Page 1

1


2


THE ADVENT (INTRODUCTION)

5

SKIRTING

53

BRIEF

6-7

GRADING

54

REINTRODUCING A SENSE OF COMMUNITY

9

SCOURING

57

A STUDY OF MUMMERING

10-25

DYEING

58

WHO ARE MUMMERS?

10

CARDING

60

MUMMERING THROUGHOUT HISTORY

12-13

ROVING

61

MUMMERING IN LUDDENDEN FOOT

15

SPINNING

62

MUMMER COSTUMES

16-21

WEAVING

62

WEARABLE CONCEPT

22-25

FINISHING

64

A STUDY OF WOOL

26-71

HISTORY OF COSTUME

65

WHAT IS WOOL?

26

COSTUME MAKING PROCESS

66-67

WOOL IN CALDERDALE

26

A MAKERS POCKET

69

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A ‘CLOTHIER’

28

NEW PROCESS DRAWING

71

SHEEP BREEDS AND WOOL CHARACTERISTICS

30-47

PROPOSED SPACES AND FUNCTIONS

73-115

FINE

33

THE FLOCKS LAND

74

MEDIUM

36

WHERE THE FLOCK FLEE

74-77

CROSS

39

GRADING

79

LUSTRE

40

WOOL STORE

80

HILL

43

WHERE THE FLOCK WASH

83

MOUNTAIN

44

DYE EXCHANGE AND GROWTH

84-91

WELFARE OF SHEEP

48

DYE LAB

93

THE SHEARING PROCESS

51

THE MUMMERY MILL

94-95

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

52-69

FLOCK TO FLEECE

96

3


PERMANENT EXHIBITION- THE FORGOTTEN TALES OF CALDERDALE

98-102

PERFORMANCE BASED WORKSHOPS AND SCHOOLS IN THE AREA OF CALDERDALE

138-139

CURATED EXHIBITION- THE WARDROBE

104-111

LOCAL TEXTILE BUSINESSES

140-141

LIVE EXHIBITION- THE FLEEING FLOCK

112

PARKING/POTENTIAL DROP OFFS

142-145

REHEARSAL SPACE

113

ACCESSIBILITY

146-154

PERFORMANCE SPACES

114

APPROACHING THE BUILDING BY FOOT

155-160

SUGARELLY STOP

114

GENUS LOCI

162-163

CLOAKROOM

114

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

165-185

PROPOSED USERS

117-121

NATURAL LAND

165-166

FLOCK

117

WIND ANALYSIS

167

SHEPHERD AND HIS DOG

119

SUN PATH

169

THE SKILFUL SPINNER, WEAVER, MAKER, DYER AND THEIR APPRENTICES

119

EXTERIOR SHADOW STUDIES

170-171

COSTUME CURATOR

120

EXTERIOR SHADOW MOVEMENT

172-173

FOLK

120

INTERIOR SHADOWS SECTION B3

174-175

ENSEMBLE

121

GROUND FLOOR INTERIOR SHADOWS

176-177

SITE ANALYSIS

122-163

SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR SHADOWS

178-179

CONTEXT AND IMPORTANCE

122

SUN HEAT

180-181

CONTEXT MAP

123

FLOOD ANALYSIS

182-183

SITE HISTORY

PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT

129-133

184

LOCAL MILLS

BUILDING ANALYSIS

131

186-217

BUILDING HISTORY

APPROACHING FROM THE SOUTH

134-135

188-198

HISTORIC MAPS

SOUTH ELEVATION ANALYSIS

136-137

190-197

APPROACHING FROM NORTH

198-199

4


NORTH ELEVATION ANALYSIS

200-203

THE CINEROLEUM

340-342

EAST ELEVATION ANALYSIS

204-209

LOOM HYPERBOLIC

344-345

WEST ELEVATION ANALYSIS

210-217

VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM

346-349

INTERIOR AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

219-235

INSPIRATION AND DEVELOPING CONCEPTS

350-374

SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL

220-221

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

376-384

BASEMENT LEVEL

222-223

BIBLIOGRAPHY

385-387

GROUND FLOOR LEVEL

224-225

APPENDIX

388-391

FIRST FLOOR LEVEL

226-227

SECOND FLOOR ANALYSIS

228-229

MAIN STRUCTURE

230

ROOF STRUCTURE

231

FLOOR STRUCTURE

232-233

SUB-BASEMENT STRUCTURE

234-235

CASE STUDIES

237-323

FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE

238-261

GLEDHILL’S MILL

262-286

ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE

288-304

CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM

306-323

SUPPORTING CASE STUDY: PHILADELPHIA MUMMERS MUSEUM

324-331

PRECEDENT STUDIES

332-349

EPHEMERAL BOXES: 31 MINUTES MUNGO MILL

ORIGINAL SCALED PLANS, SECTIONS AND ELEVATIONS (SEE SEPARATE)

332-335 336-339

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PROJECT: THE MUMMERY; A CULTURAL RESURRECTION OF LUDDENDEN FOOTS HIDDEN HERITAGE. BUILDING: DENHOLME MILL, BURNLEY ROAD, LUDDENDEN FOOT, HALIFAX, HX2 6AR. FORMER USE: WOOLLEN MILL/ MANUFACTURERS. CURRENT USE: DORMANT. Luddenden Foot lies within the heart of Calderdale, West Yorkshire, which was also known as the centre of the woollen industry. Each of the wards within Calderdale including Luddenden Foot contributed to its high industrial status due to the vast number of woollen mills and grazing land in the area. This land has provided the area with various breeds of sheep, providing strong diversity in wool. Even before the industrial revolution and introduction of mills, local wool was being spun by hand throughout most households.

governmental departments and served as a waste wool manufacturers. Finally closing in 1992, despite it its prime location, 3.7 miles to the creative alternative community of Hebden Bridge, it is semi-derelict. The importance of its former use and its location indicate the value of a new use proposal in celebration of Luddenden Foot’s heritage and history. Luddenden Foot had a strong local sense of folklore, which formed a diverse and creative culture amongst its community. This included many myths and tales that began to influence a range of traditions and rituals such as dance and performance. One of these traditions known as ‘Mummering’ is still maintained in events occurring at Easter and Christmas. Mummering is a form of masked or costumed performance exploring local narratives unique to each community. The earliest evidence of Mummers is from around the Medieval period (5th-15th century) and it has been a varied and evolved tradition,

The basic principles of costume, performance and entertainment still apply today but sadly with each Wool is one of the oldest fibres known to man, with generation their importance and popularity declines. sheep being around for 10,000 years. However, due The most important element to any Mummering to competition from cheap imported wool and the tradition is the elaborate costumes and what they development of artificial blends in fabric, many mills symbolise. This importance has spread throughout closed or have been demolished, and only a few still operate offering a lifeline for the manufacturing skills many areas of the world such as Philadelphia, where Mummering and the importance of costume is heavily and traditions of the woollen trade. celebrated. Every costume is unique, and symbolises something different, which is what makes the tradition The earliest records of Denholme Mill date from so interesting. This importance of costume design and 1845 when it was owned by famous blanket woollen manufacture along with performance will be makers and manufacturers, John Ratcliffe & Sons. reinstated within Denholme Mill. It has produced fine woollen cloths, fabrics for

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The proposed project ‘The Mummery’ will have three complementary focuses; sheep, costume and performance. The mill will reinstate its former use by using traditional processes of turning raw wool into woollen fabric. This fabric and other materials will be manipulated and created into bespoke costumes to be These spaces will be private but may be observed worn for different performances within and around the by public users to provide an educational element, enticing them back to use the facilities. Therefore, site. there will be opportunities for the public to engage It is important to understand the process that allows in drop-in activities such as natural dying, felting and weaving; where short courses to learn how the creation of costumes which will be displayed to use other facilities/machinery will be provided. through the staged process of manufacturing wool. Activities will be overseen by a master or mistresses Every stage will be carried out through designing of each area specialising in a specific manufacturing/ spaces that address the design requirements and narrative of the space, considering spatial needs such creating process. New users are able to book into The Mummery for a certain length of time to use the as light, ventilation and weight. facilities for specific projects e.g. making costumes for a performance or learning how to become a master/ Following the focus of sheep and costume, spaces include an outdoor dye garden to grow natural dyes, mistress in manufacturing wool. a shearing/catching pen, scouring and drying room, The proposal will house spaces for performance and dye lab, spinning, roving and weaving facilities and rehearsal, where the costumes are worn to enhance costume/textile workshops. the story behind the performance. The Mummery will welcome a diverse range of performers at different Performances are inspired by the rich Mummering history of the area, exploring different types of dance, levels from local schools/groups that have skills lyrical and dramatical performance. Both traditional in dance, acting, singing, puppetry and storytelling, Performances will be held all year round and will reach and contemporary performances will open up the potential for a greater audience by addressing those into the broader site to reintroduce the popularity of the tradition, with a rehearsal space providing effective familiar with the textile industry/heritage and a younger generation interested in contemporary arts. acoustic, lighting and spatial environments. Mummers would historically perform in different locations The Mummery will provide spaces to create innovative amongst towns, and so performance spaces will be and unique costumes using woollen fabrics produced “pop-up”, however here will be key spaces within the building that are suitable. and manufactured on site.

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There will be three main exhibitions within the building: “The Forgotten Tales of Calderdale”, a permanent exhibition displaying the work of John Billingsly’s Tales of Calderdale, and imagery of Calderdale’s woollen industry. It will also rehouse Archives of Cultural Tradition Miscellaneous Manuscripts exploring local history, folklore and dialect through “printed ephemera, hand-written accounts and published documents” (Sheffield University, 2019) “The Wardrobe” a changing, interactive exhibition displaying costumes created within The Mummery. “The Fleeing Flock” will see sheep belonging to The Mummery exhibited to convey their importance in the heritage of the woollen industry. These events will include the process of shearing; where visitors will be educated about the welfare, breeds and herding of sheep, with help of the Shepherd and his dog, and parades through the building and site. The main aspects that The Mummery will explore; sheep, costume and performance, will collate providing a series of spaces that educate, entertain and celebrate the heritage of the areas industry and culture.

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Fig 2. The new proposal will see different types of performances.

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REINTRODUCING A SENSE OF COMMUNITY IN THE AREA- FOLKLORE Luddenden Foot is one of 17 wards of Calderdale. It is well known for its strong folklore; which describes the character of a community. Folklore addresses local thoughts, beliefs and traditions that are known and followed locally, such as the tradition of Mummering. It gives a community an identity and allows a diversity in character amongst towns and villages which is what makes Luddenden Foot in particular so interesting (Billingsley, 2007). John Billingsley states that there is a “SHORTFALL IN LOCAL WORK OPPORTUNITIES, MOBILITY AND TURNOVER OF POPULATION, RESTRICTED AVAILABILITY OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING” (Billingsley, 2007) which

all have a negative effect on the community.

Fig 3. Reintroducing contemporary performance to the traditional village of Luddenden Foot.

The Mummery will aim to bring a new purpose to the area, reinstating the importance of folklore and bringing the community together.

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WHO ARE MUMMERS? The word ‘Mummer’ is thought to be linked to several ideas, some of which being translated from the German ‘Mumme’ meaning “mask” and from the Greek “mommo” relating to a frightening child’s mask, and words mute and mumble. Each of these derivatives can be applied to what we would today and historically consider in England as a Mummer. Traditionally a Mummer is an actor who takes part in a play referred to as a Mumming or Mummers play throughout different times of the year. These plays were thought to have derived from religious backgrounds with links to primitive ceremonies and rituals that over time changed and developed (Augustyn, et al., 2019). These changing stories were a result of bands of Mummers travelling town to town, where local folk tales and myths would influence performances. Mummering is a worldwide tradition each with their own rules and variations. Historically in England, Mummers would be masked and travel in groups performing silent plays. As time went on, performances would stage plays based on legends such as George and The Dragon. These plays have become seasonal and mainly occur around Easter (fig 4) and Christmas. See Appendix A1

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Fig 4. Pace Egging in Luddenden.

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Fig 5

15TH CENTURY

19TH CENTURY

Mummering was introduced to England.

The tradition remained popular until the 19th century, however after WW1, the tradition wore out.

16TH AND 17TH CENTURY Mummer plays developed into elaborate costumes, with props and masks.

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MUMMERING THROUGHOUT HISTORY Mummering can be tracked back to ancient Rome, Egypt and Greece. In these civilisations, Mummers were the primary form of entertainment during this era and even entertained during medieval times. Mummers performed a variety of skills including; acrobatics, singing, mimicry, dance and acting before the tradition developed into predominately travelling performance. During late medieval times, plays based on the bible were popular, with some performances opposing the bible- encouraging practices such as paganism which Luddenden Foot is rumoured to have practiced. (Medieval Chronicles, 2019) Nobles and monarchs would host mummering parties, Henry ||V was well known for hosting such events. Other than these indoor events, mummers would also perform in large open spaces such as fields and courtyards for communities, where they would travel from village to village. (Medieval Chronicles, 2019)

15


Fig 8

16


MUMMERING IN LUDDENDEN FOOT Mummering is unique tradition with each area having different variations of performances (due to this fact of folklore) and beliefs. Two of the most common Mummering traditions associated with Luddenden Foot are called Pace Egging and Spaw Sunday. Pace Egging is a tradition which takes place at Easter and is performed in most towns in the Valley on Good Friday. Decorated eggs are given out and eaten on this day whilst Mummers travel the village house to house (fig 8) singing and dancing in celebration. Spaw Sunday takes place on the first Sunday in May, where the springs of Luddenden Dean were visited as the water was thought to have “health giving minerals�- this water would be mixed with local liquorice. Many people would visit the springs where performances and rituals often took place (Billingsley, 2007). See Appendix A1

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MUMMER COSTUMES Traditionally, Mummers are always masked as it is believed that in order to fully immerse yourself in a character; you mustn’t reveal your own identity. These masks were elaborate and often resembled animals and beasts, which was thought to be related to pagan rituals involving ideas of sacrifice. Most Mummers today often just paint their faces black to create a disguise, this technique isn’t as exciting or as creative. Since Mummering dates back hundreds of years, the tradition has greatly evolved and so methods of creating costumes have changed. Not only this, but popularity and changing (or today more relevantly described as impoverished) communities have meant that the importance based upon costume in these types of performances has collapsed. This importance of costume in performance will be reinstated within The Mummery along with the importance of the woollen industry.

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Fig 9. English Mummer

COSTUMES OF DIFFERENT FOLKLORE A collection of imagery from Mummering traditions around the world; representing the diversity of costumes. (See appendix A2.1-A2.3)

19


Fig 10

20


FIG 10. BULGARIAN MUMMERING FESTIVAL: THE DAY OF MONSTERS (LEFT) FIG 11. SARDINIA CERDEÑA MUMMERING CARNIVAL

Fig 11

21


FIG 12. IRISH MUMMERS: STRAW FESTIVAL (LEFT) Fig 12

22

FIG 13. PHILADELPHIA MUMMERING PARADE


Fig 13

23


Fig 14-17. Wearable concept

WEARABLE CONCEPT Luddenden Foot has a rumoured history of paganism, with many myths and folk tales surrounding the area. Poets and writers such as Simon Armitage and John Billingsley have written about this activity- which, due to its idyllic setting, this underlying secret is not widely known. This concept piece was created to explore the principles of Mummering and the history of Luddenden Foot including its woollen industry and dark heritage. The piece resembles a costume such as what a Mummer would traditionally wear. The costume disguises the face, representing the lost identity of the former woollen industry. It is entirely constructed from wool and represents the tactile, hands on quality that making a costume requires; the neutral pallet emphasising this quality. Given the areas status for producing high quality wool, the piece adorns the part of the body where quality wool is obtained from a sheep. It slowly works from a deconstructive state to show the process involved in producing a garment. Hand stitched elements from a poem about Luddenden Foots rumoured paganism is hidden within the layers of fabric to show its dark side that most do not know.

24


Fig 14

Fig 15

Fig 12

25


Fig 16

26


Fig 17

27


WOOL IN CALDERDALE

WHAT IS WOOL? Wool is a natural fibre that is grown by many animals, most commonly by sheep. The fibres grow on a sheep’s body and fuse to form a staple- the length to which it grows is called a staple length. Wool has been used for thousands of years for three basic principles; warmth, food and shelter. It is completely sustainable and versatile given there are many different types of wool and many products which can be made.

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Denholme Mill sits within Calderdale, a rural area; with vast amounts of countryside, it provides perfect grazing land for sheep. This large population of sheep meant that there was plenty of wool available hence the reason why woollen manufacturing became a highly successful industry. The industry was centred around Calderdale, where the wool was sourced, spun and traded locally.

MUMMERING AND WOOL Modern-day clothiers and performers will repopularise the areas heritage. To do so, the proposal must acknowledge the woollen and Mummering history and how they will coordinate. It is important to understand and detail the requirements of any processes that are relevant for the proposal.


Fig 18. Sheep marching to Luddendenfoot.

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The clothier.

The clothiers wife.

The clothiers land. Fig 19

A DAY IN THE LIFE OF A ‘CLOTHIER’ A clothier historically describes someone who worked in the industry either making or selling cloth. A typical clothier would usually own a plot of farmland with animals, crops or both. The process of spinning wool would normally be carried out at home by wives and children or by mill workers employed at a larger scale. The main idea behind The Mummery is to allow anybody to become a clothier in their own sense, by creating their own unique woollen fabrics.

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The clothiers children.


Fig 20

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SHEEP BREEDS AND WOOL CHARACTERISTICS There are over 1000 distinct breeds of sheep across the world (Schoenian, 2015). Within the UK there are thought to be around 60 pure breeds which are split into 7 different categories depending on their wool characteristics. These characteristics differ from each sheep, as over time breeds have evolved to grow wool to suit the environment in which they live. These categories are as follows: -Fine -Medium -Cross -Lustre -Hill -Mountain -Naturally coloured. Each type of wool differs its staple length, strength, density and ability to be dyed etc. Given this variety of wool, different fleeces are more successful at producing different products. For example, a sheep native to mountain areas, grows denser, longer wool to cope with cooler climates and so this wool is best for woven carpets and thicker fabrics. Within West Yorkshire there are a range of sheep breeds. This diversity provides the market with a wide variety of wool types, many of which cant be produced across the world. Currently in the area the following breeds are most common, and the selection of breed will be considered in the design of The Mummery.

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14TH AND 15TH CENTURY The arrival of Flemish weavers increased the quality of woollen fabrics in Britain. In the late 14th and 15th century, England became a lead manufacturer and exporter of fine woollen cloth.

15TH CENTURY 3000 BC -1000 BC

By the end of the 15th century, England was predominantly a made up of sheep farmers and woollen

Between 3000 and 1000 BC, sheep and wool was distributed around Europe in attempt to improve breeds.

manufacturers.

12TH CENTURY 55 BC By Roman invasion in 55 BC Britain was well developed in the production of woollen cloth.

By the 12th century, wool became England’s greatest industry.

1700’S Until the mid-1700’s, woollen manufacturing was mostly done on a small scale, being carried out by families in their own homes.

1750-1850

10000 BC As far back as stone age, 10000 years ago sheep were used for three basic principles; food clothing and shelter.

8TH CENTURY The 8th century saw that clothiers began to export their products around the world making Britain highly successful in the industry.

The industrial revolution introduced steam and water power to many areas in England, therefore allowing the industry to grow and wool began to be produced in larger mills and factories.

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34


The following sheep breeds are most commonly found in the area and are well suited to the climate, land type and location. (British Wool Marketing Board, 2010)

FINE WOOL Fibres from fine wool sheep do not usually dye well due to short brittle staple lengths, this wool is used for finer fabrics and yarns. FIG 22. BRITISH ROUGE- originally kept for producing Camembert cheese in France, introduced to the UK in 1980’s. It is mainly used for fine clothing. Characteristics- soft, white/creamy colour, 1.5-2kg fleece, staple length is 4-7cm, 30-32-micron range, used in knitwear and cloth. FIG 23. SUFFOLK-established in 1810 as a pure breed. Characteristics- soft, white colour, 2.5-3kg fleece, staple length is 5-10cm, 31-34-micron range.

35


Fig 22

36


Fig 23

37


MEDIUM WOOL The majority of this wool dyes well due to the medium density and versatility of the fibre. FIG 24. HALF-BREAD SCOTCH-established in the 18th century, mainly used in knitwear and thicker cloths, sometimes carpets. Characteristics- medium, large sheep, white/ creamy colour, 3-4kg fleece, staple length is 8-15 cm 32.5-35-micron range.

38


Fig 24

39


Fig 25

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CROSS Cross breeds are a result of current farming methods, 25% of wool used in carpets comes from a cross breed of some type. FIG 25. MULE- North of England-developed in northern moors and is a cross between Blue-faced Leicester Ram and Swaledale ewe. It is mainly used for carpets. Characteristics- soft/medium, white/creamy colour, 2.75-3.75kg fleece, staple length is 10-20cm, 30-32-micron range. MASHAM- cross between Teeswater or Wensleydale Ram and a northern hill ewe such as a Swaledale. Characteristics- soft/demi-lustre, white/creamy colour, 3-4.5kg fleece, staple length is 12-25cm, 33.5-35-micron range.

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LUSTRE A long stapled wool which takes well to being dyed. Their wool is usually, soft with a curled or crimped appearance. FIG 26. BLUE-FACED LEICESTER- evolved in the UK in 18th century and bred for the specific purpose of breeding high quality cross-bred ewes. It is a tall breed which produces one of the most lustrous wool in Britain. Characteristics- lustrous and silky, white/creamy colour, 1-2kg fleece, staple length is 8-15cm, 26-26.5-micron range.

42


Fig 26

43


Fig 27

44


HILL Wool from breeds higher up are popular for producing yarns from soft to coarse. FIG 27. DERBYSHIRE GRITSTONE- originated in the Peak District around 1770. It is mostly used for carpets. Characteristics- soft/medium, white, 2-3kg fleece, staple length is 8-10cm, 31-33-micron range.

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MOUNTAIN These sheep possess a thicker woollen fleece due to being in colder climates. Its fleece is hard wearing, resilient and lower qualities are often used for insulation. FIG 28. DALESBRED- developed in 1929 from the Swaledale and Blackface. Its wool is used for carpets mainly. Characteristics- medium/harsh, white, 3-4.5kg fleece, staple length is 13-20cm, 35+-micron range.

46


Fig 28

47


FIG 29. SWALEDALE- a rugged, resilient white wool with a long, thick woolly tail. Characteristics- medium/harsh, white, 1.5-2.5kg fleece, staple length is 10-20cm, 35+micron range.

48


Fig 29

49


WELFARE OF SHEEP The process of shearing a sheep must be carried out in a way that inflicts minimal amount of stress on the sheep. Therefore, a trained professional must carry the process out as they are able to complete the task with maximum efficiency. This efficiency means that the wool removed from the sheep (fleece) is removed in few to singular parts and with minor/no abrasions. Requirements of keeping sheep: -6-10 sheep per acre/grassland. -Frequent management of the land (worming measurements and soil quality checks carried out twice monthly). -Grazing: during the winter, hay, drier silage (fermented stored grass and roots) and rooted plants should be supplemented alongside the grass which they graze on. During the summer, it is sufficient for the sheep to just graze on grass however their weight should be monitored. -Clean water should be supplied at all times. -A shepherd must tend to the sheep. -Dry, hygienic shelter needs to be provided for the sheep during hot summer temperatures and cold winters. -Natural lighting throughout the day and interior natural lighting in shearing shed etc. See appendix A3

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Fig 30

51


Fig 31. Shearing

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SHEARING PROCESS The shearing process follows a number of steps. Sheep must be sheared in early spring, before lambing season to ensure the sheep are not distressed in the warmer climate. Electric shears are most commonly used which consist of the hand-piece, comb and cutters. Sheep must be herded into a holding pen, individually or in groups determined by size, breed or age. They must be dry to prevent electrocution, and prevent the wool from rotting once it is sheared and stored. Sheep must not be fed for 24 hours prior to shearing to prevent their discomfort and minimise waste. Sheep are sheared from the following areas: 1-Stomach 2-Inside hind legs and crotch 3-Left hind leg and tail 4-Chest neck and chin 5-Left shoulder 6-Back and right side 7-Right hind leg and hind-quarter.

Fig 32

Cuts should be made in singular motions and second cuts should be avoided. Pulling the skin to make it tight will make shearing easier, however every sheep is different (size) and so each sheep will be different to shear. (wikiHow, 2019)

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Fig 33. Process drawing.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS Wool travels through a series of processes before it is turned into a fabric. Historically, most were carried out by hand on small scale equipment/machinery. Now, the majority of woollen manufacturers use mass producing machines to optimise production and ensure quality and consistency. There are benefits to both hand worked and machine worked wool, and so The Mummery will follow both aspects to provide a greater physical and emotional experience. This following section looks into each stage of the process in turning raw wool into woollen fabric.

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Fig 34

SKIRTING Skirting is the process of removing large areas of dirt and grease from areas such as legs, stomach and rear end. For this process, a skirting table is needed which is to be as big as a fleece laid out flat. These dirty edges are removed by shaking and clipping away and can be used as compost as they are not needed. (The Spinning Loft, 2016)

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Fig 35 Fig 36. Staple length of a fleece (right)

GRADING The different areas of the fleece are of different characteristics and quality depending on breed. For example, fine and medium wool tends to come from the upper rear part of the sheep such as its back and rear sides (Rahman, 2018). A longer staple length of wool generally means a higher quality ,and so wool from the underbelly and lower back will tend to have a shorter staple length. These different qualities of wool are graded into separate bins as different products require different qualities.

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57


Fig 37. Scouring machine

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SCOURING AND DRYING After grading, it must be cleaned to remove dirt and grease. Between 30 and 70 percent of the weight of the fleece equates to oils and dirt. An alkaline solution of soap and water is used to wash the wool which is stirred either by hand (historically) or in a scouring machine where raked rollers remove the impurities. A scouring machine tends to be used on a larger scale, alternatively, a large basin and paddle may be used. Once clean, the wool must be thoroughly dried through either hanging or pushed through rollers which squeeze excess water out.

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Fig 38. Common dye plant types. Fig 39-43. Natural dyeing (right).

DYEING Although generally dyed at this point, wool can be dyed at any point. Wool should be soaked in water and vinegar before-hand in order to soak up the pigment. Artificial dyes such as stains and colourings can be used however, natural dyes are more sustainable and less hazardous. Dye plants should be simmered for anything up to 2 hours depending on how concentrated the dye is to become- the wool can then be transferred to the dye to soak it up. The wool is to be left to dry and further washed/dyed if necessary. See appendix A4 for science of dying.

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CARDING The wool must be carded in order to align the woollen fibres in the same direction and remove knots, ensuring it is smooth and “fluffy”; this is referred to as a web. Again, this can be done by hand or on a larger scale using a carding machine, By hand, a carding brush can be used where the wool is brushed in one direction continuously, or in a machine where drums covered with ‘card cloths’ comb through the wool.

ROVING The carded wool is divided into thin strips of wool which is all running in one direction. The fibres are often twisted slightly and rolled together to keep them tight.

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Fig 44. Carding machine


Fig 45. Wool roving

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SPINNING

WEAVING

The process of spinning roved wool stretches and further twists the fibres of wool together to form a strong yarn. On a larger scale this process is carried out with a spinning machine where the wool is mechanically spun onto bobbins. Before the Industrial Revolution and introduction of spinning machines, wool would be spun manually on a spinning wheel.

A warp is a set of threads that vertically run in a constant state of tension through a loom. Weaving is the process of interlocking two strands of yarn running perpendicular to one another (the warp and weft). A loom interlocks the warp and weft where the weft is a series of woollen yarns in a particular order. This order determines the pattern/form of the weave once the loom begins to interlock the two together.

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Fig 46. Spun yarn ready to weave.

65


FINISHING After the yarn is woven into fabric, it may go through a series of different finishes depending on the desired outcome. It may be further washed to remove impurities, colours and stains or different treatments applied to adjust the texture, size and characteristics of the fabric. Finishing methods: -Milling- also known as felting where it used to alter the body, elasticity and appearance of the surface. Moisture, heat and pressure are needed. -Scouring- removing excess dye and dirt. -Drying- drying naturally and machine drying can achieve different finishes. -Cropping- this process requires removing stray surface fibres and uneven edges. Within The Mummery, these processes will be carried out if desired on a smaller scale, as at a bigger scale, they require large, heavy machinery which may not fit well within the building.

66

Fig 47 Drying machine.


5TH CENTURY: ANCIENT GREEKS WERE WEARING COSTUMES IN TRAGEDIES.

16TH CENTURY: MUMMERING WAS INTRODUCED TO ENGLAND, WHERE COSTUMES REPRESENTED ANIMALS AND LEGENDS.

1770-1870: STAGED PERFORMANCES BECAME POPULAR, HOWEVER ONLY THE RICH COULD AFFORD ELABORATE COSTUMES.

19TH CENTURY: COSTUME DESIGN BECAME A RECOGNISED CONCEPT.

Fig 48. Brief history of costume design (Przybylek, 2019).

67


FINAL DESIGN IDEAS, CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS ARE CHOSEN.

MEETING: DESIGNERS AND PERFORMERS COORDINATE IDEAS.

CONCEPT ANALYSIS: LOOKING AT CHARACTERS, BRIEFS, SCRIPT AND PERFORMERS/WRITERS IDEAS. SKETCHES, MATERIALS AND SAMPLES ARE DEMONSTRATED TO CREATE A DESIGN BRIEF.

Fig 49

AFTER THE FABRIC: BASIC PROCESS OF COSTUME MAKING Each costume is unique and requires different methods of construction, however basic processes must be carried out. Not only is the manufacture important, but so is developing concepts, designs and the coordination between maker and performer.

68


CONSTRUCTION: PATTERNS AND OTHER METHODS ARE USED TO MAKE COSTUMES.

MEASURE: PERFORMERS ARE MEASURED.

PATTERNS/TEMPLATES ARE CREATED BASED ON MEASUREMENTS.

69


Fig 50. Tracing with pattern pieces.

70


“A MAKERS POCKET”

Fig 51

Basic tools and equipment that would be needed to construct costumes.

71


Researching into the main areas and processes informing the project has demonstrated the type of spaces that will be needed. The practical process suggest the design of the spaces in terms of spatial awareness and requirements; with historical and emotive research suggesting the atmospheric consideration. Together, they have provided an understanding of the nature of The Mummery.

72


Fig 52. Process visual exploring two functions within The Mummery; costume making and wool manufacture.

73


Fig 53

74


PROPOSED SPACES AND FUNCTIONS The Mummery will aim to educate and entertain the folk who are visitors from neighbouring villages and afar, whilst enhancing the skills of performers and creative textile enthusiasts. Local performance groups and surrounding colleges/entrepreneurs will utilize the building and so the spaces need to be considered in terms of function, spatial requirements and environments.

75


THE FLOCKS LAND Before approaching the building, the first part of contact with the site is the natural land. Therefore, the sheep are kept within close proximity. Having wool readily available on site reduces the need for frequent transportation and so increases sustainability. Not only this, but it increases the farming population in Luddenden Foot, encouraging a greater sense of how populated the land once was with sheep. -1 acre of land is sufficient for 10 sheep therefore suitable land for ample sheep will be required. A variety of breeds that are native to the area will be kept : Suffolk, Half-bred Scotch, Mule, Blue-faced Leicester, Dalesbred and Swaledale (see page 33) for characteristics). These sheep may be kept together as it encourages breeding to produce new cross breeds with different wool characteristics which will provide The Mummery with unique woollen fabrics.

HOLDING, FILLING, CATCHING PENS AND SHEARING SHED This is where the sheep are sheared. This process is to become an important performance in itself, celebrating the heritage of the Yorkshire town. Therefore visitors should be able to view the space. See page 48 and Appendix A3.

76


Fig 54. Ramp into shed (top). Fig 55. Inside shearing pen.

77


Fig 56. Removable flooring Fig 57. Mesh flooring

REQUIREMENTS AND SAFETY -Floor grating must be 40mm x 30mm battens with 15mm gaps. -Natural, indirect light. -Pastel colours to be used on interior for a calming effect. (Dpi.nsw.gov.au, 2018) -Electric source for shears, oilcan, screwdriver and comb brush must be easily accessible. -x1 Shearing board 850 mm raised off the floor and 1830mm wide. (Dpi.nsw.gov.au, 2018) -2.7 full wool adult sheep per square metre in holding pen (max). HOLDING PEN: e.g. L1000mm x W1000mm will hold 2 sheep FILLING PEN: double or equal to number of holding pen. e.g. 1000mm x 1000mm will hold 4 sheep. -1200mm gate between filling and catching pen. CATCHING PEN: holds 2 sheep. e.g. L1000mm x W1000mm.

78


Fig 58. Entrance to shed with grated floor. -Ramp into the holding pen must have a maximum gradient of 1 in 3, be between 2.4m and 3m and is to be made of wood, steel or concrete. It must not have gaps in which the sheep can see through and be screened so they cannot see out. (Ramp must be at a right angle to entry) -Inside the catching pen, the floor must be constructed of removable grating and raised at around 1.2m to allow sheep droppings to pass through. The grating should be perpendicular to the movement of sheep from the catching pen to the holding pen to ensure what they see through the grating is minimal.

79


Fig 59

80


Fig 60

GRADING Here the wool is graded. Stained/extremely low quality is put aside to be used as compost. -Skirting table at 1500mm x 2750mm, 77kg (slats are 50mm-70mm apart). -Wool bins (see store 1 on page 80) -Natural light The space is to be used by 2 at a time.

81


WOOL STORE Store 1: Graded (raw) wool storage -Cedar/stainless steel (natural oils in the wood kill small larvae that may rot wool). L4500mm x H2000mm x W500mm (divided into 3 grades). -Must be cool and dry with good ventilation. -Natural/low light. These spaces will be topped up as needed, as the sheep are sheared around the same time, external storage will hold extra raw wool. Wool should be supplied all year round, with local wool being transported in if needed. Store 2: Wool is washed as it is needed to minimise waste, although 30kg of wool washed wool should be stored for sampling and demonstrations/public workshops. A space L2000mm x W500mm x H1000mm will be sufficient. -Natural, extremely low light.

82

Fig 61 Grading wool.


Fig 62

83


Fig 63. Wool bins.

84


x4

Fig 64

WHERE THE FLOCK WASH Rainwater will be used and filtered to wash and dye the wool. Scouring Requirements: -2 round tin wash basins Diameter 800mm x Depth 1000mm. -4 paddles L1500mm. x2

-Storage for solutions, paddles and pots W1000mm x H1800mm x D350mm. -Space to hang washed wool to dry- must be in natural sunlight to dry quickly (south/south-west sunlight). W5000mm x L5000mm x H2200

85


DYE EXCHANGE AND GROWTH Within the immediate site, certain fruits and plants will be grown to dye wool. This will allow users to understand the process of natural dyeing and allow the dyes to be free of cost as ideally, users and visitors will tend to the garden. Using the natural land will allow a relationship between indoor and outdoor. Due to the land type, the Mummery will only grow certain crops that grow well in the specific site characteristics. Basic dye fruit/vegetables include: -Strawberries require moist soil and plenty of sunlight. They yield a deep red dye. -Spinach grows quickly in the sun or shade, and requires well drained, loose soil. It produces a green or black dye. -Carrots yield a yellow/orange dye and require cool, wet soil and intermittent sunlight. -Beetroot grows well in well drained soil and cool climates, and so indirect sunlight is optimal. It yields a red/purple dye. -Savoy cabbage requires at least 6 hours of sun and Fig 65 moist soil. It produces a blue or green dye.

86


Fig 66

87


1400mm

700mm

x10

x1

Fig 67. Tool shed equipment. Dye plants will be grown outdoors and so will require an open space that receives at least around 5 hours of sunlight daily. With some land type restrictions, welldesigned planters will be used. This allows a greater control of planting conditions and the ability to grow a larger, wider variety of dye crops. As dying with natural ingredients is unreliable (hard to produce the same colour each time), artificial dyes will be used along side natural dyeing to produce woollen fabrics with stronger colour concentration. The colour palette is also limited with only certain crops being able to be grown on site and so some local farm shops will donate waste fruits and vegetables to The Mummery. This ensures the sustainability of the site and communicates a greater connection with other local businesses.

88

x8 x3 x5

Tool Shed L3000mm x W2400mm x H2400mm. For sufficient dye material: 2500 square metres of natural land required to the south/southwest of building (fruit and veg). 200 square metres of planters for dye plants.

1100mm

x3


Fig 68

89


Fig. 69

90


Fig. 70

Fig. 69 Woad grows up to 900mm and blooms with yellow flowers before developing black/blue fruits, This crop requires neutral soil and part-full sun whose leaves yield a deep blue dye. (Raven, 2019) Fig. 70 Black-eyed Susan is a yellow flowered plant that requires south/ west facing sun and moist soil. It can grow up to 500mm tall and spread just 100mm. It yields a dark green colour. (RHS, 2019)

91


Fig. 71

Fig 71. Alkanna tinctorial grow up to 200mm and yields a red/pink dye. It requires well drained soil and little to no sunlight. (Taush, 2019) Fig. 72. Shrub growing around 60mm tall, its wood yields a brown or yellow dye. It require strong sunlight and moist soil.

92


Fig. 72

93


Fig 73

94


500mm

Fig 74. Process of dyeing.

500mm

Dyeing is an extremely creative and experimental process and should be an activity that can viewed at all times.

DYE LAB

-Cabinet for dyes and natural dye products L1000 x W750 x H750 x D200, 25kg.

Crops are picked from the garden and some are dried out and stored in the dye cabinet for later use, Within -x6 steel dye pots H500mm x D500mm. the dye lab, a palette of colours will be constantly developed by the master dyer so that a wider range of -2 heat sources L650mm x W600mm, 58kg. costumes can be made. -Steel table to prepare dye products and colour test L2000mm x W800mm x H1100mm. There should always be a range of dye material stored to dye 100kg wool to ensure demonstrations/ workshops can occur. This dyeing process is private -Natural, low light and good ventilation required. and only accessible by the master dyer and users of the -Water source . Mummery; however, it is overseen by the public.

-Disposable gloves, lab jackets/aprons required (5), and safety glasses (5). -Dyeing equipment; pipettes, mixing paddles, dye containers, wooden pegs, colour match sheets. -Storage for above L1200mm x W1000mm. -Scales See appendix B.

95


800mm

80mm 1200mm

45mm

26mm

THE MUMMERY MILL These parts of the process require heavy machinery and are to only be operated under a master/ mistresses eye. They will oversee the process and on occasion hold demonstrations to engage visitors. The Mummery Mill refers to a series of spaces accommodating 4 manufacturing processes. These spaces are all private however should be visible to the public as the movement and mechanical aspect that takes place within them is engaging and exciting. CARDING -1 machine: L1910mm x W 850mm x H1440 mm, 640kg (Saviotechnologies.com, 2018).

1440mm

-Maximum of 2 operating machine at a time, with maximum of 3 people in space. ROVING - 1 machine: L2035mm x W1400mm x H1800mm, 1750kg (12 spindles) (based on Gledhills Mill visit). -Up to 2 people operating machine.

96

Fig 75 Carding Machine Not to scale

1910mm


SPINNING -1 machine L3500mm xW1500mm x H2270mm, 3000kg (20 spindles) (www.alibaba.com, 2018). -Up to 4 people can use this space. -Bobbin bins W800mm x L800mm x H1200mm. WEAVING 500mm

-1 machine L2000mm x W1800m xH1500mm (based on Gledhills Mill visit). Although 1 mechanical loom will be fixed in the space, there will be an area to hold workshops on teaching how to weave, and using hand looms.

250mm Fig 76 Hand Weaving Not to scale

-Up to 8 people can use this space. 3500mm

-3 worktables L1500mm x W1000mm x H720mm, 13kg. -Storage containing weave patterns for reference. -Natural light over worktable. These spaces are high risk areas and are extremely noisy (especially carding and roving). Therefore the materiality of them should be considered to reduce the effect of noise on the exterior spaces. Although sound is an important part of engaging senses, it may effect other spaces such as rehearsal, performance, exhibition and distress sheep. 2270mm

-Wool bins to store wool should be provided, and on wheels to make moving them amongst areas easy. W800mm x L800mm x H1200mm (see fig on page). -An energy source will provide electricity to work the machines.

Fig 77 Spinning Machine Not to scale

-Due to the weight of these machines, structural support/ strengthening of existing structure may be needed.

97


FLOCK TO FLEECE Here the finished fabrics are created into costumes. The fabric may be woven, knitted, felted, stitched or constructed with other materials. Designers will work with clients/manufacturers to allow more adventurous outcomes. Dyed, woven fabrics and other materials are stored for easy access (see page 271). -Working surface L3000mm x W1500mm x H1100mm (standing). -Electricity source for sewing machines. -Storage L3500mm x H2000mm x W600mm. EQUIPMENT -3 heavy duty sewing machines L450mm x W250mm x H350mm. (Surface space L1000mm x W500mm x H650mm). -6 adjustable dressmakers mannequins. -Cutting mats x2 at A0. -Tailors equipment (see page 69) and storage H1400mm x L1000mm x D800mm.

MAKING OF A MASK Elaborate, structural masks will require other materials such as wire mesh, framework and papier mache. Therefore, a small workshop area at L3200mm x W3000mm will be needed, with access to tools such as pliers, hand drills, cutters, adhesives and a stainless steel surface at L1500mm x W1200mm. Specific materials will be ordered into the building for this area as storage is limited.

98

Fig 78


A MEETING WITH A MUMMER The makers will communicate with the manufacturers about their fabric requirements. A small briefing/ consultation space will be designed in order to discuss ideas. This space may also be used for performers and designers to communicate design concepts. Requirements: -Meeting table with 4 chairs. -Cabinet/chest containing material samples (including finishes, dyes and past costume imagery) -Writing/sketching material. This space needs to quiet and simply designed to allow meetings to be focused without distraction. -Natural lighting or low indirect lighting for a relaxed environment. -This space should be placed off course of the natural circulation of public users so that it is not easily stumbled upon, it should be completely private and not distract from the flow around the building.

99


A selection of some work which will be exhibited are:

PERMANENT EXHIBITION- THE FORGOTTEN TALES OF CALDERDALE The building will exhibit tales, stories and imagery of the area’s heritage through: -The work of John Billingsley and rehousing -The Archives of Cultural Tradition Miscellaneous Manuscripts.

-John Billingsley transcripts taken from Folk Tales of Calderdale and Aspects of Calderdale: Discovering Local History through a series of installations. - Photographs and leaflet of De Cannenburgher Boerendansers, Dutch folkdance group. Spring 1991. Susan Graves donor donated 2 May 1991. - Information on Giants and folklore. Photocopied articles and book chapters. University of Sheffield and Ian Russell donors, unknown date. - Programme, photograph and handwritten letter relating to “The Hoping Stone” mummers play, 1976. Unknown donor, unknown date. - Poster advertising a mummery event in Sheffield, 13 June 1826. Photocopied, 3 copies. Unknown donor, unknown date. -Sheets on folklore, festivals and language. Handwritten and typed. Also newspaper cuttings relating to Christmas, 1980s. Mr J Atkins donor, donated 12 July 1993.

John Billingsley is an author who specialises in folklore, tales and local history, He has written many books on such topics about Calderdale. A few of his famous books are: West Yorkshire Folk Tales, Folk Tales of Calderdale and Aspects of Calderdale: Discovering Local History. His books are commonly unknown of by most; especially those of a younger generation and those outside of the area. Therefore, This exhibition will require a dark space not only for in exhibiting his work, it will generate a wider audience. the preservation of work but also to create a dark and mysterious atmosphere to convey the dark stories Following this, a current archive of material exploring being told. Backlit light and spotlights will aid in folklore, dialect and cultural traditions held in the creating a interesting atmosphere. University of Sheffield will be rehoused here. A select amount of work will be exhibited including handwritten The following text and imagery are from the above publications on folklore, illustrations and imagery of sources and are a select example of what will be characters and folk-dance groups. displayed.

100


Fig 79

101


Fig 81

102


Fig 83

103


Fig 85

104


105


CURATED EXHIBITION- THE WARDROBE The curated exhibition rotates costumes as new ones are made and worn in performances. New exhibits will keep visitors interested and allow them to interact differently with the building every time. There will be a section within this exhibition that displays costume headpieces as it is these that are of a great significance in the tradition. They will be hanging higher than all of the other exhibits to show their importance and members of the public will be able to step under the headpieces to appear as if they are wearing the costume; allowing a greater sense of interaction. (see fig 94)

106

The following costumes represent the types that will be displayed in exhibition. The curated exhibition will be modelled on the one that exists in Philadelphia (see pages 324-331).


Fig 87

107


Fig 88

108


Fig 89

109


Fig 90

110


Fig 91

111


1000mm

440mm

450mm Each costume is of a different nature, weight and size and so will require specific spatial needs. The exhibitions will be conceptually considered in the Fig 92.1 Seating dimensions NTS design however there are some requirements needed: -Steal beams across ceiling to suspend items with adjustable clips (costumes that are hanging should be at a range of heights to allow different people to “wear them�). (A beam 5370mm long will hold at least 3 costumes*) -6 plinths minimum of H1000mm x W500mm x L500mm to hold headpieces/other items. -Artificial lighting (spotlights or backlit) to highlight costumes. -At least a 1500mm wide walkway between any two points. -Pause spaces throughout be small enough for 1-2 people. A seat for 2 people would measure H450mm x W440mm x L1000mm. -12-18 degrees, well ventilated, dry space. *Based on costumes that are 1450mm tall (average height) and 1790mm maximum width.

112

Fig 92. Average dimensions for planning space needed to display costumes.NTS


Fig 94. Concept for exhibition.

Fig 93. Concept

113


LIVE EXHIBITION- THE FLEEING FLOCK Sheep are one of the main aspects of the proposal and so will have a greater involvement within the building. Since without the flock, we would not have wool, The Mummery will celebrate the nature of the flock through a live exhibition. This exhibition will involve the flock being paraded building itself in honour of their contribution to the industry. (See page 76 for design requirements for sheep.)

114

Fig 95


REHEARSAL SPACE There will be a small rehearsal space which will hold up to 15 people. Space around L/W 10,000mm x H3000mm. It will be designed to rehearse dance, vocal and instrumental performances through the use of materiality, acoustic detailing and spatial planning. The design of the space will be simple so that it can be multi-functional and is intended to only be used as a private space and so seating/viewing platforms are not needed. Although private, the audience will watch from the exterior rather than being on the inside. This way the space remains private but also acts as “viewing box� and an installation within the space in which becomes active (see pages 332-335).

115


Fig 96

PERFORMANCE SPACES Within The Mummery and site, there will be a several different spaces in which performances will take place. As Mummers would traditionally never perform in a set space, performances will take place in “pop-up� spaces. There will be certain open plan elements within the building that will cater for some performances such as those with smaller casts and performances that require smaller spaces, with acoustic and lighting detailing. Many of the performances will take place outdoors within the site and at peak times such as Easter and Christmas when Mummering is most popular, performances will stretch out into the village and other areas of Luddenden.

116

SUGARELLY STOP The performers, folk and makers are able to come to this small space to keep hydrated and take a pause from the busy working environment. Amongst refreshments, liquorice will be sold in different forms along with Sugarelly which is a traditional mid 20th century local drink made from liquorice (see page 15). L8000mm x W4000mm.

CLOAKROOM Visitors and workers can leave their coats here whist they stay in The Mummery. L3000mm x W650mm x H1600mm (35 coats max).


Fig 97

117


Fig 98

118


FLOCK The sheep are the foundation of The Mummery, they provide the building with wool, allowing elaborate costumes to be created.

119


Fig 99

120


SHEEPDOG

Fig 100

SHEPHERD AND HIS DOG SHEPHERD

It is the shepherd that is responsible for allowing the sheep to grow high quality, healthy wool. He will tend to the sheep all year round and parade them through the site at certain points in the year. The shepherd is a professional shearer and will only shear the sheep.

THE SKILFUL SPINNER, WEAVER, MAKER, DYER AND THEIR APPRENTICES

FLOCK

These are the creators of woollen fabrics and costumes, having worked in the local industry. They will oversee the process of wool to fabric, developing new blends. New users will be trained by them to ensure the fabrics produced are of high quality and are carried out in a safe manor.

121


COSTUME CURATOR The curator will be in charge of displaying costumes relating to the most recent events of the building. The exhibitions are one of the most important aspects, given it is the main element in which the public will interact with. Therefore, the Curator must make the exhibiting spaces exciting, spatial and have an element of interaction.

THE FOLK ‘The Folk’ are the visitors. They are free to wander the space, viewing and learning about the processes involved in manufacturing raw wool and producing costumes. They are able overlook private spaces such as the spinning and weaving of yarn but may be able to take part in activities such as creating samples of dyed wool through demonstrations held by the Dye Master. They can interact by either becoming an apprentice to one of the masters or taking part in activities. Performances will be held to provide entertainment for the local community, forming events where visitors will support the local heritage and amateur performers.

122


ENSEMBLE

Fig 101

The performers will each hold unique skills across different areas of performance; some being in dance, acting, singing, puppetry and storytelling. Different local groups (see page 139) can use the facilities. They are able to wear bespoke costumes for performances; working closely with the costume makers to ensure they are specific to each character/story.

123


ENG

CONTEXT The building sits within the upper Calder Valley. It has immediate links to the Rochdale Canal and River Calder, which was used to connect with other areas for the trading of wool. Its prime location has great potential in establishing a relationship with a creative community and reaping the benefits of the land.

124

SITE IMPORTANCE The site plays as much importance as the building itself as it allows many of the processes within the proposal to be carried out. The proposed project intends to reach out into the wider site in terms of exhibition and performance and so the way in which people move around and approach the site is just as important as interior circulation.

UK


LUDDENDEN FOOT

GLAND

CALDERDALE

Fig 102. Context

125


Fig 103

127

Fig 104

127


Fig 105

128


Fig 106

129


Fig 107

130


01

02

Fig 108

01 DENHOLME MILL 02 PIECE HALL

SITE HISTORY Denholme Mill dates back to around 1845 (earliest records) however the history of Luddenden Foot and its woollen industry shows it may date back somewhat earlier. Calderdale is home to over 300 mills all in the textile industry. In the 1700’s, worsted production was introduced to Calderdale where woollen cloth was sold on local markets and traded further afield to Portugal, Spain, and the Mediterranean (Calderdalenextchapter. co.uk, 2018). Due to the increase of success in the textile industry, Piece Hall in Halifax opened in 1779 allowing handloom weavers to sell their woollen cloth to traders. (Yorkshire.com, 2018) The rural village of Luddenden was first recorded in 1284 and was given the name ‘Luddingdene’ thought to have meant “Valley of the stream called the loud one”, Where the stream meats the River Calder became known as Luddenden Foot. During the early 18th century, most families made a living through either farming sheep or spinning its wool. From the mid18th century, water powered mills replaced domestic weaving and spinning. (Young, 2018)

131


Fig 109, Piece Hall

132


01 05

04

03 02

Fig 110

LOCAL MILLS IN LUDDENDEN FOOT 01 DENHOLME MILL (WOOLLEN) 02 LUDDENDEN FOOT MILLS (WOOLLEN) 03 DELPH MILLS (WOOLLEN) 04 HAND CARR MILL 05 LITTLE MILL HOUSE 06 HOLME ROYD MILLS (WORSTED) 07 FAIRLEA MILLS (C0TTON) 08 COOPER HOUSE MILLS (WOOLLEN)

06

07

08

133


Fig 111, Piece Hall

134


Fig 112, Piece Hall.

135


BUILDING HISTORY Due to its semi-rural location and dormant state, the building has a limited record of data. However it indicates strong ideas of its history through its architecture and scars; which is what makes it so intriguing. A new proposal will encourage the presence and popularity of the building. Over the years it has produced a variety of woollen products and manufactured for different areas and businesses within the industry (see appendix C1). Wool was brought along the canal from Lancashire via boat where it was hoisted up into one of the loading bays. The structure of the sub basement and basement levels of the mill (see page 235) indicate they were used for storage and outsourcing manufactured wool. The other 3 levels are suitable for large machinery, with the roof structure allowing for the height of them (see page 231). Around 1950, part of the mill (on east elevation) burnt down, leaving evidence of scars on the site. Due to a decline in the industry, the mill became dormant, having since only a camping shop installed (now removed). Little to no modifications have been made to the mill; preserving its character. This character is evident in its materiality and note-able features such as the loading bays.

136


Fig 113. Historic Process

137


Fig. 114, 1980 Fig. 115, 1900 Fig. 116, 1920 Fig. 117, 1960

HISTORIC MAPS There has been little change to the site in the past 100-120 years. Most residential housing is still standing with little introduction of new housing. Most mills have either been demolished or are derelict which is indicated in the maps.

138


LUDDENDEN FOOT MILLS (DEMOLISHED)

LUDDENDEN FOOT STATION (DEMOLISHED 1962)

BOY MILLS (NOW RENOVATED)

DENHOLME MILL (DISUSED)

MILNER ROYD MILLS (DISUSED) 139


01 THE MUMMERY 02 THE DANCE MILL 03 WHITELEYS’ ACADEMY OF PERFORMING ARTS 04 ACTOR’S WORKSHOP 05 PERFORMANCE SPACE LIMITED 06 HELEN O’GRADY - HEBDEN BRIDGE 07 KAREN BINNS STAGE SCHOOL 08 SQUARE CHAPEL CENTRE FOR THE ARTS 09 ARDEN ROAD SOCIAL CLUB 10 HI ENERGY DANCE & PERFORMING ARTS ACADEMY 11 CALDERDALE COLLEGE

CONNECTIONS PERFORMANCE BASED WORKSHOPS AND SCHOOLS IN THE AREA OF CALDERDALE Certain areas within Calderdale already have a creative background such as Hebden Bridge, providing a platform for The Mummery to burgeon with. Redeveloping Denholme Mill will not only further consolidate the already creative area but enhance a sense of community amongst Calderdale and offer the opportunity to reach further afield with other creative practices.

140


01

06

10 02 08

11 05

04 03

08

09 07

Fig 118

141


01 THE MUMMERY 02 MCANDREW TEXTILES LTD 03 TEXTILE INNOVATIONS LTD 04 FAIRBANK TEXTILES LTD 05 HEBTROCO 06 CHAPMAN M & SONS TEXTILES LTD 07 M CHAPMAN & SONS TEXTILES LTD 08 SALLY DARLINGTON TEXTILE ARTIST

LOCAL TEXTILE BUSINESSES The Mummery will also make connections with surrounding colleges, universities and textile businesses/enthusiasts. These will become users of The Mummery and will work with performance groups to create costumes. Allowing individuals to use the facilities provides them with practical skills, a developing portfolio and exhibits their work in exhibitions.

142


02

08

07 06

05

01

04

03

Fig 119

143


PARKING/POTENTIAL DROP OFFS The site currently holds a few areas for parking however the size of them is limited. At the north and south elevations are two car-parks. They have immediate access from Burnley Road- between them, they hold enough parking for around 10 standard cars. Although they are directly linked to the building, they do not possess the safest location due to the immediacy of the busy main road. The Mummery intends to welcome more than what the car park capacity holds, and so alternative parking will be necessary. Not only is entering the building from the main road unsafe, it is also unsightly and doesn’t provide enough context to the site before entering it.

144


THE MUMMERY PARKING LOCATIONS THROUGHOUT LUDDENDEN FOOT

STATION ROAD

POTENTIAL STREET PARKING (SEE FIG 122) CURRENT NEAREST CAR PARK (SEE FIG 121)

As public users are intended to enter the building at the west elevation, there should be parking along this journey to allow a safer and more direct entrance. The canal is accessible via Station road where there is currently space for parking along with street parking (see fig 122). It is encouraged that the visitors use alternative methods of transport as immediate parking is limited.

Fig 120

During the weekdays, the majority will be private users, groups and rehearsing performers. Schools and colleges will mostly arrive by coach/mini bus. The main drop off point will be just of Station road where visitors will then have to travel by foot along the tow path to the building.

145


Fig 121 Closest parking point off Station Road

146


Fig 122 Parking on Station Road

147


BUS STOPS THE MUMMERY

BURNLEY ROAD

ACCESSIBILITY Accessing the building is easy by vehicular transport as the building lies along Burnley road, with direct links to Rochdale/Manchester and Hebden Bridge. It also has major links to other roads throughout the village leading to other areas within Calderdale. Public transport is available with buses stopping frequently along Burnley road in both directions. Buses have access to Rochdale, Halifax and Burnley as well as more local destinations (Midgley, Sowerby Bridge, Todmorden etc). This allows a wider range of people to travel to the building without the need to travel by carthis reduces the issue of limited parking on site. The nearest bus stop to the building is only 120m (towards Rochdale) or 150m (towards Hebden Bridge).

148

Fig 123. Bus stops.


BUTTS GREEN RD

SOWERBY LANE

BURNLEY RD

Fig 124. Local roads.

GREYSTONES RD ELLEN HOLME RD

149


Fig 125

150


NATURAL LAND

MAIN ROUTES (DARKEST SHOWS BUSIEST MAIN ROUTES)

MAIN ROUTES LEADING TO SURROUNDING AREAS 01 BURNLEY ROAD 02BURNLEY ROAD JUNCTION 03 STATION ROAD 04 DANNY LANE 05 SOWERBY LANE 06 WARLEY WOOD LANE 07 BOOTH HOUSE ROAD 08 BUTTS GREEN ROAD

151


FIG.126 (01) LOOKING NORTH DOWN BURNLEY ROAD

152


FIG 127. (02) BURNLEY JUNCTION

153


FIG. 128 (02) BURNLEY JUNCTION LOOKING DOWN STATION ROAD

154


155


Fig 129 M62

A629

M646

M62

THE MUMMERY

156


Fig 130

APPROACHING THE BUILDING BY FOOT

The building is easily accessible by foot from other areas within Calderdale, as Mytholmroyd is only 2 miles away and the centre of Luddenden is 0,9 miles. Although there is a footpath directly along the east elevation of the building, it is only extremely narrow and not ideal for visitors to use. Therefore, visitors access the building via the canal side which allows them to appreciate the surrounding site. Travelling through the immediate site allows a slow transition into the building as visitors will slowly gain an increasing view of the building as they approach (see page 157-160). This gradual increase in the building’s visibility allows a greater sense of integument and causes visitors and passers by to have more interest in entering the space.

157


BUILDINGS BURNLEY ROAD DIRECT ACCESS TO BUILDING

GREYSTONES ROAD

NATURAL LAND

Fig 131. Local footpaths.

BOYS SCARR

158

ROCHDALE CANAL TOW PATH DIRECT ACCESS TO CANAL AND NEW PROPOSED ACCESS TO ENTRANCE


Fig 133

01

01

02

03 04

05 06 07

08

Fig 132. Views approaching the building.

159


Fig 134

160

02

Fig 135

03


Fig 136 04

Fig 137

161

05


Fig 138

162

06

Fig 139

07

Fig 140

08


163


GENUS LOCI/IMMEDIATE REACTIONS Upon approaching the immediate site and building, the natural environment is immediately apparent. The surrounding site evokes a high sense of movement, both from the natural land and movement of traffic. This natural and human movement is separated by the building given that the east side has a high volume of moving traffic and the west side just has the natural movement of the landscape. Standing on the east elevation, high numbers of vehicles pass the building in both directions creating an unsightly and loud environment. The narrow pavements and lack of pedestrianised areas create a feeling of unsafety and uncertainty of where to go. Walking further north away from the building, the area becomes more domestic with housing, bus stops, pubs and schools indicating a traditional village settlement. Towards Station Road junction (see fig 128) the effects of moving traffic become less noticeable. It is at this point that the shift movement changes to a natural environment and the relaxed tranquil setting increases as you move back towards the building along the canal side.

164

Sounds of birds, the motion of wind, water and swaying trees create a peaceful setting, reminding you of the importance of the land and location. The building has a large rectangular form that sits dominant within the site; a sturdy piece of mill architecture that is firmly rooted in the natural ground. This dominance emphasises the movement around it, both natural and unnatural. The historic loading bays that exist on the east, south and west elevations are a reminder of the vertical movements that would occur to transport wool into the building. This mechanical nature is exciting and evokes ideas for proposed conceptual approaches. Filled in, fire damaged remains are also a reminder of the industry’s bleak ending.


Fig 141, Natural Landscape

165


166


NATURAL LAND Luddenden Foot has a much larger proportion of natural land which is why it is so symbolic of a traditional Yorkshire village, This land provides an idyllic and tranquil setting as well as providing the area with rich farming land. Fig 142 demonstrates the proportion of natural land to built up land.

167


Fig 142, Map of surrounding wards.

01 CRAGG VALE 02 MYTHOLMROYD 03 SOWERBY 04 LUDDENDEN 05 LUDDENDEN FOOT 06 HEBDEN BRIDGE 07 HALIFAX

168


CALDERDALE

PREVAILING WET WIND FROM WEST

Fig 143

PREVAILING WIND DIRECTION As the building sits within the upper part of the Calder Valley, it can feel the effects of the wind as it passes through. SOUTH WESTERLY PREVAILING WIND

169


Fig 144. Interior shadow study

170


Fig 145. Scale 1:750

SUN PATH The sun moves east to west in a southerly direction.

171


Fig 146-151 Building shadow study

9AM

172

11:30AM

1PM


2:30PM

4PM

5:30PM

173


SUMMER 9AM

SUMMER 11 AM

SUMMER 1 PM

Fig 152. Shadow study

174

WINTER 9AM

WINTER 11 AM

WINTER 1 PM


SUMMER 3 PM

SUMMER 5 PM

SUMMER 7 PM

WINTER 3 PM

WINTER 5 PM

WINTER 7 PM

175


INTERIOR LIGHTING The natural lighting within the space varies greatly depending on the time of day. As the lowest two levels lie below the road, they are mostly dark. During the day time, the majority of the building receives little to no direct sunlight as there are no windows or functioning openings on the south elevation. The windows on the east are currently boarded up and so it isn’t until the sun is directed onto the west elevation that direct sunlight enters the building. The new proposal will rely on natural light, and so some changes will need to be made to the existing structure. Fig 153. Section B4 Interior Lighting, morning light

176


Fig 154. Section B4 Interior Lighting, mid-day light

Fig 155. Section B4 Interior Lighting, afternoon light

177


Fig 156-161, Ground floor interior shadows (summer)

6pm

178

6:30pm

7pm


7:30pm

8pm

8:30pm

179


Fig 162-165, Second floor interior shadows (summer)

9am

180

10:30am


12pm

1:30pm

181


SUN HEAT The south elevation is the warmest part of the building, receiving direct light most of the day. However, due to the lack of openings there is little light entering the space therefore interior heat is minimal. Where the stairwell is currently situated on the north elevation, is the coolest part of the building as it is shadowed by the south elevation and interior structural wall. Due to the materiality of the building, its internal state remains fairly cool due to the vast amounts of stone, brick and steel used. Heat will form an important part for the process of drying wool and regulating temperature in the shearing shed (these spaces may be placed at the south side of the building).

182


Fig 166. Effect of heat on south elevation.

183


01

Fig 167 01 THE MUMMERY 02 ROCHDALE CANAL 03 RIVER CALDER

03

184

02


01

HIGH FLOOD RISK FLOOD DEFENCES

Fig 168

FLOOD ANALYSIS Given the buildings immediate proximity to Rochdale Canal, close proximity to the River Calder (98m) and settlement in the valley, the building is susceptible to water damage. Despite this and the villages history of flooding, research shows that surface flooding does not occur near the immediate site. There are a number of flood defences between the River Calder and Rochdale Canal. See appendix C2.

185


PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT The proposed design will intend to be as sustainable as possible, making use of natural light, waste products, and sustainable sources. Water: -Rainwater (and canal water) will be collected for use in; dyeing, hydrating the dye garden and scouring. The canal already has links to historical importance (see page 15) and so the building will be sensitive to its use. This will also reduce flooding risks. Waste dye product: -Waste such as unwanted cuttings, and remains from the dye process can be used as fertiliser back in the garden. Unwanted vegetable roots may be fed to the flock. Wool: -Wool will be used in the design of the building, aiding in sufficient insulation to control moisture and temperature within the building. See appendix C3. -Wool graded too low for use can be used as compost. Local sustainable materials will be used to sculpt new spaces, which are designed to regulate heat, control ventilation and maximise natural light where needed.

186


Fig 16. Recycling wool in dye garden.

187


See appendix for scaled stripped plans, sections and elevations.

OVERVIEW Denholme Mill currently consists of 5 floors in the main structure, and 2 floors in the extended lower section. The building predominately consists of local millstone (with the interior walls having cheaper cuts of stone and brick especially in the stair well), timber and steel, with some new brick and steel to reinforce structural damage.

188


Fig 170 West elevation.

189


03

01

02

Fig 171. Approaching from south.

190


03

01

02

Fig 172. Approaching from south.

APPROACHING FROM THE SOUTH Approaching from the South, the upper-part of the building is visible, and so is the immediacy of Burnley Road. The narrow path is lined with a mixture of stone wall and trees which have overgrown, further narrowing the pavement. Currently, signage from the camping shop is attached to the south elevation (01) which is unsightly along with the constant passing of vehicles. Despite this, its vast amounts of natural land towards the right (03) and overlooking the stone wall (02) to see the canal is a beautiful sight.

191


SOUTH ELEVATION This part of the building receives the longest and most intense part of sunlight. Due to this, it is ideal for the shearing shed, scouring, washing/drying of wool and dye garden to be placed within proximity to the south. These spaces require natural light and heat to function well.

Fig 173 SCALE 1:500

192

The façade is fully constructed from millstone grit with elements of steel. There are 3 loading bays that are not in use and are boarded up. The entrance at ground level was still used until recent closure of the shop, as it provided direct entrance into the building from the south carpark. There are currently no views from this elevation- historically this would have overlooked another part to the mill which was burnt down in the 1950’s.


S01

S02

S03

S01 STEEL BEAM ATTACHED TO WINDING GEAR. S02 LOADING BAY AT SECOND FLOOR S03 LOADING BAY AT FIRST FLOOR S04 LOADING BAY AT GROUND LEVEL S05 ENTRANCE TO GROUND FLOOR

S04

S05

Fig 174

193


S06 Fig 175 (left) Fig 176 (right) S06 STEEL BEAM SUPPORTING ELECTRIC BOX S07 ELECTRIC BOX S08 REMAINS FROM MILL EXTENSION S09 DOORWAY AT SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL

S08

S09

Below ground level, there is another doorway at the which once provided access into the other part of the mill. Although it still provides access in and out of the building, it isn’t used as there is nothing on the other side, nor any access over the canal to exit. This area now provides potential for an outdoor space such as for performance or a dye garden. Partial extruding stone work and marks on the stone wall indicate the existence of the previous extension and show where the floor levels were. A steel beam has been attached from the buildings exterior wall to support the weight of an electric box.

194


S07

S06

S08

S09

195


Fig 177

196


STEEL

01

MILLSTONE GRIT TIMBER 01 STEEL BEAM ATTACHED TO WINDING GEAR. 02 LOADING BAY AT SECOND FLOOR 03 LOADING BAY AT FIRST FLOOR 04 LOADING BAY AT GROUND LEVEL 05 ENTRANCE TO GROUND FLOOR 06 STEEL BEAM SUPPORTING ELECTRIC BOX 07 REMAINS FROM MILL EXTENSION 08 DOORWAY AT SUB-BASEMENT LEVEL 09 WALL SUPPORTS

TOW PATH

ROCHDALE CANAL

02

03

BURNLEY ROAD

04

05

06

07 09

08 Fig 178. Not to scale.

197


Fig 179

Fig 179. Ground level loading bay with steel shutter (left) Fig 180,181. Stone on south elevation (right)

198


Fig 180

Fig 181

199


05

06

04 Fig 182. Approaching from north.

200


05

04

06

Fig 183. Approaching from north.

APPROACHING FROM THE NORTH Approaching the north elevation has much of a similar effect as the south. However, walking this way, you are walking towards oncoming traffic which is slightly more unsettling. From this approach, the main entrance and stairwell of the building can be seen, however due to the rectangular shape of the building, no other elevation of the building can be seen from this point.

201


N01 CURRENT ENTRANCE AT GROUND FLOOR N02 DRAIN PIPE N03 WINDOW FROM MAIN MILL SPACE (FIRST FLOOR) N04 WINDOW FROM STAIRWELL (SECOND FLOOR) N05 STONE LINTEL N06 STONE PARAPET AND CORBEL DETAIL

NORTH ELEVATION This elevation consists of the stairwell, most recent main entrance and some of the main part of the mill. This facade is also constructed from millstone grit with decorative stone corbels, parapets and singular windows.

Fig 184 SCALE 1:500

202

The stone is in fairly good condition on the North elevation, some areas have cracked at the join (see fig 186). As there is no direct sunlight at this elevation, the stone hasn’t faded and can bee seen to be slightly darker than the other elevations.


N06

N04 N05

N03

N02

N01

Fig 185, North elevation.

203


Fig 186. Crack in north wall.

204

Fig 187. Original entrance.

Fig 188. Millstone Grit.


TIMBER SANDSTONE RENDER GLASS STONE SLATE MILLSTONE GRIT

06

05

08

04 03 09 02

01 MILLSTONE GRIT WALL UNDER CAR PARK LEVEL 02 CURRENT ENTRANCE 03 STONE CORBEL DETAIL 04 STONE ROOF 05 WINDOW ON MAIN MILL AT FIRST FLOOR 06 STONE PARAPET AND CORBEL DETAIL 07 DRAINAGE 08 WINDOWS FILLED IN WITH SANDSTONE RENDER 09 FORMER ENTRANCE

07

01

Fig 189. Not to scale.

205


E01 ARCHED WINDOW (FILLED) E02 STONE CORBEL AND PARAPET DETAIL E03 STONE SLATED ROOF E04 STONE WINDOW SURROUND E05 FOOTPATH E06 GROUND FLOOR WINDOW (FILLED) E07 FIRST FLOOR LOADING BAY E08 SECOND FLOOR LOADING BAY E09 STONE CORBEL AND PARAPET DETAIL

EAST ELEVATION

Fig 190 SCALE 1:500

206

This elevation lies directly along Burnley Road, and so is effected the most by noise and debris. This elevation consists of 3 storeys, with windows showing evidence of two. Ground-floor level windows are currently boarded up with shutters or concrete with the first floor windows as original and the second floor having no windows at all. To the south side, is a loading bay that would have operated from ground floor to second.


E03 E02 E04 E01

Fig 191. North elevation.

207


Fig 192 . North elevation.

E09 E08

E07

E06

Fig 193. Loading bay detail (E07) Scale 1:50

208 E05


TIMBER STONE SLATE MILLSTONE GRITSTONE SANDSTONE RENDER GLASS 01 ARCHED WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ENTRANCE 02 STONE WINDOW SURROUNDINGS 03 STONE LINTELS 04 GROUND FLOOR WINDOWS FILLED IN WITH CONCRETE 05 LOADING BAY AT SECOND FLOOR 06 STONE PARAPET AND CORBEL DETAIL 07 ROOF LIGHTS

07 05

CAR PARK 04

Fig 194 Not to scale

209


210


Fig 195. Millstone Grit.

Fig 196. Narrow pavement.

Fig 197. Ground floor arched windows.

211


APPROACHING FROM THE EAST AND WEST

W01 SUB BASEMENT LOADING BAY W02 CONCRETE BLOCK WINDOWS As the building lies in the upper part of the Calder W03 BASEMENT LOADING valley and is trapped between the Burnley Road and BAY Rochdale Canal, the building cannot be approached W04 NEW WINDOW from the east of west perpendicularly. The journey (FORMER LOADING BAY) to access the building is extremely linear due to the W05 STONE PARAPET AND composition of the site and this is why access is best CORBEL DETAIL by foot.

WEST ELEVATION This elevation is the most important in terms of the new proposal. It is the point where users make contact with the building, and the main transition of indoor/ outdoor. The surrounding natural land including the canal provide the nicest views and environment, with sunlight allowing spaces such as the dye garden to thrive around this elevation. The windows mirror those on the east, with the sub basement windows being filled in with concrete blocks. The centre of the elevation has a low level loading bay. At basement and sub-basement level is an extension to the main mill (see fig 200), with three lower arched windows of different character. The car park sits above this part of the building. The stone on this elevation has suffered the most due to the effects of weathering and the canal water. Fig 198 SCALE 1:500

212

8 stone buttresses stand against Burnley Road and the wall to provide support (see fig 202).


W05 W04

W03 W01

W02

Fig 199. West elevation.

213


W08

W09

W10 W11

W07

W06

Fig 200, West elevation.

214


W10

W11

W06 NEW BRICK REPLACING STONE W07 WINDOW REPLACED WITH NEW BRICK W08 WINDOW REPLACED WITH STONE W09 NEW PVC WINDOWS W10 EVIDENCE OF PREVIOUS EXTENSION BEFORE FIRE W11 STONE ARCHED WINDOW DETAIL

Fig 201, West elevation.

215


S07

S06 W12

216


W12

Fig 202 (left), 203 (right), stone buttresses. W12 STONE BUTTRESSES S06 STEEL BEAM S07 ELECTRIC BOX

217


Fig 204, Stairwell on west elevation.

Fig 205, Sub basement loading bay.

Fig 206, Second floor loading bay (now window).

CA 218


07

06 08 CAR PARK

ANAL LEVEL

05

Fig 207, Not to scale.

01

02

03

219


220


221


06 02 04

01

03

05 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS GIA 425 Sq.m Fig 208, Not to scale.

Fig 209

01 STONE ENTRANCE TO SUB BASEMENT 222

Fig 210

02 COARSE MILLSTONE GRIT INTERIOR WALL.

Fig 211

03 NEW STRUCTURAL BRICK AND BEAM SUPPORTING

LEVEL ABOVE, WITH WINDOW ON WEST ELEVATION BOARDED UP.


Fig 212

Fig 213

Fig 214

04 STRUCTURAL ARCHED BRICK CEILING WITH STEEL 05 OPENING ABOVE CENTRAL LOADING BAY SHOWING 06 10 STEEL COLUMNS AT CENTRE OF SPACE, BEAMS ARCHED DETAIL IN CEILING EXTREMELY DARK SPACE DUE TO WINDOWS 223 BEING BLOCKED UP.


07

09 08

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS GIA 449.9 Sq.m Fig 215 Not to scale.

07 STAIRWELL WITH PREVIOUS WINDOW OPENING BEFORE BEING FILLED IN AND COARSE BRICK INTERIOR.

Fig 216

Fig 217

08 WINDOW DETAIL: STEEL FRAME WITH GLASS AND WIRE MESH.

Fig 218

09 THIS FLOOR IS CURRENTLY USED FOR STORAGE. ORIGINAL TIMBER JOISTS AND BEAMS, WITH TIMBER FLOOR BOARDS ABOVE.


Fig 219

10 ORIGINAL STONE FLOOR

Fig 220

11 TIMBER BEAMS (SOME WITH CRACKS DUE TO MOISTURE) AND TIMBER JOISTS.

Fig 221

13 LIMITED VIEW OUT OF WINDOW ACROSS CANAL.

225


14

18 17

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS

15 16

19

GIA 308.8 Sq.m Fig 222 Not to scale Fig 223

14 STAIRWELL WITH STONE STEPS AND STRUCTURAL BRICK CENTRAL COLUMN,

Fig 224

15 INTERIOR STONE WORK OF MILL, ROUGH TEXTURE WITH SOME AREAS OF EROSION.

Fig 225

16 STONE WINDOW SILL, GROUND FLOOR HAS SOME NEW STRUCTURAL BRICK REPLACEMENT. TIMBER WINDOW FRAME.


Fig 226

17 THE TIMBER BEAMS FIX DIRECTLY INTO THE STONE WALL BETWEEN EACH WINDOW. CURRENTLY STRIP LIGHTING IS FITTED AS NATURAL LIGHT IS MINIMAL.

Fig 227

18 LOOKING TOWARDS ENTRANCE. 10 STEEL

COLUMNS ARE IN THE SAME POSITION ON THE GROUND FLOOR. THE FLOOR IS TIMBER BUT CURRENTLY HAS ASTRO-TURF FITTED ON TOP.

Fig 228

19 DETAIL OF STONE WALL WITH WINDOW FILLED

IN.


22

24

20 21

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS GIA 300.3 Sq.m

23

25

Fig 229 Not to scale. Fig 230

20

DOORWAY TO STAIRWELL (FIRE ROUTE).

228

Fig 231

21

STEEL COLUMN DETAIL.

Fig 232

22 EITHER SIDE OF THE COLUMNS IS EVENLY PROPORTIONED, IN TERMS OF SPACE, LIGHT AND STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS.


Fig 233

23

WINDOW DETAIL, THE GLASS IS WEATHERED AND THE WOODEN FRAME HAS ROTTED IN PLACES.

Fig 234

24

TEMPORARY PINE CLADDING AND PLASTERBOARD HAS BEEN ADDED TO THE FIRST FLOOR. TIMBER STRUCTURES WERE USED TO DIVIDE THE SPACE BUT HAVE SINCE BEEN REMOVED.

Fig 235

25 TEMPORARY TIMBER STAIRS UP TO SECOND FLOOR. MANY OF THE TEMPORARY STRUCTURES BLOCK THE NATURAL LIGHT WHICH IS WHY THE SPACE RELIES SO MUCH ON STRIP LIGHTING.

229


26 31

28 27

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS GIA 300.3 Sq.m

29

30

Fig 236 Not to scale. Fig 237

26

LOADING BAY ON EAST ELEVATION.

230

Fig 238

27

WINDING GEAR FOR LOADING BAYS ON SOUTH ELEVATION.

Fig 239

28 TIMBER ROOF TRUSS STRUCTURE, SHOWING ROOF LIGHT ARRANGEMENT AND ENTRANCE TO STAIR WELL IN DISTANCE.


Fig 240

29

DOORWAY TO FORMER LOADING BAY ON WEST ELEVATION

Fig 242

Fig 241

30 STEEL TRUSS SUPPORTS FIXED TO STONE WALL. SOME MINOR STRESS DAMAGE TO WALL DUE TO WEIGHT.

31 SKY LIGHT 231


STRUCTURAL BUILDING ELEMENTS 01 STEEL COLUMN 02 TIMBER BEAM 03 EXTERIOR STRUCTURAL STONE WALL 04 TIMBER ROOF RAFTER 05 TIMBER ROOF JOISTS 06 TIMBER PURLINS 07 STONE BRICK WALL

6162mm

06 05

04

03 3000mm

02 7500mm

01 2430mm

07

3800mm

Fig 243 Not to scale.

12800mm

232

9893mm


Fig 245

TIMBER RAFTER

SUPPORT

ROOF STRUCTURE

Fig 244

Mills traditionally have triangular roof structures, as does this building. However, the rafters are not supported by a lower truss which is unusual for the span of the timber. Instead, there are steel supports at each end of the rafter that span the height of the second floor. This increases the usable height of the space given there is no low level truss. As the top floor of the mill would traditionally house large machinery, this extra height allowed for that.

SCALE 1:50

233


FLOOR LEVEL TIMBER FLOOR JOISTS

TIMBER BEAM SITS INSIDE EXTERIOR STONE WALL

FLOOR STRUCTURE

Fig 246 SCALE 1:50

234

As the timber floor beams are fixed into the wall, they have suffered damage from moisture. As the building ages, small cracks allow water into the structure, which is absorbed by the timber edge. Due to this traditional method of construction, the moisture has caused some of the timber to split, with small fixtures in places (see fig 249).


Fig 247

Fig 248

Fig 249

235


Fig 250. Arched brick ceiling.

SUB BASEMENT STRUCTURE The floor of the sub-basement level is concrete (rather than timber) due to the proximity to the canal. The ceiling consists of an arched brick structure which increases the strength, allowing for heavy machinery which would have occupied the lower two levels. A steel beam supports the centre of each arch, lining up with those above.

236

Fig 251. Steel bar through ceiling.


STEEL BAR

CONCRETE ARCHED BRICK CEILING INTERIOR STONE WALL

STEEL COLUMN

Fig 252 SCALE 1:50

237


238


239


PROJECT: THE FAIRY TALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE ARCHITECTS: BCA LANDSCAPE, SMILING WOLF AND WOODSCAPE YEAR OF COMPLETION: APRIL 2008 LOCATION: BURSCOUGH, ORMSKIRK, L40 7SE The ‘Fairytale of Burscough Bridge’ is a landscape scheme that looked at enhancing the small town centre of Burscough through a series of elements. Each of these elements are creatively displayed along the central high-street through furniture, paving, art displays, nature lighting and signage. The architecture acts as a journey through the street. This case study looks into the redevelopment of a town with a similar heritage to that of Luddenden Foot. Its rich history of Mummering has informed the project, reinstating the areas past. Not only does it have a similar typology background, but the scheme looks at the importance of involving the whole site rather than a specific area, just as the proposal for The Mummery aims to do.

240

The towns tales and ancient stories have inspired the design and transformed the way that people view the town. Many events took place within the town such as ‘Page Egging’, a ‘Rushbearing Fair’ and the ‘Tea Party Procession’ which as a tradition has died out. Therefore, the new design within the high-street now provide spaces for these events to be reintroduced to the area. (Jones, 2018)


Fig 253 Church.

241


Fig 254

The church is the first part of the journey. During the day time, the church is a traditional part of the town, as is any town church. However, at night, the church transforms into a magical architectural form, illuminating in various colours which represent the vibrant ancient stories of the town. The unusual and bespoke character of church allows the area to be perceived in a different way than how its quiet rural self would have originally been. Simple approaches such as lighting can make an inanimate object exciting- an approach that the exhibition will take on.

242


Fig 255. Church over wall.

243


Fig 256. Church at night.

244


Fig 257. Church at night.

245


Fig 258 The next element to the trail is the main performance space where graphics relating to the history of the area have been set into stone in a circular motion. Here, the town can watch various performances (dance, singing and traditional Mummer plays) and admire the performers dancing and acting around the illuminated tree in the centre. The illustrations are representative of the towns former unique character and traditions that now pave the area (Johnson, 2008), exhibiting a glimpse of the towns past. Diameter 5250mm, seating for around 30.

246


Fig 259. Detail on floor

247


Fig 260. Performance space.

248


Fig 261. Performance space.

249


Fig 263

Fig 262

This monument marks Burscough bridge and provides a glimpse of the nature and craftsmanship of the design. The bespoke carving into the timber is representative of the unique approach to the whole scheme. This monument makes visitors feel as though they have entered a special place, giving the town a mark of importance. It also creates a feeling of curiosity, wanting you to explore more of the town and unravel more exciting elements. The following images show the detail in the carving and the dominant effect of the tall monument.

250


Fig 264

Fig 265 Carved detail on monument.

251


Fig 266. Clock tower.

252


Fig 267

The clock tower has images of the towns past carved into the timber. The etched images on the clocks surface tell stories and create ideas about how the town once was. It works as a type of exhibition, adding context to the scheme. A clock tower is a normal element to any traditional town, and so by highlighting its importance with something like imagery and placing it in an area where people gather, is a reminder of just how important the town is.

253


Fig 268. Clock tower and performance space. Fig 269. Photograph detail (right).

254


255


256


Fig 272

At this same location, there is another performance space where Mummery traditions occur. Just as the first space (see page 246), this one also consists of floor murals dedicated do the towns history. Illustrations of masked beasts are representative of characters and their costumes, whilst part of a traditional Mummer chant is printed around the edge of the images. This space makes you feel as though you are part of a performance, as in order to read the chant and admire the illustrations, you must walk around the whole space. You are forced to walk on and around the “stage�, where performances traditionally take place. Fig 270. Carved detail (left) Fig 271. Performance floor murials.

This idea of forcing people around a space allows you to control what they see, an important aspect of an exhibition.

257


Fig 273. Performance space.

258


Fig 275.

Fig 274. Murial detail.

259


Just as to access The Mummery, the Leeds-Liverpool Canal in Burscough must be crossed to reach the last two elements of the trail. Located next to the canal is a small square consisting of arts and craft shops, cafés and boutiques which all add to the creative diversity of the town. Across the river one of the monuments is en-scribed with the towns historic crest (see fig 277). At night this lights up to highlight its importance as are the Church and performance areas. The final part to the trail is a large marble and stone sculpture that consists of the towns name “Burscough Bridge” along with sculpted birds, trees and images relating to the war. Although less spatial than the performance squares, they still hold importance in their imagery and the stories that they convey. They provide silent stories that each viewer is able to imagine in their own version, given the context that the illustrations set.

260

Much of the scheme is down to a self-lead experience, as there are no indications of where each of the elements are placed. This provides a more exciting outlook as it involves a greater exploration of the town. Interpretations and images on how they perceive the monuments/spaces are created by the viewer themselves, rather than having to read an explanation. This prevents the same experience every time. This idea of a self lead experience will be translated into the exhibition designs in The Mummery to allow users to experience their own journey.


Fig 276. Bridge.

261


Fig 277. Monument Fig 278. (right). Monument at night.

262


263


Fig 279. Raw wool.

R.GLEDHILL’S MILL- WOOLLEN YARN SPINNERS DATE BUILT: 1777 LOCATION: PINGLE MILL, PINGLE LANE, DELPH, SADDLEWORTH, OL3 5EX This case study is to gain insight into the required spaces for relevant machinery involved in the process of manufacturing wool. The area in which is sits its very similar to that of Luddenden Foot in terms of its history in the area and the typology of the land.

264


Fig 280

HISTORY AND CONTEXT R. Gledhill’s was founded in 1936 by Ronald Gledhill as a woollen spun yarn business. The business is run within Pingle Mill which sits within the small village of Delph on the Yorkshire/Lancashire boarder. Saddleworth is also a milling area with many working and disused textile and woollen mills. Pingle Mill was built in 1777, where textile manufacturing has been carried out ever since under different owners. The first reference to the mill was in the will of a former clothier stating- “water cattle or wash wool in the close called Pingle”. (Gater, 2018) Now, the mill carries out the majority of the process from raw wool to finished fabric within one site. Wool is sourced from all over the world including Europe, New Zealand and Australia from a variety of sheep breed and alpaca. The manufactured yarn is also exported all around the world including to high market customers such as Chanel and Yves Saint Laurent. See appendix D1.

265


MANUFACTURING (SPINNING AND CARDING) STORAGE NEW ADDITION WITH SHOP AND DYE HOUSE BLENDING AND STORAGE MILL POND

Fig 281

DESIGN AND FUNCTIONALITY Since being owned by Gledhill, the mill has been expanded in order to manufacture for its growing business. With an expanding site, new, more advanced machinery has been installed to keep up with the competitive industry and allow versatility in Gledhill’s unique yarns. (Gledhill, R, 2018)

266


ENTRANCES/EXITS MACHINERY

07 08 06

09

JOURNEY THROUGH SPACE

05 04

03

02 01 SCALE 1 :1000

Fig 282 01 BLENDING ROOM 02 BLENDING AREA 03 SHOP 04 DYE HOUSE 05 STORAGE 06 WALKWAY 07 LARGE CARDING MACHINE 08 ROVING MACHINES 07 SPINNING MACHINE

267


Fig 283. Meeting space with samples.

268


EXPLORING THE GROUNDS The mill sits with its own weir; however, the mill pond has been filled in since it is no longer powered by water wheel. On this pond area, there is a purpose-built retail shop and offices that is open to the public. The site is set within the peaceful nature of the countryside, and the natural setting is reminding of the woollen industry heritage. Inside the shop, knitted and woven garments are sold showcasing the versatility of the company’s yarn. Above the shop is a meeting room where colour samples, finishes and yarn types are kept for display and for discussing with new clients.

STORAGE CARD AND ROVE

-L5500mm x W5000mm, 1 table L1200mm x W800mm and 6 chairs.

CROSSING BLEND

A similar sized space will be designed in The Mummery to host meetings to discuss briefs and requirements (see page 97).

DYE HOUSE SHOP

Fig 284. Circulation path.

Despite having witnessed the manufacturing process, it is just as important to see the final outcome to apply the process to the design. The shop is successful in that it has samples of different finishes to wool with descriptions of them to inform customers before buying. The interior of the shop is well lit with natural lighting to enhance the quality of the woollen garments. Placed around the shop is imagery and other memorabilia that are very much representative of the site. These include images of the former mill, surrounding landscape and models of sheep.

269


Fig 285. Retail shop.

270


Fig 286. Sample jars.

271


Fig 287, Loading bay and winding gear.

Attached to this building is the colour testing and dye house. Various samples of coloured wool are stored in order to refer to when a new batch of wool is to be dyed. There is also two carding machines (L2900mm x W 1400mm x H3100mm) and a small roving machine (W950mm x L1400mm x H1350mm) to prepare sample wool for dyeing. In The Mummery, the dye master will constantly develop a colour palette that will broaden the potential range of costumes. The simple stone rectangular form, pitched triangular trussed roof and timber loading bay is similar to that of Denholme Mill. Having dyed wool organised and separated into shelved units makes it easier for staff to access specific wool they require. One pigeon hole at W300mm x L300mm x D500 holds 900kg-1100kg. The wooden cabinet is raised off the floor and sits above the work top to prevent the wool from getting damaged and potentially discolouring the wool. It is visually exciting to see the different colours of wool, even when presented in a simple manor. This small design approach will be considered in the proposed project as it is important that facilities are well organised for users of The Mummery. The wool is eye-catching and engages the senses and so the wool store should be on show to the public. The carding and roving machines in this area are ample size for The Mummery. 6-8 people can fit around the machine to observe demonstrations. Smaller machines weigh less, make less noise and require less space which would prevent the area from becoming too restrictive.

272


Fig 288. Dye cabinet.

273


274


Fig 289 (left) Fig 290

275


Fig 291. Roving machine. Fig 292 (right). Carding machine.

276


Fig 293, Dye house (left). Fig 294. Dye drums.

The dye area contains 12 large vessels D1400mm x H1000m which hold around 75kg wool. They are constructed from aluminium and the inner dye drums are mechanically lifted out of the base. Different dye pots are used for certain colours. This hoisting action could inspire the drying process in The Mummery, as fleeces or dyed wool could be suspended.

277


STORAGE From here, a new steel walk way (fig 295) bridges over the weir and takes you to a storage area where the imported wool is delivered and stored. Although a practical method, a suspended walkway between spaces could create an interesting transition space, creating a journey around the building. This area has easy access for delivery in and out and is kept cool and dry in order to prevent the wool from rotting. The wool is stored in hessian bales measuring H900mm x W1200mm x D750mm and is moved about using a small forklift truck. The floor and interior walls are constructed of concrete in order to keep the internal temperature down. There is no direct lighting in here as it may cause the wool fibres to damage and dyed wool may fade. W15000m x L20000m x H5000mm. Bales stacked maximum 4 (H3600mm). (fig 296)

278


Fig 295

279


Fig 296. Wool bales. Fig 297. Hessian detail (right)

280


281


Fig 298. Spinning machines.

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES These areas consist of many mass-producing carding, roving and spinning machines where roughly one worker oversees between 2 and 3 machines. These areas are extremely noisy and mechanical with many different types of motions and movements happening, creating exciting spaces. In terms of viewing the process, it is important that within The Mummery, the public are able to watch the different mechanical movements as it creates an intriguing kinetic energy within the space. The spaces use strip lighting which is distributed evenly as it must be well lit to ensure the wool is being processed correctly and natural light is unreliable and constantly changes (due to weather, seasons etc). The blending space consists of a small room around 3500mm x 4000mm and a vent which circulates cold air though the space. In The Mummery, this will be done by hand to reduce the need for an electrical aeration system; this will also create a greater interaction with the physical nature of the wool. Bobbing’s of roving are spun mechanically by a loom to create a tight yarn. Although over a hundred bobbins being spun at once, within The Mummery this will be done on a much smaller spinning machine to reduce the weight and spatial requirements.

282


Fig 299. Carding machine.

283


Fig 300. Blending space.

284


Fig 301. Blended wool bales.

285


Fig 302. Roving machine. Fig 303. Spun yarn bobbins (right).

286


287


Each of the areas almost perfectly flows into the next, allowing the process to work efficiently and quickly (see fig 282). Each transition space is extremely open allowing large bales of wool and tubs of yarn to be moved along. Therefore, entrances and exits are either flat or have a slight ramp. The production areas are not open to the public to freely wander due to high risk levels and so the spaces are designed for maximum functionality and not aesthetics. Around the outside of the carding/roving machines however, is a steel guard with transparent acrylic windows allowing certain parts to be seen from the outside. This creates a “safe zone� around the edges of the space meaning that workers and clients are able to physically see the process without putting themselves at risk. This idea of the public being able to overlook the process will be considered in the proposed design as it allows an educational element to the process.

288

The spaces are simple and are generally constructed of stone and concrete to allow them to be easily cleaned down and kept cool. The beams are all steel as timber is susceptible to becoming damp if exposed to water/condensation and this may threaten the quality of the fibre. Materials will be carefully chosen in the design and the transportation of products/materials will be practical to allow an easy flow that also works with narrative and circulation of the space. It is clear that the mill is extremely successful in the manufacture of wool given its expansive list of high-end clients, but without the well thought out arrangement of the mill, the manufacture process would not work as optimally as it does. Despite the mill being highly functional, it does therefore lack the aesthetics that may be required if it was to be open to the public. However, from this case study, inspiration from the practicality of the spaces and the mechanical importance of the production of woollen fabrics can be taken and applied conceptually in the design of The Mummery,


289


Fig 304

290


PROJECT: ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE. DATE: 1970. ARCHITECTS/DESIGNERS: BRAHAM MURRAY, MICHAEL ELLIOTT, JAMES MAXWELL, CASPER WREDE AND RICHARD NEGRI. LOCATION: ST ANN’S SQUARE, MANCHESTER, M2 7DH. 291


CONTEXT The Royal Exchange is a Grade || listed, three-domed Edwardian style building located in the centre of Manchester. Before closing in 1968, it was originally built to trade cotton where it was deemed that most functions would not be suitable for the unique space. During the 1970’s, a theatre group were approached the owners of the space proposing a unique design to be created within the space. The design challenges people’s perception on what a theatre is or should look like, given it was to be placed in such a traditional predefined building. (Weinreb, 2019) (See appendix D Conceptual ideas were passed back and forth and experimented with before a final design arrived. Therefore, the ideas generated were playful and creative, breaking the boundaries of what a theatre should be. The overall design of the theatre juxtaposes the traditional design of the space, allowing visitors to become overwhelmed and exploratory of the spaces (Weinreb, 2019). This contemporary design creates excitement and curiosity amongst the building, engaging its visitors and allowing a close relationship between visitors and the performers.

292


Fig 305. Facade.

ENTERING THE SPACE When approaching the Royal Exchange, you are situated within the hustle of the city, with the diversity of people working, shopping, socialising etc. Walking up the stone steps to the entrance you begin to see the slight changes that have been made such as the renovated glass doors which once were solid handcrafted timber. Small material changes to the building create an interesting balance between architecture styles; suiting the concept of creating a contemporary style theatre within a historic building. This new entrance was created as a result of the 1996 bombings in Manchester where much of the building was damaged including the new theatre that was completed in 1976. The interior atmosphere is completely contrasted with the exterior, as it is quiet, slow and calm. This is similar to how The Mummery will create an exciting dynamic interior within a tranquil setting,

293


Fig 306,307. Entrance.

294


Fig. 308 Not to scale.

295


EXPLORING THE SPACE Once you are inside the main space, the brightly coloured installation that is the theatre is overwhelming in its presence; contrasting so greatly with the architecture of the building. It looks as if it is a temporary installation despite it being permanently fixed in the space. As a visitor, you must interact with the theatre because as you walk around each side you walk under and around metal arms that fix it to the space. These metal arms are the structure of the theatre that have been left visible, making it feel vulnerable and intimate. The structure has 7 sides which appear lightweight despite being fixed between the heavy permanent columns of the original structure. Situated around the perimeter are small cafés, shops and social spaces which are completely open to viewing the theatre; allowing a greater interaction with the space. Whilst waiting here to watch a performance, you are able to observe the cast and members of the production team working in preparation (see fig 311). Dressing rooms, prop rooms and technical rooms surround the exterior of the structure with close proximity to the stage. There is also a 120-seat theatre where cast are able to rehearse and perform to a different type of audiences (see fig 310). This small studio theatre has no fixed seating or stage, allowing for different audiences and performers .This flexibility of space will be important in the proposal as it allows “pop-up” spaces to suit a wide range of performance types.

296

Fig 309. Section not to scale.


Fig 310,311

297


Fig 312

298


Fig 313

299


Fig 314. Dome above structure.

300


DESIGN AND MATERIALITY The whole space is lit predominantly pink which creates an exciting atmosphere within the building. The surrounding spaces are low lit or have a pink undertone to create a relaxed atmosphere. This shift in light directs the focus onto the main theatre space, a design tactic that controls movement of people as they are more likely to approach the theatre. Light will be highly controlled in the proposed design to control circulation and signify important key spaces such as in the exhibition and “pop-up� spaces. The theatre consists of mainly glass and steel of different colours to creates the illusion of a more complex material palette. These colours and lighting dramatize the design, allowing the theatre to act as a performance in itself. Despite the whole space being completely open, it has a relaxed atmosphere. Light conversation, footsteps and distant clashing of coffee cups creates a comfortable environment; a juxtaposition to the external environment. See appendix D2

301


Fig 315. Beam detail.

302

Fig 316. Painted steel.


Fig 317. Theatre.

303


SEATING (HIGH)

ONE OF SIX SIDE ENTRANCES

STAGE

THE THEATRE At the very centre of the theatre is the main stage where “no member of the audience is more than ten metres from the centre of the stage� (Weinreb, 2019). It sits at floor level with tiered seating surrounding the perimeter. Low level seating ensures a close relationship with the audience and in fact; only the stage and the ground floor seating sits on the groundthe rest of the structure is suspended between the columns (Royal Exchange, 2019). Inside the theatre is also extremely mechanical as lighting, sound and camera as equipment is all visibly attached to the structure. This allows an interesting atmosphere within the space, emphasising the architectural greatness of the design.

304

Fig 318. Theatre Plan, not to scale.


Fig 319. Suspended stairs.

Fig 320. Theatre interior.

Fig 321. Chairs in theatre.

305


ACOUSTICS AND LIGHTING The space is acoustically optimal, due to the design and form of the space. The circular shape of the theatre allows sound to be reflected of each surface, whilst they are lined with acoustic fabric to absorb unwanted echoes and sound. Careful placement of the acoustic panels work to absorb sounds from different directions which is especially useful in pop spaces such as what will be in The Mummery as these panels do not have to be “fixed” to a space (see page 362). Where possible, hard surfaces such as handrails, seats and steps have been covered with material to soften them, reducing vibrations.

CONCLUSION

The space is fitted with hundreds of LED and strobe lights that achieve countless effects to suit a wide range of performances. The theatre is open at the top, allowing natural light from the dome to flood the stage when artificial lighting isn’t used (fig 314).In the Mummery, performances will occur in open spaces and so will deal with the effects of natural and artificial light, which can both benefit different performance types.

In The Mummery performance spaces will not be enclosed, therefore acoustics will be carefully considered. As in the theatre, hard surfaces have been softened, similarly wool can be used to clad surfaces, improving acoustic environments (see page). A similar approach to viewing performances will see the audience watching from different platforms and walkways in the proposal; from ground level and above.

306

The whole space is successful in that it integrates a number of functions, despite the contrast in design. This contrast however demonstrates potential in introducing contemporary spaces into a traditional building. The design evokes mechanical movement due to the choice in materials and “suspended” staircases (see fig 319), creating the idea that the whole space is dynamic. Since the process of manufacturing wool is dynamic and mechanical, metal beams and platforms would also be suitable,


307


Fig 322

308


PROJECT: CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM FOUNDER: JOHN MAGSON DATE: MUSEUM OPENING IN 1985 LOCATION: SQUARE RD, HALIFAX, WEST YORKSHIRE, HX1 1QG 309


HISTORY AND CONTEXT Calderdale Industrial Museum is situated within the former Albion Works, Halifax. It is a museum that celebrates the industrial heritage and development of the town from toffee production to the textile industry. This museum is representative of Calderdale as a whole, including Luddenden Foot. It sits directly next to the Piece Hall (see page 132), opening in 1985 by John Magson who was responsible for organising and collection most of the exhibits within the building. Machinery was collected from other local mills in the area to be displayed. Magson had in-fact been gathering a collection for over 33 years since Halifax started to lose its reputation of “the town of 100 trades� (Calderdale Industrial Museum, 2017). See Appendix D3

310


Fig 323. Entrance.

311


Fig 324. Ground floor machinery.

312


Fig 325. First floor machinery.

313


Fig 326. Third floor.

314


ENTERING THE SPACE The building is made up of 4 floors including a basement level with each floor hosting a different element of the areas former/current trade. At the entrance to the building (see fig 323), there is a reception area where tickets are able to be bought for admission, and further along is a small cafe and book shop. Signposts indicate where each part of the museum is, which are accessible via 2 sets of original stairs. Entering the ground floor level, it is clear to see that the new functions within the mill have been installed to work around exiting structures and spaces without affecting them too much. For example, nothing is fixed to the walls, but instead placed within a space; this domesticates the interior feel, making it feel more welcoming and comfortable to be in. Reception area L3500mm x W2000mm (2 people). CafÊ L8500mm x W5500mm (30-35 capacity). Book Area L2000mm x W2500mm The buildings character has remained in tact due to the original structure and features. The timber floor has remained throughout all levels, with the top floors timber roof structure remaining exposed. The peeling paint on the brick’s interior demonstrates the former mills age, with a lingering smell of metal and damp timber in the air. The exterior brick is in excellent condition due to corrective work over the years, with a new stone floor and steel steps leading up to the entrance.

315


Fig 327. Loom

316


Fig 328. Display material.

Fig 329. Display item.

EXPLORING THE SPACE Volunteers from the community work in different areas of the museum, where each specialise in the area where they are based. This allows them to guide visitors through the exhibitions and provide information and demonstrations. Although a self-lead experience, the volunteers are able to demonstrate certain processes which enhances the educational element. Walking through the spaces, the mill is as existing, with minor changes to the structure. Therefore, you get a strong sense of how the mill was run, and the processes which would take place. The ageing structure and timber floors add character through the sounds, smell and movement of the space. This traditional character is just as important at exhibiting Calderdale’s industrial heritage, and so keeping original features within Denholme mill is important.

317


Fig 330. Exhibition space showing window.

Fig 331 (right).Loom L4200mm x W2150mm x H2100mm. Total Area L6350mm x W4000mm x H2500mm. Other than the smell and feel of the space, the character of the building could be heightened with images of the mills past. Small artefacts and samples are displayed which explore tactile senses, heightening the experience (see fig 329). This will be ensured to happen within The Mummery: for example, holding demonstrations with traditional hand-held devices (hand looms, carding brushes).

318


319


Fig 332

The mill is filled almost entirely with natural light due to the original windows (see fig 332), which emphasises the material quality of the building. These windows have been coated in a translucent film which reduces the intensity of the sunlight. As no new openings have been made to the building, natural light is limited and so in certain areas artificial light has been used. Figures 333/336 shows how the artificial light emphasises the tactile quality of the material, by brightening the colours and highlighting the spatial nature of the machines. These lights are fitted on a steel bar from above and are directed at certain elements rather than filling a whole space which may take away the nostalgic feel of the space. The first floor exhibits a wide range of elements from the textile industry including; a cotton loom, a woollen carpet loom, hand/foot looms and other elements such small equipment subject to the industry. The large looms are an immediate point of interest, possessing most of the floor space and height. The contrast between the textile and mechanics is beautiful and although stationary, they still evoke a sense of movement. A lady demonstrates the process of spinning on a foot loom which creates a greater understanding as you are able to watch (see fig 337). The Mummery will allow processes to be watched as this is more effective than reading about something (see fig 334).

320


Fig 333. Loom

321


Fig 334,335. Display information.

322


Fig 336. Loom

323


Fig 337

324


Fig 338

Leaving the museum, you are once again hit by the modern-day Halifax town centre, a great contrast to the interior works of the building. The sense of character and the extensive collection of machinery and artefacts leaves you feeling as though you have learnt a great deal about the industry. The journey through the spaces has a clear continuity as each are is split into a different element of the industry, although internal circulation is limited due to the lack of space. The main factor of this case study was to understand how an existing mill building’s character has remained whilst providing a new educational use to modern day public. It has also given a greater understanding as to the size of spaces required for typical machinery and how users might move around them; even though they will function in The Mummery.

325


SUPPORTING CASE STUDY: PHILADELPHIA MUMMER MUSEUM The curated exhibition (see page 104) of The Mummery will be modelled on some aspects of this precedent study. The Philadelphia Mummers Museum opened in 1976 in celebration of the tradition. It exhibits costumes, both historical and contemporary, audio archives and interactive activities. (Kennedy, 2019) Each of these aspects will occur within the exhibition, where the content will be rotated as new material is produced. The museum also holds performances, live exhibits and annual summer concerts in celebration. Due to the similarity, the spatial, functional and design details of the museum; it will heavily influence the proposed project.

326


Fig 339

327


Fig 340

328

Fig 341


Fig 342

DESIGN The design of the exhibition is exciting and busy. It is filled with a plethora of archives of different content; costume, imagery and audio, each working together to tell the story of the Mummering history. The costumes that are exhibited are of previous events and performances that have taken place at the museum. These are displayed on mannequins, mainly at ground level, with some on podiums. Although the costumes are eye-catching, following the English tradition, having them on realistic mannequins takes away slightly from their traditional principle (as they shouldn’t show their faces). It would be more effective to have them installed or suspended from a simple structure so that the focus is purely on the costume.

329


Fig 343. Imagery on wall.

330

Fig 344


Just as visually interesting (and informative) as the costumes is the large imagery and text that fills the interior walls of the exhibition areas. The images are of performances, which place the costumes in context, giving them character and evoking ideas of movement. These images are in black and white and so contrast well with the brightly coloured costumes, allowing each to convey a similar story in a different way. Within the proposed exhibition it will be important to provide imagery of historic performances as well as new costumes to demonstrate the influence of the history on costume design. Although the costumes will be the main aspect to the space, the images and text should be subtle as they are in the Philadelphia museum.

The museum is successful however in engaging the audience through interaction with exhibits. The close proximity and openness of the displayed costumes allow visitors to get close up and appreciate the material quality and design. This intimacy and visitor interaction will be extremely important in the proposed design as in order to understand the tradition, users should be able to physically interact (e.g., touch or wear the costumes).

With each costume is a small plaque with its name, designer and date. Where they are displayed (see fig 343) is not effective as too low down which may cause strain to some viewers. It is also printed on paper which, from a design point of view is unsuccessful.

Other than physical senses, the exhibits use audio to read transcripts or lines from mummer plays to engage the audience further. This creates an interesting atmosphere as it almost allows visitors to image the costumes in performance.

331


Fig 345

LIGHTING AND CIRCULATION Artificial light is mainly used, which is focused on the exhibits (see fig 346), allowing them to stand out amongst the space. The spaces are a mixture of average and double height, with glazed elements at the top of double high spaces to allow natural light to flood the area. (see fig 340) The square plan layout of exhibition rooms mean that visitors wander the space in no particular order, Costumes are spread around the perimeter of the space encouraging visitors circulate the space multiple times. Although suitable to the existing spaces in the museum, The Mummery will take a more linear approach to presenting costumes, to ensure visitors take on a journey through the exhibition, observing 1 or 2 costumes at a time. A smaller, enclosed exhibition space will create a tense and inquisitive space that comprehends ideas of the hidden dark history of the area. This smaller space will naturally be darker and so will allow a more diverse lighting approach that is playful and exciting.

332


SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS Each costume requires enough space to be installed, whether it is suspended, mounted or stood (as fig 346). A costume of 1500mm wide that is hung from above will require at least 800mm all around it if people are to move around it. Therefore at least a 3100mm square space is needed for a costume of such size.

Fig 346

Hanging costumes above head hight reduces the space needed around them and so more costumes can be exhibited per square metre. Wall-mounted costumes also require less space. The Costume Curator will be in charge of displaying costumes in an exciting way; therefore the nature of the exhibition will vary.

CONCLUSION Where the museum is successful in exhibiting the mummering history and engaging its audience, it lacks in certain design features such as articulating information well and display. Imagery and audio recordings enhance the experience, however the display of costumes requires more attention. The mannequins take the focus away from the design which should be the main element The Mummery will mainly take design consideration from the interactive elements and the display of imagery/audio aspects. Spotlights enhance details within the costumes and create interesting shadows however the general lighting is dull and the spaces would benefit more from a change in light levels to differentiate the exhibits from the circulation space. The Mummery will be experiment with light levels to create an emotive environment.

333


Fig 347

EPHEMERAL BOXES: 31 MINUTES DESIGNER: TLC ARCHITECTS YEAR: 2013 LOCATION: SANTIAGO DE CHILE This precedent study looks at the idea of isolated spaces that challenge the transition of public and private space. It generates ideas of circulation and spatial awareness through simple design and materiality. The typology of the function is similar to that of The Mummery, with the spaces designed for puppetry performance. The spaces are referred to as “boxes� due to their simple design, which are located within a disused warehouse. Just as the proposed project, the space has been re-imagined in a creative and contemporary way. (Lazo, 2013)

334


Fig 348

Fig 349

335


Fig 350

336


DESIGN AND MATERIALITY As the space is temporary, the boxes were constructed in just three days and are easily dismantled. Depending on the function within the space, the size of each box varies, creating interesting volumes within the open space. The project was designed for a TV production called “31 Minutos�, which is a puppet show. The largest of the boxes is used as the scriptwriters office, with the other two being as administrative/executive offices and a puppetry workshop (where the puppets are manufactured). Filming occurs outside of the boxes, in the open plan of the warehouse. (Lazo, 2013) The boxes are constructed from pine timber slats and clad in translucent 4mm polycarbonate sheets. Prefabricated beams span the walls and ceiling CONCLUSION of the warehouse to provide support. (Lazo, 2013) Strengthening/addition of beams may be necessary in The Mummery due to the weight of machinery needed. Not only has the designer thought about the interior space of the boxes, but the spaces that their The polycarbonate sheets create at translucent effect, arrangement creates. This consideration will be important in the proposed design as the placement allowing some visibility of movement without full clarity, allowing the space to remain private. The boxes of functional spaces will determine circulation and have also been placed out of sync, to create a sense of important spaces such as those to socialise and pause. tension and movement within the warehouse.

Suspended lights are direct over the spaces, allowing the rest of the space to have a dull undertone which creates a calming environment. The artificial light is effective for workshop and writing spaces, where the cladding will reduce the glare and disperse the light evenly.

The design of lighting in this precedent is extremely effective, as different tones create an interesting atmosphere. Materiality can be used to control light as does the polycarbonate cladding. Simple designed spaces can be extremely effective when careful consideration to their placement, materiality and lighting is considered.

337


Fig 351

338


Fig 352

MUNGO MILL ARCHITECT: ANDREA CRISTOFORETTI PROJECT: TEXTILE MILL DATE: NOVEMBER 2017 LOCATION: PLETTENBERG BAY, SOUTH AFRICA The owner of this mill was originally from North Yorkshire, where he inherited 2 looms; the starting point of his textile career. Moving to South Africa he started a business in textiles, using traditional methods in contemporary ways. This precedent has a similar function to The Mummery, in that one of the project aims is to exhibit old and new ways of using textiles, telling a story of the English heritage. “We wanted the customer to see what they’re buying being made, to make that connection.” (Brown, 2018)

339


Fig 353. Loom, with windows in background.

DESIGN Inspiration was taken from a close up photograph of a loom. The mechanical process of weaving thread inspired movement and the “skin” of the walkway (see fig). “I wanted visitors to walk through the ‘threads’ and, hopefully, experience some of that poetry,” (Brown, 2018) As opposed to dimly lit, dull mill environments, the building is flooded with natural light from large windows which provides better working conditions and viewing opportunities for the public. The mill is constructed from materials local to the area and so is fairly sustainable. The mill contains 16 restored looms of all ages which can be viewed by visitors from a balcony. The key factor of this precedent study is the application of concept to function and how visitors can view the experience. Viewing platforms and large windows separate the private areas whilst allowing visitors to observe. The cladding detail creates interesting light movement and deals well with the transition of outdoor to indoor, which could be considered as a means of threshold in The Mummery.

340


Fig 354

341


Fig 355

342

Fig 356


THE CINEROLEUM ARCHITECT: ARCHITECTS ASSEMBLE PROJECT: POP UP CINEMA DATE: 2010 LOCATION ALBION BUILDINGS, CLERKENWELL RD, LONDON EC1R 5EN The Cineroleum is a project which saw the redevelopment of a petrol station into a pop up cinema (ArchDaily,2015). The project wanted to encourage turning dormant spaces into somewhere that would provide rehearsal, performance and entertainment spaces. The Mummery will see a similar transformation, making use of already exiting spaces (indoor and outdoor).

Fig 357. Not to scale

Local, cheap industrial materials were used to create the structure, seating and lighting details. (ArchDaily,2015) The membrane of the space has been hand sewn and due to its material structure can be lifted and drawn down to create an intimate or open space. This idea could be translated into the proposal as suspended materials would allow a “pop-up� type space, providing more functional space when not being used. The process of movement is also mechanical and dynamic relating to concepts of performance and manufacture of wool. These temporary spaces could function for performance, rehearsal, meeting spaces or areas to relax.

343


Fig 358

344


345


Fig 359

346


Fig 360, 361 (below).

LOOM HYPERBOLIC ARCHITECT: BARKOW LEIBINGER LOCATION MARRAKECH The inspiration behind this design was the traditional technique of weaving by hand on a loom. Linear lines of 4mm yarn are stretched across a timber frame to create a canopy (Foerster, J, 2012). The delicacy of the yarn creates spaces with low threshold qualities given the transparency of the space. This transparency is important in The Mummery, visitors should be able to view the private spaces such as spinning, weaving and costume making. This tensile structure can be used indoor or outdoor, providing potential performance spaces, or areas to grow plants requiring low light. The tactile surface mimics movement and exhibits an element within the manufacturing process. As a possible design move, a similar idea of stretching yarns/wool across open voids could create interesting spaces, that could also be practical (stretching yarns across a space to dry).

347


Fig 362

348


Fig 363

VICTORIA & ALBERT MUSEUM LOCATION: CROMWELL ROAD, LONDON, SW7 2RL The exhibitions allow the garments to have character and almost come to life. Each collection of clothing has a theme/concept which inspired the setting, to create a heightened experience. This is an important aspect within The Mummery as each exhibition that is curated will require careful consideration of the design. See appendix E1

349


Fig 364

350

Fig 365


Fig 366

Fig 367

351


352


TRIANGLES OF LIGHT: TEL AVIV HOME

Fig 369

ARCHITECT: PITSOU KEDEM ARCHITECTS. PERFORATED SURFACES INSPIRED BY WEAVE PATTERNS- AID IN VENTILATING THE SPACE AND ALLOWING NATURAL LIGHT IN. Fig 368

353


INSPIRATION FOR SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT AND CIRCULATION AND PRIVATE/PUBLIC THRESHOLDS.

Fig 370

354

MECHANICAL ARCHITECTURE AND MATERIALITY (INSPIRED BY MANUFACTURING OF WOOL).


Fig 372 Fig 373 (below)

77 THEATRE

ARCHITECT: CHINESE STUDIO ORIGIN ARCHITECT

THEATRE SPACE IN OLD PRINTING FACTORY. IT EXPLORES THE MECHANICAL NATURE OF MOVEMENT IN PERFORMANCES. SUSPENDED CIRCULATION AND PLATFORMS CREATE DYNAMIC SPACES THAT ACT AS VIEWING PLATFORMS. Fig 371

355


THE HIDDEN ORCHESTRA ARCHITECT: ALICE LABOUREL

MOVEMENT IN DESIGN AND SPATIAL AWARENESS, CREATING A RELATIONSHIP WITH SPACE. See appendix E2.

356

Fig 374


Fig 375

357


Fig 376 Fig 377 (right)

358


Fig 378

359


Fig 379

360


YELLOW EARTH ARCHITECT: TANDEM

TEXTILE /YARN SURFACES AND THRESHOLDS: INSPIRED BY WOOLLEN MANUFACTURE PROCESS

Fig 380 Fig 381 (bottom).

Fig 382

361


Fig 383

TANNER SPRINGS PARK

ARCHITECT: RAMBOLL STUDIO DREISEITL

Fig 384 MACHINERY INSPIRED FAÇADES OF SPACES

362


WOOLY PAVILION

ARCHITECT: AUW

Fig 385 WOOL STORE INSPIRATION: INTIMATE TACTILE SURFACES.

363


WAVE CONNECTED ABSORBER BASOTECT Fig 386

364

PLEAT WALL

DESIGNER: ANNE KYYRÖ QUINN Fig 387


LA LAMPE

DESIGNER: MUTI RANDOLPH 2010 Fig 388

Fig 389

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS INSPIRING LIGHTING AND ACOUSTIC DETAILS THAT ARE SPATIAL AND DYNAMIC.

365


Fig 390

Fig 391

EXHIBITION INSPIRATION: ATMOSPHERIC, DYNAMIC INSTALLATIONS.

366


Fig 392

Fig 393

367


GREENHOUSE BOTANICAL GARDEN ARCHITECTS: IDA LOCATION: SWITZERLAND YEAR: 2012

PAVILION INSPIRATION FOR DYE GARDEN. Fig 394

Fig 395

368

Fig 396


Fig 399

369


Fig 397

Fig 398

BUILDING MANIFESTO: CONCEPT PIECE EXPLORING NEW USE OF MILL.

370


CONCEPT MODELS EXPLORING MECHANICAL SPACES, SUSPENSION AND CIRCULATION.

Fig 400

Fig 401

Fig 402

371


Fig 403

372

372


Fig 405

Fig 406


Fig 407

374

374


CONCEPT MODELS EXPLORING PROCESS AND SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT/CIRCULATION.

Fig 408

Fig 409

Fig 410


DEVELOPING SITE COMBINE: EXPLORING CHARACTER OF SITE AND RELATION TO NEW PROPOSAL.

Fig 411

376

Fig 412

Fig 413


CONCLUSION The Mummery will bring the three main aspects; sheep, costume and performance together in a way that compliments the building, sites heritage and history. The building will host spaces that are functional, following the process of wool and costume manufacture whilst being sensitive to the Mummering heritage. This will ensure the spaces are both functionally and conceptually considered to form a narrative alongside practical processes. Sustainability should be a key factor that is considered in the design and function of spaces. Rainwater will be collected and natural light will be used where necessary to ensure the environmental impact is low. The flock will aid in sustainability by providing wool for costume and insulation, whilst the dye garden will create a sustainable use for the unused natural land. The folk will be the driving factor in designing key spaces, as they will journey through the building on a self-leadexperience. They will observe local performers, manufacturing and creative processes; taking part in demonstrations held by the masters. The exhibition areas will aim to provide a multi-sensory experience through the use of imagery, audio, changing light and spatial installations, allowing interaction with costumes from recent performances. These performances will take place in “pop-up� spaces that can be observed from different heights and angles within the building. These spaces will consider materiality and acoustic features inspired by the manufacturing process, as will the rest of the proposal. Key design concepts will follow from the mechanical process and nature of the building that evoke ideas of suspension, movement and tactility. The Mummery will ultimately resurrect Luddenden Foots culture and heritage through a contemporary new proposal.

377


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS AUTHORS OWN: WHEELER, E (2018)

STUDY OF MUMMERING FIG 1. AUTHORS OWN FIG 1.1. ARMITAGE. S (UNKNOWN). FULL MOON. (FEBRUARY 2019). FIG 2. AUTHORS OWN FIG 3. AUTHORS OWN FIG 4. GREEN, T. (2013). LUDDENDEN FOOT PACE EGGING. [ONLINE] FLICKR. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.FLICKR.COM/PHOTOS/ATOACH/9726186736 [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 5. AUTHORS OWN FIG 6. SCHARFENBERG, D. (2017). WHEN CHRISTMAS WAS PUBLIC AND PROFANE - THE BOSTON GLOBE. [ONLINE] BOSTONGLOBE. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. BOSTONGLOBE.COM/IDEAS/2017/12/24/WHEN-CHRISTMAS-WAS-PUBLIC-AND-PROFANE/JQGBOAZB5OZDMNNZZ8EBWK/STORY.HTML [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 7. WINICK, S. (2019). ST. GEORGE AND THE DATA DRAGON: A DIGITAL ASSETS MUMMING | FOLKLIFE TODAY. [ONLINE] BLOGS.LOC.GOV. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS:// BLOGS.LOC.GOV/FOLKLIFE/2013/12/ST-GEORGE-AND-THE-DATA-DRAGON-A-DIGITAL-ASSETS-MUMMING/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 8. FIG 9. RAVEN, S. (2019). ISATIS TINCTORIA (WOAD). [ONLINE] SARAH RAVEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.SARAHRAVEN.COM/FLOWERS/SEEDS/BIENNIAL_SEEDS/ ISATIS_TINCTORIA.HTM [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. FIG 10. PINTEREST. (2019). BULGARIAN KUKERI FESTIVAL, DAY OF MONSTERS | WHAT ARE THE TRUE ORIGINS OF THIS FESTIVAL? | ON WRITING | PINTEREST | BULGARIAN, BULGARIA AND FOLKLORE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/431149364311980706/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 11. PINTEREST. (2019). “BOE” DI OTTANA (NUORO) SARDINIA-CERDEÑA-CARNIVAL | MASKS | PINTEREST | SARDINIA, AFRICAN MASKS AND COSTUMES. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/713257659705892424/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 12. QUINLAN, G. AND QUINLAN, G. (2019). STRAWBOYS, BY GRÁINNE QUINLAN. [ONLINE] CO-MAG.NET. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.CO-MAG.NET/2013/GRAINNEQUINLAN/ [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 13. PENNLIVE.COM. (2019). WHAT IS A MUMMER? HISTORY, DEFINITION AND MORE OF THE TRADITIONAL PHILADELPHIA PARADE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS:// WWW.PENNLIVE.COM/LIFE/2017/12/WHAT_IS_A_MUMMER_HISTORY_DEFIN.HTML [ACCESSED 3 FEB. 2019]. FIG 14-1, WEARABLE CONCEPT, AUTHORS OWN FIG 18. AUTHORS OWN FIG 19. AUTHORS OWN

STUDY OF WOOL FIG 20. OAKHILL VETERINARY CENTRE. (2019). SHEEP SCANNING- OAKHILL FARM VETS GOOSNARGH, PRESTON. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.OAKHILLVETS.COM/SHEEP-SCANNING/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 21. HISTORY OF WOOL, AUTHORS OWN FIG 22. GRAHAM, A. (2014). CARLISLE ROUGE SHEEP SOCIETY SHOW & SALE – HARRISON & HETHERINGTON. [ONLINE] HARRISONANDHETHERINGTON.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://HARRISONANDHETHERINGTON.CO.UK/SALE-REPORTS/CARLISLE-ROUGE-SHEEP-SOCIETY-SHOW-SALE/ [ACCESSED 21 JAN. 2019]. FIG 23. WIKIPEDIA. (2019). SUFFOLK SHEEP. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/SUFFOLK_SHEEP [ACCESSED 21 JAN. 2019]. FIG 24. BORDERLEICESTERS.CO.UK. (2015). HALBRED SALES FAST APPROACHING ... [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.BORDERLEICESTERS.CO.UK/NEWSDETAIL.PHP?NEWSID=119 [ACCESSED 22 JAN. 2019]. FIG 25. KIPPAX, J. (2017). WHAT ARE MULE SHEEP? (AND WHERE CAN I BUY THEM). [ONLINE] KIPPAX-FARMS.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://KIPPAX-FARMS.CO.UK/ SHEEP/SHEEP-BREEDS/WHAT-ARE-MULE-SHEEP [ACCESSED 22 JAN. 2019]. FIG 26. POLLARD-JONES, L. (2015). THE BLUEFACED LEICESTER | THE NATURAL FIBRE COMPANY. [ONLINE] THENATURALFIBRE.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. THENATURALFIBRE.CO.UK/BLOG/BLUEFACED-LEICESTER [ACCESSED 22 JAN. 2019].

378


FIG 27. PINTEREST. (2019). DERBYSHIRE GRITSTONE SHEEP & LAMBS | BAA BAA BLACK SHEEP HAVE YOU ANY WOOL? | PINTEREST | SHEEP, SHEEP AND LAMB AND SHEEP BREEDS. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.COM/PIN/212232201164877777/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 22 JAN. 2019]. FIG 28. PICFAIR.COM. (2019). DALESBRED RAM IN FIELD; NORTH YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PICFAIR.COM/PICS/05623650DALESBRED-RAM-IN-FIELD-NORTH-YORKSHIRE-ENGLAND [ACCESSED 22 JAN. 2019]. FIG 29. (2009). SWALEDALE SHEEP, LAKE DISTRICT, ENGLAND - JUNE 2009.JPG. [ONLINE] EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG.AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/ FILE:SWALEDALE_SHEEP,_LAKE_DISTRICT,_ENGLAND_-_JUNE_2009.JPG [ACCESSED 23 JAN. 2019]. FIG 30. COMPASSION IN WORLD FARMING. (2019). SHEEP WELFARE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.CIWF.ORG.UK/FARM-ANIMALS/SHEEP/SHEEPWELFARE/ [ACCESSED 23 JAN. 2019]. FIG 31. FLYINGMULE.BLOGSPOT.COM. (2013). MARKETING OUR WOOL. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://FLYINGMULE.BLOGSPOT.COM/2013/06/MARKETING-OUR-WOOL. HTML [ACCESSED 25 JAN. 2019]. FIG 32. SHEARING PROCESS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 33. AUTHORS OWN FIG 34. THE SPINNING LOFT. (2016). HOW TO SKIRT A FLEECE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THESPINNINGLOFT.COM/HOW-TO-SKIRT-A-FLEECE/ [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. FIG 35. GRADING WOOL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 36. COLOR, A. (2019). A LINK BETWEEN STAPLE LENGTH AND DEPTH OF COLOR. [ONLINE] LCFALPACAS.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.LCFALPACAS.COM/ INDEX.PHP?OPTION=COM_EASYBLOG&VIEW=ENTRY&ID=85&ITEMID=244 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 37. THE SCHNEIDER GROUP. (2019). WOOL SCOURING THE SCHNEIDER GROUP 1080X800 - THE SCHNEIDER GROUP. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. GSCHNEIDER.COM/PRODUCTS/WOOL-SCOURING-THE-SCHNEIDER-GROUP-1080X800/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 38. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 39-43. DESNOS, R. (2019). REBECCA DESNOS • NATURAL DYER (@REBECCADESNOS) • INSTAGRAM PHOTOS AND VIDEOS. [ONLINE] INSTAGRAM.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.INSTAGRAM.COM/REBECCADESNOS/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 44. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 45. ROVING, S. (2018). STONE WOOL ROMNEY + MERINO ROVING. [ONLINE] TWIGANDHORN.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://TWIGANDHORN.COM/PRODUCTS/STONEWOOL-FARM-ROVING [ACCESSED 28 DEC. 2018]. FIG 46. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 47. DRYING MACHINES, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 48. TIMELINE OF COSTUME, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 49. PROCESS OF COSTUME MAKING, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 50. ROSS, J. (2019). TRANSFERRING. [ONLINE] JULIAROSS.INFO. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://JULIAROSS.INFO/TRANSFERRING.HTML [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 51. MAKERS TOOLKIT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 52. NEW PROCESS DRAWING, AUTHORS OWN.

PROPOSED SPACES AND FUNCTIONS FIG 53. RAPTOR, T. (2019). SHEEP VACCINE STUDY – ALUMINUM ADJUVANTS ALTER THEIR BEHAVIOR. [ONLINE] SKEPTICAL RAPTOR. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. SKEPTICALRAPTOR.COM/SKEPTICALRAPTORBLOG.PHP/SHEEP-VACCINE-STUDY-ALUMINUM-ADJUVANTS-BEHAVIOR/ [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 54-55. PROWAY.COM.AU. (2018). GALLERY | PROWAY. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://PROWAY.COM.AU/SOLUTIONS/WOOL-HANDLING/GALLERY/ [ACCESSED 9 DEC. 2018] FIG 56. FARMERSJOURNAL.IE. (2019). WATCH: PLASTIC SHEEP SLATS WORKING WELL FOR KERRY FARMER. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. FARMERSJOURNAL.IE/PLASTIC-SHEEP-SLATS-WORKING-WELL-FOR-KERRY-FARMER-249117 [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. FIG 57. FARMERSJOURNAL.IE. (2019). WATCH: PLASTIC SHEEP SLATS WORKING WELL FOR KERRY FARMER. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. FARMERSJOURNAL.IE/PLASTIC-SHEEP-SLATS-WORKING-WELL-FOR-KERRY-FARMER-249117 [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. FIG 58. PINTEREST. (2019). SHEARING MODULES- VIC. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/645422190324303228/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019].

379


FIG 59. YOUTUBE. (2019). SOUTH AUSTRALIA SHEEP SHEARING DEMONSTRATION. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=TQT9XSX4MKG [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 60. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 61. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 62. GOOGLE.COM. (2019). REDIRECT NOTICE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GOOGLE.COM/URL?SA=I&SOURCE=IMAGES&CD=&VED=2AHUKEWJQ7UH_2KXGAHUVATQK HW-TBM8QJHX6BAGBEAM&URL=HTTPS%3A%2F%2FBAREGAMERINO.COM.AU%2FSUPERFINE-MERINO-FLEECE-AUSTRALIAN-WOOL%2F&PSIG=AOVVAW1ZETY0A2U_4DXN1QIPYU KO&UST=1549493960196011 [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 63. BAREGAMERINO.COM.AU. (2019). TASMANIAN SUPERFINE MERINO FLEECE, AUSTRALIAN WOOL | BAREGAMERINO. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BAREGAMERINO.COM. AU/SUPERFINE-MERINO-FLEECE-AUSTRALIAN-WOOL/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 64. CLEANING WOOL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 65. DYING WOOL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 66.- DUFAULT, A. (2019). MADISON WOOL AND WILDWOOD FARM HOST A NATURAL DYE WEEKEND. [ONLINE] BOTANICAL COLORS. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BOTANICALCOLORS. COM/2014/04/07/MADISON-WOOL-AND-WILDWOOD-FARM-HOSTS-A-BOTANICAL-COLORS-NATURAL-DYE-WEEKEND/ [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 67. TOOL SHED, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 68, DYE GARDEN, AUTHORS OWN. FIG. 69 COMMONS.WIKIMEDIA.ORG. (2019). FILE:ISATIS TINCTORIA02.JPG - WIKIMEDIA COMMONS. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://COMMONS.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKI/FILE:ISATIS_ TINCTORIA02.JPG [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. FIG 70. SUSAN, R. (2019). RUDBECKIA FULGIDA VAR. SULLIVANTII ‘LITTLE GOLDSTAR’DWARF BLACK-EYED SUSAN. [ONLINE] SUNLIGHT GARDENS. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS:// SUNLIGHTGARDENS.COM/PRODUCTS/11624 [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. FIG 70. TOURS, G. (2019). ALKANNA TINCTORIA (L.) TAUSCH - CYPRUS. [ONLINE] BIODIVERSITYCYPRUS.BLOGSPOT.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://BIODIVERSITYCYPRUS.BLOGSPOT. COM/2016/02/ALKANNA-TINCTORIA-L-TAUSCH-CYPRUS.HTML [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. FIG 71. SALZSIEDERNURSERY.COM. (2019). COTINUS COGGYGRIA WINECRAFT BLACK® SMOKEBUSH | SALZSIEDER NURSERY. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. SALZSIEDERNURSERY.COM/PRODUCTS/SHRUBS/COTINUS-COGGYGRIA-WINECRAFT-BLACK-SMOKEBUSH/ [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. FIG 72. WHITE FLOWER FARM. (2019). COTINUS COGGYGRIA WINECRAFT BLACK®. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.WHITEFLOWERFARM.COM/COTINUS-COGGYGRIAWINECRAFT-BLACK [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 73. KNITTERPAT. (2011). NATURAL DYEING WITH BOUGAINVILLEA. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://KNITTERPAT.BLOGSPOT.COM/2011/04/NATURAL-DYEING-WITHBOUGAINVILLEA.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 74. DYE PROCESS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 75-77, MANUFACTURING MACHINERY, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 78. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 79. BLOGS.LOC.GOV. (2019). [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BLOGS.LOC.GOV/FOLKLIFE/FILES/2013/12/CARPENTERSEATEDMUMMERS.JPG [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 80. BILLINGSLEY, J. (2011). HOOD, HEAD AND HAG. HEBDEN BRIDGE: NORTHERN EARTH. FIG 81. WIKIPEDIA. (2019). EGG ROLLING. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/EGG_ROLLING [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 82. BILLINGSLEY, J. (2011). HOOD, HEAD AND HAG. HEBDEN BRIDGE: NORTHERN EARTH. FIG 83. WILKINSON, D. (2019). PACE EGG PLAYS IN ROCHDALE THROUGH THE YEARS. [ONLINE] MEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.MANCHESTEREVENINGNEWS.CO.UK/IN-YOURAREA/GALLERY/PACE-EGG-PLAYS-ROCHDALE-THROUGH-11103294 [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 84. BILLINGSLEY, J. (2011). HOOD, HEAD AND HAG. HEBDEN BRIDGE: NORTHERN EARTH. FIG 85. WILKINSON, D. (2019). PACE EGG PLAYS IN ROCHDALE THROUGH THE YEARS. [ONLINE] MEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.MANCHESTEREVENINGNEWS.CO.UK/IN-YOURAREA/GALLERY/PACE-EGG-PLAYS-ROCHDALE-THROUGH-11103294 [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 86. BILLINGSLEY, J. (2011). HOOD, HEAD AND HAG. HEBDEN BRIDGE: NORTHERN EARTH FIG 87. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP:// WWW.THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019].

380


FIG 88. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 89. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 90. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 91. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019]. FIG 92 AUTHORS OWN. FIG 93. PINTEREST. (2019). PIN BY LYNN LUM ON EXHIBITION IDEAS | PINTEREST | DISPLAY, DISPLAY DESIGN AND EXHIBITION DISPLAY. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/423056958738742515/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 94. PINTEREST. (2019). PERSONAL AND IMMERSIV INSTALACIONES IN 2019 | PINTEREST | ART, INSTALLATION ART AND EXHIBITION SPACE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/309974386849267366/ [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 95. FLEEING FLOCK, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 96, CLOAKROOM, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 97. PHL17.COM. (2019). MUMMER PERFORMANCE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://PHL17.COM/2019/01/03/AVENUERS-FANCY-BRIGADE-AT-THE-2019MUMMERS-PARADE/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019].

PROPOSED USERS FIG 98. BREWSTER, S. (2019). GIGAOM | STUDYING HOW DOGS HERD SHEEP COULD HELP ROBOTS LEARN HOW TO HERD HUMANS. [ONLINE] GIGAOM.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://GIGAOM.COM/2014/08/28/STUDYING-HOW-DOGS-HERD-SHEEP-COULD-HELP-ROBOTS-LEARN-HOW-TO-HERD-HUMANS/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 99. PINTEREST. (2019). BORDER COLLIE HERDING SHEEP | PINTEREST | COLLIE, HERDING DOGS AND BORDER COLLIE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/537687643004664672/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 100. SHEPHERD AND HIS DOG, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 101. ENSEMBLE, AUTHORS OWN.

SITE ANALYSIS FIG 102. CONTEXT. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 103-106, BARKER, R. (2019). PORTFOLIO - ROTORGRAPH. [ONLINE] ROTORGRAPH. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ROTORGRAPH.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/GALLERY/ DEMO/RYAN-BARKER---SPRINGFIELD-CAMPING-CENTRE-BURNLEY-ROAD-LUDDENDENFOOT-(INVOICE---51547) [ACCESSED 12 FEB. FIG 107. COUNCIL, C. (2017). MAKE A DIFFERENCE IN HALIFAX. [ONLINE] NEWS CENTRE - OFFICIAL NEWS SITE OF CALDERDALE COUNCIL. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP:// NEWS.CALDERDALE.GOV.UK/MAKE-A-DIFFERENCE-IN-HALIFAX/ [ACCESSED 30 JAN. 2019]. FIG 108. PIECE HALL DISTANCE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 109. GRAHAM.CO.UK. (2019). THE PIECE HALL TRANSFORMATION AND NEW CENTRAL LIBRARY AND ARCHIVE - GRAHAM GROUP | CONSTRUCTION | FM | INTERIOR FIT-OUT. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GRAHAM.CO.UK/PROJECTS/THE-PIECE-HALL-TRANSFORMATION-AND-NEW-CENTRAL-LIBR [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. FIG 110. LOCAL MILLS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 111. YORKSHIRE.COM. (2019). THE PIECE HALL - ATTRACTION - HALIFAX - WEST YORKSHIRE | WELCOME TO YORKSHIRE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. YORKSHIRE.COM/VIEW/ATTRACTIONS/HALIFAX/THE-PIECE-HALL-2036815 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019].

381


FIG 112. YORKSHIRE.COM. (2019). THE PIECE HALL - ATTRACTION - HALIFAX - WEST YORKSHIRE | WELCOME TO YORKSHIRE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.YORKSHIRE.COM/VIEW/ATTRACTIONS/HALIFAX/THE-PIECEHALL-2036815 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 113. HISTORIC PROCESS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 114-117, HISTORIC MAPS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 118. PERFORMANCE BASED SCHOOLS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 119. LOCAL TEXTILE BUSINESSES, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 120. PARKING AND DROP OFFS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 121. PARKING POINT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 122. PARKING ON STREET, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 123. ACCESSIBILITY, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 124. LOCAL ROADS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 125. LOCAL ROADS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 126-128, LOCAL ROAD VIEWS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 129. MAIN ROUTES, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 130. LOCAL FOOTPATHS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 131. FOOTPATHS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 132. APPROACHING SITE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 133-140, APPROACHING SITE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 141. NATURAL SURROUNDINGS, AUTHORS OWN.

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS FIG 142. SURROUNDING WARDS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 143. WIND ANALYSIS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 144. INTERIOR SHADOW STUDY, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 145. SUN PATH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 146-182 BUILDING SHADOW STUDY, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 183. SECTION B4, INTERIOR LIGHTING, MORNING LIGHT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 184. SECTION B4, INTERIOR LIGHTING MID-DAY LIGHT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 185. SECTION B4, INTERIOR LIGHTING, AFTERNOON LIGHT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 156-161, GROUND FLOOR INTERIOR SHADOWS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 162-165, SECOND FLOOR INTERIOR SHADOWS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 166, EFFECT OF HEAT ON SOUTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 167. MAP OF RIVER AND CANAL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 168. FLOOD RISK MAP, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 169, ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT, AUTHORS OWN.

BUILDING ANALYSIS FIG 170. WEST ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 171. APPROACHING FROM SOUTH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 172. APPROACHING FROM SOUTH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 173-177. SOUTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN.

382


FIG 178. SOUTH ELEVATION MATERIAL ANALYSIS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 179. STEEL LOADING BAY, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 180-181 STONE ON SOUTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 182. APPROACHING FROM SOUTH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 183. APPROACHING FROM SOUTH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 184. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 185. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 186. CRACK IN NORTH WALL. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 187. ORIGINAL ENTRANCE. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 188. MILLSTONE GRIT. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 189. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 190. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 191. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 192. NORTH ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 193. LOADING BAY DETAIL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 194. EAST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 195. MILLSTONE GRIT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 196. NARROW PAVEMENT. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 197. GROUND FLOOR ARCHED WINDOWS. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 198. WEST ELEVATION, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 199. WEST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 200. WEST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 201, WEST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 202-203 (RIGHT), STONE BUTTRESSES. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 204, STAIRWELL ON WEST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN.

INTERIOR AND STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS FIG 205, SUB BASEMENT LOADING BAY. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 206, SECOND FLOOR LOADING BAY (NOW WINDOW). AUTHORS OWN. FIG 207. WEST ELEVATION. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 208-242. INTERIOR ANALYSIS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 243. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 244.ROOF STRUCTURE DETAIL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 245. ROOF STRUCTURE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 246. FLOOR STRUCTURE. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 247-249, TIMBER FLOOR STRUCTURE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 250-251, SUB-BASEMENT STRUCTURE, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 252. SUB-BASEMENT STRUCTURE. AUTHORS OWN.

CASE STUDIES FIG 253, BCALANDSCAPE. (2019). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BCALANDSCAPE.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/BURSCOUGH-

383


BRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 24 JAN. 2019]. FIG 254., AUTHORS OWN. FIG.255, CHURCH, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 256-257. BCALANDSCAPE. (2019). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BCALANDSCAPE.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/BURSCOUGHBRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 24 JAN. 2019]. FIG 258. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 259-261. BCALANDSCAPE. (2019). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BCALANDSCAPE.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/BURSCOUGHBRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 24 JAN. 2019]. FIG 262. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 263-271, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 272. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 273. BCALANDSCAPE. (2019). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BCALANDSCAPE.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/BURSCOUGHBRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 24 JAN. 2019]. FIG 274. MURIAL DETAIL, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 275. BCALANDSCAPE. (2019). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BCALANDSCAPE.CO.UK/PORTFOLIO/BURSCOUGHBRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 24 JAN. 2019]. FIG 276-278, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 279. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 280. FOX, M. (2019). PINGLE MILL, DELPH (C) MICHAEL FOX. [ONLINE] GEOGRAPH.ORG.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.GEOGRAPH.ORG.UK/PHOTO/2370333 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 281-282. CONTEXT, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 283-303, AUTHORS OWN. FIG 304-307. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 308-309. BERNSTEIN, L. (2019). ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE — LEVITT BERNSTEIN. [ONLINE] LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK/PROJECT-STORIES/ROYAL-EXCHANGE-THEATRE/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 310-316. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 317-318. BERNSTEIN, L. (2019). ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE — LEVITT BERNSTEIN. [ONLINE] LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK/PROJECT-STORIES/ROYAL-EXCHANGE-THEATRE/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 319-321. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 322-327. CASTLE, G. (2019). CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM IN HALIFAX. [ONLINE] HUDDERSFIELDEXAMINER. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.EXAMINERLIVE. CO.UK/NEWS/GALLERY/CALDERDALE-INDUSTRIAL-MUSEUM-IN-HALIFAX-13896380 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 328-330. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 331. CASTLE, G. (2019). CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM IN HALIFAX. [ONLINE] HUDDERSFIELDEXAMINER. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.EXAMINERLIVE. CO.UK/NEWS/GALLERY/CALDERDALE-INDUSTRIAL-MUSEUM-IN-HALIFAX-13896380 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 332. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 333. CASTLE, G. (2019). CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM IN HALIFAX. [ONLINE] HUDDERSFIELDEXAMINER. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.EXAMINERLIVE. CO.UK/NEWS/GALLERY/CALDERDALE-INDUSTRIAL-MUSEUM-IN-HALIFAX-13896380 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 334-335. AUTHORS OWN. FIG 336-337. CASTLE, G. (2019). CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM IN HALIFAX. [ONLINE] HUDDERSFIELDEXAMINER. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.EXAMINERLIVE. CO.UK/NEWS/GALLERY/CALDERDALE-INDUSTRIAL-MUSEUM-IN-HALIFAX-13896380 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 338. AUTHORS OWN.

PRECEDENT STUDIES FIG 339. KENNEDY, M. (2019). VISIT THE MUMMERS MUSEUM. [ONLINE] VISIT PHILADELPHIA. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.VISITPHILLY.COM/THINGS-TO-DO/

384


ATTRACTIONS/MUMMERS-MUSEUM/ [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. FIG 340-346. EL BOQUERON VIAJERO - BILINGUAL AND BICULTURAL TRAVEL BLOG. (2019). THE MUMMERS MUSEUM, PART OF PHILADELPHIA’S IDENTITY. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://ELBOQUERONVIAJERO.COM/EN/USA/PENNSYLVANIA/MUMMERS-MUSEUM-PHILADELPHIA/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019].

FIG 347-350. LAZO, D. (2013). TCL ARCHITECTS: EPHEMERAL BOXES HOUSE PUPPET SHOW TV SERIES. [ONLINE] DESIGNBOOM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. DESIGNBOOM.COM/ARCHITECTURE/TCL-ARCHITECTS-EPHERMERAL-BOXES-HOUSE-PUPPET-SHOW-TV-SERIES-10-02-2013/ [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. FIG 351-354. MUNGO. (2019). THE MUNGO MILL - COME AND SEE HOW WE MAKE THE FABRIC YOU LOVE | MUNGO. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.MUNGO. CO.ZA/ABOUT-US/OUR-MILL/ [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 355-358. ARCHDAILY. (2015). THE CINEROLEUM / ASSEMBLE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/777156/THE-CINEROLEUM-ASSEMBLE [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 359-361. FOERSTER, J. (2012). BARKOW LEIBINGER ARCHITECTS: LOOM HYPERBOLIC. [ONLINE] DESIGNBOOM | ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN MAGAZINE. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/READERS/BARKOW-LEIBINGER-ARCHITECTS-LOOM-HYPERBOLIC/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 362-367. VAM.AC.UK. (2019). ALEXANDER MCQUEEN: SAVAGE BEAUTY - ABOUT THE EXHIBITION - VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.VAM.AC.UK/CONTENT/EXHIBITIONS/EXHIBITION-ALEXANDER-MCQUEEN-SAVAGE-BEAUTY/ABOUT-THE-EXHIBITION/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019].

INSPIRATION FIG 368-369. MORRIS, A. (2019). TRIANGLES OF LIGHT ANIMATE PERFORATED ALUMINIUM FACADE OF TEL AVIV HOME BY PITSOU KEDEM ARCHITECTS. [ONLINE] DEZEEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2018/09/19/D3-HOUSE-PITSOU-KEDEM-ARCHITECTS-PERFORATED-ALUMINUM-FACADE-TEL-AVIV/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 370. DIOINNO.COM. (2019). CONNECTED LIVING: METABOLIC EVOLUTION THROUGH PREFABRICATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE — DIOINNO ARCHITECTURE PLLC. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://DIOINNO.COM/CONNECTED-LIVING-METABOLIC-EVOLUTION-THROUGH-PREFABRICATION-AND [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 371-373. NASTASI, A. (2019). BEAUTIFUL AND UNUSUAL PERFORMANCE SPACES. [ONLINE] FLAVORWIRE. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://FLAVORWIRE.COM/563406/ BEAUTIFUL-AND-UNUSUAL-PERFORMANCE-SPACES/3 [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 374-378. LABOUREL, A. (2019). THE HIDDEN ORCHESTRA. [ONLINE] ALICE LABOUREL. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.ALICELABOUREL.FR/#/NEW-PAGE/ [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 379. ARCHDAILY. (2019). GALLERY OF YELLOW EARTH / TANDEM DESIGN STUDIO - 10. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/777846/YELLOWEARTH-TANDEM-DESIGN-STUDIO/5656729AE58ECE1533000213-YELLOW-EARTH-TANDEM-DESIGN-STUDIO-PHOTO [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 380. KIVA STORIES FROM THE FIELD. (2007). PREPARING A LOOM. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://KIVAFELLOWS.WORDPRESS.COM/2007/12/06/PREPARING-ALOOM/ [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 381. HANDMADE, I. (2019). MAKING COLOR, WEAVING THREADS, AND DYEING TEXTILES. [ONLINE] INDIGO LION. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. INDIGOLIONGLOBALHANDMADE.COM/BLOG/2017/9/20/MAKING-COLOR-WEAVING-THREADS-DYEING-TEXTILES [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 382. ARCHDAILY. (2019). GALLERY OF YELLOW EARTH / TANDEM DESIGN STUDIO - 10. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/777846/YELLOWEARTH-TANDEM-DESIGN-STUDIO/5656729AE58ECE1533000213-YELLOW-EARTH-TANDEM-DESIGN-STUDIO-PHOTO [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 383-384. LANDEZINE.COM. (2019). TANNER SPRINGS RAMBOLL STUDIO DREISEITL « LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE WORKS | LANDEZINE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.LANDEZINE.COM/INDEX.PHP/2013/03/TANNER-SPRINGS-PARK-BY-ATELIER-DREISEITL/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 385. LEVY, N. (2019). AUW CREATES WOOLLY WALLED PAVILION IN RURAL HUNGARY. [ONLINE] DEZEEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2018/08/23/ AUW-WOOL-HOUSE-ARCHITECTURE-UNCOMFORTABLE-WORKSHOP-HUNGARY/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 386. ARCHIPRODUCTS. (2019). WAVE CONNECTED ABSORBER BY SPÄH DESIGNED ACOUSTIC. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHIPRODUCTS.COM/EN/ PRODUCTS/SPAH-DESIGNED-ACOUSTIC/BASOTECT-HANGING-ACOUSTIC-PANEL-WAVE-CONNECTED-ABSORBER_266660 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 387. ARCHITONIC.COM. (2019). PLEAT WALL PANEL - DRAPERY FABRICS FROM ANNE KYYRÖ QUINN | ARCHITONIC. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. ARCHITONIC.COM/EN/PRODUCT/ANNE-KYYRO-QUINN-PLEAT-WALL-PANEL/1043233 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 388. INHABITAT.COM. (2012). MUTI RANDOLPH CREATES AN UNDULATING WAVE OF LED LIGHTS AT RIO DE JANEIRO’S LA LAMPE STORE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT:

385


HTTPS://INHABITAT.COM/MUTI-RANDOLPH-CREATES-AN-UNDULATING-WAVE-OF-LED-LIGHTS-AT-RIO-DE-JANEIROS-LA-LAMPE-STORE/MUTI-RANDOLPH-LALAMPE4/ [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 389. MUNGO. (2019). THE MUNGO MILL - COME AND SEE HOW WE MAKE THE FABRIC YOU LOVE | MUNGO. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.MUNGO.CO.ZA/ ABOUT-US/OUR-MILL/ [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. FIG 390. ARCHDAILY. (2019). GALLERY OF VENICE BIENNALE 2012: LE QUATTRO STAGIONI. L´ARCHITECTTURA DEL MADE IN ITALY DA ADRIANO OLIVETTI ALLA GREEN ECONOMY / ITALY PAVILION - 19. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHDAILY.COM/267876/VENICE-BIENNALE-2012-LE-QUATTRO-STAGIONIL%C2%B4ARCHITECTTURA-DEL-MADE-IN-ITALY-DA-ADRIANO-OLIVETTI-ALLA-GREEN-ECONOMY-ITALY-PAVILION/BNL_ITA_14/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 391. PINTEREST. (2019). PARIS: PIECES OF EVIDENCE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/673710425485894075/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 392. PINTEREST. (2019). ADAM MARTINAKIS, 1972. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/539869074058426682/?LP=TRUE [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 393. PINTEREST. (2019). PERSONAL AND IMMERSIVE (IN CASE WE DON’T GET PROJECTORS!) | INSTALACIONES IN 2019 | PINTEREST | ART, INSTALLATION ART AND EXHIBITION SPACE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.PINTEREST.CO.UK/PIN/309974386849267366/ [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019]. FIG 394-396. FREARSON, A. (2019). GREENHOUSE AT GRÜNINGEN BOTANICAL GARDEN BY BUEHRER WUEST ARCHITEKTEN. [ONLINE] DEZEEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.DEZEEN.COM/2012/09/03/GREENHOUSE-AT-GRUNINGEN-BOTANICAL-GARDEN-BY-BUEHRER-WUEST-ARCHITEKTEN/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. FIG 397-410. AUTHORS OWN.

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KB.RSPCA.ORG.AU. (2015). WHAT ARE THE ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES WITH SHEARING OF SHEEP? - RSPCA AUSTRALIA KNOWLEDGEBASE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS:// KB.RSPCA.ORG.AU/WHAT-ARE-THE-ANIMAL-WELFARE-ISSUES-WITH-SHEARING-OF-SHEEP_603.HTML [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. KENNEDY, M. (2019). VISIT THE MUMMERS MUSEUM. [ONLINE] VISIT PHILADELPHIA. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.VISITPHILLY.COM/THINGS-TO-DO/ATTRACTIONS/MUMMERSMUSEUM/ [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. LABOUREL, A. (2019). THE HIDDEN ORCHESTRA. [ONLINE] ALICE LABOUREL. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.ALICELABOUREL.FR/#/NEW-PAGE/ [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. LAZO, D. (2013). TCL ARCHITECTS: EPHEMERAL BOXES HOUSE PUPPET SHOW TV SERIES. [ONLINE] DESIGNBOOM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.DESIGNBOOM.COM/ ARCHITECTURE/TCL-ARCHITECTS-EPHERMERAL-BOXES-HOUSE-PUPPET-SHOW-TV-SERIES-10-02-2013/ [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. LOVEKNITTING BLOG. (2017). THE SCIENCE OF HOW TO DYE YARN • LOVEKNITTING BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://BLOG.LOVEKNITTING.COM/SCIENCE-OF-HOW-TO-DYE-YARN/ [ACCESSED 23 JAN. 2019]. MEDIEVAL CHRONICLES. (2019). MEDIEVAL-MUMMERS PICTURE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.MEDIEVALCHRONICLES.COM/MEDIEVAL-PEOPLE/MEDIEVALENTERTAINERS/MEDIEVAL-MUMMERS/MEDIEVAL-MUMMERS/ [ACCESSED 31 JAN. 2019]. MUNGO. (2019). THE MUNGO MILL - COME AND SEE HOW WE MAKE THE FABRIC YOU LOVE | MUNGO. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.MUNGO.CO.ZA/ABOUT-US/OUR-MILL/ [ACCESSED 7 FEB. 2019]. MUSE MAGAZINE. (2019). BALENCIAGA: SHAPING FASHION. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.MUSEMAGAZINE.IT/BALENCIAGA-SHAPING-FASHION/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. NASTASI, A. (2019). BEAUTIFUL AND UNUSUAL PERFORMANCE SPACES. [ONLINE] FLAVORWIRE. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://FLAVORWIRE.COM/563406/BEAUTIFUL-AND-UNUSUALPERFORMANCE-SPACES/3 [ACCESSED 10 FEB. 2019].¬¬¬ RAHMAN, R. (2018). WOOL FIBRE | MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF WOOL FIBRE | PART 02. [ONLINE] TEXTILE STUDY CENTER. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://TEXTILESTUDYCENTER.COM/ MANUFACTURING-PROCESS-OF-WOOL-FIBRE/ [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. RAVEN, S. (2019). ISATIS TINCTORIA (WOAD). [ONLINE] SARAH RAVEN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.SARAHRAVEN.COM/FLOWERS/SEEDS/BIENNIAL_SEEDS/ISATIS_TINCTORIA. HTM [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. RAVENSCROFT, J. (2005). PACE EGGING: A LANCASHIRE TRADITION. [ONLINE] TIMETRAVEL-BRITAIN.COM. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.TIMETRAVEL-BRITAIN.COM/ARTICLES/ HISTORY/PACE-EGGING.SHTML [ACCESSED 14 JAN. 2019]. RCHITONIC.COM. (2019). PLEAT WALL PANEL - DRAPERY FABRICS FROM ANNE KYYRÖ QUINN | ARCHITONIC. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ARCHITONIC.COM/EN/ PRODUCT/ANNE-KYYRO-QUINN-PLEAT-WALL-PANEL/1043233 [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. REVOLANA. (2017). THE SCOURING OF WOOL IN SERBIA | REVOLANA. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://REVOLANA.COM/2017/08/THE-SCOURING-OF-WOOL-IN-SERBIA/ [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. REVOLANA. (2019). THE SCOURING OF WOOL IN SERBIA | REVOLANA. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://REVOLANA.COM/2017/08/THE-SCOURING-OF-WOOL-IN-SERBIA/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. RHS. (2019). RUDBECKIA HIRTA ‘INDIAN SUMMER’. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.RHS.ORG.UK/PLANTS/100327/RUDBECKIA-HIRTA-INDIAN-SUMMER/DETAILS [ACCESSED 4 FEB. 2019]. ROB ANDREWS (2019). SARDINIA EVENTS. [ONLINE] THE TELEGRAPH. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/EUROPE/ITALY/SARDINIA/ ARTICLES/SARDINIA-EVENTS/ [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. ROYAL EXCHANGE. (2019). [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.ROYALEXCHANGE.CO.UK/THE-THEATRE [ACCESSED 2 JAN. 2019]. S418836063.WEBSITEHOME.CO.UK. (2018). THE FAIRYTALE OF BURSCOUGH BRIDGE / SMILING WOLF. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://S418836063.WEBSITEHOME.CO.UK/SW/ PROJECT/THE-FAIRYTALE-OF-BURSCOUGH-BRIDGE/ [ACCESSED 19 NOV. 2018]. SAVIOTECHNOLOGIES.COM. (2018). LABORATORY CARDING MACHINE| MESDAN - OFFICIAL WEBSITE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.SAVIOTECHNOLOGIES.COM/MESDAN/ EN/MESDAN-LAB/PRODUCTS/FIBERS/CARDING-SAMPLE-PREPARATION/PAGES/LABORATORY%20CARDING%20MACHINE.ASPX [ACCESSED 3 DEC. 2018]. SCHOENIAN, S. (2014). SHEARING. [ONLINE] SHEEP 201. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.SHEEP101.INFO/201/SHEARING.HTML [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. SCHOENIAN, S. (2015). SHEEP 101: KINDS OF SHEEP. [ONLINE] SHEEP101. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.SHEEP101.INFO/SHEEPTYPES.HTML [ACCESSED 21 JAN. 2019]. SHEFFIELD, U. (2019). ARCHIVES OF CULTURAL TRADITION MISCELLANEOUS MANUSCRIPTS - SPECIAL COLLECTIONS - THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY - THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD. [ONLINE] SHEFFIELD.AC.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.SHEFFIELD.AC.UK/LIBRARY/SPECIAL/ACTMISC [ACCESSED 18 JAN. 2019]. ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬STUDY.COM. (2019). COSTUME DESIGN: DEFINITION, HISTORY & PROCESS | STUDY.COM. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://STUDY.COM/ACADEMY/LESSON/COSTUMEDESIGN-DEFINITION-HISTORY-PROCESS.HTML [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. (2016). THE MYSTICAL ORIGINS OF THE KUKERI: BULGARIA’S STRANGEST FOLK FESTIVAL - THE BOHEMIAN BLOG. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW. THEBOHEMIANBLOG.COM/2016/01/THE-MYSTICAL-ORIGINS-OF-THE-KUKERI-BULGARIAS-STRANGEST-FOLK-FESTIVAL.HTML [ACCESSED 5 FEB. 2019].

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THE BRITISH WOOL MARKETING BOARD. (1981). BRADFORD, WEST YORKSHIRE: THE BOARD. THE SPINNING LOFT. (2016). HOW TO SKIRT A FLEECE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.THESPINNINGLOFT.COM/HOW-TO-SKIRT-A-FLEECE/ [ACCESSED 2 DEC. 2018]. THEAFTERALICEPROJECT.ORG. (2018). LUDDENDENFOOT · THE AFTER ALICE PROJECT. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://THEAFTERALICEPROJECT.ORG/COLLECTIONS/ SHOW/8 [ACCESSED 18 NOV. 2018]. THEGREENAGE. (2017). THE ADVANTAGES OF SHEEP WOOL INSULATION - THEGREENAGE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.THEGREENAGE.CO.UK/ ADVANTAGES-SHEEP-WOOL-INSULATION/ [ACCESSED 21 JAN. 2019]. VAM.AC.UK. (2019). ALEXANDER MCQUEEN: SAVAGE BEAUTY - ABOUT THE EXHIBITION - VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW.VAM. AC.UK/CONTENT/EXHIBITIONS/EXHIBITION-ALEXANDER-MCQUEEN-SAVAGE-BEAUTY/ABOUT-THE-EXHIBITION/ [ACCESSED 12 FEB. 2019]. WAINWRIGHT, O. (2012). LEBBEUS WOODS, VISIONARY ARCHITECT OF IMAGINARY WORLDS, DIES IN NEW YORK. [ONLINE] THE GUARDIAN. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS:// WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/ARTANDDESIGN/ARCHITECTURE-DESIGN-BLOG/2012/OCT/31/LEBBEUS-WOODS [ACCESSED 12 JAN. 2019]. WEINREB, M. (2019). ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE — LEVITT BERNSTEIN. [ONLINE] LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK. AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.LEVITTBERNSTEIN.CO.UK/ PROJECT-STORIES/ROYAL-EXCHANGE-THEATRE/ [ACCESSED 2 JAN. 2019]. WELIVER, E. (2017). BULGARIA: MUMMERS’ FESTIVAL (KUKERI), SHIROKA LAKA, BULGARIA. [ONLINE] WELIVER’S TRAVELS. AVAILABLE AT: HTTP://WWW. WELIVERSTRAVELS.COM/JOURNAL/332017BULGARIA-MUMMERSS-FESTIVAL-KUKERI-SHIROKA-LAKA-BULGARIA [ACCESSED 13 FEB. 2019]. WIKIHOW. (2019). HOW TO SHEAR A SHEEP. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.WIKIHOW.COM/SHEAR-A-SHEEP [ACCESSED 25 JAN. 2019]. WORKSAFE QUEENSLAND. (2018). SHEEP HANDLING AND SHEARING. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW.WORKSAFE.QLD.GOV.AU/AGRICULTURE/WORKPLACEHAZARDS/SHEEP-HANDLING [ACCESSED 6 FEB. 2019]. YORKSHIRE.COM. (2018). THE PIECE HALL - ATTRACTION - HALIFAX - WEST YORKSHIRE | WELCOME TO YORKSHIRE. [ONLINE] AVAILABLE AT: HTTPS://WWW. YORKSHIRE.COM/VIEW/ATTRACTIONS/HALIFAX/THE-PIECE-HALL-2036815 [ACCESSED 30 NOV. 2018].

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A1- PACE-EGGING AND RUSHBEARING, PAGE 15. Pace-egging Pace-egging has connections to Celtic, Egyptian and Syrian cultures, restored in England in the 1930’s. ‘Pacen derives from the Latin ‘pasche’ which translates to passion. Sometimes ‘pace’ is translated as ‘peace’; where some villages refer to the tradition as ‘peace egging’. Brightly coloured costumes and oversized headpieces are worn to represent the following characters: -St George -The Slasher -Doctor -Fool -The Black Moroccan Prince -Hector -Toss Pot (devil)

A2.1- Bulgarian Mummer Festival, page 18. In Bulgaria, a Mummers parade takes place on the first Sunday of March, to “fight away the death of winter and evil spirits” (Weliver, 2017). Masks, animal costumes and bells are worn to suit a chosen theme; such as horns, birds and animals. Again, life and death is celebrated, as performances look at planting fields with fruit and recreating acts of marriage and birth. These are thought to overcome the bad spirits, welcoming in the spring.

A2.2 SARDINIA FESTIVAL, PAGE 19

These characters are in every pace egging play, telling the story of St George. Although it seems slightly irrelevant to Easter, it does however celebrate the idea of death and resurrection; good over evil. An egg is a symbol of the continuity in life, hence why eggs are shared and celebrated by communities.

In early February a festival from medieval times is celebrated by locals who wear sheepskin costumes and eerie masks (Rob Andrews, 2019). Traditionally similar to our bonfire night, a “pupazzo” (“guy”) is burnt on a bonfire whilst villagers dance around.

Rushbearing

A2.3- IRISH STRAW FESTIVAL, PAGE 20.

This is Sowerby bridges largest event which dates back centuries. Traditionally, cold floors in churches were strewn with straw to cushion worshippers’ knees. The smell of straw also provided a pleasant scent.

Before Lent, many areas in Ireland celebrate a traditional folklore that sees men wearing large masks made from straw that cover the face. These are referred to as ‘Wren Boys’ or ‘Biddy Boys’. Just as in England, every Mummer play has a set cast (see Since 1977 the tradition has grown greatly. Men in white A.1) where there is a hero and villain. Every character shirts, black trousers, hats and clogs pull the rushcart, has a song or rhyme to sing which keeps the tradition while dancing and singing Morris dancers follow on. exciting. Although there are traditional characters; The two-day event commences in early September, today, Mummers often create their own variations of where nine miles are covered in total. character that are recognised as good or evil.

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A3- DEFRA ACCREDITATION AND SHEEP WELFARE, PG 48. (REQUIREMENTS RELATED TO THE PROPOSAL) -Sheep must be tagged to differentiate from others in the area due to the high population of farming land. -Sheep shed kept clean and design of flow to have minimal stress impact. This is achieved through raised, removable grated floor, where the grazing direction aids in circulation. -All cutters, shears, ear pliers etc. must be sterilised and kept dry. -2 people to lift/manoeuvre 1 sheep (therefore 2 in shearing shed at all times). -Little to no artificial lighting used where sheep occupy. -Regular health checks (daily). (Coe.int, 2019) Link to watch on processing wool: https://revolana. com/2017/08/the-scouring-of-wool-in-serbia/


A4-SCIENCE OF DYING, PG 58. The list of natural dye products which can be used is endless with countless outcomes. Different parts of dye plants can be used to achieve different shades of colour, Cuttings may be taken from roots, leaves and flowers. However, they require specific growing conditions, therefore the design will take into account what dye plants will be grown in The Mummery. Vinegar is 3% acetic acid which helps the hydrogen molecules in the dye bond to the woollen protein fibres. (LoveKnitting Blog, 2017)

C2-PAGE 183

This acid is added to water which must be heated to create energy which will transfer the dye molecules to the fibres; this process is called exhaustion. Dye pots and machinery are normally made from stainless steel with 4% molybdenum to prevent the acid from eroding the steel overtime. (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019)

B- GENERAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PUBLIC SPACES/FACILITIES

C1-BUIDING HISTORY-FORMER USES AND OWNERS, PAGE 134.

-Gloves/aprons are supplied in dye lab and was/scour In 1845 it was a woollen manufacturers and blanket makers owned by John Ratcliffe. Many years later, the room due to possible chemical hazards. building was owned by James Clay who had in total 6 working woollen manufacturers across the area of -Gloves to be worn when handling raw wool. Calderdale. During the time Clay owned the business, Denholme Mill not only manufactured raw wool but -Safety footwear in shearing shed and in field. also produced cloths and serge’s for government departments such as the War Office. By 1871, Clay -Safety goggles, gloves and aprons provided for employed 130 workers at his 3 Luddenden Foot mills, relevant activities in building. totalling 1100 workers by 1895 across all 6 mills. The 1980’s saw the last of the woollen production in the -2 fire exits with safety routes. building where owner William Rawnsley ran a waste wool and textile processors until 1992 when production -Handwash areas. came to an end and became a camping shop until October 2018. -Lift access for disabled people.

Luddenden Foot has a history of flooding with the earliest record being in 1615 where it was recorded Elland Bridge was destroyed. Ever since then, every year flooding occurs with approximately every 2-3 years severe flooding recorded, with even some resulting in the death of local residents. Severity of the flooding around Calderdale ranges from surface water, rises in water levels to flash floods, damage to buildings and infrastructure and even in some instance’s houses being completely submerged underwater (Eyeoncalderdale.com, 2019).

C3-PROPOSED ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT- PAGE 184 Wool is extremely successful in controlling temperature as small air pockets within the woollen fibres trap air and absorb moisture, keeping the internal conditions warm and dry. Sheep wool has also been proven to remove impurities in the air due to proteins that absorb chemicals. Some other benefits of using wool as a building material are that it offers strong acoustic abilities (controlling passing sound), it is inflammable and also is 100% sustainable (TheGreenAge, 2017).

(WorkSafe Queensland, 2018)

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D3-CALDERDALE INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM, PAGE 308 The direct proximity to the Piece Hall and newly refurbished library, the area already attracts many D1-GLEDHILL MILL CASE STUDY, PAGE people and so has a high chance of drawing visitors D2-ROYAL EXCHANGE THEATRE CASE in. The building sits in an architecturally interesting 263. location, with a mixture of building styles, materials STUDY, PAGE 290. and working functions. Therefore upon arrival, the R. Gledhill’s was founded in 1936 by Ronald Gledhill The building has 4 storeys built in rectangular plan in area is intriguing and exciting with a mixture of people as a woollen spun yarn business. The business is dispersing amongst the different areas. Portland stone. The interior space is lit with natural run within Pingle Mill which sits within the small village of Delph on the Yorkshire/Lancashire boarder. light which is let in through three glazed domes. The building is of a classical style with pillars on the façade The mills structure is dominant as it protrudes out Saddleworth is also a milling area with rich land towards Square Road. It is full of character with its and columns on the interior floors. The theatre is and many working and disused textile and woollen original arched windows and timber loading bays, suspended between these columns as the original mills. Pingle Mill was built in 1777, where textile similar to that of Denholme Mill. This similarity in manufacturing has been carried out ever since under floor could not take the 150-tonne theatre. Now different owners. The first reference to the mill was in renovated, the entrance features more glass to allow architectural style and former use lends to identifying the will of a former clothier stating- “water cattle or passers buy to have a greater view into the exchange in how the The Mummery will display the heritage through exhibition and visitor interaction. hopes of encouraging them into the space. wash wool in the close called Pingle”. (Gater, 2018)

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E2 DESIGN AND CONCEPT E1

Labourel(2019) states that “The Ballet School project is an attempt to render subjective experience as objective reality”.

The V and A museum holds over 3500 costumes and headpieces, exhibiting the work of designers and makers from the mid 18th century. There are countless Her design is based on the experience between the physical architecture of a space and the user. The exhibits in the museum all of which are carefully design is imaginative, highly conceptual and playful. designed to support the contents. Her drawings (figs.) show how the building changes The museum is well known for exhibiting the evocative overtime, influenced by occurrences such as wind, work of Alexander Mcqueen, where the design of the water-flow, traffic and internal movement. exhibition its self enhances the pieces.

One explores primitivism and the relationship between predator and prey (fig 336) The dimly lit space with spotlight features creates an uneasy feeling as if you are the prey. The lighting qualities of this space highlight the garments and create a point of interest. The central lit dome plays a moving image which is representative of the inspired concept.

The organic shapes and fluid forms are based on those found in nature, and the movement that ballet evokes. The project uses three time-scales, like in film; “the 24 hour schedule of the school, the 19 seconds it takes a train to move from one bridge to another, and the yearly arrival of water into the river”(Labourel, 2019). Movement and time is a key factor in the design, just as the mechanical nature of manufacturing wool will inspire concepts within The Mummery.

REPORT BIND CONCEPT The physical design of the report represents the mechanical nature and materiality related to the design proposal. The report is bound with a 100% woollen cover and hand stitched to represent the detail in costume making. Tracing inserts represent the use of pattern pieces which have elements on to convey movement and placement of design. Hidden between two sheets of steel, it must be unscrewed and lifted off- representing the mechanical process of manufacturing wool. Since the project is all about performance and suspension (based on the buildings history of vertical movement) the steel rods suspend the report. The report is hidden and trapped to show the lost identity of the industry and the hidden culture of the area. ‘A cultural resurrection of luddenden foots hidden heritage’: the report must be resurrected from between the metal representing this new proposal.

Within The Mummery’s curated exhibition, moving imagery of the performance could be projected in the Her designs also present ideas of suspension from space to tell the stories behind the costumes. the proposed structure, which create the idea that Fig 367 represents a temporary curated space which the whole scheme acts as a dance or performance. Underneath is the poem by Simon Armitage which could potentially become a pavilion in the outdoor site. The Mummery will consider this approach to space, to inspired the whole brief and concept. It is “set in stone” create depth, evoke movement and maximise practical However it does not make good use of space as the showing the dominance of the building and heritage, space. form is circular with rectangular exhibits.

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