopian and everyday contexts (Davis & Lanham 1965, pp.7-12, 57). Its primary literary contribution is a general thematic structure where several characters, landscapes, and events describe the involvement of ‘man and nature’ from a plethora of viewpoints, as opposed to the earlier sonnets of Virgil, or the intense interactions which are set by Sannazzaro (Davis & Lanham 1965, p.45, 50-54). These two canvases allow structural interventions between the Culbin data sets and the imaginary landscape of the romantic, pastoral utopia set forth in Arcadia. Themes are demonstrable as responsive, plastic architectures in space and time whose existence is subject to both empirical assimilation and idealized dialogues of life, death, and landscape.

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Notwithstanding these themes is Sidney’s narrative expansion of beautiful, dramatic accords which, according to Davis & Lanham, discuss once-present and past politics of citizen and state, including their ideological division of the soul into, “. . . the rational part or intellect, the spirited element, and the irrational appetite, which seeks pleasure and the replenishment of wants,” as referenced in Plato’s Republic (Davis & Lanham 1965, pp.137-141, 146153). One may see clear ties with Sidney’s paired-characters to Alexander Kinnaird and his lost barony (with Sidney: Euarchus the “good ruler” of Arcadia & Basilius the “ordinary ruler” of Arcadia giving into temptation; or that of Pyrocles & Musidorus— respectively, a character mixed of “facts and lies,” and the selfless lover of Arcadia). Sidney’s sage counseling may in fact be a more telling account of ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’ in communicating site ecologies when compared with previous geomorphological research and historical accounts of Culbin.


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Thematic Landscapes


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

Shifting Geometries

19. (Opposite) Geomorphic site sections: vector pathways showing spatio-temporal resemblance as a method for constructing deformation cages in Culbin Forest 20. Glass gravel ridge geometries produced from communicative dune lens ecologies

As a means of bridging dissimilar elements, exceptions within data are translated through a working narrativeplatform using geometry and ‘sense data’ as a method for establishing themes of site, empirical data [figs.1920], and metaphysical information sets. Jean Nicod’s Foundations of Geometry and Induction (1930) is used to describe a moving site through a resemblance lens. Through such a lens, Nicod demonstrates the idea of geometry as an exercise in perceiving the logical world as a bridge between metaphysical concepts and mathematical analysis (Nicod 1930, pp.11-16, 61-62). He states: “. . . distinguishing these relations from one another should be sufficient while our aim is simply to trace the order they introduce in nature. Similarly, we have assumed nothing about their conditions or historical origins . . . I do not know the history of (those) relations that appear to me as the elementary connections of nature . . .It is in this (observable) universe that we must discern the meaning and translation of physics.” (Nicod 1937, p.87) For Nicod, an inclusionary view demonstrates two key concepts to understanding the relationship of a system: spatio-inclusion (space within view) and temporal-inclusion (time within view) as one posits sense data (perceived by the self). Through this lens, one defines terms of ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ as a product of movement in space (or lack thereof) within the duration of time sensed by an observer. The introduction of the subjective viewpoint into a mixed facto-fictitious,

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yet seemingly “objective” site data set is used as a generative study to peer into the landscape of Culbin’s Arcadia. Nicod later expands his local inclusionary view—or relations during similarities—to include the ideas of encroachment or overlapping data, and separation or non-interference / complete succession of similarity (Nicod 1930, pp.85-88). He posits this as a difference in qualitative and local similarities, specifically, a global resemblance (“a priori”) which relates to one’s past experiences (something unique to the individual), versus the urgency of the present or local inclusion (Nicod 1930, pp.82-84, 112-115). With Alexander Kinnaird, one can start to see a reflexive relationship between the management of land and the overnight effect of environmental changes within view, whereas in Sidney’s Arcadia, the people’s uprising against Basilius causes a successive overthrow of power in favor of Euarchus’ ideal republic.


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Thematic Landscapes

Perception of Views

21. Timothy Pont map showing 1590 Culbin and Findhorn Bay (National Library of Scotland 2010) 22. (Opposite-Left) Reproduction of Hugh Kinnaird’s parcel map (1783) showing freshwater body “Loch of Spynie” (Ross 1992, p.35) 23. (Opposite-Right) Ross’ map with potential Alexander Kinnaird Barony location. “Dragonfly Pond” volume reduced from previous “Loch of Spynie” due to advancing parabolic dunes (Ross 1992, p.103) 24. (Opposite-Bottom) Present day “Dragonfly Pond” overlaid with partial barony splay at western-most corner. Dune heads are retraced to mark parabolic geometries in time

Almost 200 years after Timothy Pont’s map of the Culbin Forest [fig.21], Alexander Kinnaird’s distant cousin Hugh inherits the land where the barony once stood (Ross 1992, pp.3235). This is seen as a microcosm for a domestic, urban landscape. The project references Hugh Kinnaird’s “Track of the Ferry Boat,” [fig.22] which was used in geographical mapping and analysis of the freshwater pond “Loch Spynie” (Ross 1992, pp.34-36). Due to sand dune advancements, the loch no longer exists in the same form during present day, as it is transformed into the “Dragonfly Pond” freshwater body [fig.23] described in current maps (Ross 1992, pp.102-110). Nicod’s introduction of sense data propagates three key vantage-points from The Ferry Track [fig.27] to the present shaping

of the Dragonfly Pond: start (minimum view), middle (average view), and end (maximum view). This is a ramified trajectory, wherein one of three places can divide the other three places (Nicod 1937, pp.109-110). The lens of Arcadia is translated into three instances: Cloddymoss Lens, Moy Fishing Lens, and Drumbeg Lens. These are triangulated geometries located on a “static” portion of the site atop a large Holocene ridge towards the South; for Nicod, this means no perceived change in space is experienced between longer, temporal periods (Nicod 1930, pp.5277). More aggressive changes within the responsive landscape are seen as “non-static” elements, as spatial changes are experienced at a faster rate when compared with their temporal period of study. These lenses describe transient or stable viewing analogues used for peering into the land of Arcadia.


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Thematic Landscapes

Construction of Views

25. (Left) Diagram showing Euclidean geometry as projected from Hugh Kinnaird’s perceived viewing angle from the “Track of the Ferry Boat” (1783) towards potential Riemannian geometry of the Dragonfly Pond 26. (Right) Diagram showing non-Euclidean geometry as projected from Hugh Kinnaird’s perceived viewing angle from the “Track of the Ferry Boat” towards potential Riemannian geometry of the Dragonfly Pond 27. (Opposite) Lens geometries constructing “subjective” / “objective” viewing angles of the Dragonfly Pond and Kinnaird Barony utilized for potential battery excavation volumes

These viewpoints present the idea of optical shifts, wherein the subjective and objective enter simultaneously into one’s perception and relationship with space in time (Wittgenstein would argue this is solely a subjectivelyconstructed experience, as it related to learned understandings in communication [Wittgenstein 1958, pp.4-6, 15-18, 29-33]). Nicod presents the idea of exteriority and interiority (Nicod 1937, pp.82-84) which, for project purposes, will refer to volumetric constructions both inside and outside of Arcadia. In her book Studies on Leonardo da Vinci-I, Veltman describes analogous techniques of projection in the paintings and drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. According to Veltman, da Vinci’s construction of several famed works use Euclidean geometries to construct viewing angles and align perceptions with images: “. . .geometrical method(s) which Galileo codified thus reflect the crystallization of a nexus of problems with which Leonardo had been playing a century earlier. . . Through this nexus Leonardo found a means of bridging abstract geometry with concrete nature and saw, moreover, a means of ordering

nature’s powers,” and further that due to the “mathematization of nature . . .The science of perspective had thus instigated a new perspective of science.” (Veltman 1986, p.277) The project uses Euclidean [fig.25] and non-Euclidean geometries [fig.26] to construct deformation cages within the space, while Riemannian geometry is used to reconstruct the lens into the Dragonfly Pond with intersecting splays of the Kinnaird Barony [figs.4449]. Image construction uses Nicodian lenses to discuss spatio-temporal shifts in projecting the readied image (Nicod 1937, pp.162-164). Particular importance is paid to Michael Webb’s arcadian project: Temple Island: A Study (1987), wherein space of view and space within view construct a similar relationship in the understanding of physics and geometry to Veltman’s account of da Vinci’s world. In view of Nicod’s “impartial” account of sense data and local resemblance, one might rather posit narrative, fact, and fiction to celebrate gaps in Culbin’s Arcadia.


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IV.Communicating Ecologies 28. Culbin’s Arcadia: reflexive ecologies showing Basilius’ lighthouse, Dragonfly Battery, Baronic tub, and Kinnaird Church splays | Transverse site section with partial perspectival-projections of Battery elements


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Communicating Ecologies


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

COMMUNICATING ECOLOGIES Responsive Landscapes

29. (Opposite) Schematic of extreme ray-tracing through a facet on an elliptical-based curved lens. Fresnel lens geometries are inverted to capture direct sunlight to create dune lenses (Yeh 2008, pp.1310, 1316) 30. Annual UV-Indexes establish minimum, medium, maximum concentrated solar energy used to construct surrounding lenses and annealed lighthouse / sheep shears

Sand dune crowns are identified by height and melted to create a lighthouse for Basilius, “ordinary ruler” of Arcadia (this is later appointed to Euarchus, “good ruler” of Arcadia). The lighthouse is fabricated with the Dune Crown—a primary dune in Culbin—vis-à-vis melting ‘tackles’§§ located above and below the sand. The construction element uses a Fresnel lens whose prismatic geometries were once used to refract lightwaves in lighthouses to distribute light from a candle over large distances. To verify its strength, annual UV radiation averages are utilized as a data set [fig.56] to amass approximate values in available energy [fig.29] (Varatsos 1998, pp.3302-3304). Mean parabolic dune geometries of crown, step, head, and toe are §§ Devices reference extensions of technology. The video Fitzcarraldo 1982 uses similar tackles to mechanically-translate a ship over a mountain via ‘actual’ mockups, and ‘virtual’ cinematic special effects.

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averaged as viable lens geometries (Steers 1937, pp.502-507). Fresnel Lens geometries are inverted from the construction of a single, interior candle source to an exterior source of the sun using N. Yeh’s method of cataloguing geometries of ultraviolet wavelengths as a product of refractive indexes [fig.30] (Yeh 2008, pp.1309-1313). One might think of this as a microscope in the sun which cooks small twigs and bubblegum wrappers when held at the proper angle; this then becomes a “Burning Lens” (Archimedes’ purported classical invention in c.214-212 BC [Knowles Middleton 1961, pp.533-534]). To optimize heat loss in the system, a diffractive plate is fabricated using Yeh’s geometries to focus varying red, green, and blue wavelengths onto nearlyparallel surfaces (Yeh 2008, pp.13141317). As the product of maximum heat over a peak day at peak time (approximately 4600BTU), its energy is not sufficient to create a phase-change of silt to turn from a solid-to liquid-to solid in the quantity needed to create


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31. Enlarged schematic site plan showing Dune Crown: a self-generating landscape surrounded by three Nicodian lenses

Communicating Ecologies


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

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a glass lighthouse. However, this will suffice in creating secondary dune lenses within the surrounding dunes, allowing the first lens to create an annealed second lens, and so on. The idea of a self-generating landscape which fabricates structures [fig.31] is quantitatively introduced with no additional supplemental energy; its required inputs are: local materiality, and solar harvesting, respectively. These lenses fabricate glass rocks which shift in the landscape as they combine to ‘kiss’ the existing Culbin gravel ridges. This is a method of fabricating an idea as an existing materiality within the process. The production of ideas does not include equipment, rather, it provides a conceptual framework. Drifting is part of the Dune Crown and Arcadian parody, burning both conceptual and physical materials.


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Communicating Ecologies

A Plastic Architecture

32. Plan showing valorous Night-Fighting Vessels returning home to Culbin’s Arcadia 33. (Opposite) Basilius’ lighthouse using soap bubbles as a computing element to construct efficient, ‘nongeometric’ form-generators with the Dune Crown’s lehr

Basilius’ lighthouse will serve as a beacon for night vessels to return home after a series of valorous fighting battles [fig.32] which occur outside the land of Arcadia (historically, Culbin was taken over as a secret WWII base for military exercises which may have aided D-Day landings at Normandy in 1944,” [Forestry Commission Scotland 2010-2]). Shortly following its morphosis, Euarchus’ lighthouse will serve as a beacon of hope to sustain the economic viability of the neighboring fishing town of Nairn, giving a small glimpse into the evolving theme of sage counseling. Its placement near the Dune Crown Grange Hall is translated through spatio-temporal shifts in the landscape (its overall distance at approximately 2.5 kilometers) which ‘roll’ the lighthouse across the sand towards its ‘idealized’ position at the sea. The first element in the lighthouse is produced underground by small, reflexive annealing ‘tackles’ which mitigate the sub-soil sand temperature with the assistance of lenses to create an underground kiln or Lehr. The production pieces are six lightbulbs. Through landscape shifts, the lightbulbs move into the fabricated lighthouse which utilizes the Lehr to reduce mechanical stresses within the glass. This allows a large, glass lighthouse to be blown out of the landscape [fig.33] (Herrod et al. 1988, pp.43, 45-46). With the assistance of a large Baronic tub, sea water enters through a series of glass tubes which create a positive pressure in the tub, blowing liquid silt up from the earth like a large soap bubble. The modeling of such a soap bubble is used as a computing element [fig.60]—its surface area-to-volume ratios are highly-efficient, serving as conservative measures in the processing of silt.

As the lighthouse passes seaward in the landscape, large culverts are annealed to create pathways between the Salt Marsh and the Dragonfly Pond [fig.28]. With small digging ‘tackles,’ a reflexive system uses underground wrought iron from the Kinnard Barony and exposes it to salt water, creating oxidation and a battery for the lightbulbs in the lighthouse. As oxidation occurs between the salt water and iron, an anode is produced while the Dragonfly Pond (fresh water) is created into a large cathode. Due to massive increases in soil magnesium from the large afforestation effort of Scottish Corsican Pine and marram grass in Culbin, magnesium deposits exist in large quantities between 0-48” below the dune surface (Wright 1955). These deposits assist the necessary chemical process in iron oxidation. In their report “Deflection of Sand Movement on a Sinuous Longitudinal Dune: Use of Fluorescent Dye as Tracer,” Tsoar & Yaalon accounts for the difficulty in excavating beneath sand dune surfaces, concluding that a site-based research approach yields the most “truthful” results [fig.57] (Tsoar & Yaalon 1983, pp.25-26). The Arcadian excavation is seen through direct and indirect sunlight—its refraction is traced as rays conjoin several elements, including: air, freshwater, anodic sand, and the iron-rich artifacts found in the splays of the Kinnaird Barony. These methods are used to describe reflexive attributes within shifting geometries. As the lighthouse passes through the culverts, negative wind pressures extract the battery water into the lighthouse. The temporal-inclusion is approximately 305 years for the lighthouse to translate from the Crown Grange Hall, to its ‘idealized’ position near the sea.


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Communicating Ecologies


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

34. (Opposite) Plan of Dorus’ sheep shears using wind, seawater, and dune silt as a method for constructing Arcadian objects in the landscape 35. Sheep shear schematic (overall plan) showing necessary geometry pathways constructed by shifts in parabolic dune crown profiles [see fig.54]

The Dune Crown is also used to shape sheep-shears for Dorus—the pastoral figure of Arcadia. Prevailing Northeast winds allow vector and path manipulation with annealing ‘tackles’ to define edges through shaping adjacent dune crowns. They represent an aspiration for an idealized state— as Davis & Lanham might specifically deem a “loved object” used to “climb a certain way up the Platonic ladder,” (Davis & Lanham 1965, p.84). The temporal inclusion of the sheep-shears is difficult to define, as storm winds and seasonal irregularities are needed to shape the opposing sides of the shears [figs.34-35] (Sand Dunes, A Look at Sand Dunes: Formation and Distribution of Dune Systems 2010). Dorus’ shears provoke an encroachment into the misfortunes following two greedy friends, while he enters a “mystic union with the Divine through love,” (Davis & Lanham, p.96, 105-106). The sheep bathe in the Baronic tub while

37

portions of its water overflow to the neighboring town of Findhorn¶¶ via a small, glass culvert. Their shears are made of crystallized silt, which—as in the whole of Culbin Forest—is the trace of individual grains of sand that traveled down the River Findhorn. These hold no recorded memory; they remain as geometric artifacts within varying perceptions and understandings. In the account of the subjective geometry of his own house, G. Bachelard notes: ”All we communicate to others is an orientation towards what is secret without ever being able to tell the secret objectively. What is secret never has total objectivity. In this respect, we orient oneirism but we do not accomplish it,” (Bachelard 1958, p.13). In Arcadia, Dorus’ artifacts remain as both told and untold secrets.

¶¶ ‘Spiritual’ neighborhood near Culbin senses tub water movement outside of Arcadia.


38

Communicating Ecologies

Degradation, Viability, Reassembly

36. (Top) Degraded geometries of Crown Grange Hall displaced in the landscape 37. (Bottom) Amorous courting of two lovers (movie Swing Time) within the Crown Grange Hall. Their shadows trace a dance, and their eventual deaths (Swing Time 1936) 38. (Opposite) Recording shards of the Crown Grange Hall utilizing a three-dimensional scanner as a mnemonic device to translate the changing geometries of two lovers

The Crown Grange Hall is a space for the amorous courting of two lovers. Like Guercino’s painting Et in Arcadia Ego (c.1618-1622), the lovers are intertwined in shadow and outline as their body movements are traced throughout the prismatic geometries of the Grange Hall. The development of the hall as a 3-dimensional scanning tool might better recall the event of the two lovers as they move throughout the space. Basilius’ lighthouse quietly rolls across the landscape to protect them from turbulent winds. Bachelard accounts for similar poetics in ecological geometries: “A hermits hut. What a subject for an engraving! Indeed real images are engravings, for it is the imagination that engraves them on our memories,“ (Bachelard 1958, p.32) In the Crown Grange Hall, memories are impregnated within the glass of the serrated lens, while Sidney’s symbols specify three key attributes of courting lovers within the space: “1) Like the garden of paradise in its eternal fertility and its order of conflicting parts, this place draws the mind to that place of which it is the visible symbol . . .; 2) Classical tradition does not stress the similarity of any Garden of Eden, but merely presents it as a fit place for contemplation . . .; 3) Prison cell dialogue where the princes, awaiting their trial for the crime of regicide, contemplate death . . .” (Davis & Lanham 1965, p.61-63) As parabolic dunes advance within the world of Arcadia, the Crown Grange Hall is destroyed and buried—like the Kinnaird Barony—below the surface of the sand. One can remember the event of the lovers and piece

together their memories within the prismatic glass shards [figs.36-37] which might communicate clues in understanding future archeological expeditions involving time, object, and location. These themes may reappear as the lovers recall the microcosm for a broken city (or in Culbin, a barony), which begins to adapt to its changing environment.


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V.Projecting

Culbin’s Arcadia 39. Interior perspective of Kinnaird volumetric splay. View looking East towards Riemannian geometry of Baronic Tub


42

Projecting Culbin’s Arcadia


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

PROJECTING CULBIN’S ARCADIA Virtual Topologies and the Ecological Matrix

40. (Opposite) Preliminary sketch using computer software as a generative component in projecting Arcadia. View from Hugh Kinnaird’s “Track of the Ferry Boat” uses “subjective” camera placement as a normative means in describing boundary conditions amidst advancing dune geometries 41. Maya’s “Hypergraph” interface uses base geometry forms with object attributes and parent modifiers (the visual working environment used in constructing ecological matrices and Arcadian topologies) to construct deformation cages

As a means of assimilating information sets, ‘deformation cages’ [fig.3] are used as a tool to reconstruct geometric, Nicodian topologies from the reflexive ecologies of Culbin and Sir Philip Sidney’s Arcadia. This is a projected view within a thematic, virtual world [fig.40]. These geometries attempt the ‘removal’ of the object in order to clarify a boundary between mathematics and Nicod’s understanding of a “. . . border of metaphysics,” (Nicod 1930,pp.8687). They are singular, reflexive ecologies utilizing computer software (Autodesk’s 2010 Maya, or ‘Maya’), as a means of assembling virtual deformation cages as plastic, permeable, and translatable geometries which communicate with one-another in space and time.

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Maya constructs virtual points, vectors, surfaces, and paths as singular, mnemonic geometries which are linked to variable ‘string’ attributes to construct images, animations, as well as analyze attributes within code [fig.41]. Its generative software is a ‘programmable’ language (MEL scripting [fig.42]) which is used to construct an ‘ecological matrix’ to deform, reconstruct, and ultimately clarify Arcadian objects over time. This exists within a program rule-set where mathematical matrices are described through language. Their varying ecological matrices are comprised of programmable geometries which are modified by ‘action scripts’ in order to translate virtual geometries from: Culbin geomorphology data sets, Kinnaird history sets (including objective / subjective views), thematic events, and plastic architectures. Maya’s topology becomes a representational, transobjective site ecology, or rather, the projected part of thematic systems.


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Projecting Culbin’s Arcadia

file -f -new; // untitled // commandPort -securityWarning -name commandportDefault; updateRendererUI; updateRendererUI; file -f -typ “mayaAscii” -o “E:/_The Bartlett/300-Projects/100527 Week 20/Bee/ scenes/primitive bee.ma”;addRecentFile(“E:/_The Bartlett/300-Projects/100527 Week 20/Bee/scenes/primitive bee.ma”, “mayaAscii”); // File read in 0 seconds. // Warning: This file is from an older version of Maya. If saved, it will not be readable by previous versions. // select -r pCylinder1 ; select -r pasted__pCone1 ; select -cl ; select -r pSphere1 pCylinder1 pCone1 pasted__pCone1 pSphere2 pasted__pSphere2 pCylinder2 pasted__pCylinder2 ; select -cl ; select -r pCylinder1 ; select -r pCylinder1 ; select -r pCylinder1 pCylinder2 ; move -r -os -wd 10.500622 0 0 ; file -f -new; // untitled // file -import -type “STL_DC” -rpr “test1” “E:/_The Bartlett/300-Projects/100527 Week 20/support/test1.stl”; // Raytracing disabled // Y-axis up // Reading 0 layers. if (`exists updateLayerEditor`) { updateLayerEditor(); }; // Reading 3 vertices. // Reading 1 triangles. 42. Maya’s MEL programming // Warning: line 1: Abandoning render settings for unresolved child of script is a linear sequence transform. // of terms which perform // Processing 1 Studio shader lists. software “actions” to construct // Processing 1 shape associations. topologies // E:/_The Bartlett/300-Projects/100527 Week 20/support/test1.stl // select -r test1 ; 43. (Opposite) Virtual Arcadian setKeyframe -breakdown 0 -hierarchy none -controlPoints 0 -shape 0 {“test1”}; // 10 // topologies generate actualized setKeyframe -breakdown 0 -hierarchy none -controlPoints 0 -shape 0 {“test1”}; degrading topography within // 10 // the computer hardware. Detail showing Lenovo ThinkPad W700ds select -cl ; select -r test1 ; (Tinkerguy 2008) // Undo: select -r test1 select -r test1 ; rotate -r -os -84.191843 0 0 ; setAttr “test1.rotateX” 90; setAttr “test1.rotateX” 0; select -r test1.e[12469] ; hilite -u test1 ; rotate -r -p 0.125678cm 0.031484cm -0.140283cm -os -88.334649 0 0 ; rotate -r -p 0.125678cm 0.031484cm -0.140283cm -os -66.230573 0 0 ; select -cl ; setAttr “test1.rotateX” 180; // Undo: setAttr “test1.rotateX” 180; setAttr “test1.rotateY” 180; // Undo: setAttr “test1.rotateY” 180; setAttr “test1.rotateZ” 180; select -cl ; select -r test1 ; select -cl ; select -r test1 ; select -r test1 ; setKeyframe -breakdown 0 -hierarchy none -controlPoints 0 -shape 0 {“test1”}; // Result: 10 // currentTime 12 ; select -r test1 ; move -r -os -wd 0 0.31022 0 ; move -r -os -wd 0.0879638 0 0 ; move -r -os -wd 0 0 0.0307319 ; setKeyframe -breakdown 0 |test1.translate; // Result: 3 // setKeyframe -breakdown 0 -hierarchy none -controlPoints 0 -shape 0 {“test1”}; // Result: 10 // // Press the ESC key to stop playback. // currentTime 10 ; select -cl ;


Plasticity in Arcadia Responsive Emplacement for the Park of Moray Firth

Abstract-Concrete Topography

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the viewer is left to assimilate these “demonstrations” (Wittgenstein 1958, Perhaps Wittgenstein would view pp.109-112). In this context of Maya’s Maya’s MEL scripting as an opportunity programming ecology, the topography to discuss language. A programmable of Culbin’s Arcadia is perhaps edifice comprising topologies affected demonstrable under a more clarified by an ecological matrix is viewed as view of communicating landscapes the new construction of an Arcadian comprised of objects, space, and time. topography. It is artistically scaled The project is translated to a new transfrom a virtual environment to phyiscal objective site, where coded software computer hardware. According to pixels translate grains of Arcadian sand. Wittgenstein, language is not an “a The programming software shifts to priori” knowledge of the universe, let the system’s hardware [fig.43]. Like alone a means to explain it. Language the ecologies of the worn Barony, is a means of communicating, the new landscape topography is a which is agreeable or disagreeable slowly-malfunctioning edifice seeking depending upon one’s subjective gentle repair as heat advancements viewpoint (Wittgenstein 1958, p.7). corrupt computer circuitry. As scripting As all language is learned, it remains language communicates dense actions, in Wittgenstein’s view, ’non-private’ physical hardware processes respond (Wittgenstein 1958, pp.76-85). In by projecting the plasticity in Arcadia; Culbin’s Arcadia, Maya’s MEL scripting it slowly decays its own PC circuitry in may also demonstrate portions of response to one’s use of language. As Wittgenstein’s critical view in the in Wittgenstein’s subjective viewset, falsity of language and “meaning,” this language is communicated into an specifically: scripts run “actions,” actualized computer topography. matrices “propose translations”, and


46

44-49. (Page-Bottom) Unfolded Riemannian geometries construct the Arcadia’s Baronic tub 50. (Opposite) Concept drawing of Kinnaird Barony volume and geometries of advancing dunes (perspective from Drumbeg Lens)

Conclusion

CONCLUSION Bachelard once wrote: “if we compose a poet about a house, it frequently happens that the most flagrant contradictions come to wake us from our doldrums of concepts, as philosophers would say, and free us from our utilitarian geometrical notions,” (Bachelard 1958, p.53). In the case of Culbin’s vagrant sand dunes, one questions relationships of ecologies by utilizing Jarry’s ‘science of exceptions’ to interrogate an empirical understanding of traditional goals in the fabrication and construction of architecture. These establish connections between virtual and actual environments. ‘Sense data’ is further clarified within information gaps; these gaps are artistically-translated through Sidney’s narrative canvas. Nicod’s exercise in geometry and induction is used to assimilate these seemingly-disparate information sets by discussing spatio-temporal resemblance as a means of clarifying relationships between objects, space, and time. In order to project these new ecologies, virtual deformation cages construct and communicate the new topologies in Culbin’s Arcadia. These cages are semi-permeable. Such virtualizations exist within geometric programming software as both abstracted and

concrete landscapes, which establish a new project topography using Maya’s MEL scripting language. In Wittgenstein’s account, the validity of the new, virtual landscape exists within an altered context of view; it is further described as a degrading computer hardware system in time. This may become an opportunity to construct the future lens in one’s own world—or rather, their fiction.


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48

References

Eastwood, DJ, Fraser, GK and Wesley, DM 1950, ‘Microbiological Factor in the Culbin Sands Afforestation Scheme,’ Nature, vol 165, p.980. Fitzcarraldo 1982, video recording, Filmverlag der Autoren. Forestry Commission Scotland 2010, Culbin’s Landscape: Dunes and Foreshore, viewed 1 June 2010, <www. forestry.gov.uk/forestry/INFD-77ELE5>.

REFERENCES Abandoned Communities 2010, Abandoned Communities…Shifting Sands 5, viewed 18 March 2010, <www.abandonedcommunities.co.uk/ shiftingsands5.html>. 51. Video still of Culbin’s expansive dunes (The Culbin Story 1955)

Bachelard, G 1958, Trans. M Jolas 1964, The Poetics of Space, Beacon Press, Boston.

Forestry Commission Scotland 2010-2, Culbin’s Wartime History: War is Always Hungry for Resources—Metal for Weapons, Wood for Structures, viewed 9 June 2010, <www.forestry.gov.uk/ forestry/INFD-77FF9C>. Gauld, JH 1981, ‘The Soils of Culbin Forest, Morayshire: Their Evolution and Morphology, with Reference to their Forestry Potential,’ Applied Geography, vol 1, pp. 199-212, Butterworths, Aberdeen.

Balfour, H, Bagnold, RA, Lewis, WV, Diver, C, Woolridge, SW and Steers, JA Guercino (Barbieri, G F) c.1618-1622, 1937, ‘The Culbin Sands and Burghead Et in Arcadia Ego, painting, held at the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome. Bay: Discussion,’ The Geographical Journal, vol 90, no. 6, pp.523-528. Gunson, R, Willis, DP, Jones, G, Chapman, K, Fyf, NR, Dawson, AH, Bain, G 1890, The Culbin Sands: or the Story of a Buried Estate, Nairnshire Ilbery, BW, Proudfoot, B, and Small, A 1993, ‘Reviews of Books,’ Scottish Telegraph, Nairn. Geographical Journal, vol 109, no. 2, pp.123-127. Bracewell, JM and Robertson, GW 1975, ‘Thermal Decomposition Hansom, JD 1994, ‘Culbin,’ Geological Characteristics of Humus Horizons from Culbin Forest,’ Journal of Thermal Conservation Review, vol 28, ch. 11, pp.1-10. Analysis, vol 8, pp.117-124. Hasegawa, S, Hayasaki, Y and Kimura, K 2010, ‘Diffractive Spatiotemporal Lens with Wavelength Dispersion Compensation,’ Optical Letters, vol 35, Comber, DPM 1995, ‘The Culbin Sands no. 2, pp.139-141. and the Bar,’ Scottish Geographical Herrod, RA, Rickel, JW, and Garland, Journal, vol 111, no. 1, pp.54-57. T 1988, ‘Glass Annealing Process Simulation Using Expert Systems: A Dai, JY, Wang, RZ, Wu, JY, Zhai, H Glass Industry Application of Artificial and Zhang LY 2008, ‘Experimental Intelligence,’ IEEE Transactions on Investigation and Analysis on a Industry Applications, vol 24, no. 1, Concentrating Solar Collector pp.43-48. Using Linear Fresnel Lens,’ Energy Conservation and Management, vol 51, Jarry, A 1896, trans. C Connolly & pp.48-55. SW Taylor 1968, Ubu Roy, Methuen, Davis, WR & Lanham, RA 1965, Sidney’s London. Arcadia, New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Castel, LB 1883, La Nature, pt. 2, pp. 519-520, held at University of Washington Libraries, Seattle.


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Knowles Middleton, WE 1961, ‘Archimedes, Kircher, Buffon, and the Burning-Mirrors,’ Isis, vol. 52, no. 4, pp.533-543.

Stephan, S, Sánchez-Alvarez, J, Knebel, K 2010, Reticulated Structures on Free-Form Surfaces, MERO GmbH & Co., Würzburg, viewed 14 June 2010, <http://www.mero.de/fileadmin/ May, VJ and Hansom, JD 2003, ‘Coastal downloads/bausysteme/publikationen/ Geomorphology of Great Britain,’ free_ret_stru_e.pdf>. Geological Conservation Review Series, no. 28. Swing Time 1936, video recording, RKO Radio Pictures Met Office 2010, Northern Scotland: Climate, viewed 23 February 2010, The Culbin Story 1955, video recording, <www.metoffice.gov.uk/climate/uk/ns/ Forestry Commission Scotland, viewed print.html>. 14 June 2010, < http://www.forestry. gov.uk/forestry/INFD-7F3HUW>. Mitton, M 2009, Findhorn Foundation History, Findhorn Foundation, viewed Tinkerguy 2008, W700, viewed 14 June 6 April 2010, <www.findhorn.org/ 2010, < http://picasaweb.google.com/ whatwedo/vision/history.php>. lh/photo/wigkLxaoTXetTaJclRAaNg>. National Library of Scotland 2010, Pont Maps Web Site, Edinburgh, viewed 14 June 2010, <http://www.nls.uk/pont/ specialist/gordon23.html>. Nicod, J 1930, Foundations of Geometry & Induction, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London. Ovington, JD 1950, ‘The Afforestation of the Culbin Sands,’ Journal of Ecology, vol 38, no. 2, pp.303-319. Pouissin, N 1637-1638, Les Bergers d’Arcadie, painting, held at the Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Tsoar, H & Yaalon DH 1983, ‘Deflection of Sand Movement on a Sinuous Longitudinal (Seif) Dune: Use of Fluorescent Dye as Tracer,’ Sedimentary Geology, no. 36, pp.25-39). Varatsos, CA 1998, ‘Total Ozone and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, as Derived from Satellite and Ground-Based Instrumentation at Dundee, Scotland,’ International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol 19, no. 17, pp.3301-3305. Veltman, KH 1986, Studies on Leonardo da Vinci I: Linear Perspective and the Visual Dimensions of Science and Art, Verwertungsgesellschaft Wort GmbH, Munich.

Ross, S 1992, ‘The Culbin Sands—Fact and Fiction,’ Centre for Scottish Studies, University of Aberdeen. Webb, M 1987, Temple Island: A Study, Architectural Association Publications, Sand Dunes, A Look at Sand Dunes: London. Formation and Distribution of Dune Systems 2010, BTCV Handbooks Wittgenstein, L 1958, trans. GEM Online, viewed 12 March 2010, Anscombe 2001, Philosophical <handbooks.btcv.org.uk/handbooks/ Investigations, Blackwell Publishing, content/ section/3919>. Malden. Schuhl, PM & Capek M 1947, ‘Le theme du Gulliver et le postulat de Laplace,’ Journal de Psychologue Normal et Pathologique, no. 40, pp.169-184.

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Steers, JA 1937, ‘The Culbin Sands and Burghead Bay,’ The Geographical Journal, vol 90, no. 6, pp.498-523.


IV.Appendix 52. Schematic Riemannian geometries of Arcadiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Baronic tub


52

53. (Top) Annual Lerwick Wind Path used to construct Arcadia’s ecological matrix (Met Office 2010) 54. (Middle) Parabolic dune profile at Culbin showing “minor dunes” (A & B) climbing the major dune. Its geometry is generally crescentic in profile (Steers 1937, p.504) 55. (Bottom) Gravel ridge movement geometries propagating seaward along the Moray Firth (Steers 1937, p.510) 56. (Opposite-Top) Total ozone and UV radiation graph in neighboring Dundee, Scotland showing monthly data markings and annual increases from 1986-present (Varatsos 1998, p.3303) 57. (Opposite-Bottom): Dye is used as a tracer to study particle movements below the dune surface (Tsoar & Yaalon 1983, p.29)

Appendix


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54

58. (Top) Enlarged site section through annealed lighthouse, bubble â&#x20AC;&#x153;blownâ&#x20AC;? by the Baronic tub 59. (Bottom) Gravel ridge shifts shifting towards the sea. Ridges are difficult to trace below dune surfaces 60. (Opposite) Various surface generators utilizing a nongeometric means for preliminary computation (Stephan et al., 2010, p.5)

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56

61. Annealing process sketches calculating available BTUs as a product of averaged UV radiation

Appendix


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58

62. Annealing process calculations (continued)

Appendix


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60

63. Annealing calculations for construction of Dune Crown Grange Hall & Dragonfly Battery

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62

64. Calculations for geomorphic force diagram showing dune and gravel ridge movements in the Moray Firth

Appendix


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65. Calculations for geomorphic force path diagram (continued)

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Appendix

WORD COUNT [body]

ADDITIONAL PROJECT SOURCES

5088 words (including footnotes, not including references / image keys)

Duchamp, M 1942, First Papers of Surrealism, installation, held at The Yong-Mallin Archive, New York.

IMAGE CREDITS

Dworkin, CD 2007, ‘The Imaginary Solution,’ Contemporary Literature, no. 48.1, pp.29-60.

Cover: enlarged video still The Culbin Story 1955 66. Video still of Culbin’s largescale afforestation effort (The Culbin Story 1955)

Environmental Science Activities for the 21st Century, Alternative Energy: Solar Energy, viewed 8 March 2010, <esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/solar/ solaractivity.pdf>. Gleicher, M 2001, ‘Motion Path Editing,’ The 2001 ACM Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp.1-9. Nicholson, B 1990, The Appliance House, MIT Press, Cambridge. Smout, M and Allen, L 2007, ‘Augmented Landscapes,’ Pamphlet Architecture, vol 28, pp.1-79. s’Gravesande, WJ 1721, Magic Lantern, Mathematical Elements, vol 2, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Libraries, Princeton. Woods, L 1997, Radical Reconstruction, Princeton Architectural Press, New York.


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