OPEN PARKS OPEN MINDS PARK CLOSURE IS NOT A SOLUTION FOR MINES ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
OUT OF OUR MINE SOLVING THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM
CALIFORNIA’S GREEN DEBT REFOCUSING CALIFORNIA’S TECHNOLOGY TRADITION TOWARD THE ENVIRONMENT
REDISCOVERING WILLIAM BOURN JR.’S VISION FOR EMPIRE MINE
POLITICS ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY HISTORY
Our goal, here at Shift Magazine, is to bring you the best information for what is happening in our state parks. We investigate aspects of these parks that are important to you, meaning: politics, environment, technology, and history. While reading our magazine you will easily be able to navigate to the most important section to you, by following this color coding within our logo.
table of contents
OPEN PARKS OPEN MINDS PARK CLOSURE IS NOT A SOLUTION FOR MINES ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
OUT OF OUR MINE
CALIFORNIA’S GREEN DEBT
SOLVING THE WATER POLLUTION PROBLEM
REFOCUSING CALIFORNIA’S TECHNOLOGY TRADITION TOWARD THE ENVIRONMENT
REDISCOVERING WILLIAM BOURN JR.’S VISION FOR EMPIRE MINE
A CLEAN EARTH IS A HEALTHY EARTH
The Idaho Maryland Mine Corporation (IMMC) proposes to reopen a long closed gold mine The health impacts associated with reopening this mine far outweigh any possible benefit.
CALIFORNIA & EMPIRE MINE In 1975, the Empire mine properties were purchased by the state of California for the sum of $1,250,000. The park consists of 784 acres including 750 acres of forested back country.
OPEN PARKS OPEN MINDS As California struggles to close the gap in its ballooning $19 billion deficit, Governor Arnold Schwar zenegger put
PARK CLOSURE IS NOT A SOLUTION FOR MINES ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
forth a proposal in 2009 to close up to 220 of 279 state parks
the site of trash, vandalism, and crime, as already
(leaving only 59 open) in order to save $70 million to be spent
evident in other states that decided to close their
on parks through June 30, 2010. In the following fiscal year, an
state parks, and would mean no public restrooms.
additional $143.4 million would be saved through his proposal to close state parks. While it may seem logical to some to temporarily close state
would not use them. Among those who will: meth
parks in the face of such dire straits, closure definitely does not
lab operators, marijuana farmers, the homeless,
equal no cost. Governor Schwarzeneggerâ€™s proposal would have
poachers, rogue mountain bikers as well as just
meant laying off thousands of park related workers. At least 2,000
plain campers who think the rules does not apply to
park rangers, biologists, lifeguards, interpreters, architects and
their personal visits. Wildfire danger would increase
maintenance workers would be laid off if the proposal. These are
from illegal, unsupervised campfires, sparks from
highly trained individuals, and it is not a simple matter of gather-
off-road vehicles and drug operations. The cost of a
ing them all back in a couple of years when the state would have
single catastrophic fire could wipe out most of the
decided to reopen parks. Shutting down over 200 state parks
savings from closing parks. Crime could turn the
even for two years would cripple the park system for at least a
parks into expensive public nuisances. That is in
decade, likely even more. It would also mean crippling many local
addition the long-term expense caused by erosion
problems from illegally cut trails, vandalism, dete-
Furthermore, the state must realistically patrol and minimally maintain the parks with or without visitors or it surely will incur
Closing parks does not mean that people would not use them. It means that law-abiding people
rioration of park buildings and the need to bring back overgrown trails once the parks reopen.
worse expense, not just long term but in the immediate future.
The state could also be responsible if people got
Without regular maintenance, many state parks would become
hurt in the parks even when they were closed. There
OPEN PARKS OPEN MINDSâ€”NANCY PHAM
IDAHO-MARYLAND MINE REOPENING?
WHAT'S THE STATUS?
The Idaho-Maryland Mining Corporation is in the process of permitting the reopening of the historic Idaho-Maryland Mine, located in Grass Valley, California. In its golden past, IdahoMaryland Mine was the second-largest underground gold mine in California, producing about 2.4 million ounces of gold.
To find out more about legislative issues that affect our state parks visit our blog at: www.shiftmag.com/blog
are budgetary downsides to shutting out legitimate
wildlife. Case in point is Empire Mine State Park. The result of
visitors. Park closures would save, at most, $140
years of mining, mercury and other hazardous chemicals have
million a year. Closing them properly might be more
seeped into the water system, draining out into the local stream.
trouble and expense than it is worth. Parks pro-
It is currently being watched and maintained, but only because
posed to be temporarily closed would have been on
state parks are being supported.
caretaker status, which meant turning off the water
What would result in closing the park? The pollution contin-
and power, boarding up the windows and sending
ues to exist, even if the government closed down state parks.
regional patrols in every now and then to look for
The existence of state parks is a channel for open dialogue of
damage that needs immediate attention. This was
environmental issues surrounding state parks. It provides an
not a workable scenario as some parks run up to
avenue for both the government and the community to protect
several hundred thousand acres. The state can-
the state’s history and ecology as well as seek new solutions.
not simply lock the gates of state parks and walk
Therefore, Schwarzenegger’s proposal was met with great
away, nor is this a long-term solution to the state’s
opposition, even within his own party and from the general pub-
budget crisis. Visitors expect to see the treasured
lic. California’s parks are home to many great treasures, rich in
resources reopened within a couple of years, and
history, culture, and activities, as well as being the site of some
state parks must be maintained with that in mind.
of the most beautiful places in the world, from acres of virgin for-
The cost of repairing neglected state parks down
ests to pristine lakes; every year, these treasures attract nearly
the road can easily overshadow the current money
80 million people who come to enjoy the diverse landscape and
the state spends on state parks. California went
through major changes and growth within history,
The enormous amount of travelers and tourists generated
often resulting in damaging the environment and
by state parks brings a net worth of $4.32 billion to California’s
economy in park related expenditures yearly through such things as hotels, rental cars, food, supplies, and gifts. Californiaâ€™s state parks contain a vast, rich resource in history, ecology, and leisure. Millions of visitors, residents and foreigners alike, see the parks to catch a glimpse of the past as well as to have a good time. The profit generated is considerable. State parks are channels that allow for discussions in preserving the environment and are a source for the public to contribute and protect it as well. And so, it is in interest of millions to see that state parks remain protected and maintained, even in the face of dire circumstances.
Closing parks does not me mean that hat people law would not use them. It means that llawuld not use them. Among abiding people would those who will: meth lab ab opera operators, marijuana arijuana omeless, meless, poachers, rogue farmers, the homeless, ust plain camper mountain bikers as well as just campers nk the rule no apply pply to their who think rules does not al visits. Wildfire danger dan would personal illeg llegal, legal, unsupervised campfires, increase from illegal, a drugg sparks from off-road veh vehicles and operations. ations. ons. The cost off a single sing catastrophic ph firee could wipe out most mo t off the savings from closing losing parks. park Crime could ld turn the the parks into nto expensive public nuisa nuisances. Th That at is in addition ad additi dditi the ddition thhe long-term l ng tte m expense long xpense p s caused caus d by b erosion pro probl problems roblems ffrom fr illegally llegally cut c t trails, vandalism, alism, deterioration of par park p buildings uildings gs and thee need to bring ring back overgrown ttrails once ththe parks rreopen.
EMPIRE MINE STATE PARK Below are just a few of the attractions to explore at Empire Mine. Along with the Bourn Cottage and Mine Yard, you can explore the English Garden as well as multiple hiking trails. Currently, Empire Mine is working to complete construction on an Underground Mine Shaft tour.
MINE YARD OFFICES
MINE SHAFT ENTRANCE
in order to avoid
park closure we
Environmental issues can include erosion, formation of sinkholes, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water by chemicals from mining processes.
must find an econom ical and environ -
mentally conscience solution
OUT OF OUR
Mercury within our water is an issue not only at Empire Mine State
SOLVING EMPIRE MINE'S POLLUTION PROBLEM
Park but throughout the world. Mercury contamination from historical mines represents a
potential risk to human health and the well being of the environ-
gold and mercury called amalgam. This process
ment. This article will be providing you with background information
consisted of liquid mercury being mixed with mine
on the use of mercury in historical gold mining and it’s relevance
tailings causing them to react and bond with each
to the specific problems at Empire Mine State Park. Miners used
other. During this process 10 to 30 percent of mer-
mercury to recover gold throughout the western United States.
cury was lost which resulted in highly contaminated
There are two kinds of gold deposits, hard rock and placer. Hard
sediments at mining sites. After the mine tailings
rock are lode or gold-quartz veins and placer is unconsolidated grav-
are crushed at the stamping mill and the mercury
els. Underground methods were used to mine these hard rock gold
is bound to the gold it is burned off with extreme
deposits. Mercury’s role in mining was to enhance gold recovery in
heat. This process releases significant quantities of
various types of mining operations.
mercury into the air which causes severe damage
The way mercury did was it simply would adhere to gold which
to soils, water bodies, wildlife near the area, and
was very useful when the gold mine tailings were being crushed
results in heavy mercury exposure to people in the
and sifted through to extract the gold. Gold mining evolved from
area. Empire Mine was known for underground min-
hydraulic mining in the early years of the gold rush, then to under-
ing of placer deposits and hard rock that was proved
ground mining of hard rock (Empire Mine’s specialty), to dredging.
to be the most lucrative ways of producing gold in
Gold particles were removed through a chemical reaction between
California from the 1880’s to the 1930’s.
OUT OF OUR MINE—COLE BEAUCHAMP
THE MAGENTA DRAIN
This stream drains through the Empire Mine, California’s largest gold mining operation for over 100 years. The water and sediment contain residual metals and chemicals that may be hazardous. The State of California is working to clean up this stream, but at this time, please avoid contact with the water.
To find out more about the Magenta Drain purification project visit our blog at: www.shiftmag.com/blog
Although Empire Mine was California’s most suc-
anything of it because they were unaware of these effects that
cessful mine it left behind a hazardous imprint on
were occurring when using mercury in this way. A big local issue
the environment. Over the several years of mining at
in Grass Valley has evolved over time between the community
Empire many harmful substances were uncovered
and Empire Mine State Park involving water pollution. Besides
and brought to the earths surface that were never
the problem of water runoff mixing with the soils and leaching
supposed to be here. Mercury has proven to be the
into nearby waterways there is another contributor to this prob-
most severe problem when it comes to the issue of
lem. Years ago when Empire mine was still active the Magenta
water pollution at the mine. As stated earlier mer-
drain was built to pump out excess water from the depths of the
cury was a huge help in mining because of it’s ability
mine. The Magenta drain is still to this day leaking contaminated
to adhere to gold. This made it a huge commodity
water into a nearby creek. This water is filled with hazardous tox-
at Empire mine as well as others. The problem with
ins. The Grass Valley community is worried about health issues
mercury at Empire mine came into effect when it
resulting from the contaminants from the old mine and want a
had to be separated from the gold by burning it off.
solution. These waterways are used for activities that members
This process would release harmful toxins into the
of the community are involved in such as fishing, swimming, etc.
air which effected nearby soils, creeks, and wildlife.
At this time these creeks are closed off to the public for there
At the time this was taking place no body thought
safety but it is effecting the communities lifestyle at this point
and they feel it is unfair to them and their families. Since this has become such an issue the state is forcing Empire Mine to come up with a solution. There is so much soil around this state park that has been contaminated that makes its way into nearby water sources that this situation has become very hard to solve. These nearby waterways are connected to larger bodies of water that stretch throughout California, which creates danger for more than just the local communities. The state of California knows that it takes time to resolve a problem of this magnitude so in 2006 this resolution process started and Empire Mine State Park was giving until 2010 to fix this problem. At this point in time Empire Mine State Park is still working with Newmont Mining, the former mine owner, to resolve the issue.
runoff mix xin ne
m Y em
et e bui
ro m ine
g nta aki
M as day
er his water
is fil ed w
T worried about hea h issues re-
With the rising price of gold and the poor economy there has been a lot of talk about reopening gold mines. The amount of gold that could be produced is staggering, but we must stop and consider the impact that mining places on the environment. Gold mining is a dirty and dangerous process involving extremely harsh chemicals and unstable mine shafts.
THE ECSTASY OF GOLD
PRICE OF GOLD
24 = $10,000
HIDE YOUR GOLD!
Want to know more about the development of environmental technologies? Head on over to www.shiftmag.com!
Gold is increasing it’s value because it isn’t going to last forever. Fraud and corruption has become a factor with mining. Newmont Nevada produced 420,000 equity ounces of gold at costs of $601 per ounce in 2010. Gold Quarry, which started production in 1980 is Newmont’s largest open pit on the Carlin Trend.
CULTURE Technically the Cornish were the world’s most accomplished and skillful hard-rock miners. From the simple design of their narrow wheelbarrows ideally suited for underground labor to their mining terminology.
along with solving the empire mine is -
sue , what tools can we use to improve the environmental
climate within cali fornia
GREEN DEBT REFOCUSING CALIFORNIA'S TECHNOLOGY TRADITION TOWARD THE ENVIRONMENT
California and technology have gone hand in hand since its birth. Although the technology California began with was not the flashy, dynamic, sleek
form you see today, it was still used to achieve great things. The next time you use your iPad or Droid just take a moment to try to grasp all the things happening within that one little device, with that thought in mind imagine the 1850’s and what they would consider advanced technology. In the grand scheme of things it is really not that long ago, but this is when the tradition of technology began in California. Back then there were the Cornish. They came from Cornwall, UK to work at Empire Mine in Grass Valley, CA. The trip alone was a huge accomplishment but with their knowledge of mining they were able to create the single most lucrative mine in California history. Their idea of technology
CALIFORNIA'S GREEN DEBT—JEFF EMMERLING
NO TIME TO VOLUNTEER?
PROTECTING OUR WILDLIFE
Visit www.shiftmag.com/donate to find state parks and organizations that can put your donations to good use! Any amount helps!
Environmental contaminants associated with mining activities may affect wildlife species in many ways and at many levels within the ecosystem. Some contaminants associated with mines (e.g., lead, arsenic, cyanide, etc.) may cause acute or chronic effects on resident wildlife.
was a water pump. Nothing fancy, nothing that would amaze us
reputation for themselves in the programming world
by todayâ€™s technology standards. But this pump was in fact amaz-
IBM took notice and hired them to create an operat-
ing. The Cornish pump, as it would later be referred to, wasnâ€™t the
ing system for their new computer line. Mean while
first water pump. Mines have long struggled with water flooding
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had created their first
the mine shafts. Once the underground wells have been disrupt-
computer, the Apple I. Each one was made by hand
ed the only option is to pump the water out. But after a certain
by Wozniak and consisted of a mother board and ba-
depth those water pumps would no longer work. That is where
sic video chips.
the Cornish Pump shined. With its main housing on the surface
Although the first model was not very impressive
the pump did not have to worry about air flow. This pump allowed
to most, Apple II would put them on the map. With
the Empire Mine to grow to a depth of 11,000ft. For the time, the
its five and a quarter inch floppy disk drive and ad-
Cornish Pump made all the difference for Empire Mine. Through-
vanced color display it was chosen to be the plat-
out its run Empire Mine recovered 5.8 million ounces of Gold. If
form for business computing. When Microsoft went
we were to use current market prices on gold it would amount to
public their stock value would grow substantially
over eight billion dollars.
making twelve thousand employees millionaires and
As time went by Empire Mine remained at the top of the tech-
hundred employees millionaires instantly as it was
From the mercury process in which Gold would stick to mercury
traded publicly. This is more than any other company
and the mercury would then be melted away, to cyanide treat-
in history. As these two companies grew, Silicon Val-
ments where cyanide would dissolve the gold into a solution
ley would become the Mecca of technology making
where it would then be separated with zinc and sulfuric acid.
California home of companies like Google, nVidia,
When the mine finally closed mining companies traveled from
eBay, and Yahoo. As technology continues to grow
around the world in order to get their hands on the newest tech-
and advance we have to ask ourselves, in what ways
nologies for pennies on the dollar.
can we use technology to improve our environment?
In 1956 when the mine closed, IBM had been in business for
four billionaires. Likewise, Apple made roughly three
nology curve, taking advantage of all of the newest techniques.
How can we make the energy we use more effi-
46 years. At this point they were still focusing mainly on calcula-
cient? Many companies around the world are work-
tion devices. It would still be twenty years before the two big-
ing on solar and wind technologies, but California can
gest computer companies would come to be. IBM continued to
do more, more than just solar and wind, and more
work on their calculation devices which would slowly begin to
to solve environmental problems other than just that
resemble a personal computer. As Bill Gates and Paul Allen built a
gas and electricity.
PREVENTING FURTHER POLLUTION Preventing water from reaching underground mines involves the use of diversion ditches and pipes to divert water from acidic areas. Another method to prevent acid drainage is to prevent the material from oxidizing. By burying mine waste, or covering the waste with an impermeable liner, pyrite cannot oxidize and sulfuric acid cannot form.
To continue Californiaâ€™s technological tradition we
To California, technology is more than just the latest gadget. It
need to be the first to answer these questions and
is a way of life. As technology develops we must stay above the
we have the greatest advantage in doing so. With
curve and keep this tradition alive. Developing everything from
a push towards solar and wind power what better
mining equipment to computers, and now to environmental tech-
place to refine these types of energy than Califor-
nology, it is our job to continuously work to create and innovate
nia. This state is known for being different than most.
new technologies. Along with developing these technologies we
We are one of the most powerful economies in the
must also preserve history, and if we can combine these two
world. We are more diverse than most states and
tasks into one California can remain as one of the greatest states
have a unique way of thinking. And we can start
by creating these technologies to resolve issues at state parks. Not only can we create jobs by developing these technologies, but we can close budget gaps by taking care of issues that are draining budgets for state parks. Empire Mine in particular has the issue of water pollution. With seventy-eight environmental violations in 2008 what little money state parks receive go toward fines. At the current point in time the only solutions for this problem is chemical treatment, which is extremely expensive, and the second option is building a water treatment plant which must then be kept up by employees. Our next step in environmental technology should be a step towards solving this problem. While it could help solve the problems at Empire Mine it could also solve a larger problem, Californiaâ€™s water shortage. If we are able to purify water in an efficient and inexpensive way we could make great strides in solving a global problem.
In the next issue of shift â€Ś
WORKING TO RESTORE AND PRESERVE OTTER POPULATION AND HABITAT
The spring 2007 sea otter survey counted 3,026 sea otters in the central California coast, down from an estimated pre-fur trade population of 16,000
For more information on how
VISIT DONATE VOLUNTEER
you can get involved please visit www.shiftmag.com or www.parks.ca.gov
HELP OUT AT A STATE PARK!
WILLIAM BOURN JR.
Visit www.shiftmag.com/volunteer to find state parks and organizations need personal attention! Set some time aside to preserve nature and history!
William Bourn Jr. inherited the Empire Mine from his father in 1877. With his own financial backing and the "mining genius" of his younger cousin, George Starr, the Empire became a "showplace in mining technology" at the turn of the century.
HERITAGE Grass Valley became a town as a result of the gold rush of 1850 with the discovery of gold at Gold Hill. It became fully incorporated in 1860.
while we find ways to solve pollution problems within california we should reflect on bourn ' s vision for empire mine
AGAIN REDISCOVERING WILLIAM BOURN JR.’S VISION FOR EMPIRE MINE
Visiting the Empire Mine is very much like taking a step back in history, and into the word of a young, fledgling California on the
brink of becoming a hub for the industry of hard rock mining. The clamor of heavy machinery; yardmen operating the hydraulic sluice, crushing quartz in preparation for the gold to be washed out; blacksmiths forging tools to be used hundreds of feet below the surface; and miners, huddled in a manskip, hands low, arms tucked in, dropping 800 feet per minute down the mine shaft— the light of their candlestick the sole source of light. From 1850 until its closure in 1957, this was the scene at the Empire Mine. During its operation, it produced around 5.8 million ounces of gold—meaning, for 107 years of hard rock mining, the mine saw a profit of around $960 million. Add to that 367 miles of
BORN AGAIN—JOSÉ RIVERA
autumn at the
THE BEGINNINGS OF EMPIRE MINE
In 1917 Bourn Jr. built Filoli, a 654 acre estate, which can be seen in the closing credits of the famous television show, Dynasty.
In 1850 a lumber man named George Roberts discovered gold in a quartz outcropping, which became the Ophir vein, until the mine’s closure in 1956, an estimated 5,800,000 oz. of gold was extracted from 367 miles of underground passage.
underground passages, and behold the largest, oldest, and most
William Bourn I, in 1869, relieved this unsettling
success of the Empire Mine can be attributed to its loyal work
state of operation upon the acquisition of con-
force—the team of miners who labored through the dark and
trolling interest. Until his death in 1874, the mine
dangerous conditions—it was the entrepreneurial spirit of Wil-
functioned to a considerable amount of prosperity.
liam Bourn Jr. and his relentless vision for success that estab-
However, when Bourn Jr. inherited the mine, he
lished the foundation for the mine’s remarkable achievements.
found himself facing an operation in the midst of
William Bowers Bourn Jr. was born in 1857, San Francisco,
a production slump. It was even believed that the
California—the second child of mining entrepreneur William
mine had reached its maximum profit, that any profit-
Bowers Bourn I and Sarah Esther Chase. Educated at Cam-
able operations were impossible below the 1,200 ft.
bridge University, at the age of 22 years, he inherited the Em-
level—all indications pointed to the mine’s imminent
pire Mine in 1879, after the death of his father. At that point, the
closure. However, the young Bourn was determined.
mine had already been in operation for 29 years, since a lumber-
Not being discouraged by the critics, he reorganized
man named George Roberts discovered gold flecks in a surface
his company—with the help of his cousin, George
outcropping of quartz (now the parking lot) in October of 1850.
Starr—and boldly pushed the shafts deeper under-
Bourn Jr. inherited the mine from his father via numerous previous owners. Upon being discouraged by the challenge of min-
being torn down, rebuilt, and modernized.
productive mine in California history. While partial credit for the
ground. By 1884, within 10 years, the mine was making profit once again.
ing, George Roberts sold his claim for $350 to a group that con-
From 1898 to 1928, the Empire Mine was reputed
solidated several claims into one operation: the Ophir Hill Mine.
to be the best managed gold mine in America, and
In 1852, another change in ownership occurred; John Rush pur-
the most productive in California. Bourn’s success at
chased the Ophir Hill Mine. He would change the name to Em-
the mine even deemed Grass Valley as the Quartz
pire Quartz Hill Company. Throughout the 1850s–60s, owner-
Queen of California. In 1929, upon his failing health,
ship continued to change rather rapidly. Nobody seemed willing
Bourn sold the Empire Mine to Newmont Mining
to make a commitment to the young Empire Mine. During this
Corporation, who combined the mine with another
time, the appearance of the mineyard also changed, repeatedly
interest, North Star Mine, and formed the Empire-
WHO IS WILLIAM BOURN SR.? William Bourn Sr. was the founder of the family’s wealth and success with his investments in shipping, the mercantile trade, agriculture and the first gas light company along with Grass Valley’s Empire Mine. He later purchased Empire Mine which became the family’s main source of income. Today Bourn Sr. would be considered a successful investment banker.
Star Mines. Empire Mine’s prosperity continued
California its identity as the Golden State. But there is something
until World War II, when the War Production Board
even more valuable in the mine—it is an element that made Em-
halted non-essential industries—in order to secure
pire Mine an icon of hard rock mining and California history: the
resources for the massive war production efforts—
vision of William Bourn Jr. In the midst of doubt and opposition,
such as gold mining. When the mine reopened in
he persevered and made his organization into the greatest of
1945, the priced of gold, fixed at the 1934 level of
his time. Currently, the Empire Mine faces a similar opposition:
$35 an ounce, provided little profit. In 1957, long after
multiple violations of environmental regulations have prompted
Bourn’s involvement, and after a strike by the min-
the community and politicians to push threats of closure towards
ers—who suffered because the company could no
the park. Unlike its previous closure, which was due to the WWII
longer pay them enough to support their families—
production order, and its purchase by the State of California to
the pumps in the mine were shut down and it was
become a State Park, this one will result in neither education nor
profit, and an entire generation of Californians will never get to
Today, the golden days of the Empire Mine seem
experience the Empire Mine for themselves.
far removed—various mining equipment lay across
The history of this state park has the potential to inspire a new
the mineyard, now rusted and obsolete; many of the
generation of visionaries along the lines of a William Bourn Jr.—
structures have been torn down and sold, perma-
those who delve into uncertainty in the face of criticism, taking
nently removed from the property. While the likeli-
great risks and treading new, unfamiliar territory; they are the
hood of the mine becoming the Quartz Queen of
people along the lines of Steve Jobs, the individualistic entrepre-
California once more is highly unlikely, it still has the
neur. These are the people who make California a progressive
opportunity to provide a valuable resource to Califor-
nia: education. The mine tells the story of the gold
As the threats to the Empire Mine as a state historic park show
rush, the history of Grass Valley, immigration (the
no immediate signs of waning, the vision of William Bourn Jr.
Cornish from Cornwall, England, who made up 85%
becomes increasingly necessary and relevant. By the time this
of the work force), and mining technology. And, af-
article is read, the threat of closure could be even greater.
ter all, the Empire Mine produced the gold that gave
The time is right for a new generation of Bourn visionaries.
LETTER FROM THE EDITOR BY JEFF EMMERLING
CONTRIBUTORS nancy pham josĂŠ rivera cole beauchamp jeff emmerling
tuesday/thursday cohort gwen amos the dream team repro graphics empire mine
http://www.howdesign.com (behance1.jpg) http://freaky665.deviantart.com/ (grunge texture pack) http://twrpcactusrose.blogspot.com/ (fortross.jpg)
First and foremost I would like to thank you for reading this first issue of Shift Magazine. Your support of state parks is crucial to the survival of history and heritage throughout California. With this magazine it is our goal to create a network of people who share appreciation for state parks and inspire them to make a difference in those parks. Along with inspiring those who share interest in state parks we want to inform and bring awareness to those that have lost touch with the wealth of information and culture that are the state parks. For many members of our audience the last time they visited a state park was in the fourth grade. With that, we want to give you a fresh look into state parks and bring a new energy in order to bring the parks to life and highlight their importance to the community and state. Empire Mine is an amazing state park. Beautiful landscape, fascinating mine shafts and equipment, living history, and over 150 years of heritage. The problem at this park along with others is the lack of awareness and dangers of under funding. Empire Mine in particular, as you have read, has a serious environmental problem as well and the park can do little to improve the situation. In creating this magazine we wanted to bring the reader into an environment that can showcase the beauty of these parks while discussing poignant political and cultural topics. These are topics we find require attention, but we also need your involvement too. We want to know what comments and concerns you have on state parks. And we want you to get involved! Anything you can do from something as simple as a donation to as complex as campaigning for state park funding can give these parks a greater chance to live to help educate future generations. So get out there, get involved, explore, and discover the excitement that are the state parks. See you next issue.
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