Page 1

Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:23

Page 2

The Drugs BookTM is written by Mal Williamson and Colin Fox and is the result of years of educational experience in the drugs sector for a range of public and private clients.

Our previous productions have been welcomed by all concerned in drugs issues from central government to police to drugs workers and charities.

This first proof is to show publishers and distributors our latest design and structure to address current drugs education needs.

Email us at thedrugsbook@gmail.com or telephone 07909683534 and get involved in this exciting new contribution to drugs and the drugs factor.


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:23

Page 3

The

TM

drugs and the drugs factor!

2011 edition


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:23

Page 4

Copyright Š Mal Williamson & Colin Fox 2011

Kingston upon Hull HU5 3AU

All Rights Reserved... no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or tansmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise... except under terms of the Copyright, Designs & Patents Act 1988... or under the terms of a license issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Rd, London W1T 1LP... and without the written permission of the publisher

ISBN 0 12345 678 9

Editor... Mal Williamson Design... Tony Whitley Design Ltd.

Published by

4


19:23

Page 5

intro

6

risks

drugs

14

testing

96

talking

therapies

102

law

first aid

help

144

Index

AN T UL

type 12

class 116

152

www.thedrugsbook.com

PAGES

30/5/11

STIM

Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

emergency 126

5


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:23

Page 6

THE DRUGS BOOK

www.thedrugsbook.com

• This book brings you the facts about drugs so you can avoid the myths and make-believe surrounding drug misuse • The world of drugs education and treatment faces

constant change and challenge... new drugs, research and legal ideas are emerging all the time

• Professionals and teens alike are in touch with us to keep our info fresh, relevant and accurate • The Drugs Book™ brings you street-level facts!

FACTS

• Get the latest info about drugs, their effects and the hazards of experimenting with substance misuse • These facts are used on a daily basis by police forces, drugs workers, teachers and young people

across the UK... helping everyone to make informed choices

• The creators of the bright orange Drugs Box® kiosk bring you this latest collection of drugs and drugs info which is now updated with the newest laws and the newest drugs • This book continues our tried and tested approach... easy-to-read, bite-size nuggets of clear facts!

6


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:24

Page 7

WHY?

• We put drugs in

their place... next to the risks, the laws and the help needed if you get into trouble

• Knowing about drugs is good for you… and your friends

7


www.thedrugsbook.com

Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:24

Page 8


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:24

Page 9

9


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:24

Page 10

THE DRUGS

www.thedrugsbook.com

NOG EN CI

HALLU

SAN T ES

DEPR

STIM

AN T UL

painkillers

LLE R KI

PAIN

• Different drugs have different risks and affect different parts of the body depressants hallucinogens • Drugs are put into broad groups... stimulants • Taking any kind of un-prescribed drug can be very risky • Drugs can affect your mind and your body... and might change the way you live your life

THE RISKS

• How much? People can have different tolerances... but some drugs can be fatal if too much is taken... this is called an overdose • How often? People can become so used to a drug that their body needs more to get the effect they want... addiction • Together?

Mixing drugs is very unpredictable... taking different drugs together is very hazardous... leading to serious incidents or deaths amongst friends

• What is it? The actual content of drugs varies... dealers can add stuff to make more money... talcum powder, brick dust, and powdered glass have been reported

• How? There are different ways drugs can be taken... injecting is probably the most risky way to take any drug... it is easy to overdose... if needles are shared this could pass on infections such as Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C and HIV... the virus that leads to AIDS

WHY AND WHAT

10


Drugs Book2.qxp:Layout 1

30/5/11

19:24

Page 11

THE PLACE

• Some people take drugs in very dodgy places... canal banks, near railway lines, derelict buildings... so accidents are more likely to happen... especially if people are off their heads

• Drugs like ecstasy are often taken in clubs where people dance for long periods of time in a hot, crowded atmosphere... this increases the chance of someone overheating and dehydrating... this might be avoided by chilling out regularly and sipping around a pint of water or non-alcoholic fluid every hour

THE PERSON

• We are all individuals... what might appear as safe for one person is hazardous for the next... many things affect how your body might deal with drugs • The strength of street drugs is usually unknown... drug users may have developed

tolerances that new users do not have... so it is difficult to know how a drug might affect them or their friends

• Health problems... people with heart, liver, blood pressure, epilepsy, diabetes or asthma problems should stay well away

• Weight... physical absorption of drugs varies from person to person • Gender... effects can be different for males and females because of our different bodies • The effects of many drugs are changed by a person’s mood, emotional state or mental health

WHERE AND WHO

11


THE DRUGS BOOK

• This book brings you the facts about drugs so you can avoid www.thedrugsbook.com

the myths and make-believe surrounding drug misuse

• The world of drugs education and treatment faces

constant change and challenge... new drugs, research and legal ideas are emerging all the time

• Professionals and teens alike are in touch with us to keep

our info fresh, relevant and accurate • The Drugs Book™ brings you street-level facts!

WHY?

• We put drugs in

their place... next to the risks, the laws and the help needed if you get into trouble

• Knowing about drugs is good for you… and your friends

FACTS

• Get the latest info about drugs, their effects and the hazards of experimenting with substance misuse • These facts are used on a daily basis by police forces, drugs workers, teachers and young people

across the UK... helping everyone to make informed choices

• The creators of the bright orange Drugs Box® kiosk bring you this latest collection of drugs and drugs info which is now updated with the newest laws and the newest drugs

• This book continues our tried and tested approach... easy-to-read, bite-size nuggets of clear facts!

6

7


8 9

www.thedrugsbook.com


THE DRUGS

www.thedrugsbook.com

NOG EN CI

HALLU

SAN T ES

DEPR

STIM

AN T UL

painkillers

LLE R KI

PAIN

• Different drugs have different risks and affect different parts of the body depressants hallucinogens • Drugs are put into broad groups... stimulants • Taking any kind of un-prescribed drug can be very risky • Drugs can affect your mind and your body... and might change the way you live your life

THE PLACE

THE RISKS

• How much? People can have different tolerances... but some drugs can be fatal if too much is taken... this is called an overdose • How often? People can become so used to a drug that their body needs more to get the effect they want... addiction • Together?

Mixing drugs is very unpredictable... taking different drugs together is very hazardous... leading to serious incidents or deaths amongst friends

• What is it? The actual content of drugs varies... dealers can add stuff to make more money... talcum powder, brick dust, and powdered glass have been found

• How? There are different ways drugs can be taken... injecting is probably the most risky way to take any drug... it is easy to overdose... if needles are shared this could pass on infections such as Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C and HIV... the virus that leads to AIDS

WHY AND WHAT

10

• Some people take drugs in very dodgy places... canal banks, near railway lines, derelict buildings... so accidents are more likely to happen... especially if people are off their heads

• Drugs like ecstasy are often taken in clubs where people dance for long periods of time in a hot, crowded atmosphere... this increases the chance of someone overheating and dehydrating... this might be avoided by chilling out regularly and sipping around a pint of water or non-alcoholic fluid every hour

THE PERSON

• We are all individuals... what might appear as safe for one person is hazardous for the next... many things affect how your body might deal with drugs • The strength of street drugs is usually unknown... drug users may have developed tolerances that new users do not have... so it is difficult to know how a drug might affect them or their friends

• Health problems... people with heart, liver, blood pressure, epilepsy, diabetes or asthma problems should stay well away

• Weight... physical absorption of drugs varies from person to person • Gender... effects can be different for males and females because of our different bodies • The effects of many drugs are changed by a person’s mood, emotional state or mental health

WHERE AND WHO

11


• These drugs act on the central nervous system and increase brain activity... they are known to be very hazardous for people who have heart or blood pressure problems

DEPRESSANTS

• These drugs slow the body down... the body might stop altogether...this is an overdose and can be fatal... people do die on their first misuse... avoid mixing these types of drugs

alcohol / glues & gases / tranquillisers

HALLUCINOGENS

• These drugs affect the way the mind sees and hears things... they might lead to people 'tripping out' and doing risky things... people risk mental health problems misusing these drugs

cannabis / ketamine / lsd / magic mushrooms LLER KI

PAIN

SANT ES

TYPES OF DRUGS 12

OGEN CIN

HALLU

STIMULANTS

AMPHETAMINE / COCAINE / CRACK / ECSTASY / POPPERS / TOBACCO

DEPR

www.thedrugsbook.com

STIM

ANT UL

PAINKILLERS

• These drugs include opiates and narcotics... or similar artificial versions...they have a

painkilling effect... and make people drowsy or relaxed... too much leads to fatal overdose

codeine / heroin / methadone / morphine TYPES OF DRUGS

13


www.thedrugsbook.com

STIM

ANT UL

14

Lots of drugs and lots to know... let the symbols make it easy!

15


DEPR

SANT ES

THE FACTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Alcoholic drinks have different strengths... how much of the drink is pure alcohol... eg 5% • This is known as ABV… Alcohol By Volume • Alcopops often have more alcohol than beers • It is illegal to sell to under-18s... 16+ can drink if eating in a restaurant... but only 18+ can buy

• Drinking can harm unborn babies

EFFECTS

• Effects vary from relaxing, chatting, laughing and feeling increased confidence... to slurring, losing balance and sometimes being sick

• People may die of alcoholic poisoning... or

pass out and choke to death on their vomit... so avoid leaving drunk friends on their own

• Alcohol is always very hazardous when mixed with other drugs... effects are usually unpredictable and unexpected

RISKS

• Alcohol is a depressant... regular users can become down & miserable • It is easy for users to enjoy escaping from their problems with alcohol

... and dependency might follow

• An ill-feeling hangover can last for the whole of the next day... long term misuse can damage the liver, heart and stomach... permanently

• Being drunk can make you vulnerable to other people or your own behaviour • Alcohol is involved in 40% of all violent crime… and 40,000 deaths per year in England & Wales

...BOOZE/NECTAR/DRINK/POISON/GROG/SAUCE 16

SIGNS

• under the influence

relaxed and sociable... slurred speech... loss of balance... lack of inhibitions... mentally frustrated... prone to arguments or violence ... nausea and vomiting

• behaviour changes

hangovers... using alcohol to fall asleep... drinking more as the tolerance builds... out more and more

• paraphernalia

bottles and cans

BREW/POP/DRAMS/BEVY/SHOTS/LOOPY JUICE... 17


STIM

ANT UL

THE FACTS

• Amphetamine... speed... makes you feel like

• An exciting rush can be felt as heart and

• It is a tablet or white powder to be snorted or might be injected

could last for 1 or 2 days

you have lots of energy and confidence

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

• After some hours the effect wears off and the user can be ill and depressed... the ‘come-down’ • A tolerance is built up so you could need more and more for the same effect

breathing speeds up

• Users might talk non-stop for hours • Extreme tiredness, anxiety and depression

• Users sometimes repeat doses to avoid the

after-effect... this makes the ‘come-down’ worse

• Some users could become tense and angry

RISKS

• Long-term use might lead to mental illness • Sharing needles could risk HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C amongst

other diseases

• The heart might be strained by long-term use • Some might have panic attacks and get violent • Some could start to need more and more speed just to feel OK

...SPEED / BOMB / PHET / BILLY / SULPHATE 18

SIGNS

• under the influence

rapid speech...dilated pupils...poor ability to concentrate...shorter attention span...jumps topics when talking... confident...restless... gurning or chewing

• behaviour changes

not sleeping well... using alcohol to sleep ...very lethargic and tired for couple of days after taking drug

• paraphernalia

small foil wraps... small mirrors... razor blades for chopping powder... needles and syringes very hazardous behaviour so seek professional help!

WHIZZ / DEXIES / PASTE / BASE / UPPERS... 19


TIO RIP N

PRESC

THE FACTS

• Doctors prescribe from different types of anti-depressants www.thedrugsbook.com

• SSRI’s... Selective Serotonin Reuptake

Inhibitors... including Prozac, Zoloft, Seroxat, Paxil, Faverin, Cipramil and Lustral

• MAOI’s... Monoamine Oxydase Inhibitors ... including Nardil, Parnate and Manerix • MAOI’s need special diets to avoid bad

reactions

EFFECTS

• Misusers may report seeming to be happier • Doctors prescribe anti-depressants for acute anxiety, bulimia and obsessive-compulsive disorder… as well as for depression

• Anti-depressants might take a few weeks to build up their effect

• Many drugs sold as anti-depressants have no active ingredient

RISKS

• Withdrawal can take many months...with mood swings, anxiety, nausea... as well as depression

SIGNS

• under the influence

perhaps calm... mood swings... anxiety... or hostility

• behaviour changes

may seem to have a brighter mood... seem happier

• paraphernalia

pill bottles and boxes

• Different anti-depressants can have different adverse effects for different people • Combining SSRI’s with MAOI’s is hazardous and may cause blackouts

• People might come across other anti-depressants and perhaps self-medicate... ignoring doctor’s advice • It is thought that SSRI’s are not addictive... but some disagree

...PROZAC / ZOLOFT / LUSTRAL / FAVERIN / 20

CIPRAMIL / SEROXAT / NARDIL / PAXIL... 21


PATNIOTN URLI

ST EISMC PR

THE FACTS

• BZP Is known as a legal form of ecstasy... it is

www.thedrugsbook.com

already banned in some countries including US and Australia... the law is set to change in the UK

• BZP is a synthetic stimulant in tablet form or as a powder

• A mix of BZP and other chemicals might be sometimes sold illegally as ‘pep pills’

• Originally developed to worm animals

EFFECTS

• Skin might tingle and heart-rate increase

• Sense of taste, colour and sound may be

enhanced and a sense of euphoria may occur

• Some effects may last 4 to 8 hours... depending on mood and metabolism

RISKS

• BZP was rumoured to be a safe alternative to ecstasy... but many people were concerned as it had not been tested • Some doctors are warning of anxiety and convulsions casued by stimulation from BZP • Tolerance can develop so users need more and more to get the same effect • BZP’s safety is not proven and it is illegal to sell as a recreational drug • Users report difficulties in sleeping up to 10 hours after effects have worn off

...PEP PILLS / NEMESIS / A2 / LEGAL E / 22

SIGNS

• under the influence

energetic... euphoric... restless... flushing skin as it kicks in

• behaviour changes

mild come-down after nights out... perhaps a slight loss of memory

• paraphernalia

typically small tablets... varying colour... perhaps embossed with logos... small plastic resealable bags... sometimes available in capsules

BENZYLPIPERAZINE / PIPERAZINES... 23


EE DR PSRC P

AIN OTN ST IP ERS

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• There are lots of different types of 'barbs' www.thedrugsbook.com

>>Barbiturates are tablets, capsules, syrup or suppositories

>>Users are slowed down, slur speech and get very clumsy

>>Barbiturates used to be prescribed as sleeping pills

• Due to tolerance, users might

• Barbiturates are strong sedatives that slow users down

>>Users can become tolerant, needing more and more to get the same effect >>Withdrawal effects range from irritability to convulsions >>Death can occur, especially if mixed with other sedative drugs

RISKS

quickly become physically and psychologically dependent

>>Sudden withdrawal from high doses of barbiturates can cause death >>Death is common when mixed with alcohol, heroin or tranquillisers

>>There are many different types of barbiturates... misuse can be very hazardous >>Like all drugs... injection is very hazardous

...BARBS / BARBIES / DOWNERS / BLUES / 24

SIGNS

• under the influence semi-conscious or dream-like...perhaps very content...but unpredictable... relaxed

• behaviour changes lack of zest... some disinterest... tired... withdrawn... perhaps different friends of similar attitude

• paraphernalia

none as such... barbiturates come in a wide range of tablets... different sizes and colours

REDS / CHERRIES / NEMBIES / SLEEPERS... 25


AIN OTN ST IP ERS

EE DR PSRC P

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• Caffeine effects are felt after quarter of an hour

• Caffeine increases heart rate, breathing and

day is considered to cause problems

easier to think

• Effects vary for different people... but 7 cups a • Tolerance is high... more and more is needed to get the same effect • Regular users can become psychologically

dependent

production of urine

• Users report more energy and that it is

• Heavy coffee-drinkers can feel restless, tense and have irregular heartbeats

• Caffeine can make it hard to sleep

RISKS

• Higher doses can feel like panic attacks, such as delirium and ringing ears • Disturbed sleep can lead to fatigue problems - so users often take more coffee • Studies are made that link caffeine with ulcers and heart disease but this is not certain • Regular users can experience cravings, get headaches and feel lethargic if they stop • Caffeine can increase high blood pressure and irritate ulcers

...COFFEE / TEA / COLA / SPORTS DRINKS 26

SIGNS

• under the influence

agitated... energetic... perhaps ‘wired’... or restless... on edge

• behaviour changes

not ususally addictive ... daytime tiredness after a late night...or headaches...sleepless nights... caffeine may affect urinary process

• paraphernalia

energy drink bottles... caffeine tablets... cups of coffee

PEP PILLS / ENERGY DRINKS / CHOCOLATE... 27


AE HR LLSUC P

EN POTGIO CRINI

• Cannabis can be rolled with tobacco into a www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

spliff or joint... smoked in a pipe... or eaten • It is a solid dark brown lump known as resin... dried leaves known as grass... or can be an oil • Ropes, cloth and soaps are legally made from hemp... the name of the cannabis plant • Cannabis on the street is often genetically modified and known as ‘skunk’... see p66

• Cannabis users might relax with music and

• under the influence

• Long-term users can lose energy and get

• behaviour changes

colours seem better • It might make you feel very nervous or paranoid... or cause long-term mental health problems • Sometimes users can get very hungry, known as the ‘munchies' used to the drowsy high of ‘waccy baccy’

RISKS

• U-16s seem to be more at risk of developing long-term mental health problems such as schizophrenia • Cannabis users will sometimes become addicted to the nicotine in any tobacco used for rolling joints • It is hard to judge the extreme effects if cannabis is eaten • Cannabis users might find it hard to learn or concentrate...

or become dependent on a 'dope lifestyle’

• Full risks of synthetic cannabis-like drugs such as Spice are as yet unknown

. . . M A R IJ U A N A / G A NJ A / S H I T / H A S H / D O P E / L E A F / G E A R

28

SIGNS

red eyes... lethargy... drowsiness... some dilation of pupils... forgetting what they're doing... staring and quiet isolating themselves... avoiding family gettogethers... lateness... brown fingers and yellow teeth from smoking ‘bud’ or ‘bush’

• paraphernalia

cigarette papers... torn cardboard for use in joints as ‘roaches’... glass water pipes... hookahs and bongs... small pipes... a box for their ‘stash’

DRAW/ROCK/DOOBIE/WEED/GRASS/POT/RESIN... 29


ST EISMC PR

PATNIOTN URLI

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Cocaine is a very addictive stimulant which lasts for half an hour

• Cocaine users might feel very alert, confident,

• It is a white powder that is usually snorted

• Users need more and more 'coke' to get the same effect

• Cocaine gives the impression of confidence and energy

strong and resistant to pain

• After taking cocaine users can feel depressed and tired... this is called a ‘come-down’

• Cocaine has a strong effect that lasts about 30 minute... so users often want more

• Regular cocaine users might become depressed and weak once they stop

RISKS

• Cocaine users might get to need the effect more often and develop a dependency • Cocaine users often take more to avoid the after-effects... a low mood and feeling very rough

soon after stopping might tempt people to take more coke

• Snorting cocaine damages the inside of the nose • Regular users might become confused, restless and nervous • Cocaine is very addictive... a habit can be expensive and take over your life

...COKE / WHITE / ROCK / SNOW / CHING / SNUFF 30

SIGNS

• under the influence

lasting 30 minutes so repeated leaving and returning...rapid speech...confidence... moving quickly from subject to subject... restless and agitated... white powder around the nose

• behaviour changes

at first cocaine users can take it or leave it... but tolerance can develop quickly... going out more... financial difficulties

• paraphernalia

small foil wraps... small mirrors... razor blades for chopping powder

CHARLIE / C / NOSE CANDY / TOOT / POWDER... 31


RA EISNC PP

RN IPLTEIO L KRI

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• Codeine is an ingredient of many ‘over the

• Users can feel calm with a sense of

• It is an opiate along with heroin • Codeine can be very addictive • Other ingredients in the painkiller can be very

• Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, shivers and aching joints

www.thedrugsbook.com

counter’ medicines

• It is prescribed as a strong painkiller

hazardous if taken regularly or in large doses

well-being

• Codeine is often part of other painkillers... so more and more are needed for the same effect • Regular users can be irritable and lethargic without codeine

RISKS

• Like all opiates, more and more is needed to just feel normal • Because codeine is part of many over-the-counter painkillers, people may become

SIGNS

• under the influence drowsy... still... perhaps dream-like

• behaviour changes usually after using as prescribed painkillers ... mood swings

• paraphernalia

prescribed medicines ... off-the-shelf bought painkillers

addicted without realizing

• Taken regularly, some doctors say codeine can begin to cause the pain rather than reduce it

• Some users start by ‘self-treating’ their pain after the doctor has finished prescribing

...CO-CODAMOL / 32

KAODINE / CODAFEN... 33


www.thedrugsbook.com

ST EISMC PR

PATNIOTN URLI

THE FACTS

EFFECTS

• Crack is cocaine made into small brown crystals for smoking

• The effects of smoking crack are like snorting

• Crack gives a short strong feeling of high confidence and alertness

• Regular users often take heroin to dull the

• The intense effect might last around ten minutes • Crack is very addictive

cocaine but much stronger

• The extreme effects of energy and well-being leaves the user craving more craving for crack

• The ‘come-down’ might include fatigue, depression, headaches or panic attacks

RISKS

• Smoking crack harms the lungs and so cause chest pains • Crack creates cravings so users lose control of a habit easily • Heavy users could suffer from heart problems • Regular users could feel sick and not be able to sleep • After the 20 minute high comes a long, low crash which can bring massive cravings to take more • The high might come with hallucinations, huge mood swings and massive paranoia

...CRACK / ROCK / WASH / BASE /

34

SIGNS

• under the influence

wide awake... very stimulated... confident ... for 10 minutes then feeling low

• behaviour changes

tends to stay with other users... drained look... petty crime... asking for money... unpaid bills... starting to sell belongings... lack of self-care... stealing from family

• paraphernalia

small pieces of burnt foil... burnt tin cans... crack pipe

STONES / FREEBASE / PEBBLES... 35


ST EISMC PR

PATNIOTN URLI

THE FACTS

• Crystal meth can be tablets, white powder and

• A user’s heart rate increases... blood pressure

methylamphetamine

• A user could become confused and

yellow or clear crystals... it is known under many names

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

• Also known as methamphetamine or

• Unlike other amphetamines crystal meth

crystals... known as ‘ice’... can be smoked

• Very addictive

rises... agitation might start

• The user becomes exhilarated and sexually aroused... the euphoria is physically draining aggressive

• The rush might last 4-8 hours with lesser effects lasting up to 20 hours

RISKS

• Crystal meth can cause psychosis and mental disorders • Overdosing on crystal meth might cause strokes, coma and death • Crystal meth might be injected which has the added risk of blood-borne diseases

• It is common to lose your looks very quickly by taking crystal meth • A tolerance builds up quickly... more is needed to get the same effect... which makes it very addictive

...METHAMPHETAMINE / ICE / GLASS / 36

SIGNS

• under the influence

rapid speech... dilated pupils... sexually aroused... exhilirated... short attention span... jumping topics when talking... confident... agitated and restless ... paranoia

• behaviour changes

not sleeping well... using alcohol to sleep ... very lethargic and tired for couple of days after taking drug

• paraphernalia

small foil wraps... small mirrors... razor blades for chopping... needles and syringes very hazardous behaviour so seek professional help!

TINA AND CHRISTINE / YABA... 37


?

www.thedrugsbook.com

PRESC

TIO RIP N

THE FACTS

EFFECTS

• So-called “legal highs” may be available online or even in high-street shops

• Some drugs are designed to mimic effects of other drugs

• Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) makes recommendations for Government to ban drugs

• Some “legal highs” are misused medicines –

• As they are banned, new substitutes are quickly marketed and these may be more hazardous • Drugs may be banned because of their social harm or their potential harm to individuals

• They may be untested so their effects will not be known intended for people or animals!

• “Designer drugs” can be more profitable if made to be addictive

RISKS

• Because many are not yet made illegal people may think them safer than other drugs

LEGAL?

• Lyrica

• Salvi Divinorum, • Bromodragonfly • Kanna • Sassafras, • Ikhathazo • Gotu Kola • Wild Dagga • BZP • Spice

?

• Risks can be unknown as these are new • Long-term effects cannot be known • Substitutes for newly-banned drugs may be more hazardous • Drugs may be packaged to appeal to young people but contain

none of the expected ingredients

DESIGNER DRUGS 38

LEGAL HIGHS / HERBAL HIGHS 39


T

STIM

www.thedrugsbook.com

UL

AN

AE HR LLSUC P

EN POTGIO CRINI

THE FACTS

• Ecstasy is a stimulant which can last three to six hours

• Methylenedioxymethamphetamine... MDMA... is the chemical name for ecstasy... which was made to appeal to clubbers

• Ecstasy tablets can often contain other chemicals which could also be harmful

• Ecstasy users might die through not enough water or too much water

EFFECTS

• Colours, sounds and emotions might seem very intense

• Ecstasy users could feel they have more energy than usual

• Some ecstasy users start to ache, get a stiff jaw, sweat and feel sick

• Higher doses might cause stress and anxiety or panic attacks

RISKS

• A big danger is that ecstasy users dance a long time but forget to drink water... it is also hazardous to drink too much water... a pint an hour is the recommended amount • No one knows what an E's got in it... there may be negative side effects from other ingredients in the tablet... ecstasy can make users feel a bit down afterwards

• Ecstasy might be hazardous for people with high blood pressure, heart conditions or who have epileptic fits

SIGNS

• under the influence

depends what is in it... hallucinogenic... euphoria...energetic so can dance for hours

• behaviour changes

perhaps drinking heavily because more tolerant to alcohol... mild come-down after nights out

• paraphernalia

none as such... small tablets of varying colour with images on the top

• Long-term effects are not known yet but users report depression, sleep problems and panic attackstive

...E / MDMA / XTC / TABS / DISCO BISCUITS 40

BISCUITS / HUG DRUG / DOVES / MITSUBISHI'S... 41


DEPR

SANT ES

THE FACTS

• Date rape drugs are strong tranquillisers used

• Date rape drugs make victims weak and

• GHB... Gammahydroxybutrate... is similar to

assault and the dangers of unprotected sex

to sedate and cause blackouts

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

• GHB has no colour or smell but is salty another date-rape drug GBL

• Some men are wrong to think these drugs merely lower sexual inhibitions

drowsy... and often cause loss of memory

• Victims may suffer the trauma of sexual

• Effects of low social inhibitions may take 10 min to 1 hour to kick in... and may last a day

• A euphoric high may turn into sickness,

confusion and unconsciousness if too much is taken

RISKS

• A trusted friend is needed if you pass out from a 'spiked' drink... one which has had drugs added to it

• Drinks should not be accepted from strangers or even 'friends' • Victims may be assaulted or raped, but memories are vague • Serious sexual infections and diseases range from chlamydia to HIV • Mixing GHB with alcohol can be fatal

...GBH / LIQUID X / BODYPOP 42

SIGNS

• under the influence

euphoric... uninhibited behaviour... drowsy... then sleepy if more is taken

• behaviour changes

shocked... confused and upset if a victim of spiking... associated with date-rape... intense stress and emotion... perhaps physical injuries

• paraphernalia

none as such... small bottles

see also rohypnol p64

LIQUID ECSTASY / SPIKE... 43


SANT ES

DEPR

THE FACTS

• The effects of solvents can last from 15 to www.thedrugsbook.com

45 minutes

• Solvent misuse can kill the very first time • Solvents might be breathed in or sniffed • Many shopkeepers will not sell solvents to under 18s

EFFECTS

• Users can hallucinate... they see things that aren’t there

• Glues, gases and aerosols... solvents... could cause a dreamy light-headed feeling • Effects start and end suddenly... sometimes leaving a headache

• Users often repeat doses so effects can last all day

RISKS

• Solvents may cause flooding of the lungs and kill straight away • Users may be dizzy, vomit and faint... a life-threatening combination • Misusing solvents might become a long term habit and cause brain-damage • Accidents are more likely when users are intoxicated • Sniffing can seriously affect your judgement... and if you're high there's a very

SIGNS

• under the influence

hallucinating... giggles ... smell of solvents... effects lasting maybe 45 minutes

• behaviour changes tends to stay with other misusers... red rash around mouth perhaps... hangover and headaches

• paraphernalia

household solvents... glues and aerosols... plastic carrier bags with remnants of glue etc inside

real danger you'll try something reckless

...SOLVENTS / FUEL / THINNERS / 44

SPRAY / VOLATILE SUBSTANCES... 45


PAIN

LLER KI

• Heroin is a painkilling drug made from

• Heroin is a strong painkiller... often

is usually brownish-white

• When taken in small doses heroin can give

morphine... which is derived from the opium poppy

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• It is a white powder when pure... street heroin • It might be snorted, smoked or injected • Taking large amounts of heroin can lead to overdose, coma and even death

prescribed to terminally ill cancer patients

• First-time users often experience side-effects such as dizziness and vomiting users a feeling of warmth or well-being

• High doses could lead to drowsiness and sedation

RISKS

• Heroin is extremely addictive... withdrawal is famously hard... this is called 'going cold turkey' • Tolerance quickly develops... this means that the user needs more heroin to get the same effects • Those who might start by smoking or snorting heroin sometimes switch to injecting to maximise the

'high'... and sharing needles puts users at risk of dangerous infections like HIV

• Overdose is a real risk... it could result in coma and even death • Heroin is not instantly addictive but over time users have to take more and more just to feel ‘normal’

...SMACK / H / HENRY / BROWN / JUNK / 46

SIGNS

• under the influence

semi-conscious... very small pupils... nausea and vomiting... sitting around... slavering... itching nose

• behaviour changes

withdraws from friends ... stays with other users... petty crime... asking for money... selling belongings... stealing from family... lack of self-care

• paraphernalia

small pieces of burnt foil... burnt tin cans or metal dish objects... syringes or needle marks in skin - very hazardous so seek professional help!

SKAG / SHIT / STASH / GEAR / HORSE / JACK... 47


HALLU

OGEN CIN

THE FACTS

• Ketamine is an anaesthetic used by vets • It can be hallucinogenic... users see things that www.thedrugsbook.com

aren't there

• It is very dangerous if mixed with alcohol or other drugs

EFFECTS

• Ketamine creates a strong out-of-body

• under the influence

on the user's mood

• behaviour changes

feeling as if mind and body are separate

• Users are often unable to move • The effects might last for 3 hours • Like other hallucinogens, the effects depend

RISKS

• Users risk injury as the body might be numb to pain... people may be unaware they have hurt themselves • High doses of ketamine can cause breathing and heart problems • Long-term effects are not known • The detached effect could be a very alarming experience • Users are very vulnerable on ketamine

...SPECIAL K / VITAMIN K / 48

SIGNS

hallucinations... out-ofbody experience with stillness... can be like paralysis... may last most intensely for an hour tolerance builds so may need money... perhaps withdrawn... or starting to spend longer periods of time away from the home

• paraphernalia none as such

KETTY / K / SUPER K... 49


www.thedrugsbook.com

STIM

ANT UL

THE FACTS

EFFECTS

• Khat is chewed during sociable sessions that might last 3 hours or more

• Khat might make users feel more alert and

Horn of Africa and Arabian peninsula

• Khat might create calming effects and

• It is a green-leafed shrub • Khat has been chewed for centuries in the

talkative and could cause loss of appetite

• Regular misuse may lead to insomnia, anorexia and anxiety feelings of bliss

• Effects last around 4 to 5 hours

RISKS

• Chewing can lead to inflammation of the mouth which might result in mouth infections and/or cancer • Excessive long term use could cause heart disease, depression and aggression • Regular users might become dependent and start to feel depressed and low • Prolonged use of khat could produce withdrawal symptons of lethargy, mild depression and nightmares • Long term use decreases sex drive and darkens teeth with a greenish tinge

...QUAT / QAT / QAADKA / CHAT / 50

SIGNS

• under the influence talkative... relaxed... lasting for several hours with repeated use

• behaviour changes

tends to arrange long sessions with other users... lethargy... mild depression

• paraphernalia

none as such... the leaves are chewed

CATHA EDULIS / CATHEDINE... 51


HALLU

OGEN CIN

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• LSD is lysergic acid diethylamide... or acid www.thedrugsbook.com

>>LSD causes hallucinations... users see things that aren't there >>The effect is called a trip... it can last 8 to 12 hours... and can take 1 hour to start >>A bad trip might be terrifying

>>It comes on little pieces of paper... or in small tablets with pictures on them

• An acid trip can trigger mental illness

• Movement or time might slow down or speed up

>>Colours and shapes might change so things get mixed up

>>LSD affects the mind so the intensity can be impossible to control

>>A user never knows how a trip will turn out... feeling low or unsafe makes a bad trip more likely

RISKS

>>Accidents can be worse because users might not know what's happening

>>Trips feed off a person's imagination... one person might spend six hours in a very happy place while someone else might spend six hours in terror and paranoia... even if taking the same LSD >>Flashbacks might happen even years later... suddenly as if under the influence of the drug again >>Users cannot tell how strong the trip is going to be... the picture means nothing... LSD is a very unpredictable drug

...ACID / TRIPS / TABS / SMILIES / STARS / 52

SIGNS

• under the influence

acid trips can last for several hours... excited... euphoric... very self-absorbed... users will hallucinate ... if it is an unpleasant trip watch for panic or fear... unpredictable behaviour

• behaviour changes

mental health issues... paranoia... flashback hallucinations... feeling enlightened

• paraphernalia

none as such... LSD comes as small pieces of card... perhaps preparing comfortable surroundings, lights and music

MICRODOTS / DROP / BLOTTERS / TABS... 53


www.thedrugsbook.com

HALLU

OGEN CIN

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• There are different types of mushroom that cause hallucinations

• The effects are like LSD... seeing things that

• Like other fungi, there is a growing season...

• Because they are natural, the strength of a

• Magic mushrooms might be eaten raw, cooked or made into tea when they can be gathered in the British countryside

aren't there, colours brighter

• Users tend to laugh a lot but others will be sick and feel paranoid particular batch is always unknown... therefore effets can vary

RISKS

• Poisonous mushrooms may be taken by mistake... if you are ill go to the hospital immediately after taking one of the mushrooms

• Users having a bad trip will need lots of reassurance • Like all hallucinogens mental problems might follow • Magic mushrooms sometimes cause diarrhoea • Trips feed off a person's imagination... one person can spend six hours in a very happy place while

someone else who's taken the same mushrooms can spend six hours lost in fears and paranoia

...MUSHIES / 'SHROOMS / LIBERTIES / 54

SIGNS

• under the influence

trips can last for many hours... euphoric... or excited... or laughing... very self-absorbed... hallucinations... so if an unpleasant trip watch for panic, fear and unpredictable behaviour

• behaviour changes

mental health issues... paranoia... flashback hallucinations... feeling enlightened

• paraphernalia

none as such... they are small dried brown mushrooms... perhaps preparing comfortable surroundings

FLY AGARIC / AGARIC / AMANI... 55


T

STIM

www.thedrugsbook.com

UL

AN

AE HR LLSUC P

EN POTGIO CRINI

THE FACTS

• Mephedrone is a new drug sold as plant food to get around existing laws • A powder for snorting but perhaps sold as pills or capsules • The chemical names for mephedrone are 4-methylmethcathinone, 4-methylephedrone or 4-MMC • May be swallowed in paper – AKA bomb

EFFECTS

• People report being more alert, talkative and wanting to dance

• It was designed to mimic a combination of ecstasy and cocaine

• Effects last around two hours and can stop suddenly

• Some report paranoia and anxiety

RISKS

• Long-term effects cannot be known • The effects stop as quickly as they start – encouraging people to take more to dangerous levels • Mephedrone has been officially cited as a cause of death in a few cases around the world • The truth has been confused by exaggerated or mistaken media reports so the risks are not clear yet • Combining with amphetamines can cause over-heating • Avoid confusing with methadone or methedrone

MIAOW / MEOW MEOW / MEPH / 4-MMC 56

SIGNS

• under the influence excessive talking, excess sweating, headaches, heart palpitations, blue or cold fingers

• behaviour changes

none in particular... associated with late nights and clubbing... come-down and tiredness after being out late

• paraphernalia

rolled up notes, powdery surfaces, wraps of powder

MCAT / DRONE / BOUNCE / BUBBLES 57


www.thedrugsbook.com

PAIN

LLER KI

THE FACTS

EFFECTS

• Methadone is a heroin substitute used to help people kick dependency

• Methadone is an opiate... a depressant drug...

tablet form

• Users should experience a feeling of warmth and relaxation

become pregnant

makes a useful replacement for those in treatment for heroin addiction

• It is usually taken as a liquid but can be in

• Subutex is another heroin substitute • Methadone is often used for heroin users who

so will reduce pain and slow the body down

• Methadone gives less of a high than heroin so

RISKS

• Methadone is addictive but with controlled dosage users can reduce the need • Some users are in a methadone treatment regime for months or even years • Withdrawal symptoms are still present but less severe than for heroin • Methadone which has been prescribed has the right strength for that individual person • Street drugs are likely to be altered and potentially dangerous... especially if made stronger to try and get the high effect of heroin

...MIXTURE / LINCTUS / 58

SIGNS

• under the influence

semi-conscious... very small pupils... nausea and vomiting... sitting around... slavering

• behaviour changes

perhaps undergoing drugs treatment... if not, tends to stay with other users... petty crime... asking for money... selling things... stealing from family... lack of selfcare

• paraphernalia

none as such... bottles of green liquid... but usually kept at pharmacy

METH / PHYSEPTONE... 59


PAIN

LLER KI

THE FACTS

• Doctors prescribe from a range of painkillers to www.thedrugsbook.com

suit individual patients

• Painkillers might make users feel euphoric • Co-Proxamol, Lorcet, Lortab, Solpadeine, Codeine, Hydrocodone and Vicodin are all examples of painkillers

EFFECTS

SIGNS

• Many work by increasing dopamine in

• under the influence

• Painkillers can make users feel euphoric • Tolerance develops... more and more are

• behaviour changes

the blood

• Users might feel they are a better person... and feel calm and relaxed needed for the same effect

RISKS

• Dependence could develop over a few weeks • Withdrawal can be similar to heroin... diarrhoea, muscle pain,

relaxed and calm... or perhaps slightly distant... or in their own world needing to take more and more... perhaps contact with suppliers

• paraphernalia

none as such... pills

vomiting and no sleep

• Codeine might cause stomach problems • Addiction may start from prescribed usage with users struggling to avoid

self-medicating

...CO-PROXAMOL / SOLPADEINE / 60

LORCET / LORTAB / CODEINE... 61


STIM

ANT UL

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• Poppers are types of chemical called alkyl

• Reduced blood pressure combines with a very

www.thedrugsbook.com

nitrates... such as amyl nitrite

• Poppers are in small bottles to be sniffed

• The effect is intense, immediate and fades in under 5 minutes

• Very rarely used prescription medicine • Poppers might kill if swallowed

fast heartbeat to create a 'head-rush'

• Some users might get headaches and a sick feeling

• Poppers are sometimes misused during sex... but are very hazardous if mixed with viagra

• Users become very red in the neck and face

RISKS

• Some users could faint or feel sick • If swallowed, users might become unconscious and die • Poppers should be avoided by those with glaucoma, heart or blood pressure problems • Regular users can develop skin problems around the nose and mouth • It is very dangerous to take poppers with viagra... or if you're on medication to reduce blood

SIGNS

• under the influence blood rush to head... perhaps a smell of sweet chemical fumes... giggling or shock

• behaviour changes

lethargic perhaps... or leaving the room regularly... perhaps new friends or different going-out habits

• paraphernalia

none as such... small bottles of strongsmelling liquid... brightly coloured or made of brown glass

pressure... they can cause it to drop far too low

...ALKYL NITRATE / A MYL N ITRITE / RAM / BANGERS 62

LI Q U ID G O LD / K I X / TN T / R O C K H AR D / S N IF FE R S. . . 63


www.thedrugsbook.com

DEPR

SANT ES

THE FACTS

EFFECTS

• Date rape drugs are strong tranquillisers that sedate and cause blackouts

• Date rape drugs make victims weak and

• Rohypnol is one of a few different date rape

• These drugs are more powerful when mixed

• Rohypnol is colourless and tasteless... so avoid leaving drinks unattended

drugs which could sedate within 10 minutes

• Some men are wrong to think these drugs

merely lower sexual inhibitions

drowsy, and often cause loss of memory

• Victims suffer the trauma of sexual assault and the hazard of unprotected sex with alcohol

• Rohypnol can lead to breathing problems and death

RISKS

• A trusted friend is needed if you pass out from a ‘spiked’ drink... one which has had drugs added to it • Drinks should not be accepted from strangers or even 'friends' • Serious sexual infections and diseases range from chlamydia to HIV • Victims may be assaulted or raped, but memories are vague • If you ever suspect your drink has been spiked ask for assistance from either a friend or a member of

SIGNS

• under the influence

euphoric... uninhibited ... drowsy... then sleepy if more is taken... slow responses

• behaviour changes

shocked... confused and upset if a victim of spiking... associated with date-rape... intense stress and emotion... perhaps physical injuries

• paraphernalia

none as such... small bottles see also GHB p42

the emergency services

...DATE RAPE DRUG / 64

RAPE DRUG / ROOFIES... 65


HALLU

OGEN CIN

THE FACTS

• Skunk is the generic name used to describe this potent form of the cannabis plant

www.thedrugsbook.com

• It is genetically modified to be far stronger than cannabis

• Skunk could be rolled with tobacco into a 'spliff' or 'joint'... it might also be smoked on its own in a pipe or eaten

• Cannabis on the street is often skunk

EFFECTS

• Effects are similar but magnified to those of

cannabis... they are often dependent on mood, company, music and surroundings

• Skunk can result in uncontrollable laughing and increased talking

• Skunk's strength and speed

might catch out inexperienced users

RISKS

• Effects might come on rapidly and the results can be quite dramatic... including anxiety attacks and projectile vomiting

• Has very high levels of THC... tetrahydrocannabinol... the psycho-active ingredient of cannabis... and is suspected to increase mental health problems such as schizophrenia... especially for under-16s

• Some users experience nervousness and paranoia... or momentary hallucinations • Skunk is thought by some to be addictive, and users could become addicted to the 'dope' lifestyle and/or

the nicotine in tobacco if used

...B LUNTS / BLOW / HERB / GRASS / PURPLE HAZE 66

SIGNS

• under the influence

red eyes... lethargy... drowsiness... some dilation of pupils... forgetting what they're doing... staring and quiet

• behaviour changes

isolating themselves... avoiding family gettogethers... lateness... perhaps financial difficulties... brown fingers and yellow teeth from smoking

• paraphernalia

large cigarette papers ... small torn cardboard for use in the end of joints... glass water pipes... hookahs and bongs... small pipes

SENSIMILIA / SMOKE / SENSI / SPLIFF / BUDDHA... 67


PRES

IPTION CR

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• Anorectics stop people feeling hungry • Other slimming pills prevent fat being www.thedrugsbook.com

• Phentermine, Amfepramone, Fenproporex,

Orlistat, Reductil, Xenical and Sibutramine are all examples of slimming drugs

• Heavier people do not have slower metabolisms than lighter people

• Slimming pills work in different ways...

• under the influence

from sale as harmful side-effects are found

• behaviour changes

stimulating metabolism... blocking absorption of fat... or reducing hunger pangs

absorbed or stimulate like amphetamine

SIGNS

• Anti-obesity medication is often withdrawn

• Body image can seem to be a very important part of modern life... so users might develop a psychological dependency

RISKS

• Dependency tends to be psychological with added medical complications • People have died from taking slimming drugs made in poorly-regulated countries... it is even unclear

small appetite... maybe erratic heartbeats... or vomiting restlessness... lethargy... lack of appetite... anxiety... insomnia

• paraphernalia

none as such... pills... particularly delivered from the internet

what is in herbal medications

• A cycle of bingeing & dieting with slimming pills could lead to kidney problems • Stimulant slimming pills could increase blood pressure and damage your heart... medical advice and

supervision is recommended for obesity

• Blocking fat absorption might lead to vitamin imbalance

...PHENTERMINE / AMFEPRAMONE / 68

XENICAL / ORLISTAT / REDUCTIL... 69


PRES

IPTION CR

THE FACTS

• Anabolic steroids are used on prescription to www.thedrugsbook.com

treat anaemia and weakness after surgery

• If part of an intense exercise regime steroids might help build muscle • Misuse can quickly lead to psychological dependence so it is harder to stop

• They may be tablets or a liquid for injection

EFFECTS

• Aggression, irritation and mood swings are reported by people who misuse steroids

• Regular steroid use can cause erection

problems, acne, lowering sperm count, shrinking testicles and growing breasts in men

• For female users, steroids might deepen

voice, shrink breasts, grow facial hair and cause menstrual problems... these effects can be permanent even after stopping misuse

RISKS

• Children and young people can have their growth restricted • Steroids can cause liver damage and high blood pressure... or incease risk

of strokes and heart attacks

• Anabolic steroids are sold for profit so may contain harmful substances • Injecting with shared needles risks the dangers of HIV and hepatitis infection • Misusers may find themselves becoming paranoid and having trouble with sleeping • Withdrawal symptoms include headaches, letargy and depression

...ROIDS / SUSTANON 250 / DECA-DURABOLIN /

70

SIGNS

• under the influence none as such...

• behaviour changes lethargy... increased muscle bulk... mood swings... acne... paranoia... increased aggression... breast changes... facial hair... lowering of voice in women... intense sports or fitness training...

• paraphernalia

syringes and needles for injection... blister packs of pills

STANOZOLOL / DIAN ABOL / ANAV AR / LMNO / DC LA... 71


ANT UL

STIM

THE FACTS

• Nicotine is the highly addictive drug found in www.thedrugsbook.com

tobacco

• Cigarettes contain chemicals also found in toilet cleaner, car exhausts and ant poison • It is illegal to sell tobacco to under 18s • Nicotine speeds up heart rate

EFFECTS

• Nicotine is a fast-acting stimulant • Smokers experience pleasure due to the body's release of dopamine

• Some research states that 3 out of 4

people who start smoking become addicted... it is rare for people to remain occasional smokers

• Smoking dries the skin and restricts blood vessels... causing wrinkles

RISKS

• Nicotine is not harmful in itself... tar and carbon monoxide do the most damage • Smoking kills... users can develop serious conditions such as emphysema, cancer and heart

disease

• Passive smoking... breathing other people's smoke... is also dangerous and known to kill • As well as mouth, throat and lung cancer, smoking is also associated with 50 other diseases

and disorders

• Smokers can get hooked very quickly... it can take years and a huge effort to kick the habit

...CIGS / BACCY / FAGS / CANCER 72

SIGNS

• under the influence

smell of smoke... in rooms or on clothing... minty breath..! coughs ... needs to smoke maybe every 30 mins

• behaviour changes

shortness of breath... coughing in the morning... increased agitation... missing for 5 minutes every 30 minutes or so

• paraphernalia

lighters... matches... cigarette packets... or cigarette papers... and tobacco packets ... or pipes... pipe cleaners and knives... ashtrays and fag-ends

STICKS / ROLL-UPS / ROLLIES / SMOKES... 73


DEPR

SANT ES

THE FACTS

• Doctors prescribe tranquillisers to help sleep

• Users can be drowsy and forgetful or have

• The most common type are Benzodiazepines • Tranquillisers are prescribed more than any

• Tranquillisers might make calm people feel

and depression

www.thedrugsbook.com

EFFECTS

• Valium, Temazepam, Librium, Ativan, Xanax are all examples of tranquillisers mood-changing drug

fewer emotional highs

• Users might feel less anxious, drowsy and forgetfulfor a while euphoric

• Tolerance develops... more and more are needed to ease tension

RISKS

• Dependence could be quick and hard to avoid... psychological and physical addiction can be caused... tolerance builds over time so users feel a need to increase dosage

• There are many different types and strengths of prescription tranquillisers... so self-medicating or mixing different tranquillisers is very hazardous and can lead to death

• Mixing tranquillisers and alcohol often leads to accidental overdose... and users might choke on their own vomit

• Users should come off tranquillisers only under medical supervision... fatal seizures and fits may result

from just stopping

...TEMAZEPAM / NORRIES / DIAZEPAM 74

SIGNS

• under the influence as if drunk... heavily inebriated... slurred speech... with slow reactions... dilated pupils... wild mood swings

• behaviour changes

short-term memory loss or black-outs ... will be tired after taking and will tend to sleep... agitated... like intense hang-overs but without the nausea and bowel problems associated with alcohol hang-overs... often related to crimes

• paraphernalia

none as such... tablet packaging... perhaps prescriptions

MAZZIES / BENZO'S / DOWNERS / MOGADON... 75


SANT ES

DEPR

THE FACTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Valium is a now discontinued name for diazepam • It is perhaps the most well known benzodiazepine... others include Librium, Ativan, Temazepam and Xanax • Users might feel less anxious, drowsy and forgetful • Valium withdrawal takes longer than heroin • Valium tablets are often colour coded dependent on strength

EFFECTS

• Valium might calm anxious users down or make calm people euphoric

• Users can be drowsy and forgetful • Coming off valium is reported to be harder than coming off heroin

• Tolerance develops... more and more are needed to ease tension

RISKS

• Coming off valium should only be done under medical supervision... stopping suddenly can cause fatal seizures

• Dependence could be quick and hard to avoid... expect physical and psychological addiction • Users might mix different tranquillisers which could lead to death • Mixing valium and alcohol often leads to accidental overdose... users can choke on their

own vomit

...DIAZEPAM / VALLIES / BLU-IES / 76

SIGNS

• under the influence as if drunk... heavily inebriated... slurred speech... with slow reactions... dilated pupils... wild mood swings

• behaviour changes

short-term memory loss or black-outs ... will be tired after taking and will tend to sleep... agitated... like intense hang-overs but without the nausea and bowel problems associated with alcohol hang-overs... often related to crimes

• paraphernalia

none as such... tablet packaging... perhaps prescriptions

JELLIES / RUGBY BALLS... 77


PRES

IPTION CR

EFFECTS

THE FACTS

• Viagra is a famous anti-impotence drug... www.thedrugsbook.com

others include Cialis and Levitra

• Viagra does not cause erections or increase sexual desire... apart from possible effects of increased confidence • Self-medication is common... as well as

combining with erection-inhibiting drugs like cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine

SIGNS

• It relaxes muscles in the penis... allowing

• under the influence

• Viagra does not cause erections... sexual

perhaps an increased sexual confidence in some men?

blood flow

• Not all impotence is caused by blood flow problems so Viagra does not necessarily help stimulation is still needed

• Erections can be harder and last longer... even after any sex is over

RISKS

sustained erection...

• behaviour changes • paraphernalia

none as such... small blue diamond-shaped tablets

• Deaths are reported when used with poppers

• Doctors warn that combining ecsatsy with viagra (AKA Sexstasy) can cause heart problems or anatomical damage

• Muscle pain, headaches and flushing

• If combined with other drugs Viagra can induce heart problems... seek medical attention

...SILDENAFIL / V / 78

POKE / SEXSTACY... 79


80 81

www.thedrugsbook.com


PARENTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• To think that your child is misusing drugs and alcohol can be confusing and emotional... all kinds of people take drugs so don't believe in the unhelpful stereotypes

• It’s not your fault • Remember that young people often view taking risks as a necessary and exciting part of growing up • You cannot stop your child misusing drugs... you can’t be with them 24 hours a day! • By following well-recommended principles you can be much more effective in influencing your child's

behaviour and attitude around drugs and drinking

TEENS

• You know about drugs... some things you know are right and some might not be • You have been around all kinds of drugs all your life... you have learnt about them from doctors, nurses,

teachers, parents and friends... you may have come across illegal drugs... or the misusing of legal drugs such as alcohol

• Now you can put that experience and knowledge into context... get the facts and the fictions... get to know what parents are thinking... get the chance to make choices

• Is a friend in trouble? Should you say something? When? Are you involved with drugs? Or feel you want to be? You know about drugs... and there's lots more to know

SAME SITUATION... 82

WORKPLACE

• Talking to staff is always the best policy... especially when it comes to a drugs policy • Drugs and alcohol misuse raises particular needs for employers... to avoid accidents at work... reduce absenteeism... stay lawful... and to save recruitment costs by not dismissing staff

• Many employers want to contribute to society... to help deal with drugs and alcohol misuse • Some jobs such as police, doctors and teachers demand good behaviour and standards... other jobs require strict health and safety levels

• Testing employees for drugs can be an effective approach to take... but it can also lead to an unhappy workforce who feel mistrusted, invaded and de-motivated

...DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS 83


www.thedrugsbook.com

LEARN ABOUT DRUGS

• The more you know the less you can be fooled... and you will be able to judge the situation so much better

• The last thing you and your child need is a huge row... your child may be horrified and upset that you

and fun!

become very serious and difficult... legal issues become involved and you suddenly need a long-term strategy to help everyone around you

• Understand and know the signs of misusing so you can be re-assured... or make your choices sooner • Your children have grown up in a world of drugs - legal and illegal... they are influenced by films, friends • They will become more and more exposed to drug activity and drug dealers... be part of their world by learning more about drugs

TALK TO SOMEONE FIRST

• It's not the end of the world - it only feels like it! Discussing first with a friend or your partner may help you get through your initial reactions and emotions... they might have good ideas or be able to relate their own experiences • Talking to someone else helps to put an unusual situation into perspective • You could also speak to an adult your child respects • Teenagers sometimes don’t like talking to parents because they might think they have let you down • Having someone else there may stop a chat exploding into an argument

FOR PARENTS

84

TALK WHEN CALM

can think such a thing that they are taking drugs... and how bad will that make you feel?

• If there is a drug or drink problem... remember that it isn't your fault! • And the situation might be far worse than you suspected... then you must stay calm because things can • Pick your moment and be prepared for what might emerge

AVOID ASKING

WHY?

• Who knows why anything happens? It is such a complex world and growing up in it is harder than ever... people don’t know why... and your child is no different

• It is easier to ask what, when, where and how? It is easy to answer with facts and stories so the

conversation can get going and keep going... and with your new drugs knowledge you will understand what is being said

• It is unlikely you can sort everything out in one chat... don't try to force a solution to anything... there will be plenty more conversations to be had now that you are part of your child's experience of drugs culture

FOR PARENTS 85


TALK ABOUT THEM

• Talk about them... not the drugs • It is said that adult drug misuse is a lifestyle choice... but young people take drugs and alcohol for other

www.thedrugsbook.com

reasons... other things in their life... thoughts and ideas, feelings and things that happen to them

• Be specific about any mood swings... or the effect of their behaviour on you and your family... this then

focuses on them and their choices... affirms their place in their life

• Avoid being side-tracked into talking about particular drugs... it doesn’t keep people from harmful

behaviour

• Talk about their life because it's more interesting and relevant than the drugs

SUPPORT

• Be ready to support... know what ideas or resources are available in your area • Let them know your position... set the boundaries you can live with... be real and honest because your child might need that... to be rejected by you could be disastrous

• To lose friends or be banned from places could throw your child into a worsening drugs culture... behaviour is reinforced by those around us... so keep your child in the best surroundings

• Do you know their friends?

Learn to trust them and be a knowledgeable part of your child's life... then you will be confident to set limits when you need to

LISTEN

• You're a parent so you already know about listening... but there really might be a simple explanation for what you've found or what you saw or what you’re feeling • Support your child... let them know you are there for them... you might end up talking about things you never knew about... be prepared for surprises because that is when your attitude will be tested! • Your child is going though something - they always are! And they always need to feel loved • You need specific details... because what is happening can be changed... some things you like and

some you don't... by listening you can work out what new approaches to take... do some limits need relaxing and others tightening? Listening will help you become more successful at change

FOR PARENTS 86

FOR PARENTS 87


LEARN ABOUT DRUGS

• All drugs can be dangerous • Because of this all drugs are controlled... either made illegal, restricted in some way or allowed by a

www.thedrugsbook.com

doctor’s prescription only

• Drugs can alter our body chemicals to force a range of effects like ecstatic highs, enormous energy

or deep sleeps... the body then has to catch up... with exhaustion, feeling down or never waking up

• Often it takes more of the drug to get the same effect next time... because the drug may change our bodies to expect more... giving us cravings

CHOICE

• When young it is sometimes hard to get the choices you need... with the comfort and safety you and your friends want... so remember you can often wait till you have more control, money or experience

• Drug and alcohol misuse can steal your later life... creating problems and trouble for years • You can choose to talk or choose to be silent... are you helping or part of the problem? • Messages about drugs come from different places... for instance, much of the country’s drug harm is from alcohol... yet national soap operas seem to be based in pubs and bars!

• There are choices we all make... who's talking to you about drugs? Why do they care what you think?

FOR TEENS

88

JOKES AND JIBES

• Talking to a friend about drug misuse... yours or theirs... may quickly lead to joking... that's fine because it's human nature to avoid embarrassment or lighten the mood with humour

• When you notice the jokes have actually led to changing the topic then quickly get back to what you want to talk about

• Focus on the people... if there's a drug misuse problem then these personal choices need understanding before a successful change can be made

• Work through the jokes and embarrassment to talk about behaviour and future actions

MORE THE MERRIER

• Don’t be surprised to talk about drink and drugs with more than one person at a time... a parent may bring in a friend when they talk to you... friends will often chat in groups... it might be planned or just accidental

• It can help a parent to have someone else there so they don't get too upset or emotional... the friend

should nod quietly rather than talk a lot... if they do talk it might feel like they are picking on you unfairly... feel free to point this out... if it helps you it helps them

• In a group, perhaps only one should talk... if a friend has a problem, they don’t need to feel outcast by everyone... but it can help to get the message over if others agree silently

FOR TEENS 89


BE SPECIFIC

• You can stop rescuing your friend from drugs-related trouble... let them know if you still trust them... if www.thedrugsbook.com

not then let them know the trust has been broken and how they can earn it back... it is not easy being around drug misuse - you do not have to put with it!

• Talk about specific things that happened... incidents you remember affected by the drug-taking...

new behaviour, moods or being let down... by not turning up perhaps?

• If you want a friend to change their behaviour, tell them clearly what you will do if they don’t • Do not make threats or statements that you will not back up as this will confuse everybody... but you can be clear about the limits to this relationship

THE FUTURE

• Even professionals have to work hard to suggest the best plans for dealing with drug problems • Every person is different... services aren't always available in all areas... it can take a long time to be successful

• Everything has already changed for the better... because you have talked about it! • If you have been rejected by your friends you can earn them back... if your friends still support you then you can all look for options and try them out

LISTEN

• Stay calm... do they want help? • Watch out for key phrases like "What can I do about it?"... "There's no-one to see anyway" or "Where can I go?"... this kind of talk means your friend is ready to accept help

• It isn’t easy... drugs or alcohol have invaded their body and their behaviour has changed... your help or the help from professionals can feel like yet more invasion... or lack of control • Listen to what they tell you... but talk about actions they can take rather than getting drawn into an emotional rollercoaster

FOR TEENS 90

FOR TEENS 91


SIGNS OF THE TIMES

• Whether you’re an employer with legal responsibilities or a caring colleague, drugs and alcohol misuse www.thedrugsbook.com

can quickly become a serious concern in the workplace

• How do you know if drug or alcohol misuse is becoming a problem in your workplace? • Look for changes in time-keeping, job performance, relationships, accidents and theft • As well as an increase in short-term absences... watch out for those unexpected long week-ends! • These signs are only indicators of possible drink or drug misuse... they may be also caused by stress at work or through individual circumstances

STAFF CARE

• Drug or alcohol misuse can become a serious problem at work... not just for the individuals involved • Accidents will always be a big concern if people are using equipment while intoxicated • Absenteeism creates strains for all staff... productivity can also be affected by poorer performance • Opportunities exist to increase morale if an employee is treated fairly and with support once drug

or drink misuse is confirmed... many employers are keen to act responsibly and to be known for doing so

• Dismissal for drugs misuse is expensive in terms of recruitment and training... it is not necessary with the

right approach

WORKPLACE 92

LEGAL ISSUES

• The workplace has a legal framework in addition to the public laws which govern all of us • Employers are not responsible for staff behaviour outside of the workplace... as long as they are not working while intoxicated... but staff do not need to suffer due to a colleague's drug misuse

• Staff can expect employers to have a legitimate interest in drug misuse... if it impacts on performance... causes accidents... or we might expect exemplary behaviour... such as the police or armed forces

• It is not recommended that employers have an interest in staff activities outside of these circumstances ... because the relationship is not primarily of care... so intervention approaches can become intrusive

• An employer has a duty to ‘to assess the risk of stress-related ill health arising from work activities’... stress at work is often reported as a cause of problem drinking

• Employers need to assess the risks to all staff under the Management of Health & Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and could be prosecuted if they knowingly allow people to work while under the influence of drugs or alcohol

• An employer breaks the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 if they knowingly allow the production or supply of controlled drugs on the premises... some other drug-related activities are also covered

• Transport & Works Act 1992 makes it a criminal offence for some staff to be unfit through drugs or alcohol whilst working on railways or trams for example... the employers may be held responsible if they have not taken steps to stop this happening

• Health & Safety at Work Act 1974 places responsibilities on employers to protect and care for staff

WORKPLACE 93


DRUGS POLICY

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Be prepared! By having the guidelines of a drugs policy in place there is less chance that the company will lose out... or that staff will feel de-valued by any drugs testing approach • A good policy will view drug & alcohol misuse as a health problem... it will be more effective if one employee is named with overall responsibility

• A definition of drug and alcohol misuse needs to be made... including the misuse of any solvents and similar substances at work • The procedures for confidentiality, employee interviews, support availability and disciplinary action should be stated

• There are many organisations who have looked at issues around drugs and alcohol misuse in the workplace... as well as drugs testimg

• Guidelines exist from the Health and Safety Executive and independent reports have also been commissioned by the TUC and charitable foundations

• Developing a drugs policy is seen as the best way forward to support employees and the company • To understand the issues from all sides will help to keep the workplace productive, happy and safe

RIGHTS

• Legal employment frameworks uphold privacy and dignity for employees... proper proceedings are expected and of course any evidence in disciplinary hearings should be of a good standard

• Employers need to look after public safety • The Human Rights Act applies in the public sector... where an employee might refuse to accept a drugs

test or to answer questions along these lines... dismissal for such refusal is seen as inappropriately harsh

• Drugs testing is of course accepted in sports... and is used extensively in the criminal justice system • Testing technology has improved and employers are increasingly willing to use this approach

WORKPLACE

94

SUPPORT

WORKPLACE 95


96 97

www.thedrugsbook.com


TESTING

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Drugs testing detects habitual misuse of drugs and substances rather than simply finding out how someone is affected right now

• They look for metabolites... the sign that the drug has been in the body... so are useful for knowing a person's habit over time

• They don`t measure intoxication... like the famous breathalyser test for alcohol • Some professional drugs workers are doubtful about the value of testing in the home... because people

might be confused as to what to do next... the type of test, available resources and the people involved all affect the decisions to be made after testing

METHODS

• As well as testing urine other drugs tests are available which test by using hair, saliva and sweat

• Testing technology is around 99% accurate... but it can be fooled! • The first way is by using someone else's hair, sweat or urine... and clean urine can even be bought

online! Some urine tests check for temperature... it is hard to swap samples kept at body temperature

• Other products can be bought to contaminate the sample... but these can be spotted with special strips • This kind of effort might be made by professionals trying to avoid detection at work... where salaries, references and career progression may be at stake

• So whilst the test works well, there may be problems conducting it accurately at work or home

TYPES OF TEST

• Testing at work takes place for three separate purposes...

test show drugs misuse over different time periods

• Pre-Employment Testing tends to use hair tests to indicate behaviour for up to 3 months previously • For-Cause Testing occurs when employers need to address health & safety issues... preventing

they are also not invasive like taking blood or a saliva swab... they are more cost-effective than electronic sweat-testing and a lot quicker than sending hair samples to a lab

the police, armed forces or transport industries... saliva swabs may be more appropriate as they can test for a greater range of drugs and the procedure can be medically supervised

• Each has their advantages and disadvantages... different types of drugs • Urine tests are the best for detecting usage over the last few days...

WHAT IS TESTING? 98

BEATING THE TEST

accidents or staff being placed at risk... this is often urine testing as results are quick

• Unannounced Testing is usually for maintaining standards of behaviour in certain professions like

WHAT IS TESTING? 99


www.thedrugsbook.com

TRUST

• Do you trust your children? Or your partner? If only things were that simple! • Our normal approach to justice is that of being innocent until proven guilty... but

• Testing for drugs at work can usually be justified on health & safety grounds... however, if there are

taking drugs again

agreements

unfortunately the process of drugs testing assumes a person is guilty... until the test proves them to be innocent!

• Testing is often used in relationships when partners need to show they are not

• Testing is the only way to show clearly that drugs are not being misused... so testing

can be a very useful part of re-building trust... leaving you to develop the relationship you want

TIPS

• Discussion is always the first part of a home drugs test • Test when you are calm... when all parties agree and understand the reasons it is happening • Be careful if someone is on medicines... for instance some cold cures can create false positives...

indicating ‘yes’ for drugs they have not been misusing

• Don’t test if someone is known to be intoxicated at the time... as the test is not designed for that • Remember that you are testing as part of a wider relationship... where drugs can be talked about

honestly like other important issues in your lives

TESTING AT HOME 100

DRUGS POLICY

other reasons for testing it is best to state this... as part of your drugs policy

• An employee may refuse to be tested... perhaps for reasons of privacy, a sense of mistrust or of being de-valued... dismissal at this point is regarded as inappropriate and not justified

• Employers cannot demand a drugs test unless it is part of established employment contracts and policy • Both TUC and DTI recommend an agreed drugs policy so that employers and staff can more easily understand the motivations and purposes of testing at work

PROCEDURES

• All drugs testing should be fair across all staff levels and maintain confidentiality • Staff may feel invaded, humiliated and stressed by being tested for drugs... well-designed procedures can be clearly explained to re-assure people and make the process more comfortable

• In the case of positive tests, the results may be needed for disciplinary procedures... this evidence needs to be carefully and confidentially recorded

• All employers want to avoid the expense of dismissal... recruitment, training and damage to staff morale can all be costly... so there should be opportunities after a positive test result to support and help employees

TESTING AT WORK 101


102 103

www.thedrugsbook.com


TRAPS

• Trapped... everything becomes one of two options... we label things as good or bad... yes or no... failure or success... all or nothing

• Trapped... refusing to take responsibility for decisions and actions...

ourselves into a corner... sometimes without realising it

money"... "She's perfect"

joint"... "She's the one who started it"

• We can all think

• This thinking can get in our way

• Luckily these ‘mind

traps’ are easy to change... to unlearn ...just as soon as you are aware of them

• So do you think

you recognise any of these? In you or your friends?

• Sounds like..."Everything's messed up"...

"He's always wasting my

• Intervention... just because one thing is wrong, I don't think everything is rubbish... I like to see a range of possibilities... I am strong enough to be honest with myself ”Not everything is black & white!”

HELPLESS

• Trapped... thinking that it is circumstances which have caused our problems... so we feel that there is nothing we can do

• Sounds like... "I'll never get out of this mess"... "This hassle is too much"... "I can't solve all these problems"

• Intervention... even if problems are scary and difficult they are not impossible... I am a capable person... I am making a start and step by step I will work through this temporary situation ”Whether I think I can or I can't... I’m probably right!”

MIND TRAPS

104

BLAME

• Get out of your own way!

www.thedrugsbook.com

ALL OR NOTHING

this means we blame others

• Sounds like... "You made me do it"... "It's not my fault, it was his

• Intervention... no-one is responsible for my behaviour other than myself... I may have emotions when someone else speaks or acts... but how I behave is my decision and mine alone ”If I’m pointing the finger... there's 3 fingers pointing back at me!”

CATASTROPHE

• Trapped... exaggeration turns anything into a disastrous crisis... now or in the future... it is doomed to failure and catastrophe

• Sounds like... "Even if I try I won't pass"... "It's finished and there's no going back"... "Whatever I do it goes wrong"

• Intervention... what has happened is not the end of the world... it is just annoying... unfair... frustrating... unpleasant... or unlucky... I don't like it but that doesn't mean it will keep keep happening

GUILT

• Trapped... feeling

bad about ourselves ... feeling responsible for things that happen ... or the way other people are feeling... or their behaviour

• Sounds like... "I

should have seen that coming"... "I'm making you unhappy"... "I'm so stupid!"... ”It’s all my fault!”

• Intervention... I don't have to be perfect... I do the best I can... I will stop criticising myself and insulting myself ”I'm only human!”

”Every cloud has a silver lining!”

MIND TRAPS 105


NEURO-LINGUISTIC PROGRAMMING

• NLP...Neuro-Linguistic Programming... everything we understand or think is known through our senses

• Capturing and understanding how this affects our actions makes it easy to control and then change our beliefs and behaviour

THERAPY

• NLP has many applications including sales, business and writing... therapeutic approaches can be content-free... phobias are cured

• The focus is on transforming the way we approach our life... avoiding the need to look back and analyse... discovering ways to move forward successfully

12-STEPS

• First used by Alcoholics Anonymous there are now many 12-Step approaches for reducing misuse of substances... but also for overeating, gambling and even sex addiction

• Essentially it is about reducing intake... then fully abstaining... keeping that abstinence going... then improving quality of life • The original version also uses faith and religious beliefs to help

FAMILY

• By involving the whole family in a misuser's

therapy it is possible to develop a comprehensive support approach

• The key is to be non-judgemental or non-

blaming in order to allow new ways of behaving to emerge

• Family Therapy is also the name used when

family members help to encourage treatment... especially when working with alcohol treatment

TALKING THERAPIES 106

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY

• The idea is that we all develop ways of thinking and behaving... some of which aren't helpful... by recognising these we can adopt new ways of thinking

• CBT... as it is known... tends to work directly with drugs habits rather than underlying causes or wider mental health issues

MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING

• Motivational Interviewing... or MI... is where a therapist asks the right questions to help us identify our own ways forward... it is known to work well with problem drinking, cannabis misuse and heroin addiction

• MI is used for just a few sessions then we are encouraged to stay in treatment or use other therapies

RELAPSE PREVENTION

• This is a CBT approach... Cognitive Behaviour Therapy... it focuses on avoiding situations or any

emotions which trigger cravings... we develop ways of dealing with these cravings as well as recognising how we set ourselves up for misuse • It's not all prevention... RP is also about creating happy times and a good life

TALKING THERAPIES

107


FACTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Counselling is about talking… a chance to speak to a professional about... • feelings around getting drug-free or managing drug use • things that people think lead to them taking drugs • any specific personal problems people might need help with

• It is usually confidential though some services may differ • Counselling often takes place as part of other services… the counsellor will ask

permission to share certain information so people can get wider support

• The aim is to help people feel comfortable and encourage a sense of well-being

HOW DOES IT WORK?

• Counselling can be one-to-one or in a group • Either way the counsellor’s job is to listen and help people come up with solutions to

their problems

• Counsellors do not tell people what to think... and they avoid judging... so that people can be as open as they want

• There might be a fixed number of sessions... or people might simply keep going until they feel ready to leave

COUNSELLING 108

GOOD POINTS

• It's a reliable form of support while people get themselves drug-free or manage their drug use

• Counselling can give stability… lots of things may be changing at this time • It's a chance to work out what things lead to someone’s drug use... and it may help to find ways to tackle those circumstances

• Counselling can help to build confidence and self-esteem • It’s good to talk! Counselling can help people make practical changes in their lives and relationships… drugs and other issues can be talked about honestly

THINGS TO THINK ABOUT

• People normally have to commit to regular appointments • There's no set length of time for counselling... everyone's needs are different... some people go for a number of months... others go for a couple of years

• Talking about feelings can be painful... but a counsellor will support people as they go through this

• Counselling may look to the past before finding solutions for going forward • It can take some time before people notice changes in their life

COUNSELLING 109


FACTS

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Substitutes are prescription drugs used to replace a more hazardous drug... often the effects are similar... with addiction still a real threat • Methadone is a common substitute for heroin... another is buprenorphine... also known as subutex • Withdrawal symptoms can be lessened through proper use of substitute drugs • Substitutes may help people stabilise their drug use and situation • Substitutes are not available for all drugs

HOW DOES IT WORK?

• Usually people only need to take the substitute once a day • People use heroin substitutes if they...

• don’t want to come off opiates completely • want to stop injecting • want to stop using heroin without getting severe withdrawal symptoms • need to stop committing crime to get money for drugs.

• Some people will take substitutes for years... this is usually known as a maintenance programme

SUBSTITUTES 110

GOOD POINTS

• People can quickly stop the 'need' to use illegal drugs many times a day • Substitutes can help improve physical health • They are not expensive and with a prescription are legal • A single dose can last a long time... it gives people a chance to sort out other areas of their lives and get support

• Substitutes are not normally injected… because injection is probably the most hazardous way to take any drug

THINGS TO THINK ABOUT

• Substitutes are still addictive • They are mostly Class A drugs... illegal to possess without a prescription… or to sell • There is a risk of overdose if taken with other drugs • Sometimes people need to be supervised when taking a substitute • Like all drugs each substitute has its own risks... make sure you know what these are if prescribed • Naltrexone blocks the high effect of heroin… so this is an alternative approach to a substitute program

SUBSTITUTES

111


www.thedrugsbook.com

FACTS

• A detoxification or 'assisted withdrawal' programme provides different kinds of support • Medication is used to reduce the effects of the withdrawal symptoms • Counselling may help in the preparation and journey through the detox • Supervision can help to control access to drugs • Detox programmes are designed to help people cope with whatever speed of

reduction has been agreed

HOW DOES IT WORK?

• When you stop using addictive drugs, you'll start to get withdrawal symptoms that will stop after a number of days... just how long that takes depends on the drug... • Heroin... most symptoms stop after 7-10 days • Cocaine... most symptoms stop after 4-7 days • Crack... most symptoms stop after 4-7 days • Tobacco... nicotine is out of the body after 2 days... withdrawal issues can last for weeks due to the social aspects of the smoking habit • Cannabis... some problems with withdrawal can last for months

detox

112

GOOD POINTS

• It works... once it's over people can start to get control of their life again • Support while experiencing withdrawal symptoms can include medication such as substitute drugs

• With a proper programme people do not have to come off drugs straightaway • You can try more than once... it gets easier with practice • Professional help can create a strategy for staying drug-free

THINGS TO THINK ABOUT

• If someone is dependent on drugs and wants to stop using them altogether… then they are going to have to detoxify

• Each drug is different… seek medical advice • It can be hard and it often hurts... but it doesn't have to be a horror story • It can help to talk to people who have done it… they are proof that it works • Detox isn't the end of the story... people might feel bad for a long while afterwards

detox 113


www.thedrugsbook.com

FACTS

• Rehab is short for ‘rehabilitation’... where people learn a new way of living... without the drugs • Some private rehab centres are famous for helping celebrities • People usually stay in rehab centres... where their access to drugs can be controlled and stopped

• Intensive support and a daily structure help users to regain control of their own lives

• Some people may have to wait a long time to get a place in rehab

HOW DOES IT WORK?

• It depends... each rehab centre is different... and so is every person there • Most programmes last between six weeks and six months... some last up to a year • Rehab usually combines counselling with a detox progamme and building a new

approach to life

• Centres provide doctors, nurses and therapists who specialise in drugs work… working together on your personal programme • Some rehab centres may have dedicated programmes for young people or for working with the whole family

114

REHAB

GOOD POINTS

• People can get treatment away from the demands of day-to-day life... so they can concentrate on getting drug-free or managing drug use

• There's someone around for support 24/7... and there are probably other people going through the same experiences

• It's a rounded approach... giving help for a wide range of problems in life • Many local authorities provide funding for free residential rehab places

THINGS TO THINK ABOUT

• There may be support available while waiting for a rehab place • Some rehab centres ask people to detox before starting • People will have to leave their own home for a while • Some people report rehab as challenging or stressful… people have to commit to the full programme

• Structured day care might be an alternative… this means getting intensive treatment while living at home

REHAB 115


www.thedrugsbook.com 116

1

4

2

3

6

TAKE SMALL STEPS

>>It's about focussing on the small steps rather than the whole journey

>>What do you want to achieve today? Each small step takes you one step nearer to where you want to be >>If you have a bad day and relapse... pick up where you left off

>>On any journey you go through ups and downs... and that's what treatment is like... you might start off all fired up... then there might be times when you wish you'd never started... you won't be the first... the good news is that there are ways of making the journey easier >>Follow these 10 tips for improving your chance of success

5

ten top tips

7

8

9

10

ten top tips 117


118 119

www.thedrugsbook.com


www.thedrugsbook.com

CLASS A

COCAINE / CRACK / CRYSTAL METH / ECSTASY / HEROIN / LSD / MAGIC MUSHROOMS / METHADONE • Possession... maximum of 7 years imprisonment... and/or fine • Supply... maximum of life imprisonment... and/or fine

CLASS B

AMPHETAMINES / BARBITURATES / CODEINE

• Possession... maximum of 5 years imprisonment... and/or fine • Supply... maximum of 14 years imprisonment... and/or fine

CLASSIFICATION 120

CLASS C

CANNABIS / DIAZEPAM / KETAMINE / ROHYPNOL / TEMAZEPAM / VALIUM • Possession... maximum of 2 years imprisonment... and/or fine • Supply... maximum of 14 years imprisonment... and/or fine

UNCLASSIFIED

ALCOHOL / CAFFEINE / GLUES & GASES / POPPERS / STEROIDS / TOBACCO • Possession... it is not illegal to possess these drugs • Supply... can still be an offence

CLASSIFICATION 121


POSSESSION

www.thedrugsbook.com

• This means being caught with an illegal drug for your own use... the police have these options: • Warning... put on local police files • Caution... put on central police records... held for 5 years • Charge... with an offence leading to a court hearing

• Tiny amounts known as trace elements in drugs paraphernalia such as pipes are also classed as possession

SUPPLY

• If you had any intention of dealing... you may be charged with this more serious offence • Supply includes giving and sharing drugs... even passing a joint to a mate • Decisions over whether you're charged with intent to supply are based

INTERNATIONAL

• Convictions for drugs offences can restrict travel options • Some countries will refuse entry to those with drugs convictions... USA, Australia and France are particularly careful

• Drug laws vary from country to country... one third of all tourist arrests are for drugs offences

• Any attempt to carry drugs over international borders can result in severe penalties... this is known as trafficking

• Many countries... including UK... can withdraw passports for those convicted of drugs trafficking

• Make sure you know what is in your bag when travelling... always pack your own bag when abroad... avoid carrying other people’s luggage

on the circumstances in which you were caught and the quantity of drugs you were caught with

• Supply of drugs paraphernalia such as pipes is also an offence... shops can claim they are for decorative purposes and perhaps avoid prosecution

OFFENCES 122

TRAVEL 123


WORKING

• Drugs in the workplace are covered by three different Acts of Parliament... and it is accepted that

www.thedrugsbook.com

employers are not responsible for staff drugs misuse outside of work hours

• Drugs misuse is considered part of health or safety issues... Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 • Specific laws cover the transport industry... responsibility is shared between employees and employers

for dangerous behaviour... including misuse of drugs... The Transport and Works Act 1992

• Employers have to assess risks in the workplace... if there are more than 5 employees this must be in writing... and risks include staff under the influence of drugs or alcohol at work... Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992

SHOPPING

• It is illegal for shopkeepers to sell solvents to under-18s if knowing or suspecting they are to be

misused... Intoxicating Substances (Supply) Act 1985

• It is an offence to drive or attempt to drive any motor vehicle... on the roads or in any public place...

if unfit to drive due to drugs or alcohol... or in charge of a motor vehicle... Road Traffic Act 1972 & 1988

• Drugs defined in this Act include illegal substances and even medicines prescribed by your own doctor • ‘Drug drivers’ are being increasingly caught with the new roadside test... Field Impairment Test... known as the FIT test

• It is illegal to drive with more than the following amounts of alcohol in your body... • 80 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood • 35 µg of alcohol in 100 ml of breath • 107 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of urine

• This can't be measured in units or drinks because people's

bodies deal with alcohol at different rates... typically one hour to process one unit of alcohol

• Shopkeepers can face big fines or prison... so most shops have an under-18

• Many people are arrested for driving the morning after drinking...

• It is illegal to sell alcohol, cigarettes or any tobacco product to under-18s

for at least 12 months for a first offence... and at least 3 years for a second offence within 10 years

ban to avoid confusion and protect their staff

• It is illegal to sell gas cigarette lighter refills to under-18s... Cigarette Lighter Refill Regulations 1999

REGULATIONS

124

DRIVING

because they can still have too much alcohol in their bloodstream

• To be on the safe side, people who plan to drive should not drink any alcohol • Maximum fine £5,000 and/or up to 6 months imprisonment... plus a disqualification

REGULATIONS 125


SMOKING

• It is illegal to sell cigarettes or any tobacco product to under-18s... retailers must also show warning

• Any person selling or supplying alchol must hold a personal license from their local authority... a licence is also required for premises where alcohol is sold... Licensing Act 2003

• Employers do not have to provide outside smoking shelters... staff smoking rooms or indoor smoking

• There are no limits on the permitted hours for the sale of alcohol • The licences are awarded by local authorities who also issue the bye-laws prohibiting

www.thedrugsbook.com

notices... amended 2007 from Children and Young Persons Act 1933

• It is illegal to smoke in nearly all 'enclosed' and 'substantially enclosed' public places or workplaces ... ’substantially enclosed’ means a roof or ceiling with walls covering more than half of the boundary areas are illegal... Smoke-free (Premises and Enforcement) Regulations 2006

• All public transport and work vehicles used by more than one person must be smoke-free... fixed penalty fine of £50 or maximum fine of £200 if prosecuted in court

• Warning signs must be displayed in all smoke-free premises and vehicles... fixed penalty fine of £200 or maximum fine of £1000 if prosecuted in court • Managers of smoke-free premises and vehicles have legal responsibilities to prevent smoking... maximum fine £2500 • Designated smoking rooms or bedrooms are allowed in hotels, hospices, some care homes, mental health units and prisons

• Staff who work in people’s private homes can work with employers to reduce harm and exposure to second-hand smoke • There is a limited exemption for performance... smoking in films, TV or on stage is allowed if artistic integrity can provide a strong reason

• There is exemption for fishing vessels and some other shipping such as non-UK registered vessels • Local authorities monitor and enforce smoke-free premises

REGULATIONS

126

DRINKING

• A Premises Licence covers a range of activity...the supply of hot food 11pm to 5am... theatre performance... indoor sports... film shows... dance... and live or recorded music drinking in specific public places such as town centres or parks

• Police Officers and Police Community Support Officers... and other accredited persons... can confiscate alcohol from under-18s if drinking or intending to drink in public... they might then contact parents... refusal to co-operate can lead to a maximum fine of £500 • 5 & over... may have alcohol with adult supervision... illegal to give alcohol to under-5s • Under-14s... can go into pubs which have a children's certificate... as long as they are with an adult in the garden or family room

• 14-16s... under-16s need to be with someone 18 or over before going into any licensed

premises... having soft drinks at the licensee's discretion... but can drink alcohol with their meal in a restaurant at the licensee's discretion... but someone 18 or over has to buy it

• 16-17s... may drink beer, port, cider, perry, wine in an eating area on licensed premises as long as it is with a meal... someone 18 or over must buy it for them

• 18 & over... no-one can buy alcohol for an under-18 person for consuming on licensed premises... maximum fine £1,000

REGULATIONS 127


128 129

www.thedrugsbook.com


TENSE AND PANICKY

www.thedrugsbook.com

• If someone gets tense and panicky... calm them down... be reassuring... explain that the panicky feeling gradually goes away... keep them away from bright lights and noisy music... encourage the person to take long deep breaths

CANNABIS / ECSTASY / LSD / MAGIC MUSHROOMS / SPEED UNCONSCIOUS

• If someone becomes unconscious... put them in the recovery position... keep talking to them... keep them warm, but not too hot... check their breathing... if they are not breathing be prepared to do mouth-tomouth resuscitation... call for an ambulance

ALCOHOL / ECSTASY / HEROIN / POPPERS / GLUES & GASES / TRANQUILLISERS EMERGENCY

130

HOT AND DEHYDRATED

• If someone gets hot and dehydrated... cramps, fainting, headaches or sudden tiredness... move them to a cool area... outside is often best... encourage them to sip fruit juices... about a pint every hour... avoid alcohol... call for an ambulance

ECSTASY / AMPHETAMINES

REALLY DROWSY

• If someone gets really drowsy... put them in the recovery position... keep talking to them... bed is the

wrong place as they might lose consciousness in their sleep... coffee is a bad idea as this can make the drugs work faster... call for an ambulance

HEROIN / TRANQUILLISERS / GLUES & GASES EMERGENCY

131


FACTS

• The common usage of the term ‘overdose’... OD... is when a drug user has had so much of a www.thedrugsbook.com

depressant drug that they are in danger of dying... heroin, alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, methadone or opiates

• Other OD’s might occur from stimulants... cocaine, amphetamines, poppers, caffeine... be aware of

heart attack risk and be prepared to call for an ambulance... use first aid for Tense and Panicky

• There is often up to three hours between injecting heroin and an overdose death

see p126

SIGNS OF HEROIN OVERDOSE

• If someone is unconscious after an overdose there is nothing you can do to wake them up • Dial 999 and ask for an ambulance... tell the operator someone is unconscious and having trouble

breathing... give them the address and directions... you do not have to give your name... avoid shouting and panic in background... if worried about police you can just say that someone is unconscious

• Make sure there is nothing stuck in their throat... put the person in the recovery position... see p131 • Stay with them until the ambulance comes... if you can, tell the ambulance crew what they have taken... the police will not usually be called unless the crew expect danger... you could save a life

AVOID...

• Snoring deeply... or making gurgling noises... often mistaken for sleeping

• Avoid walking people around... it wastes time... they could fall... or the drugs could get pumped into their

• Not able to wake up... talk to them loudly... pinch their ears... poke them in the chest or rub knuckles in

drowning or dying of cold

• Turning blue or grey in the face... or the lips

middle of ribcage... if they do not react they are unconscious... see p130

• Not breathing... put your ear to their mouth for 10 to 15 seconds... if they have stopped breathing you

have less than five minutes to start them breathing again before brain damage or death... see p130

OVERDOSE 132

CALL FOR AN AMBULANCE

bloodstream quicker... it could use up valuable oxygen if they have stopped breathing

• Avoid putting people in a bath... it wastes time and there’s a risk of them

• Avoid hurting people to wake them up... hitting or burning... it wastes time and might cause injury... and if they survive they might sue you!

• Avoid injecting them with salt water... paramedics do use a salt drip but just to keep the vein open

OVERDOSE 133


www.thedrugsbook.com

UNCONSCIOUS

• Unconscious breathing..? Or unconscious not breathing? • Are they breathing normally?

• Keep their airway open by tilting the head back and lifting the chin • Straighten their legs and place the arm nearest you at right angles

• Tilt the head back and lift the chin to open the airway • Look, listen and feel for normal breathing • If breathing normally... put in the recovery position... see p131 • If not breathing... dial 999 for an ambulance • Begin CPR... cardio-pulmonary resuscitation... see p132-3

their hand against the cheek nearest to you

999 CALL FOR AN AMBULANCE

134

RECOVERY POSITION

to their body

• Pull the arm furthest from you across their chest... place the back of

• Get hold of the leg furthest from you... above the knee... and lift it up... keeping the foot flat on the floor

• Keep their hand pressed against the cheek and pull on the upper leg to roll them towards you... onto their side

• Tilt the head back to make sure they can breathe easily • Make sure that the hip and knee of the upper leg are bent at right angles • Dial 999 for an ambulance

999

CALL FOR AN AMBULANCE 135


CPR

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation ... CPR... is a life-saving technique to keep people breathing till the ambulance arrives • To carry out a ‘rescue breath’ open the airway... pinch the

person’s nose... place your mouth over their mouth and blow for one second...

• In a chest compression press down about 4-5cm

• Call for an ambulance! • Give 30 chest compressions • Give two rescue breaths • Continue this cycle of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths... till the ambulance arrives

999

• If you are unable or are unwilling to give rescue breaths then give chest compressions only

FOR ADULTS 136

CPR

• CPR for a child (age 2 to puberty) is more gentle... so slightly different... but if you need to do CPR on a child... do not worry about getting it exactly right... it is much more important to do something!

• If you are on your own carry out CPR for one minute before dialling 999 for an ambulance • For the rescue breaths make sure you take shallow breaths and don’t empty your lungs completely... as the chest rises stop blowing and allow it to fall

• For the chest compressions place one or two hands in the centre of the chest... depending on the child’s size... press down to one third of the depth of child’s chest

• Start with 5 gentle rescue breaths... watching the chest rise • Give 30 chest compressions... at a rate of 100 per min • Continue with a cycle of 30 gentle chest compressions and

999

two rescue breaths... till the ambulance arrives

FOR CHILDREN 137


DVT

www.thedrugsbook.com

• Deep Vein Thrombosis... DVT... is the result of a blood clot in your veins... if you think you have DVT get medical help straightaway • Clots can travel along veins to the lungs... this can cause breathlessness, heart attacks or kill... or if a

clot reaches the brain it can cause a stroke

• DVT can be caused by injecting into legs or groin... signs include the leg becoming hot, swollen, red and sore

• Cocaine and crack increase the chance of getting DVT as these drugs already thicken the blood

HEPATITIS B

AND

HEPATITIS C

• Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are viruses that attack the liver... leading to liver failure or cancer...early symptoms include depression and exhaustion... eyes and skin turn yellow

• It is passed on through sex or commonly amongst drug users sharing equipment... needles, syringes,

mixing water, cups, spoons, filters... sharing pipes or toothbrushes... or touching blood

• An overdose is more likely if a drug misuser has Hepatitis B or C... because with these viruses the liver cannot work as well

• Test early... it’s important to get treatment quickly to stop long-term damage

INJECTION HEALTH 138

PREGNANCY

• Heroin increases the risk of miscarriage... low birthweight... premature birth... and still-birth • Cocaine increases the risk of life-threatening bleeding from the uterus... placental abruption... low birthweight... premature birth... abnormalities when born... or a stillbirth

• There is no known safe level for alcohol consumption whilst pregnant... definitive medical trials would

involve giving specific amounts of alcohol to many pregnant women and then recording results... this is clearly not going to happen

• So while nobody knows... in the US and Canada the government advice is no alcohol at all whilst

pregnant... in the UK the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists... and the Food Standards Agency... FSA... both recommend a limit of one or two units of alcohol... once or twice per week... Royal College of Physicians and the Department of Health recommend pregnant women play safe and have no alcohol

• Alcohol is a teratogen... capable of harming a developing brain... it is a small molecule and is passed easily to the baby in the mother's blood across the placenta... affecting whichever part of the baby is developing at the time

• Early stages are especially important to main organs... some doctors advise giving up alcohol if you are trying for a baby

• As the brain keeps developing all through the pregnancy, scarring and shrinkage

are common effects from mothers with drinking problems... foetal alcohol syndrome ... FAS is the biggest cause of mental retardation in the western world

• Some studies conclude that miscarriage is made more likely by 1-2 units a day...

but other studies say the risk is only increased at higher levels... at higher levels it is more definite... 10-15 units a week increase the chance of an underweight baby

MATERNITY HEALTH 139


SAFE SEX

• If you are having sex always carry a condom or femidom... use with water-based lubricant... avoid oilwww.thedrugsbook.com

based lubricant... it erodes condoms... increasing risks of getting a sexually transmitted infection... STI

• Sharing sex toys is risky... wash between users... or perhaps cover with a clean condom • It is possible to get HIV through oral sex... experts disagree about how risky this is... the most risky oral sex is sucking on the penis of someone with HIV infection... oral sex does carry known risks for other infections such as Hepatitis B or C

• Be careful with open wounds or sores... HIV passes from one body fluid to another

HIV

• HIV is the virus linked to AIDS... acquired immune deficiency syndrome • It is found in body fluids... such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk • Drug users can easily contract HIV through sharing injection equipment... the tiniest drop of blood is enough to cause infection... avoid sharing needles, syringes, mixing water and cups, spoons or filters

• The test for HIV is a simple blood test... it’s important to get any treatment needed early on • Make sure you always have safe sex...use a condom... someone with HIV infection might not look ill

SEXUAL HEALTH 140

, STI S

• Drugs and alcohol misuse can often lead to risky sexual behaviour... sexually transmitted infections, or STI’s, can lead to reduced fertility, impaired sexual performance, unwanted pregancy, miscarriage

• Genital warts... small lumps that develop on the genitals and/or the anus... people can be a carrier of the virus without realising... treatment options include applying chemicals or freezing the warts

• Chlamydia... is the most common STI in the UK... there might be no symptoms but they can include

genital discharge... people can be infected for years without realising... complications can develop if left untreated ... pelvic infection, infertility in women... a short course of an antibiotic usually clears chlamydia

• Genital herpes... stays for life but can lie dormant with no symptoms... if symptoms occur they can range from a mild soreness to painful blisters on the vulva or penis... eased by anti-viral medication

• Gonorrhoea... symptoms can include discharge from vagina or penis... some people do not develop

symptoms... infection can still be passed on... a short course of an antibiotic usually clears gonorrhoea

• Pubic lice... crabs... tiny insects about 1-2 mm long... eggs hatch into lice after seven days... they do

not wash or brush off with normal cleaning... cause itching... treatment with a lotion usually clears the lice

• Syphilis... if not treated this can spread in the bloodstream to cause a range of symptoms and problems in different parts of the body over many years... a short course of antibiotics can clear it up if caught soon enough... but it can be fatal

• Trichomonas... a germ similar to bacteria... causes an infection that is not

normally serious but discharges can be unpleasant... can be no symptoms... antibiotics usually clears trichomonas vaginalis

• HIV see p136 and Hepatitis B and C see p134... are also STI’s

SEXUAL HEALTH 141


HANGOVER

• There are lots of myths surrounding hangovers but they are caused by a combination of three things... • Dehydration... alcohol is a diuretic... stimulating urination... up to four times the amount of liquid www.thedrugsbook.com

lost as drunk... with dehydration the brain shrinks away from the skull... causing headaches!

• Low blood sugar... alcohol stimulates insulin production... reducing blood sugar level... this causes drowsiness, weakness, trembling and hunger

• Poisoning... alcoholic drinks contain impurities called congeners... darker drinks tend to have more than clear drinks and sometimes manufacturers add them for sweetness and taste... the liver can become overworked so other toxins are not broken down

• Drinking water in between alcohol reduces dehydration... on waking, rehydrate with water and replace lost glucose with fruit juices or eating... a 2005 study in the British Medical Journal said there is no effective cure for hangovers... avoid by drinking in moderation!

UNITS

• Generally one unit of alcohol... 8g... will take one hour to be processed out of the body • Blood alcohol concentration... BAC... depends on the amount and type of alcohol, drinking speed, any

food eaten, gender... women can have a slightly higher BAC due to less body fluid to dilute the alcohol

• The recommended daily limit of alcohol is 3-4 units for men... 2-3 units for women... weekly limits 14 units for women and 21 for men... with at least 2 consecutive days off a week

ALCOHOL HEALTH 142

ALCOHOL DISEASES

• Liver... less than 10% of alcohol is eliminated from the body in urine, breath and sweat... 90% of all

alcohol has to be processed by the liver... this can lead to fatty liver and permanent scarring... cirrhosis

• Heart... cardiomyopathy, heart failure, high blood pressure, rapid pulse, weakness of heart muscle, anaemia, impaired blood clotting

• Stomach... inflammation, vomiting, diarrhoea, malnutrition, vitamin deficiency, ulcers • Brain... blackouts, memory loss, damage to nervous system, poor concentration, blurred vision,

headaches, insommnia, restlessness, loss of balance... loss of inhibitions, aggression, irrational behaviour, arguments, violence, depression, mood swings, anxiety, nervousness... loss of self-esteem

• Lungs... reduced resistance to infection, increased risk of pneumonia and tuberculosis, colds • Pancreas... digestion problems, inflammation of the pancreas, duodenal ulcer, acute pancreatitis... with vomiting and severe pain occurring even after treatment

• Throat... cancers of throat, mouth and oesophagus, chronic coughing, oesaphageal varices

• Kidneys... impaired function, urinary infections • Hands and feet... tingling, trembling, numbness, loss of sensation, peripheral neuritis

• Limbs... impaired sensation leading to falls and numbness • Face... facial deterioration, 'drinker’s nose', blood-shot eyes, puffy eyes, florid skin, spider veins on hands and face, premature ageing

ALCOHOL HEALTH 143


144 145

www.thedrugsbook.com


RE-ASSURE

• You will be there for your children... some extreme drug misuse can lead to difficult decisions where you

• Services can be medical, therapeutic or social

them... imposing big changes might be too unsettling

• It is best to deal with an organisation specialising with drugs misuse... they will understand the wider

www.thedrugsbook.com

might have to withdraw contact... but even this is part of your support

• Young people need support networks and a structured environment... do what you can to keep this for

• They are your children for life... experimenting with drugs is common and the threat will never go away...

but your re-assurance can help to stop reckless behaviour becoming long term

• They may be more scared than you... the facts show that all the problems can be resolved

KNOWING

• Know where they are... minimise the opportunities where drug misuse can arise • Know their friends... be as much a part of their real life as they'll let you!

• Know the services in your area... and you may need support before your child

• Know about drugs... take away the myths and get to the facts so you can avoid unnecessary worry • Know yourself, your friends and your family... valuable support will be found in who you know

FOR PARENTS 146

SERVICES

• Different approaches will work for different people

range of options... but different areas will have varying services

• The UK is covered by Drugs Action Teams (DATs) or Drugs and Alcohol Action teams (DAATs) so in your area they will be able to advise

WEBSITES

www.talktofrank.com............... The official source of drugs information from the UK government www.nta.nhs.uk........................ National Treatment Agency with links to other agencies

www.jrf.org.uk.......................... Featuring a free PDF of "Random Drug Testing of School Children"

www.drugs.gov.uk....................Government policy and useful info

www.drugscope.org.uk........... Drugs info from the leading industry source

www.adfam.org.uk.................. Leading national organisation for families facing drugs problems

FOR PARENTS 147


CHOICES

• Do you have any? As a young person it is sometimes hard to feel any choices www.thedrugsbook.com

• Friends and family will worry about you... this will feel like spying and silliness sometimes... if you can, choose to accept that they are trying to be good for you

• Do not stop being exciting and do not stop having fun... carry on being interested in everything... if you can, choose activities that don't stop your choices

• It’s OK to be curious about drugs... that means you can choose how you deal with them

KNOWING

• Know about drugs... the facts and the fictions... there are effects to be paid for... and habits that can harm you... but knowing about drugs is always good for you

• Know your friends... look out for each other... people will go different ways and that will change things... know where your friends are going... if you can, know where you want to go

• Know your network... who, where and when is help available to you? We all need support and

advice... sometimes quickly... or realistically... sometimes briefly... and sometimes forever

• Know when to ask for help!

148

FOR TEENS

SERVICES

• Services can be medical or involve counselling... or lifestyle changes • Different approaches will work for different people

• It is best to deal with an organisation specialising with drugs misuse as they will understand the wider range of options... but different areas will have varying services

• The UK is covered by Drugs Action Teams (DATs) or Drugs and Alcohol Action teams (DAATs) so in your area they will be able to advise

WEBSITES

www.talktofrank.com............... The central info source about many different drugs and issues

www.bbc.co.uk/radio1............. Radio 1's online guide to drugs

www.thesite.org....................... Drugs information and other useful info

www.roofie.com....................... The Roofie Foundation for info & help around drink spiking www.drugs.gov.uk................... Government policy and useful info

www.drugscope.org.uk.......... Drugs info from the leading industry source

FOR TEENS 149


www.thedrugsbook.com

TRAINING

• All levels of staff will need an awareness programme around drugs issues... to talk only with the managers will isolate staff... only talking to staff will almost accuse them!

• Services for drugs misuse can be medical, therapeutic or social... different approaches will work for

• You do not need to train for managing drugs misuse... other agencies and professionals can do that if

range of options

• Approaching individuals is best done as a performance issue needed in your workplace

• You do need to understand the consequences of drugs misuse at work... and know your legal responsibilities

DRUGS POLICY

• Those staff who try to deal with their drugs misuse problems should be helped... this is balanced against the duty of care needed for all staff

• A drugs policy does not replace disciplinary procedures but works with them • Each workplace is different... each may need a different set of aims to show why a drugs policy has been

written... where are the benefits? • The policy should apply to all staff... stereotypes of drug misuse are less common now as people realise that all kinds of people take drugs • Set the rules... set who is responsible... safeguard confidentiality... know what services are available • Rely on a drugs policy to place it all in a context... protect your workplace from harbouring a drugs culture

WORKPLACE

150

SERVICES

different people

• It is best to deal with an organisation specialising with drugs misuse... they will understand the wider • Help is also available for developing a successful and structured drugs policy

• The UK is covered by Drugs Action Teams (DATs) or Drugs and Alcohol Action teams (DAATs) so in your area they will be able to advise

WEBSITES

www.acas.org.uk...................... ACAS guidance on drugs misuse in the workplace

www.jrf.org.uk.......................... Joseph Rowntree Foundation report on drugs in the workplace

www.hse.gov.uk....................... Drug Misuse at Work - produced by Health and Safety Executive www.yourrights.org.uk............ Guide to drugs testing at work from Liberty

www.nta.nhs.uk........................ Workplace guide to drugs from National Treatment Agecny www.drugscope.org.uk.......... Drugs info from the leading industry source

WORKPLACE 151


12-steps 4-MMC... mephedrone A2… BZP ABV acid… LSD acquired immune deficiency syndrome aerosol… solvents agaric… magic mushrooms AIDS alcohol alcohol by volume alcoholic diseases alcopops… alcohol alkyl nitrate… poppers alkyl nitrites… poppers all or nothing amani… magic mushrooms amfepramone… slimming pills amphetamine amyl nitrite… poppers anavar… steroids anti-depressants ativan… tranquillisers baccy… tobacco bangers… poppers barbs… barbiturates barbies… barbiturates

152

INDEX

106 56 22 16 52 140 44 55 140 17 16 143 16 62 62 104 55 68 19 62 71 21 74 73 62 25 24

barbiturates base… amphetamine base… crack beating the test benzodiazepine… tranquillisers benzo's… tranquillisers benzylpiperazine… BZP bevy… alcohol billy… amphetamine blame blotters… LSD blow… skunk blue-ies… valium blues… barbiturates blunts… skunk bodypop… GHB bomb… amphetamine bong… cannabis booze… alcohol bounce... mephedrone brew… alcohol brown… heroin bubbles... mephedrone bud… cannabis buddha… skunk bush… cannabis BZP

25 19 34 99 74 75 23 17 18 105 53 66 76 24 67 42 18 29 16 57 16 46 57 29 67 29 23

c… cocaine caffeine cancer sticks… tobacco cannabis cardio-pulmonary resuscitation catastrophe catha edulis… khat cathedine… khat caution CBT charge charlie… cocaine chat… khat cherries… barbiturates ching… cocaine chocolate… caffeine choice cigarettes… tobacco cipramil… anti-depressants classification cocaine co-codamol… codeine codafen… codeine codeine coffee… caffeine cognitive behaviour therapy coke… cocaine

INDEX

30 27 72 29 136 105 51 51 122 107 122 31 50 24 31 27 88 73 21 120 30 32 33 33 26 107 31

come down... cocaine come down... amphetamine co-proxamol… painkillers counselling CPR crack crack pipe crystal meth date rape drugs… rohypnol DCLA… steroids deca-durabolin… steroids deep vein thrombosis depressants detox dexies… amphetamine dianabol… steroids diazepam… tranquillisers diazepam… valium dids… ecstasy disco biscuits… ecstasy doobie… cannabis dope… cannabis doves… ecstasy downers… barbiturates downers… tranquillisers drams… alcohol needs adding

30 18 60 100 136 35 35 37 64 70 70 138 12 112 19 70 74 76 40 40 29 28 41 24 75 17

153


draw… cannabis drink… alcohol drinking law driving drone... mephedrone drop… LSD drowsy drugs policy DVT E… ecstasy ecstasy energy drinks… caffeine extra… ecstasy fags… tobacco family therapy FAS faverin… anti-depressants First Aid fly agaric… magic mushrooms foetal alcohol syndrome freebase… crack fuel… glues & gases future ganja… cannabis gas… glues & gases gbh… GHB gear… cannabis

154

INDEX

29 16 127 125 57 53 131 94, 101, 150 138 40 41 27 40 72 106 139 20 129 55 139 35 44 91 28 45 42 28

gear… heroin GHB glass… crystal meth glue… glues & gases grass… cannabis grass… skunk grog… alcohol guilt H… heroin hallucinogens hangover hash (hashish)… cannabis Health & Safety at Work Act heart conditions... ecstasy heart conditions... viagra Help helpless hemp… cannabis henry… heroin Hepatitis B and C herb… skunk heroin high blood pressure... ecstasy HIV horse… heroin hot and dehydrated hug drug… ecstasy

47 42 36 45 29 66 17 105 46 13 142 28 93, 124 40 78 145 104 28 46 138 66 47 40 140 47 131 41

human immunodeficiency virus Human Rights Act ice… crystal meth injection... amphetamine injection... heroin injection... steroids injection health international Intro jack… heroin jellies… valium rugby balls is faded joint… cannabis jokes juice… alcohol junk… heroin k…ketamine kaodine… codeine ketamine ketty… ketamine khat kidney problems... slimming pills kix…poppers knowing Law leaf… cannabis learn

INDEX

140 94 36 18 46 71 138 123 6 47 77

28 89 17 47 49 33 49 49 51 68 63 146, 148 119 29 84

legal E… BZP liberties… magic mushrooms librium… tranquillisers linctus… methadone liquid ecstasy… GHB liquid gold… poppers liquid x… GHB listen... parents listen... teens little fellas… ecstasy little men… ecstasy little ones… ecstasy LMNO… steroids loopy juice… alcohol lorcet… painkillers lortab… painkillers LSD lustral… anti-depressants magic mushrooms manerix… anti-depressants MAOI's… anti-depressants marijuana (mary jane)… cannabis mazzies… tranquillisers mcat... mephedrone McDonalds… ecstasy MDMA… ecstasy meow meow... mephedrone

22 54 74 58 43 63 42 86 90 41 41 41 71 17 61 61 53 20 55 20 20 28 75 57 40 40 56

155


mental health... LSD mental health... skunk mental health... magic mushrooms meph... mephedrone mephedrone meth… methadone methadone methamphetamine… crystal meth methylamphetamine… crystal meth MI microdots… LSD miaow... mephedrone mirrors... amphetamine mirrors... cocaine Misuse of Drugs Act mitsubishis… ecstasy mixing drugs mixture… methadone mogadon… tranquillisers mood swings... codeine mood swings… crack motivational interviewing muscle… steroids mushies… magic mushrooms nardil… anti-depressants nectar… alcohol needles... amphetamine

156

INDEX

53 66 55 56 57 59 59 36 36 107 53 56 19 31 93 41 10 58 75 33 34 107 70 54 21 17 19

needles… heroin nembies… barbiturates neuro-linguistic programming nicotine… tobacco nina… ecstasy NLP norries… tranquillisers nose candy… cocaine offences orlistat… slimming pills overdose painkillers paste… amphetamine paxil… anti-depressants pebbles… crack pep pills… BZP person phentermine… slimming pills phet… amphetamine physeptone… methadone pills… barbiturates pipe… cannabis pipe… crack piperazines… BZP place poison… alcohol poke… viagra

47 25 106 72 40 106 74 31 122 69 132 61 19 21 35 22 11 68 18 59 24 28 35 23 11 17 79

policy... drugs policy pop… alcohol poppers poppy… glues & gases possession pot… cannabis powder… cocaine pregnancy prozac… anti-depressants purple haze… skunk qaadka… khat qat… khat quat… khat ram… poppers rape drug… rohypnol razor blades... amphetamine razor blades... cocaine re-assure recovery position reds… barbiturates reductil… slimming pills rehab relapse prevention resin… cannabis rights Risks roach… cannabis

INDEX

94, 101, 150 16 63 44 122 29 31 139 20 66 50 50 50 62 65 19 31 146 135 25 69 114 107 29 94 9 29

rock hard… poppers 63 rock… cannabis rock… cocaine rock… crack rohypnol roids… steroids rollies… tobacco roll-ups… tobacco roofies… rohypnol rugby balls… valium needs sorting visually safe sex sensi… skunk sensimilia… skunk seroxat… anti-depressants sexstacy… viagra sexual health sexually transmitted infections shit… cannabis shit… heroin shopping 124 shots… alcohol shrooms… magic mushrooms Sibutramine… slimming pills Sildenafil… viagra skag… heroin skunk

29 30 34 65 70 73 73 65 77

140

140 67 66 21 79

141 29 47

17 54 68 78 47 67

157


sleepers… barbiturates slimming pills smack… heroin smarties… ecstasy smilies… LSD smoke… skunk smokes… tobacco smoking law sniffers… poppers snow… cocaine snuff… cocaine solpadeine… painkillers solvents… glues & gases solvents law special k… ketamine speed... amphetamine spice... cannabis spike… GHB spliff… skunk sports drinks… caffeine spray… glues & gases SSRI's… anti-depressants staff care stanozolol... steroids stars… LSD stash… cannabis stash… heroin

158

INDEX

25 69 46 41 52 67 73 126 63 31 31 60 44 124 46 18 28 43 67 27 45 20 92 71 52 29 47

steroids stimulants STI's stones… crack substitutes sulphate… amphetamine super k… ketamine supply Sustanon 250… steroids sweets… ecstasy syringes... amphetamine syringes... heroin tabs… ecstasy tabs… LSD Talking talking therapies tea… caffeine Temazepam… tranquillisers ten top tips tense and panicky Testing Tetrahydrocannabinol… skunk THC… skunk Therapy thinners… glues & gases tina and christine… crystal meth TNT… poppers

71 12 141 35 110 19 49 122 70 40 19 47 40 53 81 106 26 74 116 130 83, 97, 101 66 66 103 44 37 63

tobacco toot… cocaine training tranquillisers Transport & Works Act travel trips… LSD trust twelve steps types of drugs unclassified unconscious units of alcohol uppers… amphetamine V… viagra Valium vallies… valium Viagra vitamin K… ketamine volatile substances… glues & gases waccy baccy… cannabis warning wash… crack water... ecstasy weed… cannabis white… cocaine whizz… amphetamine

INDEX

73 31 150 75 93 123 52 100 106 12 121 134 142 19 79 77 76 79 48 45 28 122 34 40 29 30 18

withdrawal... barbiturates withdrawal... codeine withdrawal... painkillers wizz... amphetamine wraps... amphetamine wraps... cocaine xanax… tranquillisers Xenical… slimming pills XTC… ecstasy yaba… crystal meth Zoloft… anti-depressants

24 32 60 19 19 31 74 69 40 37 20

159


CREDITS

• A big thanks to all those who have supported us and helped to create The Drugs BookTM • To the drugs workers, police officers, prison officers, local authority staff, doctors, nurses, probation

officers, youth workers, politicians, chief inspectors, prison governors, council chief executives, government officials and everyone else who spends a good part of every day tackling community drugs problems... many thanks! • Particular thanks go to... British Red Cross, Home Office, The Central Office of Information, Frank, Cheshire Constabulary, Hampshire Constabulary, Humberside Constabulary, East Riding Drug Action Team, DrugScope, British Liver Trust, Addaction, Alcohol Concern, National Community Safety Network, The Ryan Smith Rising Sun Trust, Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council, Be Your Best Foundation, The London Borough of Barnet, Drugaid, National Treatment Agency, NHS Suffolk, Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Adfam, Kelvin Hall Secondary School, Hull College, Penywaun Family Awareness Drugs Support, Haltemprice Crime Prevention Panel

• Images courtesy of... British Red Cross, Home Office, COI, Drug Enforcement Agency, Roche, Preventx, Pfizer, Cardinal, Jay Moy The

160

TM

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL

• This manual is designed for you to dip in and out – getting straight to the facts and advice you need.

• All the drugs are arranged in alphabetical order. The symbols in the page corners quickly show you what type of drug, the legal penalties and the best first aid approach. type of drug p.12

class of drug p.116

emergency p.126

>>Other sections are also colour coded so you can find them quickly. The advice is often aimed at parents, teenagers or workplace issues so you can understand any different viewpoints easily. When this happens the title bars are in different colours as follows

FOR PARENTS FOR TEENS WORKPLACE

161


The Drugs Book  

The Drugs Book is an advice and help guide to the misuse of drugs aimed at teenagers and other educational providers

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you