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Created by Emma Wilson

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Is handmade design being used just because it is a contemporary trend?

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Acknowledgements

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I would like to thank everyone who provided their opinions to aid the development of this project. Your time and help is extremely appreciated. I would especially like to thank; Adam Holt from ReadyMade Magazine, Anthony Burrill, Jack Roberts from Bad Idea, Josh Kenyon and Colby Nichols from Jolby&Friends, Lisa Ullenius and Sissi Edholm from Edholm Ullenius, Luise Vormittag from Container Plus and Nick Carson from Computer Arts.

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Please visit my blog to view the research process behind this report; -I Heart Handmade-

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Contents

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Introduction Nostalgia Liberating Perfect Fit Over Saturated Reconnect Time One-of-a-Kind Conclusion Bibliography

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Similar to how the Arts and Crafts movement at the end of the nineteenth century strove to restore the value of handmade products at a time of industrial revolution, in todays society we are surrounded by mass produced items that yearn for something more individual (Hanaor 2006, p.12). Subsequently it is these handmade touches that in the contemporary market provide projects with a unique voice (Foster 2009, p.44). Therefore we now see a countermovement to mass-produced, fully digital works that lack both warmth and uniqueness (Ehmann 2008, p.5) and instead a move towards handmade work that evokes a feeling of nostalgia, variety and authenticity. Handcrafted, old-school techniques are now challenging the most advanced

digital technology (Computer Arts 2010) and many are enjoying seeing the rare touch of a human hand in a digital age (Loh 2009, p.8). It would be easy to argue that the distinctiveness of craft’ from technology is that technologys aesthetic has now grown to become so predictable, that it could even be considered to be boring (Dormer, 1997 p.142). As designers did very little other than punching keys or playing around with a mouse, the computer era has now caused a gulf to form as designers recreate that lost connection with their work. Often this is caused by an abstract desire to create but when given the opportunity, this physical act of designing with our hands actually creates the realisation that the need is not abstract but rather direct and

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tangible (Foster 2009, p.7). We are sensual beings, who crave the gratifying pleasure acquired when making things and also the desire to learn how to do it ourselves (Dormer 1997, p.157). As Hanaor and Woodcock, the authors of Making Stuff, state;

"It is this insatiable quest for a distinct identity that will ensure that the trend for making stuff is only going to grow"

design using this aesthetic for their own gratification and reasons, or are they simply latching on to a contemporary trend? This report aims to conduct an investigation into this question, using both primary and secondary research methods, therefore helping to provide two perspectives on the answer, by capturing the opinions of both designers and clients of handmade the aesthetic.

(Hanaor, 2006). Yet it is this apparent contemporary ‘ trend’ that raises the question of whether handmade design is only being used due to its current popularity. Are designers and the clients who are commissioning handmade

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Unique, Handmade item by Yellow Owl Workshop

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"Although three-dimensional works are prominent in every creative discipline today, it is fascinating to observe to what extent a love of handmade craftsmanship and actual, physically built graphic design has emerged in this field within the last few years" (Ehmann 2008, pg.5). In the twentieth century, one of the most interesting aspects of visual culture was the persistence of hand crafting as a method of manufacturing (Dormer 1997, pg.ix). Today this interest in hand crafted work has continued but it is

now used for many more reasons than just a method of manufacturing. Now there is a much higher level of recognition and admiration involved. The focus lies on the feelings evoked from both the handmade work itself and the actual process of creating it,

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involving expressions of individuality and gratification. Where once the acknowledgement of craftsmanship at the Bauhaus was down played as if it were an intellectually inconvenient fact of history (Dormer 1997, pg.3), today this ‘ do-it-yourself’ style is widely acknowledged (Lupton 2006, pg.18). People are making items themselves in order to create goods to their exact needs, to save money and to feel fewer dependencies on the corporations that manufacture most of the products that we consume. In a hard economic climate, instead of spending money on mass produced items in the high street shops, people instead are wishing to create something more unique, from the

Vintage Handmade Cushion on Etsy

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skills that they already have. As well as the general pleasure that people feel in creating an item by themselves, they enjoy creating something that is physically real and therefore being able to share it with others (Lupton 2006, pg. 18). So in reaction against the same mass produced products that flood the high street shops, consumers are instead expressing reverence towards handcrafted objects, as they view them as products of inspiration (Dormer 1997, pg. 86). Anna Stassen in UK Handmade Autumn issue 2010 agrees:

"The value of something that has been handcrafted by a craftsperson that is skilled in their art is, I feel, is very precious and important. I think if you can do something different and unique you should" (Stassen 2010).

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Evening Tweed, Cross Stitch

Emma Ferguson, Cross Stitch

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Every one of these hand crafted items are one-of-a-kind and no two will ever be the same (Hanaor 2006, pg.12). Crafter Annie Mohaupt describes in Handmade Nation why she believes people are being drawn towards handmade creations;“ "I think people want things that are unique. As the world becomes more and more homogeneous, handmade things become more precious. Also, as people become more aware of issues like the environment, workers’ rights, and toxic ingredients or materials in products, they are more drawn to artisan-made goods, which are purchases they can feel good about" (Heimerl 2008, pg.80). It is believed by many, therefore that handmade touches provide projects with a unique voice in an over saturated market

(Foster 2009, pg.44). The rise of the DIY movement is shunning mass-produced items in favour of handcrafted creations (Heimerl, 2008). The evolution of the crafts has seen a large number of people wanting to continue making things themselves, as well as creating the belief in many that they can expand their knowledge and ideas about the world through learning and practising it (Dormer, 1997). Many are putting a lot of time, energy and dedication into making things real and it is through this experimentation that the viewer can acknowledge this craftsmanship that is so much closer to the heart, rather than detached from reality (Ehmann 2008, pg. 49). Now there is currently a younger generation who have become aware of

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the traditional hand crafting methods but they are revisiting these and reinventing them with a contemporary twist (Levine, 2009). An example of this is Studio Crochettes, who like to use old techniques in their new creations, such as crochet, as it is a new and interesting way to reinvent the old crafts (Fredes 2009, pg.112.113). This apparent revival in interests of arts and craft has meant that it is no longer relegated to the dunces corner and it now finds itself suddenly at the vanguard of design (Ebmann 2007, p.3). Now that the arts and crafts has finally shaken off its fusty image, these DIY enthusiasts yearn to imbue their creations with personality and indeed mistakes to make them truly authentic, subsequently allowing them to get back in touch with their own

work (Ebmann 2007, pg.112). It seems evident that the main reasons for the resurgence in handcrafted design are, a move away from the digital revolution and from the existing mass produced items. Many craftsmen want to regain that lost connection with their work, fulfilling its design once again with personality and warmth. However there seems to also be a number of other reasons that accompany this, Sabrina Schwandtner expresses her thoughts on this subject in Handmade Nation:

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"I am often asked, Why is handcraft so popular? I think that handcraft is popular right now as a reaction against a whole slew of things, including our hyper-fast culture, increasing reliance on digital technology, the proliferation of consumer culture, and even war. During all major wars in which America has been involved, handcraft has experienced a resurgence"

(Heimerl 2008, pg. 26). However, everyone has their own views on why the resurgence in handmade design occurred and whether they even see it as a resurgence. Anthony Burrill describes how using handmade design at the moment makes it seem like a trend but how he sees: "the work around now that people I was at college with were doing 20 years ago" (Burrill to Wilson, 2010). Therefore handmade design clearly isn't new, yet it is still labelled by many as a contemporary trend. Perhaps it is the need to create an ever-present trend that has resulted in this particular aesthetic being labelled.

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"An tha dy Re m the t the ente r bas move re is , in jus ed, a towa a bi Italy g scr t bec nalog rds m ban , isn ' g u jus eens ame b e wo ore h the t con o r (Co t ano all d ored k. “ ands- ry b vince on, ehi mpu the ay, sta Per d h n r ter r t a h d c i p Art rend e say ng at s ar raftt s,“ " s. or comp ists 201 0). per uter hap s i ts

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Chrisse Abbott, Posters

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The gratifying feeling that is felt when creating hand generated work, seems to be why many enjoy making items by hand:

" I also found that making things by hand gave me a strong sense of accomplishment and pride" (Chen Design Associates, 2006). Creating things by hand is a never ending cycle of experimentation, discovery and development. Each time you use a different process you find out new things about what you can do with that particular technique (Burrill to Wilson, 2010). Illustrator Chrissie Abbott describes how she finds it: "really satisfying to print",

so therefore she feels it would be great for people to really celebrate a craft and get away from this digital revolution (Pick Me Up Exhibition Somerset House, April 2010). Not only is it the satisfaction felt from creating these handmade items that encourages people to make them, for many it is also the chance to actually see a project through from beginning to end. A lot of the time this can be due to the fact that in their daily lives, many people do not get to see a project through from start to finish, as they only do one part of producing something. Plus they also have an item that they can then give to someone else or use themselves. This allows us to maintain that tactile relationship to the world that we crave as sensual beings

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(Heimerl 2008, p.26). It also reconnects the creator of the item to the product itself, producing this effective network of relationships between the designer, the item and the user (Meyers, 2009). However the liberating feeling evoked from creating handmade work may not be the reason behind everyone's motive for using the handmade aesthetic. If people are only creating something by hand because it is the current fashion, then maybe they need to rethink their motivation. Debbie Millman suggests asking yourself:

"Am I employing handmade tactics because it's an authentic statement and reflection of the brands spirit? Or am I doing this just to get in on the coolest, new trend?" (Meyers, 2009). Some people may use the handmade aesthetic because by many it is considered a contemporary trend but this doesn’ t necessarily mean it’ is a bad thing. For many though, it remains the liberation, the uniqueness and the authenticity that drive people to create handmade work. They are able to leave a personal touch behind, that remains after the experimentation has finished (Mcfadden 2009, p.6-7).

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"I eve don’ t whe rythi beli e bea n its ng sh ve t h o (Ke utifu done uld at a ny b nyo l t n t hin subtl e han thin g e a d o W g"� nd made. and ils rig on, ht I thi 201 its nk 0). a

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Illustrated by Jolby and Friends

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Ultimately, the reason behind the use of handmade design all comes down to appropriateness. There is no sense in using a handmade aesthetic on a project where it is not appropriate, as it wouldn't communicate the right meaning and feelings. Car advertising, for example, has a super slick finish, as this is the clean and polished aesthetic that they wish their brand to encompass. So the authenticity and warmness that handmade design evokes, wouldn't be the right aesthetic to use in this case (Burrill to Wilson, 2010). Using the handmade aesthetic will aid a company in looking a lot more down to earth and approachable (Roberts to Wilson, 2010). As designers Edholm Ullenius describe: Sometimes the customers want the handmade feeling to make their company feel more“ softer� or

approachable (Edholm to Wilson, 2010). This is why we have seen the adoption of handmade design in a number of big companies, who are wanting to present themselves as authentic and friendly. Maybe some companies are deciding to use the handmade aesthetic because they think it is a contemporary trend but if they feel that their target audience is receptive to this particular trend, then why shouldn’ t they. They will commission this particular on-trend aesthetic, as they wish to communicate with their audience in a successful and impacting way (Vormittag to Wilson, 2010). The use of handmade design makes it easier for people to engage with the work, as it looks less polished and not quite as finished (Burrill to Wilson, 2010). This therefore makes the

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work much more approachable, allowing the viewer to remember the similar kind of work that they can create themselves. This therefore evokes a more powerful bond between the viewer and the work. Designers Jolby & Friends find that:“ "creating handmade work gives our projects the fun, lighthearted feeling" (Kenyon to Wilson, 2010).The intended message of the work dictates whether to use the handmade approach or not. If used appropriately, a handmade element can communicate deeper emotions than something created completely by the computer (Altabef, 2007). This is because much more of the creators personality is reflected in the handmade work, with the computer generally flattening all evidence of texture and humanness.

These ideals are summarised in the article, The Resurgence of Handmade Design:

"Too many designers don't have a good reason for the ideas they present, she says.“ If you want your client to support an idea, whether you're using handmade design or not, it has to be appropriate. You have to have a good reason" (Meyers, 2009).

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Even though some people believe that customers follow trends (Edholm to Wilson, 2010) it is obvious as stated on Computer Arts, in the Article Graphic Design Now that:

"no truly great designers ever spotted a trend and thought,“ Oh great, a trend, I'll copy that. The process is more like: Thats interesting, and fits with what I’ ve been thinking about. I'm going to investigate this further.” At the moment trends are numerous and short-lived, presenting many possible avenues down which creativity can stroll"” (Penfold, Computer Arts).

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Today, the majority of people are used to computers (Burrill to Wilson, 2010), which seems to be why there is now a reaction to technology and mass production, where people are instead wishing to use their hands. People are moving away from digitalism and all of the many things that are created by technology and are going back to reconnect with the analogue experiences (Roberts to Wilson, 2010). There exists the need to search for tangible design solutions that go beyond the computer screen (Ehmann 2008, p.5). Designers are now discovering the joys evoked when creating something by hand and this closer relationship produces more individual results (Foster 2009, p.7). Plus it is these hand crafted elements that make a design feel more genuine,

honest and closer to the heart (Chen Design Associates, 2006). Even with our appreciated enjoyment of the advantages that modern technology brings, we are still starting to rediscover the value of handmade elements in design (Ozler, 2010). This is highlighted in the book Tangible:

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"Although we have accepted the vast development of technology and the digital space that surrounds and permeates our lives, the natural urge for simplicity and a clear understanding of things on a human, intuitive, instinctive level has emerged simultaneously" (Ehmann 2008, p.2).

However where the Arts & Crafts movement was opposed to the technologies of its time, contemporary designers instead welcome technology as a means in which to aid their hand crafted work (Meyers, 2009). As expressed in the article 'The Decade of Dirty Design' on the website AIGA: "Why call this trend anti-digital? Isn't it just an alternative to the dominant medium, but certainly not a substitute for it?" (Heller, 2009). These handmade skills have always existed but it seems as though it is not until recently that there has been an increased appreciation for traditional arts and crafts. This doesn't mean the exclusion of the computer, as the two can work hand-inhand with one another. As often these modern pieces of handmade work are

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assisted by digital colouring, scanning or tweaking. Really it boils down to ultimately being about the creators own talent with their hands (Carson to Wilson, 2010). Imperfections are the marks that show the beautiful irregularity of handmade creations, in comparison to the flawlessness of the computer (Chen Design Associates, 2006). The action of using our hands regularly creates little mistakes that are not possible when designing digitally (Foster 2009, p.7). These messy little components make the fact that the work was created by hand more evident, therefore allowing the viewer to feel more connected to the work. Even an accidental fingerprint in wet paint can produce an answer to the yearning for a sign of life (Foster 2009, p.73).

Owen Gilderstone, part of the graphic design collection Evening Tweed, elaborates on this:

"With handmade illustration I always get frustrated if it's been faked in some way, or if the piece has been manipulated on a computer to look handmade. The joy of making work by hand is that it's not totally neat, and has visible flaws. Fully embrace this, and use these handmade qualities to your advantage"(Carney, Computer Arts).

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Evening Tweed for the Guardian

Yulia Brodskaya for Computer Arts (Behind the Scenes)

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Modern technology is even challenging the craftsmanship of the handmade, by being able to copy the aesthetic (Dormer 1997, p.10). Where we are intimidated by the pressure of time, we sometimes look to the computer as it is perceived to be a lot faster than creating by hand. A lot of the time this can be the case but in order to actually achieve the same honest feeling evoked from a handcrafted piece of work, it in fact will take a very long time. A massive amount of detail is involved in handmade work and very often the piece has a very irregular aesthetic, which to copy on a computer could take extremely long (Altabef, 2007). However it is clear that the computer still has its limitations when trying to reproduce the look of the handmade. The texture,

tangibility and physical presence of hand generated work, are all part of the computers limitations, as it flattens out these key aesthetic qualities (Curruthers, 2001). Really it seems that everyone has different opinions and that everyone has preferred mediums to work in. On the one hand, there are those who prefer to stick to their own skills and stay clear of modern technology. On the other hand, there are those who chose to work fully using the capabilities made possibly by modern technology (Ebmann 2007, p.112).

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"Th is e com you only puter off r cli that: is a e han ers q nts a to wond o e a u bri ds ar alit re t l. Yo rful i r (Fo ngs o e the es fo uly ur br tool, p ste u a u r, r ide exten nd n aying in i but s it o J 2 s a 009 s to ion where for a what of , p n our else. d wh g. fruit 7). ion min Our at " ds tha t

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There are a number of reasons why handmade design possibly is used, with Nick Carson from Computer Arts suggesting that it could be; "a combination of being on-trend, creatively rewarding, and providing the unique, imperfect finish that only handmade can" (Carson, 2010) There are so many feelings evoked from handmade designs, that attract both viewers and creators, these include warmth, nostalgia, authenticity, uniqueness and personality (Ozler, 2010). However ultimately, it is the intentions behind the work that is the key aspect (Burrill to Wilson, 2010). People are increasingly appreciating the skill involved in creating a handmade piece, where nowadays they are assuming that anything can be achieved digitally (Carson to Wilson, 2010).

"As our means of production become more transparent, so does the worth of handmade objects. It is not only their rarity, but also their authenticity that makes them valuable. It is their humanness that shines through, and this is the thing we so desperately crave" (Chen Design Associates, 2006).

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Ultimately, the handmade aesthetic is about the significant communication between the creator and their audience. This connection is what many designers seek and it is by using their hands that they can create atmospheric, tangible work, with a unique voice that will capture this reconnection (Chen Design Associates, 2006). According to Adam Holt, senior graphic designer at ReadyMade, the handmade type that the magazine produces appeals to the audience because it can inspire them to create their own type, just with everyday items. Plus it is inspirational to people in helping them to rethink how they could use boring everyday items in a new and more interesting way. Creating your own fonts instantly provides a unique quality to the work

(Holt to Wilson, 2010). We can never identically recreate a handmade piece of work or a hand drawn font, yet we can all choose the exact same digital font for a piece of work (Foster 2009, p.7). Therefore clients of the handmade aesthetic are receiving completely original solutions (Nichols to Wilson, 2010). Even with all the modern technology, there still exists some extremely effective, non-hightech tools that can aid design in reconnecting with its audience. A handcrafted element can provide the viewer with the sound knowledge that human understanding is the foundations for the message behind the work (Chen Design Associates, 2006).

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Zim and Zou, Weave Type

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Clearly there are advantages and disadvantages associated with handmade design and the time and cost involved in creating the work seem to stand out as two of the main negatives.

"Letterpress is so time consuming" This can sum up many peoples views on the various old-school printing techniques. The wonderment lies in why you would take so much time to do these things by hand when you can do them in no time at all on a computer. But what people often do not realise is that the same aesthetic, feel and qualities simply cannot be achieved on the computer instead of creating the work by hand. It is the small mistakes hidden within the handmade work that

portray the human touch. In massive scale print runs, even as the hand-drawn typefaces become digital files the whole process of drawing and exploration still becomes an added time investment. Unfortunately now, additional time and costs are not something that many clients can afford to include in their restricted budgets (Meyers, 2009). "Some people want to embrace craft for its essence of craftsmanship-that is, the quality of a piece of work, the time and effort that went into its production. Others are excited by craft because of its inherent otherness-that is, its unique ability to set its practitioners outside of mainstream industrial society" (Heimerl 2008, p.1). The so called disadvantage of the time

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taken in the creation of handmade work is not always seen as being a negative part of the process, to many it reflects the amount of care and effort that went into making the work. Time can be a quality of handmade work that really is appreciated in its own right. The fact is that handmade design is unique, it is a rejection of mass produced items. The price may be more expensive but this reflects the time, costs and effort that went in to creating the work. The higher cost and therefore the higher intrinsic value lies in the time taken to produce the handmade work.

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Hammerpress, Letterpress Greetings card

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It seems believable that the resurgence of handmade design is due to its easy accessibility. With online sites such as makezine.com and instructables.com, it is now feasible for people to train themselves in a marketable craft using only online guides. It is easy to learn complex knitting patterns when you have a YouTube video to walk you through each stage (Thompson, 2009). It is also these online crafting sites that in response, have therefore witnessed a rise in popularity, due to the backlash to the mass-production and mass-consumerism of the past decade (Trend Bible, 2009). Now that so many people are finding or creating something unique to meet their needs, handcrafting has now taken off as a widespread trend, due

to economic pressures to save money in as many ways as possible. This has resulted in a number of trends witnessing growth because they can all provide their individual ways to meet that bottom line. Consumers can regain a little bit of control that they thought they had lost during the recession, through the handmade and sustainable movements. It is surprising and quite ironic that the handmade aesthetic is successful thanks to a mix of DIY and the Internet (Imre, 2010). It has only become possible for small-scale makers to get their creations seen by a much larger population due to the Internet. This was previously unimaginable (Heimerl 2008, pg. 38). Yet it is not solely the crafters who have benefited from the pairing of the handmade and

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the internet. Etsy have two million users, with its sales having reached twentyfold in the past two years. The economy may be suffering but many are stampeding to purchase handmade goods. In response to the web-fuelled explosion in DIY culture, there are now many more one-of-a-kind items being created (Thompson, 2009). This is because consumers want to regain a lost connection with the one-ofa-kind item, that wasn't apparent when these products were being massproduced. Plus the creator now wishes to infuse their work with personality, authenticity and human touch. Author and director of Handmade Nation, Faythe Levine, asks; "Would there be indie craft without the internet?" It may sound unusual to

many, that people who are trying to reclaim the handmade approach are using technology to do so, yet it is undeniably true (Heimerl 2008, pg.30). It seems that the handmade goes hand in hand with technology, as it is because of the internet that the handmade aesthetic has become such a phenomenon. As designer Anthony Burrill describes; "I think things kind of run in parallel really, I think theres always going to be handmade stuff and theres always going to kind of be slick computer made stuff" (Burrill to Wilson, 2010).

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Faythe Levine, one of the authors of Handmade Nation sums this up perfectly:

"For the time being, it's the internet that holds the craft world together. Show me a crafter without a website, and I'll show you a crafter who will probably have a website within six months. The handmade nation wields the internet just as effectively as it does a knitting needle or a roll of duct tape" (Heimerl 2008, pg. 35).

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The resurgence of hand generated work started as a rejection against the digital age. Where we had been surrounded by digitally created items, many people wanted to find that reconnection between themselves, their audience and their work. Through the infusion of their personality into the work and the liberating feeling they were regaining from creating hand generated work, they rediscovered a lost connection. However today, the majority of people combine the two aesthetics; handmade and digital, to enhance their piece of work. Luise Vormittag, one of the founders of Container Plus, explains how they always start by making or drawing by hand, for it to then be put through some kind of process, generally being photographed or

scanned. Then either it is worked on to on the computer or printed back out and worked on top of, for it then to be scanned back in (Vormittag to Wilson, 2010). This seems to be the case for many people. Even if they use the handmade aesthetic as their main method of working, often or not the work is at least accompanied with use of some type of technology.

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"Handmade and hand-drawn skills have always been there, but it feels like in the last couple of years theres been a growing appreciation for traditional arts and crafts, that will often be combined with digital colouring, tweaking or finishing, but are ultimately dependent on the artists own talent with their hands, which feels timeless in a way"

By combining old techniques, with new creations, there is now a twist being added to handmade work. The current generation has created a fresh aesthetic. It is an adaption to an aesthetic that has been in circulation for an extremely long time but it is within the recent years that it has really seen a rise in popularity and interest. Many people are now using the handmade aesthetic for its genuine qualities of authenticity, approachability and mainly because it is one-of-a-kind. No two handmade creations will ever be the same and it is this uniqueness that attracts clients and consumers.

(Carson to Wilson, 2010).

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Guerilla Knitting, The Knitta Please bus

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"No matter how many people start handcrafting their own items, no two people will create the exact same design and style, as each handmade item will be individual from the other" (Hanaor 2006, pg. 12).

There has been an interest in the handmade aesthetic for many years but it is recently that it has grown to include an extremely wide audience. Due to this rise in awareness of the aesthetic, the now easy accessibility and the move away from digitalism, it is now being considered by many to be a trend. This perhaps could be because people wish to have some kind of movement to follow in the design world, just like there exists in the realm of art. However whatever the reason, it is clear that the handmade aesthetic is popular and due to its wide popularity it has been labelled a trend. It is apparent that people and companies are using the aesthetic for deeper reasons than only its current popularity. Companies are appropriately using the aesthetic when they wish for

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their brand to look more approachable and authentic. Companies are going to use whichever aesthetic they know will reach their target audience in an effective way. People are using the handmade aesthetic as a reaction against mass produced items, as a way to reconnect their work with its audience and because the aesthetic has become so much more easily accessible. Now it is easy for people to learn and acquire the needed skills for these various handmade techniques, where before Internet tutorials did not exist. This easy accessibility is what has helped the handmade aesthetic to reach a much wider audience, increasing the number of people wishing to create these human, oneof-a-kind, fun aesthetics (Roberts to Wilson, 2010).

However trends come and go in cycles and various aesthetics come in and out of fashion. This can be because a particular style becomes overused or because a new, more exciting technique is established (Carson to Wilson, 2010). No matter how long the handmade aesthetic remains a trend, handmade design will remain for a very long time, just as it has existed for so many years so far. The art of craft making is unlikely to disappear, especially as it provides so many with such intellectual and sensory pleasure in making handmade items (Dormer, 1997).

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Chloe Fleury, Poster Installation

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Reference List

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(2006) Fingerprint: The art of using handmade elements in graphic design. Chen Design Associates Altabef, N. (2007) Josh Chen: Hands-on Designer, Author and Creative Team Leader. Retrieved from: <http://www.notesondesign.net/people/ interviews/josh-chen-hands-on-designerauthor-and-creative-team-leader/> [Accessed 17th July 2010] Barkatulla, O. (2006) Typography School. Retrieved from: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Xg5O0l7ybY> [Accessed 15th October, 2010] Burrill, A. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with Anthony Burrill. [Interview Phone]. Wilson, E. 27th October 2010 Carney, R. 60 Pro Illustration Tips. Retrieved from: http://www.computerarts.co.uk/in _ depth/ features/60 _ pro _ illustration _ tips [Accessed 25th September 2010]

Carruthers, G. (2001) Handmade Graphics Refuse to go Quietly. Retrieved from: http://www.eyemagazine.com/review. php?id=126&rid=603 [Accessed 5th September 2010] Carson, N. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with Nick Carson from Computer Arts. [Interview - Email]. Wilson, E. 22nd October 2010 Computer arts. (2010) Handmade. [Internet]. Retrieved from: <http://www.computerarts.co.uk/in _ depth/ features/hand _ made!#Scene _ 1> [Accessed 20th September 2010]. Dormer, P. (1997) The Culture of Craft. Manchester University Press, UK Edholm, S. & Ullenius, L. (2010). Interview on Handmade Design with Edholm Ullenius. [Interview â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Email]. Wilson, E 25th October 2010

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Ehmann, S., Hubner, M. & Klanten, R. (2007) Tactile -high touch visuals. Die Gestalten Verlag GmbH & Co.KG, Berlin

Holt, A. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with ReadyMade Magazine. [Interview â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Email]. Wilson, E. 2nd December 2010

Ehmann,S. (2008) Tangible -high touch visuals. Die Gestalten Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin

Irme Home IQ. (2010) Handmade Nation. Retrieved from: <http://imrehomeiq.com/tag/handmade-movement/> [Accessed 21st September 2010]

Fredes, A. (2009) Handmade 3D. Index Book, S.L. Foster, J. (2009) Dirty Fingernails. Rockport Publishers Inc, Hanaor, Z. & Woodcock,V. (2006). Making Stuff -an alternative craft book. Black Dog Publishing Limited, London. Heimerl, C. & Levine, F. (2008) Handmade Nation: The Rise of DIY, Art, Craft and Design. Princeton Architectural Press, New York Heller, S. (2009) The Decade of Dirty Design. Retrieved from: <http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/the-decade-ofdirty-design> [Accessed 19th August 2010]

Kenyon, J. & Nichols, C. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with Jolby&Friends. [Interview - Email]. Wilson, E. 20th October 2010 Levine, F. (2009) Faythe Levine on BreakfastTelevision. Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLm6zszVX30> [Accessed 20th September] Loh, A. (2009) Perfect Paper. Page One Publishing Pte Ltd, Singapore Lupton, E. (2006) D.I.Y. Design It Yourself. Princeton Architectural Press, New York

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Meyers, T. (2009) The Resurgence of Hand-made Design. Retrieved from: <http://tiffanymeyers.com/2009/04/21/diydesign/> [Accessed 30th July 2010]

Roberts, J. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with Bad Idea. [Interview - By Person]. Shackle Well Studios, London. Wilson, E. 16th November 2010

Mcfadden, L. (2009) Handmade Greetings Cards. Quarry Books, United States of America

Stassen, A. (2010) Meet: Hetty Rose. Retrieved from: <http://content.yudu.com/Library/A1oybc/ UKHandmadeAutumn2010/resources/3. htm?skipFlashCheck=true> [Accessed 19th August 2010]

Ozler, L. (2010) By Hand: Handmade Elements in Graphic Design. Retrieved from: <http:// www.dexigner.com/news/20257> [Accessed 15th September 2010] Penfold, M. Graphic Design Now. Retrieved from: <http://www.computerarts.co.uk/in _ depth/ features/graphic _ design _ now> [Accessed 15th September 2010] Pick Me Up Exhibition, Somerset House. LondonSessions. (April 2010) Chrissie Abbott at Pick Me Up exhibition. Retrieved from: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i _ iYee52VIE> [Accessed 14th September 2010]

Thompson, C. (2009) Clive Thompson on the Revolution in Micromanufacturing. Retrieved from: <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/people/ magazine/17-03/st _ thompson> [Accessed 25th September 2010] Trend Bible. (2009) News: What can we expect in 2010? Retrieved from: < http://www.trendbible.co.uk/blog/?p=808> [Accessed 10th Augist 2010] Vormittag,L. (2010) Interview on Handmade Design with Container Plus. [Interview - By Person]. Elder Street, London. Wilson, E. 11th November 2010

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Handmade Design  
Handmade Design  

My dissertation: Is handmade design being used just because it is a contemporary trend?

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