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This study is an objective, impartial account highlighting the factuality within these areas of Research, Self publishing and Authorship. Throughout this thesis the reader will be able to understand the basic principles of these topics as well as understand how they link to the final out come of the ‘Poster Zine.’ (Figure 1) Through Personal Reflection, Literary Review and Conclusion the writer has expressed their personal opinion as well as a concluding result of research techniques and processes of which have accompanied the development of this project. Within this assignment, the focus has developed throughout and instead of being a guide or in-depth understanding of self publishing it has transformed into something much more interesting, but an in-depth exploration of ideas and forms through which you can understand self publishing in a new way - through the lenses of many different theoretical and contextual perspectives. This account takes a more social, cultural approach to publishing in that it transforms into a development of both cultural and editorial studies - and how subcultural studies can be communicated through publications in a number of different ways. The authors intention is to not examine whether self publishing is right or wrong, or conclude whether zines have brought negative change to the world of publishing but to understand the key initial aspects of self publishing, authorship, research and apply it to the final outcome. This could almost be diary of thought’s for the reader as it started off as self publishing research book however it has developed into analytical reflection of the process of this outcome through these many different topics, techniques, concepts and traditional means of research. This idea of authorship has also made a different to the process of this thesis as the author and designer began to then see this in a more personal way - through which they can express and develop their own understanding of graphic communication. It was then through format, typography, layout and other communication techniques that the final outcome started to transform into what it is today. Throughout the process of this dissertation the author has acknowledged and interpreted many different theories of each including ‘Death of the Auther’ by Roland Barthes, readings from ‘Visual Research’ by Ian Noble and Russell Bestley, ‘Subcultures:the meaning of Style’ created by Dick Hebdidge, ‘No more rules’ by Rick Poynor - any many many more. The subject matter has been explored in many ways through field studies and interviews. The ‘Psychedelic’ visual style has been part of both develop in the visual aesthetic for this book and also part of the process and conceptualisation. The ‘Zine’ element of this project has also been both part of the concept and strategies within effective graphic communication. There are so interesting ideas and subject areas within this project which all link to this outcome in many ways. This book in essence is a formal publication of which represents the work that has gone into this unit - how the designer went from a mere word document of a dissertation to then a creative ‘Posterzine’. It is a formal collection of everything that has been looked at and been thought about, everything which has inspired, informed or been interpreted by the creator.

About the Author My name is Emma Mills and this is my Final Major Project research book which has been one of if not the most inspiring and interesting project I have done so far in my studies. This Final Major Project aims to target a certain area of design of which I will go into after my studies have ended. This exploration of cultural, social, theoretical, contextual and historical studies has been fused together in this designed and edited publication. I decided to publish my dissertation because of many reasons. The first being because I enjoyed writing it so much, it was something that I was extremely interested in and found enjoyable in everyday. From the very beginning of visiting the V&A Exhibition: You say you want a Revolution? That was the sign for me, the instinct feeling of potential of which I could make a project out of this. Following on from my experience at the exhibition, I furthered my research and discovered more aspects of the sixties of which I found interesting, it was then when I came across the UFO club poster in which I instantly felt mesmerised and inspired but the beauty in Micheal English’s work. This then led me to theoretical studies of which I came across Dick Hebdidge and his study ‘Subcultures: The meaning of Style’. This narrative of what subcultures are, how they work fuelled my interest in the psychedelic sixties underground culture - I was able to see links which not many theorist have done before. Subcultures usually include the Mod’s, Punk’s, Graffiti artists etc however no-one in the subcultural studies market ever thought to had mentioned the psychedelic underground culture and their visual style. This group had only been referred to as a ‘counter culture’ which is true however it has in my view developed into a subculture. This idea that their visual style is subcultural and intact has also been assimilated into the mainstream with reference to the Aizone example proved this point even more valid and I was able to gain evidence of this. From my interview with Joe Boyd the co-founder of the UFO he stated “Don’t all counter cultures become subcultural? That’s the brilliance of capitalism, it can absorb and commercialise anything. Gangsta rap is used to sell toothpaste these days.” Which is true - everything inevitably comes back, we are involved in this constant cycle of recuperation and reinvention. Using the visual aesthetic of the sixties was both because my target audience wanted to see it but also because it adds this element of a ‘psychedelic experience’ one in which generates shock - a subcultural shock, something outside the norm which has both re-contextualised element of past movements and assimilated as their own designs.

Throughout this thesis I have explored these idea through these different sections; Research; Publishing; Authorship; Case Studies; Project Proposal; Psychedelic Experience; Zines, Craft and Format; Postmodernism; and finally The Reflection and Conclusion.


Figure 1. Final Outcome (2017)


06 RESEARCH 08 10 12 14 16

What is Research? Qualitative vs Quantative Visual Research, Ian Noble and Russell Bestley ‘Transferable Research Method Diagram’ Interview Technique

18 PUBLISHING 20 24 28 32

What is self publishing? The History of publishing Interview with Victoria Arden Interview with Catharine Slade Brooking

36 AUTHORSHIP 38 The Theory of Authorship 42 Death of the Author: Roland Barthes 44 The History of Authorship

46 CASE STUDIES 50 56 62 68 74 80 86

People of Print OH SO PRETTY: Punk in Print DAZED Magazine i-D You want a revoltion? One way ticket to Cubesville EXHIBITA

92 PROJECT PROPOSAL 94 Title and Introduction 96 History and Case Studies 62 Literary Review and Conclusion

100 PSYCHEDELIC EXPERIENCE 102 104 108 110 118 120 124 126 134

Act of Assimilation Revolutionary Design Hapshash & the Coloured Coat Victor Moscoso Subculture: The meaning of Style Jonathon Green Interview Joe Boyd Interview Sherran Clark Moustrap Club: Psychedelic Allnighter

140 ZINES, CRAFT AND FORMAT 142 146 148 170 172 174

Zines Zines for Days Zine Workshop at Serpentine Gallery Screen Printing Workshop Poster Zine Format

178 POSTMODERNISM 180 184 190 194

Rick Poynor Wolfgang Weignhart Typography Layout

202REFLECTION & CONCLUSION 204 206 208 210

Literary Review Personal Reflection Conclusion Bibliography





Research is more than just googling something or finding a quote in a book. “Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought� (Albert Szent Gyorgi.nt.) It is to see, to touch, to look at and to experience in every way. If you know what you are doing in the process and know what you are going to find then it is not research.

Figure 1i. What is Research Year 02 Book (2015)


It is the awareness or the experience of information prior to the person’s interests or beliefs. Research is there for us to expand our knowledge and interest. In the case of design, research provides us with inspiration and guidance to kick start our creative processes. It prepares us for development of ideas and helps us learn new skills, methods and other designers works. There are many ways of gathering research whether it be from the internet, magazines, books or the experimenation, visiting museums or interacting with people. According to Kasi, the key to good research is to conduct it in the right way. Whether it be quantitive research or qualitative research of which you are seeking for you much be careful of these two key components: Reliability and Validity. Reliability is the “ability of a test or instrument to get a consistent estimate when repeated in a group of similar subjects. It is equivalent to repeatability.” Validity however is the “ability of a test or instrument to measure what it intended to measure. It is this an estimate of the precision.” Kari then follows on to discuss the key methods for producing research of which is practical and sustains these qualities to best possible level. To ensure reliability he proposes four methods: “Test - retest reliability” which highlights the “consistency” of the instrument used by the same person a number of times. “Inter-observer reliability” is the the “consistency of the instrument when it is administered by the different people.” The third method he raises he calls the “Internal Consistency” of an instruments which “occurs when the components of the instrument are found to appropriately measure the same concept being studied.” and lastly the “Cronbach alpha” which is a “single number estimate of how closely components of an instrument correlate with each other. It is obtained by computation.” He then goes on to explain five methods to follow to sustain effective validity. “Construct validity” ensures how well you concept or constructs “translates into a functioning instrument. It is comprised of translation validity and criterion related validity.” the second he confirms to be is “Translation validity” which identifies your instrument in light if it is a “good measure of your concept or construct. It comprises of face validity and content validity.” “Face Validity” is the method to see whether “at a glance” the instrument measures properly and what intends to do. “Content Validity” is the case of is the content or the item “in the questionnaire appropriately represent identify the concept being studied.” And finally “Criterion - related validity” is a “post study analysis” which using “factor analysis”, demonstrates whether your instrument actually functions “appropriately to identify the condition or findings. (Kasi, 2011:113)


Figure 1ii. What is Research Year 02 Book (2015)






Quantitive methods involve the process of “collecting, analysing, interpreting, and writing”. It is an approach of testing objective,theories and working with numbers, (objects.) You do this by examining the “relationship among variables. These variables, in turn, can be measured, typically on instruments, so that numbered data can be analysed using statistical procedures.” (Creswell, 2014:4) Qualitative “approaches to data collection, analysis, interpretation, and report writing differ from the traditional, quantitive approaches.” “Purposeful sampling, collection of open ended data, analysis of text or pictures, representation of information in figures and tables, and personal interpretation of findings all inform qualitative methods. (Creswell, 2014:4) It is an approach for “exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a social or human problem.” It is therefore a form of research instead of numbers but with words etc. “the process of research involves emerging questions and procedures, data typically collected in the participant’s setting, data analysis inductively building from particulars to general themes, and the researcher making interpretations of meaning of the data.” (Creswell, 2014:4) Mixed Methods research is a mix of involving both quantitive and qualitative data. It is an approach which is “integrating the two forms of data, and using distinct designs that may involve philosophical assumptions and theoretical frameworks.” It is this approach that is supposedly “provides a more complete understanding of a research problem than either approach alone.” (Creswell, 2014:4) This may be because of the combination of both techniques combines both results and both ways of seeing and working data. In the book ‘Qualitative - Quantitive Research Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum written by Isadore Newman and Carolyn R. Benz they state that “the qualitative, naturalistic approach is used when observing and interpreting reality with the aim of developing a theory that will explain what was experience.” (Newman and Benz, 1998:3) It is a natural approach in that it is based on insights from an individual and is progressed and interpreted by one. “The quantitive approach is used when one begins with a theory (or hypothesis) and tests for confirmation or disconfirmation of that hypothesis.” (Newman and Benz, 1998:3) It is this theory in which the research is wanting to test and understand - to challenge or to see from themselves. In their book they take a more scientific approach to understanding and interpreting what exactly they both are and what exactly differentiates one from the other. In the many years research has transformed into different forms and mediums, however what hasn’t changed is the debate between both these types of research - these two basic principles in research drive a great deal of debate and discussion in this field from the beginning of time.“

“You need to marry the qualitative with the quantitive. It better informs us so we can decide what to do. We can’t be afraid of data and analysis. We have to use that lens.” (Nathan Sheriff, 2017)

The debate between qualitative and quantitive researcher is based upon the difference in assumptions about reality is and whether or not it is measurable.” (Newman and Benz, 1998:3) “The debate further rests on the opinion about how we best understand what we “know”, whether through objective or subjective methods” (Newman and Benz, 1998:3) It is hard to sum up or to summarise data in a way which is understandable and not biased, Newman and Benz challenge the way these two approaches have been seen before and signify key themes or elements in assessing these two kind of research. William Firestone (1987) in an article un the Educational research, differentiates qualitative from quantitive research based on four dimensions: “assumptions, purpose, approach and research role.” When analysing assumptions “Firestone asks is objective reality sought through facts or is reality socially constructed?” He then asks when it comesto “Related” he wonders whether “is it looking for causes or for understanding?” The “Determine” approach is evident when he asks “whether the research us experimental/ correlational or a form of ethnography.” And finally, related to the researcher’s “role”, he asks whether “the researcher is detached or immersed in the setting.” (Newman and Benz, 1998:3) What is evident is that both Qualitative and Quantitive research methods are valid and reliable but what I as a researcher need to signify is which one holds the best suitable data and which one works best with the instrument of which I will be using to measure. By setting out my aims clearly I am able to determine which one is most appropriate and test it, in this project I have already done a great deal of Quantitive research from reading books the research of which I will take this project further will most likely form Qualitative - research due to the subject. As I will be working with people on a social level I therefore have to use what I have learnt in these theories to better my research skills - specifically my qualitative research skills for example such as interview technique and visual research methods and approaches.



RESEARCH: IAN NOBLE AND RUSSELL BESTLEY Figure 2. Visual Research Assimilation (2017)


“Research is an intrinsic aspect of design practice and an essential part of the activity of problem solving.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004: 19)

An introduction to research methodologies is a thorough investigation into research methods for graphic design and other visual arts disciplines “The designer is involved in a constant process of enquiry” (Noble and Bestley, Page 19, 2004) Throughout my studies into graphic communication and my experience in the industry so far, I have found that a designer’s role is not just to make things look visually pleasing but to question why, why things look this way? Why society is this way? Dick Hebdidge uses this idea of literary theorist Roland Barthes that mainstream culture disguises itself. Rather than saying things are normalised, we present things as a constructive form of normalisation - that these rules are obvious and it is an inevitable result of history. It is going to happen, it had to happen, it was always going to happen - it is an inevitable product of history. The messy, choice driven culturally constructed nature of what we are doing all the time, disguises that and presents it as if it were “composed according to evident laws of the natural order.” (Barthes, 1972) Men and women are naturally meant to be this way; homosexuals and heterosexuals are ‘naturally’ supposed to be this way, social classes are ‘naturally’ ordered in this hierarchy to deny the construction of any of those things. Designer’s do not only exist as puppets or robots creating structured art work but are also authors or investigators in that they enquire and chall -enge these rules, they have the power to question the unquestionable. Whether it be the designer enquiries or the audience enquiries about the designer’s work, the designer is constantly questioning what they are doing, why they are doing it and it is through this process they are able to communicate to their client and audience whether that be to an organisation or to the rest of society. “The designer, as a form giver or channel through which the message is passed, can play a key role in actually shaping the content of the message.” (Noble and Bestley, Page 187, 2004) Throughout the dissertation I was able to uncover information about the psychedelic subcultural group of the late sixties through readings, exhibitions and interviews. I worked as an investigator, one that required information and then eventually presented it in a way of which I thought would be most effective for the chosen audience, through this “process” I was able to develop my final outcome to the best it could possibly be. Noble have been able to help me question hwat exactly a role as a designer is - and how I could use my role to do more than make things look nice - to do more than design a logo - but to design ideas, to visualise research and to develop ideas, to change assumptions and create new approaches.


Figure 3. “Transferable Research Method Diagram” (2017)



The Transferable Research Method Diagram from Ian Noble and Russel Bestley’s book ‘Visual Research’ is a piece of information design like no other. It cleverly objectifies the different aspects of research and how to tackle visualising it. The diagram was designed by Matt Cooke, who sought a “need for a considered discussion of the function and purpose for graphic design” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:26) His solution to this was try and understand the discipline in a more structured and objective way. He decided a methodical approach which highlights different areas and aspects of the process of which the designer must follow when design thinking and making. In effect the aim was to not dilute the role of the designer but in fact to look at it in a more pragmatic way - to focus on the responsive techniques from the client and aimed to create a handbook for effective visual communication. The first section is called ‘Defintiion’ which covers the point in where the designer tries different approaches to discover and understand the design ‘problem’ and how

it can be solved. It then gives the designer a chance to define the brief and then create a set of objectives and aims to have in mind while tackling the project. The second section ‘Divergence’ covers research both primary and secondary which helps to create a clear description of the content and context of which the designer will be working with. It is also where the target audience will be researched into to then assure that the right visual language and communication techniques are both relevant and respectful. It is a form of investigation and analysis on what areas need to be met to understand what aims needs to be reached effectively. In the third section ‘Transformation’ signifies the creating of design solution, the trying and testings of initial and developed ideas. Focus groups are used to try and test these experiments to then gain authenticate and accurate feedback. This is where the designer is to then outline the intentions of the brief and propose well grounded visual solutions this will help develop ideas and strategies to develop

the project. The fourth section ‘Convergence’ is then the detailing and production of the final design. To work with and investigate the final outcome in full size and review its structure. This is where the designer will review its production, its implementation in the public arena, and its effectiveness with the target audience. According to Matt Cooke who is the designer of this diagram “design thinking has become common currency in the design field and beyond. Leading organisations value and covet the contribution design teams make and increasingly view design as central to their future successes.” and that if he were to be able to go back in time the way he would’ve done things in the past slightly differently, he would of centred his “entire practice around the proven value of design thinking methodology.” After trying testing this methodology Cooke has frequently been interviewed asked if his mythology has helped the different aspects and areas of his design work. Whether this method has helped his work develop in ways which he hoped for. In Case Study


1, when asked is has “applied them or extended any further in your ideas and professional work?” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:30) He answers with much optimism and appreciation for the work he has done within work for the diagram. In his answer he states; “I think the methods I developed and enhanced provided me with a really interesting tool and a more interesting mindset with which to approach the discipline of design. They have proven essential as I moved into the fields of User Experience (UX) and User Interface (UI) design disciplines that embrace a more codified approach and rely on user centred models to measure efficacy. As such I have merged my own theoretical discoveries with emerging interactive models to better serve end users and better frame the problem for my clients and design teams.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:30)

“ I think the methods I developed and enhanced provided me with a really interesting tool and a more interesting mindset with which to approach the discipline of design.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:30)


Figure 4. Thevin Kumar’s Photography: Jonathon Green Interview (2017)

“It takes a high level of skill to listen attentively through multiple channels while carefully managing your own presentation of self.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiii, 2007) 16

Interviewing People: how to get them to tell you the truth, When interviewing people of any stature or someone you may not even know, there are always issues which arise. Whether they be ethical, social or even political or practical. The way to establish the right set of techniques and understandings of the best practice in this kind of qualitative research I looked into studies by the professionals. McPhee and Terry have “60’s y ears of experience” (McPhee and Terry, Page xxiv, 2007) and have written a number of books on the subject - more so relevant to business however what I found in reading this particular was a lot of helpful knowledge and ways about interviewing people in a more professional way and in a more professional environment. This book is “designed as a practical tool for undertaking better (interview) communications with other people.” It is “not a self help book” but a book that aims to give “practical tips” while interviewing people and to get the best results. (McPhee and Terry, Page xxiv, 2007) Above all according to McPhee and Terry “Interviewers need to understand the impact of their own words and gestures upon respondents.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiii, 2007) They need to require many different skills and are able to communicate clearly and effectively. I would need to take it upon myself to be friendly but still assertive. To gain a balance of pleasantry but still come across as a professional researcher who has an aim and questions to answer.“It takes a high level of skill to listen attentively through multiple channels while carefully managing your own presentation of self.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiii, 2007) Not only do I need to examine and understand the interviewees interaction but be aware of my own - to make sure I am coming across the right way and still getting things done. “The Hidden Art of Interviewing People is foreshadowing developments likely to grow in the years ahead.” It is a “continuing effort to improve the theoretical foundations of qualitative market research - not only to improve researchers interviewing skills but also to make our findings more predictive and better grounded in substantive truths about how humans operate.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiv, 2007) Qualitative research can be hard to programme as some answer may be subjective however part of this subjectivity can make it that even more authentic. It may not go as far as said it is based on interpretation but there are ways of gaining the results in a structured way for later on. “Qualitative analyst need to consider the ways things are phrased and the subtext or implicit communication in dialogue. What is left unsaid often has equal significance to what gets said.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiv, 2007) For example to and these “substantive truths” we must record the conversations and document the exact word for word answers which are processed. Recording from note taking to electrical recordings and filming, the aim is to gain answers. McPhee and Terry “guarantee that few people are able to willing to say exactly what they mean, or mean exactly what they say.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xxiv, 2007) It is a conversation between two people - an understanding of ideas and a mutual exploration of ideas that come out of the questions asked. A vocal and face to face interview is both the most authentic but also causes the most problems and issues in that the person’s reactions can be determined by myself and by the environments around us both. What McPhee and Terry mean is this interaction between two people could be quite problematic on a social level. From dress, age, sex ect., my aim as an interviewer is to make as much effort as possible to help the interviewee feel comfortable and also myself.This book was written with “insight drawn from the work of Erving Goffman”. “Goffman’s ‘dramaturgical perspective postulates that much social life is lived as a kind of performance for others. In this context, we operate on several levels of exposure, Much like the theatre, there are two regions in which we perform. The first is the ‘front region’, where show manship happens. Our activities within this region embody high standards, politeness and decorum. Contrastingly there is also a ‘backstage’ or ‘back region’, where the staging processed, where things are not perfect.” (McPhee and Terry, Page xiv, 2007) What I as an interviewer need to prepare for is this difference - I need to somehow manage these issues and use them in my favour to create the upmost best managed and organised and still relaxed atmosphere. NLP Is a method of influencing brain behaviour (the “neuro” part of the phrase) through the use of language (the “linguistic” part) and other types of communication to enable a person to “recode” the way the brain responds to stimuli (that’s the “programming”) and manifest new and better behaviours. Neuro-Linguistic Programming often incorporates hypnosis and self-hypnosis to help achieve the change (or “programming”) that is wanted. (What is NLP, 2013) The first stage in specific terms is to ensure that “you are ready.” Meaning you are “ready to listen, respond and create rapport with the client.” (McPhee and Terry, Page 2, 2007) They need to be able to create an environment - one that is natural and relevant but still friendly and approachable. The interviewee needs to feel comfortable and able to talk, therefore the interviewer needs to be prepared to interactive with the subject to keep the conversation going but to still keep it on track and relevant to the researcher’s needs. They need to be prepared both mentally and physically. “In NLP, your state refers to the collection of thoughts, emotions and physiology at any one time, and the state we are determines our capabilities.” (McPhee and Terry, Page 4, 2007) Getting our mind and body in the right place I.e. taking control of your state, before the meeting starts will get you great results.” (McPhee and Terry, Page 4, 2007) Ivan P.Pavlov in 1901experimented with “stimulus response mechanisms in dogs using food and tuning forks.” He eventually managed to make the dogs salivate on the sound of the tuning forks with no food present.” (McPhee and Terry, Page 5, 2007) Our brains however work much faster and very quickly we can “set up and utilise stimulus response mechanisms of our choice.” These are called “anchors”. They are “natural mechanisms” which can be used to control negative and positive state changing issues within interviewing. Once these are managed and controlled you are on the road to excellence. Neil McPhee distinguishes these particular states that he uses in interviewing process and uses when taking a brief. “energised, confident, eloquent, humorous and attentive.” (McPhee and Terry, Page 5, 2007)









self-publish verb gerund or present participle: self-publishing (of a writer) publish (a piece of one’s work) independently and at one’s own expense. “months ago, he was an unknown writer who self-published his book with a minuscule print run of 20” (of a writer) having published their work independently and at their own expense. adjective: self-published; adjective: self published “a self-published author” (Dictionary Definition)

“Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.” (Wikipedia, 2017) This is a very true but very broad definition of what it is. It basically is saying it can take many different forms. What once started off as writings in a bounded book, has now transformed and become something entirely different - but still maintaining the same underlining principles. Self publishing is about “putting together content in compelling and practical formats.” (Lupton, Page 4, 2008) It about getting the information out and to the audience or to oneself. The main goal is to curate these contents whether that be of information, music or art and to project them in ways that are accessible to more than just the author. In “The Future of Writing” video conducted by Andrea Lunsford who has perused into “25 years of research in 7 different professions” of what writing is and where she predicts it will be going. Not only has self publishing transformed and developed through out history but so has writing itself, therefore the way people communicate their ideas change as well.

Self publishing is about “putting together content in compelling and practical formats.” (Lupton, 2008: 4) Ellen Lupton is Adjunct Curator at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum and Co-Chair of the Design Department of the Maryland Institute College of Art. In “Indie publishing : how to design and produce your own book” Lupton has written a comprehensive, a very illustrated guide which concludes with a curated portfolio of the most exciting examples of independent publishing from the contemporary scene. Indie Publishing’s special focus on the visual design of books makes it unique among publish-it-yourself manuals. Readers are taken step-by-step through the process of designing a book to give it personal style as well as visual coherence and authority. Design principles such as scale, cropping, pacing, and typography are explored in relation to each example, along with commentary on how to create effective title pages, tables of contents, captions, and more. “The publishing world is being transformed by new social attitudes about making and sharing content. More and more people see themselves not just as consumers of media but also as producers.” (Lupton, Page 3, 2008) Guides like these are now all over the place and more and more are becoming because there has now become such a need for it. There are more and more people who now self publish in one way or another - whether that be a book or study of a subject or from blogging to writing songs and films. Lupton calls them the “passionate amateur” who often wants to “share the knowledge with others, contributing to a collective information base. Making books is one way to do that, and it’s getting easier and easier to do it on your own. (Lupton, Page 3, 2008) Especially within the creative industry there has also been a rise in literature produced by designers, entrepreneurs, celebrities and so called ‘experts’ - about their work and how they came to create it. Not only has this idea of publishing developed but so has the way we perceive and understand this kind of information. We collect books that have some kind of meaning to us, is it because of the authors behind them? Is it about the content? There are many reasons why but what is apparent is this new wave or trend which society has cremated; that we as humans and in the 21st century crave information, and it doesn’t always matter who we get it from. Interestingly in the past 5-10 years the publishing world has seen a rise or at least a change in the theory or notion of ‘Authorship’. Not only has this idea of publishing developed but so has the way we perceive and understand this kind of information. We collect books that have some kind of meaning to us, is it because of the authors behind them? Is it about the content? There are many reasons why but what is apparent is this new wave or trend which society has cremated; that we as humans and in the 21st century crave information, and it doesn’t always matter who we get it from. According to Lunsford “Writing used to be black and white, on paper top the page to the bottom, left to right. Writing is now technicolour, it is dynamic, it’s full of all kinds of images and sounds.” Not only has self publishing transformed and developed through out history but so has writing itself, therefore the way people communicate their ideas change as well. “Writing is instrumental to everything we do in our professional and personal lives.” It has become both part of our work and play, whether you see writing as a pleasurable activity or as a chore and do it because you have to, you still do it in many different ways through writing greetings cards, to writing essays at school to writing a status on your Facebook page. Writing is now technicolour, it is dynamic, it’s full of all kinds of images and sounds.” Not only has self publishing transformed and developed through out history but so has writing itself, therefore the way people communicate their ideas change as well. “Writing is instrumental to everything we do in our professional and personal lives.” It has become both part of our work and play, whether you see writing as a pleasurable activity or as a chore and do it because you have to, you still do it in many different ways through writing greetings cards, to writing essays at school to writing a status on your Facebook page. (Lunsford, 2015)


“ Whether you are starting a publishing course, setting off on a career in publishing, or are just curious about what is going on in the publishing world, you cannot escape the fact that publishing is a cultural industry in a state of flux. The daily activities and responsibilities of everyone working books, journals, magazines have changed significantly in the twentyfirst century, and in recent years these changes have accelerated with each new technical and commercial consequence of the digital revolution. Whatever these shifts and changes may bring to book publishing in the next decades, certain fundamentals are likely to remain central to what it means to be a publisher. Understanding these fundamentals will be vital to your success as you develop your publishing career.� (Smith, 2012: 17)


This time in history is an “exciting time to starting a career in publishing”. The “effects of the digital revolution are creating major advances in ways that affect everyone in publishing, whether they are writers, agents, editors, designers, marketers, booksellers, journalists, librarians, or researchers.” (Smith, 2012:6) After examine through the history you can see that publishing has taken many forms throughout time to not know what is coming next makes it all the more exciting to research into. Whatever the form the publication is given in however - one element still has to stay the same, and that would the audience. “No publication will exist for long without readers” (Smith, 2012:15) Without a reader there is no-one to look at your publication which defeats the point of creating it. “Publishing is by it’s very definition intended to distribute an entertaining, informative or educational work to an audience that wants or needs what the publication contains.” (Smith, 2012:31) The whole point of publishing is to spread knowledge of some kind, to be able to connect with your reader and to understand your target audiences needs.“Title pages, dedications, contents tables, indexes, running heads, footnotes and illustrations all affect the way in which we read.” (Smith, 2012:17) We all read in different ways and successful understand and enjoy text in different ways. Publishing has taken a new turn, some argue for the worst and others argue that it is in fact an inevitable change one that was always going to happen and has to happen in order for the publishing world to develop and prosper. “The ease with which you can self publish your work (or set up as a publisher and publish other people’s) has had an unfortunate side - effect, and that’s to hugely increased the amount of poorly produced work which is available.” David Moody, quoted in ‘How self publishing

came of age’ by Alison Flood, the Guardian, 2011” (Smith, 2012:84) It is unfortunate that because of this transformation of the Authorship that there is now too much content out there which is much easier to access. “Authorship, as recognised by publishers, reviewers and readers, represents the exercise of a skill in communicating with an audience. A central part of the publishing process is the way in which agents and editors work with authors to develop their writing abilities.” And how best to “communicate with their readership; and provide a framework that nurtures successful authorship effective publishing and satisfied readers.” (Smith, 2012:72) Without the professional publishing guidance and help from the other team members it could be argued that in fact the book will not succeed or at least would not be part of professional domain. According to Smith “publishers connect readers with writers, and they do this by working with other people who have specialist skills.” But would that also be the author who does this? “The people involved in this process of communication and dissemination are sometimes envisaged as a ‘book chain; which contains several distinct groups, such as writers, publishers, printers, book sellers libraries and readers: all linked together in a linear way to convey a message from the creator to the user of a published text. All the component links of this ‘book chain’ are seen as necessary to ensure the smooth functioning of the process.” (Smith, 2012:69) This troublesome idea or theory of authorship and self publishing is something which has been under literary strain over the past 10 years and more, can anyone really self publish something of importance or something of real substance without professional advice and help?

Figure 5. artsdesk (2017)



the history




40,000 BCE The earliest known human cave paintings were made in Spain. Cave walls were the first printing medium for humans.

Figure 6. Grutenburg press, Leurs (2017)

3000 BCE Clay tablets and papyrus rolls of Egypt clay stamps were used to deal important documents. 2nd Century AD A man called Ts’ai Lun in China is credited with inventing paper. 808 AD The Diamond Sutra was printed in China with wood blocks - it’s now the world’s oldest known printed book. 1440 Johannes Gutenberg brings European book publishing into the industrial age with his moveable type printing press. 1456 The first book in the world ever to be printed on a printing press - The Bible. 1476 English diplomat and writer William Caxton, became known as the first English man to work as a printer and introduce the printing press to England. 1605 The World’s first newspaper ‘Relation’ makes it’s debut in Germany. 1731 The world’s first general interest magazine ‘The Gentleman’s Magazine’ was first published in London. 1796 Alloys Senefelder invented the process of Lithography which allows the printing of high quality images. 1892 The four colour rotary press was invented. 1925 Magazines become popular - Esquire, Rolling stone, and Newsweek become household names. 1932 The ‘Times New Roman’ font was debuted by The Times newspaper and was released commercially the following year. 1938 The first xerography printer was developed by Chester Carlson and patented in 1942. 1996 Traditional newspapers began to develop online versions.

“ Texts had been written and copied by hand for for religious and secular purposes for for several thousands of years, but publishing ,the mechanical and distribution of identical copies of written or illustrated works, has a history of just over 550 years.” (Smith, 2012: 19)

2007 The first Amazon Kindle was released and sold out in less than six hours. 2008 Mark Coker establishes a way for authors to directly publish their own ebooks, paving the way for a democratisation of publishing through self publishing.

2010 Mike Krieger and Kevin Systrom invented the app ‘instagram’ which is now one of the leading social platforms. It was then bought by Facebook in 2012.


2015 The Drinkable Book is inventedits pages double as water filters, killing over 99% of harmful bacteria during trials in Bangladesh, Ghana and South Africa. .

“Within the global media landscape, publishing still fulfils a vital cultural role in spreading ideas, information and entertainment; some of which is in print and some of which is in widening variety of digital forms.” (Smith, 2012:14) Back in certain points in history however, this was not always the case. The publishing history has had many ups and dons from the Nazi’s Burning of the Books to the making of the Penguin books foundered by Allen Lane. Throughout history all developments and next stages of its evolution has been unpredictable and no-one has seen any of them coming.“This transformation has been shrouded in something like the fog of war, the smoke and dust from the global IT revolution whose outcome no sensible person can predict, and whose influence touches every aspect of the printed word: books, magazines and newspapers.” (Smith, 2012:7) At the very beginning of time writing and any form of text was at first accessible to only individuals who possessed some kind of authority and high ranking position.“Texts had been written and copied by hand for religious and secular purposes for several thousands of years, but publishing (the mechanical and distribution of identical copies of written or illustrated works) has a history of just over 550 years.” (Smith, 2012:19) In the Fourteen hundreds “Wooden, clay and metal moveable type had previously been used in China and Korea, Joannes Grutenburg’s development of metal moveable alongside the printing press and use of oil based inks represents the beginning of modern publishing” (Smith, 2012:19) It was at this point in history where type became more accessible and more manageable - no longer did the people have to depend on hand written typography - it was now becoming a social and environmental phenomena. Eventually throughout time the written word was something which became more of a social awareness and became something of which many started to depend on “from the 1450s onwards, first in Europe and then spreading across the world, publishing developed as an important agent of cultural, political, religious and social change.” (Smith, 2012:19) Not only did publishing become more accessible but it became more pragmatic and easier to manage. Through the new access of print qualities and techniques - more and more books were being made and in bulk. “The religious, philosophical and scientific movements that spread from Europe after the fifteenth century were to a large extent made possible because ideas could be written, reproduced and distributed in published works, whether they were books, journals, newspapers pamphlets or simple broadsheets. Publishing increasingly meant the production and distribution of texts in the vernacular language (the language

spoken by the people) rather than in religious languages of Latin and Greek. ” (Smith, 2012:19) Even though the words and literal developments were being made so were the visual images aswell. “From any early date, printed publications also contained illustrations, and the use of both words and images to spread knowledge and idea became a major element in cultural, social, economic and political discourse. The profound power of words and images to influence the way in which people interpret their lives and societies remains just as strong in our times, where digital technologies have now added to the range of ways we create publications and reproduce and distribute text and images.” (Smith, 2012:20) Image and text became a new way of communication, instead of them being used separately the combinations of the two started to transform the different way that we would communicate to each other in all realms of communication, not just through books and publications but on the streets to development of sign language techniques and other communicative techniques. “In the course of the sixteenth century, European governments (notably in Britain and in France) also acted to try and control the spread of ideas of publishing, by using censorship and restricting the ownership of the printing press.” (Smith, 2012:20) The restrictions were made aware within this point of history and some extreme circumstances during the war Adolf Hitler proposed the Nazi’s to the burning of the books - the burning of developments and ideas which would transform and help the world prosper. Poster war Britain and America however transformed the need for “readership” and more and more people wants to read - to escape and to let their imaginations run wild. “In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries developments in printing, paper and binding technology made it possible for publishers to vastly increase their output”. (Smith, 2012:22) For example this was the point in history where the famous Penguin books where founded by Allen Lane. The technique and development of materials in this time changed publishing forever - it became a source of entertainment and pleasure and the books were made to an even better quality. In the late twentieth centuries the digital sphere also had a huge impact on what we call publishing today in 1996 traditional newspapers began to develop online versions. As early 2007 the first Amazon Kindle was released and sold out in less than six hours. Now the digital realm has had a huge impact on publishing it is hard to know when or where publishing maybe going in the next 10 years. What is the future for publishing? Noone will know until we get there, which makes publishing of all kinds such an interesting an exciting career to go into.

Figure 7. Moveable letter press type, Leurs (2017)



Victoria Arden is Graphic Designer and recent graduate from University for the Creative Arts Farnham. Where she graduated with a first class honours degree in Graphic Communication. In he last project for the degree she also published her dissertation however it become a development of it and in the end a research project. The dissertation was just the starting point of he project, she then did some more in depth research to progress the project even further. On her words she states that her project was very “upfront thinking” and that “not many companies knew what to do with it.” She eventually brought her project to Mother - a huge mulitplinary graphic design agency with a big reputation and prestigious name in the industry. She was hired as ‘brand sensory consultant’ for 3 days, which sounds amazing but what Victoria wanted was a more permanent position. She learnt a great deal in a short space of time but because of her many different communication skills within the book - agencies did not know what to do with all the books she made. We also asked her about how she approached this brief of the Final Major Project - how she managed to do so well. She separated her different sections which may have been really helpful - would this be something you look at in the design journal. She interesting also mentioned how she regrets not doing a “physical” outcome out of her research findings. That she wanted to “create an environment” using her findings with sound, images etc. She found that her research book was very successful and that it was not only an interesting topic to look into but it as good as the project is when she goes for interviews they may ask where is the practical side? She regrets not pursuing this further, even is it were “just a few sketches, drawings of ideas” she feels as if it would’ve given her project more substance and made her more employable later on. The book Victoria designed was of course of great value and a brilliantly done final outcome however she regrets that she just did a book - because her content and concept was so much more than that. It was about brand ‘experience’ which she could’ve pushed even further off the pages of a book with light, sound and moving image etc. In a digital world “now a days, they don’t just want a book, the industry wants more than that.”

“Don’t just design a book, the industry wants more than that” Within the book she talks about how she collaborated with a photographer and how much easier, more professional way of designing it was. It is good to bring in “different specialists within your project”, and that is how “industry works”. As much as you may be a good photographer - commissioning a professional gets you into the practice of working to industry principles and using the same techniques which will be used after your studies. Grab onto every opportunity, and in the long run this will also “save you time.” Following on from this discussion we then asked her about the format, craft and binding of her book. The books she made with repropoint were very expensive however it was a 140 page book with hardcover and binding all included so this gave us a rough idea of the cost and the types of places we should print at. Unfortunately the binding went wrong at some parts and she states “if you are not a professional then you wouldn’t of noticed it” but with Victorias keen eye for detail she noticed they infect had extra white coming out of the middle - showing they bound it in the wrong place. Luckily her designs did not suffer too much but what this taught us was to leave enough time for things to go wrong. The turn over time was very quick and only a week. She found that the reason she did so well was because of the in-depth research she did and how it helped design and write a book with a septic subject in a great amount of detail. She spent a lot of her time reading books - mainly science books which developed her way of thinking about the project. “Psychology, how the brain work.” She then goes on to explaining how research is such an important part of design and that it’s what sets you aside other designers in the industry if you maintain the skills. She adds “Researchers are the best creators”, research is good, and it’s good for you. Following on from this she goes on to tell us about the reality of the industry and how hard it to get into. Once you are in then it’s good but otherwise making it new it’s very difficult and you have prepare for some heartache along the way. What is great about this interview was that we touched on many subjects - not just the course or the final major project but after that. If this project is here to make us more employable then what exactly we need to do to prepare. This project gives the future employers a chance to see your editorial, typography and image making skills as well as your academic, conceptualising and research skills. This interview taught me that this kind of research/ dissertation subject is not only good for this unit but also good for later on life when I develop my career into visual communication, as a designer and researcher.

Figure 8. Victoria Arden Portrait (2017)


Figure 9. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 10. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 11. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 12. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 13. Fusion: selling via sense (2016)



Figure 14. Catharine Slade Brooking Portrait (2017)

Catharine Slade Brooking is an illustrator, lecturer, designer and publisher who has 20 plus years of experience in publishing. Her book ‘Creating a Brand Identity’ is a book she published with Lawrence King Publishing back in 2016. Interviewing Catharine gave me a huge insight into what the publishing world is really about, where it is going and where it all began! Her process and developments throughout the steps of her publishing this book astounded me. It was evident that I really underestimated how long the process may take and also the many challenges that you would face along the way. Using her latest book as a case study, Catharine discus’s the how, the what, where and why of publishing - the importance of content to challenges or collaboration, to the physical form of a print book and the influence of digital means and how it has effect this form of communication and how the influence of the Catharine Slade Brooking is an illustrator, lecturer, designer and publisher who has 20+ years of experience in publishing. Her book ‘Creating a Brand Identity’ is a book she published with Lawrence King Publishing back in 2016. Interviewing Catharine gave me a huge insight into what the publishing world is really about, where it is going and where it all began! Her process and developments throughout the steps of her publishing this book astounded me. It was evident that I really underestimated how long the process may take and also the many challenges that you would face along the way. Catharine discus’s how, what, where and why publishing? - the importance of content to challenges or collaboration, to the physical craft and design of the cover. There are so many aspects and so many things to think about when it comes to publishing therefore the best way to start is to ask someone who has great experience of it.

“ The best way to publish a book effectively is by really immersing yourself in your subject.”




At the very beginning of the interview Catharine explains how she first got into this publishing job using the book ‘Creating a Brand Identity’ as a case study for this interview. What she first found interesting at the beginning of this process was how she was in fact spotted by Lawrence King on her many professional social media profiles such as her academia page and LinkedIn profile. It was intriguing this idea she said of this idea of getting your name out there - and how now a days to be able to succeed as a publisher or author you have to keep up to date with whats going on in the world and keeping your presence out there for the rest of the world to see. She found it interesting how now a days you can “put yourself out there and have different slants of yourself in different places.” They wanted to do a book on Branding, they wanted it from an academic side and they did a lot of work on teaching, a design industry perspective and then also wanted someone who had published and written a book before. Catharine ticked all these boxes, and then she went for a meeting Sophie who was the commissioning Editor and set things up. What she gathered from that first meeting was that they didn’t know as yet what kind of angle they were going to approach it yet - but what they did know was their readership and that it was going to be a book on branding. Her personal feeling after the meeting wanted to broaden the target audience further from second year up, including MA students and for the industry. She then signified the tone of voice in which she now needed to work on for it to be appropriate for this certain audience; “not patronising or studenty.” She then was given the opportunity to draw up some ideas of what she wanted for the book. She also did her research and looked into literature - and tried to find the hole of the market - what is missing in the branding world in terms of literature and who she will be up against in that specific field. Informing strategy, managing brands etc. Including all things that helps designs create a brand. At the very beginning of the interview Catharine explains how she first got into this publishing job using the book ‘Creating a Brand Identity’ as a case study. What she first found interesting at the beginning of this process was how she was in fact spotted by Lawrence King on her many professional social media profiles such as her academia page and LinkedIn profile. It was intriguing this idea she said of this idea of getting your name out there - and how now a days to be able to succeed as a publisher or author you have to keep up to date with whats going on in the world and keeping your presence out there for the rest of the world to see. She found it interesting how now a days you can “put yourself out there and have different slants of yourself in different places.” They wanted to do a book on Branding, they wanted it from an academic side and they did a lot of work on teaching, a design industry perspective and then also wanted someone who had published and written a book before. Catharine ticked all these boxes, and then she went for a meeting Sophie who was the commissioning Editor and set things up. What she gathered from that first meeting was that they didn’t know as yet what kind of angle they were going to approach it yet - but what they did know was their readership and that it was going to be a book on branding. Her personal feeling after the meeting wanted to broaden the target audience further from second year up, including MA students and for the industry. She then signified the tone of voice in which she now needed to work on for it to be appropriate for this certain audience; “not patronising or studenty.” She then was given the opportunity to draw up some ideas of what she wanted for the book. She also did her research and looked into literature - and tried to find the hole of the market - what is missing in the branding world in terms of literature and who she will be up against in that specific field. Informing strategy, managing brands etc. Including all things that helps designers create a brand. She then followed up with a sample chapter and case studies which in which showed an overview of what she hoped to accomplish. In the publishing house there are many different people to pitch to and look over so over all it is a very daunting experience however if you are passionate about the project and make it your own like Catharine did then it’s definitely something really great to do. One dilemma she came across through this process was the fact she wanted to use students work within the book - which is something she thought would be appropriate for the target audience and in fact the year group she was teaching at the time did the “best student work in that field” according to the external examiner. However one of the publishing executives from the America team said that they didn’t feel as if their students wanted to see other students work - but in fact professionals. In the mean time the contract had been signed by Catharine which had stated she will “source the images throughout the whole publication” which was originally not a problem with her plan to use the students work but in the end Lawrence King decided that the student work as examples would not be a good idea therefore this set her back quite a big deal, which taught us that in the publishing world anything can happen - that things don’t always necessarily turn out the way you originally plan. Catharine then spent 3 months in a very “uncomfortable position” because of this set but also because the publishers then decided they wanted all this imagery - which Catharine had to pay for herself, before she even started writing the book. She was in a situation where everything became a “nightmare”. After a meltdown, she then had to sort out the copyright and eventually they paid for her to have a research assistant. The most difficult therefore was the hardest part - which was only possible with a bit of professional help. Catharine then went on to say that the writing side was much more enjoying and she intact “did not start with chapter one” but the chapter she found most “easiest.” “When writing a book you do not necessarily write things in order.” It is best also to write the introduction last - because it isn’t until you know what they book is, it is then possible to write it properly.The book then goes through a stage of initial proofing, the material then goes back to the academics. Initially Catharine wanted to also design the book but in the end she didn’t for whatever reason and actually she comments; “the thought of designing it and writing it and doing all the picture research would of just been mad.” After having a final draft in 2016, the publishing company take it to the book fairs, one in London and another in Frankurt. The publishing firm were contacted by pullers all of the world from China, to Germany, France act. So then the translations had to be sorted - again this was not by Catharine but in fact by Lawrence King. After the book is finished - you need both a publishing and marketing strategy, however self publishing is still an option an publishing house even though it is much more expensive. However this way you can have more control over the final product from paper stock to the design etc. Again it all depends on what the book is about, who the target audience is etc. For example the MoMa or the V&A buy artists book so it were to be a book about art there would be the best place to start. Book packages are also a good way of publishing books - who buy your books and then do all the marketing and make it ready on a digital way for it then to be ready to sell to publishers. They key thing that Catharine mentions is “who is your target audience and what is your message.” It is not only until after answering these key questions is then when you can start making important decisions - whether that be for the design of the book to the content and to the way it is published - by yourself or by a big publishing company. Self publishing is something which is really hard to research because it is so broad and also changing rapidly over the years, Catharine also mentions that this “change” is still happening. The best way of publishing a book effectively is by really “immersing yourself in your subject.” “Your generation at the moment has seen more change in communication than another group of individuals - ever.” “Things are changing so quickly and so significantly” things like social media is really changing publishing dramatically - “it has changed the way we communicate which is what publishing is.” The big question is “why” why are you publishing it? You want to share the subject. Now that you know what the message is - who do you want to share that with? “Is it a social, political or historical message?” therefore who would want to hear this message, therefore the outcome comes last. The designer then needs to find out which is the most appropriate form that will capture that message effectively. Another huge part of publishing would be team work - how it is best to work with people. “The way authors and publishers is also changing because of the digital nature of communication.” “Oh and one last thing - Publishing doesn’t pay!” 33

Figure 15. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016: Front Cover (2017)

Figure 16. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016: Back Cover (2017)


Figure 17. Creating a Brand Identity 2016:9 (2017)

Figure 18. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016 (2017)










Assessing this idea of authorship is a highly ambitious subject as it is so broad and is still a question that has yet to be answered, one that may never be so. “Authorship” has evolved throughout time in many forms and throughout time has had a different impact on society in all times of history. In the beginning, authorship or at least any kind of reading or writing was presented by ‘figures’ who had ‘authority’ and was a privilege for the higher classes whether that be the rich or individuals of a higher stance. Reading and writing used to be something sacred and holy, and only priests and monks had access to readings - readings more specifically from the bible scriptures. In the 21st century however “reading is increasingly becoming a social process online” (Fitzpatrick, 2009) it is now something which all people of any class, any gender or social stance has access to. It is an evolution in itself, something that has been shaped through many social changes through history - something that has always been there but interesting has adjusted from the very beginning and will always be there until the very end. “These changes that are upon us are really not in fact radical alterations in the nature of authorship, instead a kind of acknowledgement of things that have lingered beneath the surface of our writing practices all along” (Fitzpatrick, 2009). We are constantly growing as a society where we are all now allowed an opinion. Whether it be through social media, blogging, or publishing a book or zine, we are all in fact authors, we are all designers.

“ The notion of authorship lies in the possibility that designers can also operate as mediators, that they can take responsibility for the context and context of a message as well as the more traditional means of communication.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004: 73) “What authorship is, how it should be determined, and why it is important have actually been the subjects of contentious cultural debates for centuries. Identification of the authors of the Gospels, authorship in the case of Shakespeare, Marlowe and others, collaborative authorship, the scope and degree of an author’s autobiographical information in interpretation - these are all issues that have been discussed with a vigour that testifies to the high stakes of the authorship question.” (Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) In ‘Authority Matters’, by Stephen Dr Donovan, Danuta Fjellestad , and Rolf Lundn try to determine this idea of authorship - what it is and how it come about to be one of the most reviewed theoretical and cultural questions even still to this day. This questioning of authorship and what an author is has been a “subject of intense critical scrutiny over the last forty years, much of which has been conducted in the shadow of the poststructuralist pronouncement of the ‘death of the author’.”(Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) According to these theorists an ‘author’ is “anyone who produces, creates or brings into being.” (Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) However it is not as easy to understand as it seems, there many loopholes within assessing something as broad and difficult as authorship. The aim of this essay is to not answer the question as to what it is but to understand what there has already been said about it. And how this can relate to what I am trying to pursue in this project. “The stakes involved in authorship issues overlap with related issues of authority.” “The content of each concept show immense historical and cultural variation, with the idea of “author” designating through the ages multifarious activities and the idea of “authority” being “remarkable protean” and “possessing chameleonic qualities.” (Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) However “in contemporary usage an ‘author’ is an individual who is exc lusively responsible for the production of a unique, original work.”(Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) It could be argued that anyone therefore is an author - or at least everyone is but this begins to transform into a slippery slope of what an author aim is. To say that everyone can be authors is true in some cases however it is troublesome to think like this because to say everyone is something then is that saying no-one is this something? In this dissertation I was the author however does my designing it, publishing it, creating it make me an author as well? Does authorship just lie in the idea of literature readings and structural written forms or am I also becoming an author while I study graphic design? “The notion of authorship lies in the possibility that designers can also operate as mediators. That they can take responsibility for the context and context of a message as well as the more traditional means of communication.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:74) I am a researcher, an author and a designer. According to Maolda and King, “The key challenge in assess ing self authorship and its evolution is accessing meaning - making structures. People tend to more readily express what they think than how they think about it or how they arrived at their perspectives.” (Magolda and King, 2012:21) The changes in writing and social media have changed the way we write on a daily basis. We as individuals live a society where authorship is now everywhere but instead of thorough analysis of what we are thinking we are much lazier - we do not go into as much detail as we once did. “The role of context, both personal and environmental, complicates assessing meaning making structures in general and self authorship” and particularly in assessing it’s evolution. There is also more accessibility to information which makes authorship much harder to assess because we are now more connected and familiar to the content giver that call them selves the ‘author’ “Kegan (1982) argued that people are the context for meaning making activity. Personal characteristics such as gender socialisation, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity mediate how people make sense of the experiences they encounter (Abes, Jones and McEwen, 2007; Baxter Magolda, 2009a; Torres, 2010).” (Magolda and King, 2012:23) It is not clear why Roland Barthes wrote “Death of the Author” but what is evident is this evolutionary idea and how it had effected studies into the in depth topic. Literary theorist takes this notion of authorship one step further. Barthes dismisses the traditional view that the author is the source of the information. Rather than emphasising the intentions of the author, Barthes insisted that meaning is truly created by the reader. It is something which has always seemed obvious however Barthes encouraged us to look at it a new way, because the whole concept to him needed to be rethought. He argues that everything the author has come in contact with has helped them create their study. Whether that be music, arts or literature - anything that has been created by a conscious mind and therefore can be interpreted by another person. Every method, tool used to create the book has come from pre existing ideas into something apparently brand new and not seen before. Every word the author has used is already in existence that have earlier derived from past culture and human expressions. When a text is written Barthes argues it is a multifaceted manifestation of different cultures, languages and ideas.


“A text consists of multiple writings, issuing from several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody, into contestation; but there is one place where this multiplicity is collected, united, and this place is not the author, as we have hithero said it was, but the reader: the reader is very space in which are inscribed, without any being lost, all the citations a writing consists of; the unity of a text is not in its origin, it is in it’s destination.” Roland Barthes: “Death of the Author” (Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1)

Extract from Essay by Monica Lancini, English 111, 1999 “The basic difference between Barthes’ essay and Foucault’s one is the general perspective on the subject of authorship, which doesn’t prevent them from coming to similar conclusions. Foucault describes the process of writing and the question of authorship from the inside, whereas Barthes analyses the external consequences of it, focusing his attention on authorship in relation to institutions. Indeed, Barthes’ premise is “we still lack a sociology of language” (Barthes, 185), whereas Foucault’s starting point is “for the purpose of this paper, I will set aside a sociohistorical analysis” (Foucault, 115). I will try to make a collage of quotations to show where, in my opinion, the points of convergence are. Barthes traces the death of the author back to the French Revolution, when authorial language was first used for political ends. That was the origin of the distinction between what he calls an “author” -- whose responsibly is to “support literature as a failed commitment” ( Barthes ,118) - and a “writer” -- better known as the intellectual. Foucault, on the contrary, restricts himself “to the singular relationship that holds between an author and a text” (Foucault, 115), although it seems to me that what he describes as the author’s name oscillating between description and designation suggests, nevertheless, the idea of the author as a part of a historical continuum. In both cases, of Foucalt and Barthes, the concept of authorship is basically a variable, which is not defined by spontaneous attributions but simply by our way of handling texts, or by the place of discourse within society. Both essays emphasize the death of the author mainly as the loss of a traditional definition. “It is obviously insufficient to repeat the empty slogans: the author has disappeared or God and man died a common death. Rather, we should reexamine the empty space left by the author’s disappearance” (Foucault, 121) As we have already redefined the concept of authorship after the French Revolution (Barthes) or after Freud, Marx or Galileo generated “transdiscourses” (Foucault) I agree with Foucault when he says “the subject should not be abandoned but reconsidered” (137). Although their points of view might be diametrical, both “writers” are worried in saying what an author is not. Whereas Barthes’ attitude is an affirmative one, even if tautological - an author is not a writer, a writer is not an author- Foucault provides the reader with a much more detailed description of what an author used to be and therefore is not today. In both cases, the concept of authorship still remains a very vague one. Both Barthes and Foucault focus their attention on the contemporary conception of language as an interplay of signs, “regulated less by the content it signifies than by the very nature of the signifier” (Foucault, 116), it is “neither an instrument nor a vehicle: it is a structure” (Barthes, 187). What killed the author was his own work. “Where a work had the duty of creating immortality, it now attains the right to kill, to become the murder of the author” (Foucault, 117). This automatically excludes the ethical function, which, according to Barthes’ fundamental distinction, is typical of the writer. Foucault’s statement: “the task of criticism is not to reestablish the ties between the author and his work” (Foucault, 118), is translated, in Barthes’ terms, into: “by identifying himself with language, the author looses all claims to truth” (Barthes, 187). “The essential basis of this writing is [...] primarily concerned with creating an opening where the writing subject endlessly disappeared” (Foucault, 116). Barthes’ own conclusion is that “our age has produces a bastard type: the author-writer [...] the author-writer is an excluded figure integrated by his very exclusion” (Barthes, 192). Whereas Foucault says: “I am not certain that the consequences derived from the disappearance or death of the author have been fully explored” (Foucault, 117). Let’s say that any attempt to redefine authorship should take into consideration at least two fundamental concepts: hybrids and absence.”




“ The whole being of writing: a text consists of multiple writings, issuing from several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody, into contestation” (Rivkin, 2017: 521) In ‘The Death of the Author’, Barthes argues that writing destroys every voice and point of origin. He argues that through literature the author is not in fact the pint of origin but in fact the reader is. It is the interpretations the readers have which what makes them the author themselves. This is because it occurs within a functional process which is the practice of signification itself. Its real origin is language. A writer, therefore, does not have a special genius expressed in the text, but rather, is a kind of craftsman who is skilled in using a particular code. All writers are like copywriters or scribes, inscribing a particular zone of language. The real origin of a text is not the author, but language. According to Barthes “it is language which speaks, not the author” (Gallix, 2010) There is a special art of the storyteller to translate linguistic structures or codes into particular narratives or messages. Each text is composed of multiple writings brought into dialogue, with each code it refers to being extracted from a previous culture. Barthes’s argument is directed against schools of literary criticism that seek to uncover the author’s meaning as a hidden referent which is the final meaning of the text. By refusing the ‘author’ (in the sense of a great writer expressing an inner brilliance), one refuses to assign an ultimate meaning to the text, and hence, one refuses to fix its meaning. With the death of the comes the birth of the reader.

Figure 194, Roland Barthes (Whips, 2016)

Barthes insisted that meaning is truly created by the reader he does this instead emphasising the intentions of the author. This is a view which has had a whole new impact into this concept what authorship is - it has turned it over on it’s head completely. This makes this one of the most if not the most influential theory based of ‘Authorship’ because it challenges everything else said before. It is something which has always seemed obvious however Barthes encouraged us to look at it a new way, because the whole concept to him needed to be rethought. He argues that everything the author has come in contact with has helped them create their study. Whether that be music, arts or literature - anything that has been created by a conscious mind and therefore can be interpreted by another person. This idea that the writer is communicating fully through personal expression to their readers but in fact it is the way the audience interprets it hold the meaning. This postmodernist view of the audience creating meaning or being the authors who create the meaning it extremely interesting and has had a huge impact in the way I understand authorship now because now I wonder how much of an impact my role as an author and designer has now. What is also interesting is this idea that what I do write is a malefaction of theories that I have come across - they are fabrications of what I have read - what I have almost borrowed or used as inspiration therefore my ideas are not mine. This is interesting in that Barthes argues that we are not originators in that everything we make is from things that have been and seen before. What exactly does this mean for me being an author? What does this mean for designers and visual communicators. The best way to understand authorship is in its context and how it has evolved throughout history.


1. Roman Period (753 BC to 1453 AD) in which authority is primarily a legal concept. “Auctoriatas” which was the word in which author had originated from. This was the first word to be associated with this eventual concept. This ‘role’ had “myriad functions” which meant that they were a legal - law abiding concept seen as the top of society at the time. Kreiger distinguishes three ideas if authority in this period, which are all connected to law. “Of these, the notion of personal authority and of initiatory authority were assigned to the author or the writer. Personal authority complimented the legal counsel of, for instance poets, philosophers and scholars revered as seers and experts, and initiated authority denoted the source of a doctrine or decision.” Page 4,Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) These individual roles were who were seen as ‘authors’ they were the highest ranking of which you could succeed. The were the source of all power from decision making to guidance and initiated all authority - law abiding figures on top of the social and conductorial hierarchy. “Krieger notes that we still today associate the special respect rendered an originator with the terms ‘author’ and ‘authorize’.” (Page 4,Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) 2. Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted (5th to the 15th century) when it was appropriated by the christian church and becomes a religious concept. In the middle ages, “authority was transferred to the church.” (Page 7, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) To them, at this time in history “God combines authorship and authority in an indisputable way.” That God additionally “authorised others - Christ, Moses, the medieval ‘auctores’ - to be his representatives, his ‘authors’.” It was this period in history when Christ was officially “deemed the author of the Gospels.” (Page 7, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) The holy one, who spreads the word of the teachings but also the author of these teachings, the maker, the divine saviour and author of all that is holy. “The concept of the author as creator, or originator, was, not surprisingly to become a longlived one.” (Page 7, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) “For generations the author was regarded as a god like figure who ruled his own fictional world, with fore knowledge of what would would happen to his people, and who determined the outcome of the plots.” (Page 7, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008)

3. Late Sixteenth Century to the Late Nineteenth Century when politics became authority’s central arena. Copy wright laws for the first time in history “supplied authors with a kind of monopoly over the material that they created.” Authorship started become more of a lifestyle choice for more - a profession or job title. “Many studies into intellectual property rights have shown there is a close relationship between literacy property laws and cultural construction of authorship.” (Page 8, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) By the late eighteenth century according to Peter Jaszi, the term ‘author’ “took on a life of it’s own as individualistic notions of creativity, originality and inspiration was poured into it. ‘Authorship’ became an ideology.” Donald Rease points out the view that “the author’s function shifted accordingly - from that of producing an alternative to the world of politics.” A new way of thinking or provided new insights and outlooks on society and politics. “As creators of such alternative fictional worlds, authors have been both extolled and castigated ever since.” (Page 9, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) 4. The Modern Period - when authority is most intensively examined and developed in its social context. “The concept of authority of the author have been interrogated in literature and literary theory for most of the twentieth century.” (Page 9, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) It has become an issue or concept which has been highly researched and written about by many different authors, theorists and even artists. “Modernity itself, many claim has undermined the foundation of authority. The erosion of authority in modern times, Jones suggests, comes about “Either because truth or custom have been destabilised or because modern theories of subjectivity have created an irreconcilable tension between individual liberty and public order.” (Page 9, Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008) The Future of Authorship: “Writing in the Digital Age” by Kathleen Fitzpatrick Kathleen Fitzpatrick, Associate Professor of English and Media Studies and Coordinator of Media Studies Program, Pomona College, presents at the Wednesday at the Center lecture series at John Hope Franklin Center at Duke University. She tries to understand what this term Authorship means for present day and what could it possibly mean in the next 10 years. She states “reading is increasingly becoming a social process online” that “new spaces for social reading are the line between reading and writing somewhat blurry.” However “the opens that has been the ethos of the web has written into its code at the most fundamental level, has made a direct impact on many information industries and has been found to reinvent their business models as a result.” Not just authors or intellectuals who have profession directly linking to literature and arts but also all kinds of professions will be effected in that ways of providing content will develop over time - with the hope to reach out target audiences and reach the clients needs. “Content providers of all kinds really need to think about new ways of working with rather than against these dominant communication channels.” However she goes on to say that “these changes that are upon us are really not in fact radical alterations in the nature of authorship, instead a kind of acknowledgement of things that have lingered beneath the surface of our writing practices all along.” These changed are not necessarily bad, good, new or old, they are old forms dressed up as new ideas - or new words for example “the key issue is lack of ‘interaction’, the ‘author’ does not generate and never operated in a vacuum but has always been a participant in ongoing multi voice dialogue.” This one to one interaction has changed the idea of authorship dramatically but has always been an issue within the concept - who is really the author? the content provider or the reader? These “conversations” can now take form which some traditional authors may find “alarming”. “where does the authority in authorship lie? Does it rest in the same characteristics online as it does in print?” Does it mean the same thing in print and in digital. We are surrounded by it every day online - however when it is printed it is much more of a big deal now - it is an art form a content that have been given, a work of art. “Authorship as we understand it today is relatively recent invention. Early books were considered the product of guild rather than an individual” What is an author? Are they “figures who control access to ideas?” One thing we know for sure is that this question will never be answered but it will develop more and more as time goes on, it is a concept which will inevitably be there until the end of time.






Leonard Kriegar isolates Four Stages in the Historical development of the idea of Authority and authorship. (Page 4,Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008)





STUDIES 1. People of Print 2. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in Print 3. DAZED: Winter 2016 4. i-D: Big issue no 346 5. You Say you want a Revolution 6. One way ticket to Cubesville zine 7. EXHIBITA zine


Figure 19. Case Studies image (2017)


Figure 20. EM COLE issue no12 (2017)




Figure 21. Posterzineâ„¢ bundle | issue 1-11 | FREE GLOBAL P&P (2017)

Figure 22. EM COLE issue no12 (2017)


Figure 23. EM COLE issue no12 (2017)

Figure 24. EM COLE issue no12 (2017)


CASE STUDY ONE: People of Print LTD was established in May 2013. They are made up of a team of art directors, project managers, graphic designers, illustrators, developers and printmakers. They are based in the vibrant city of London and also have a presence all over the world. They are famous for sharing all things print related, both creatively and industriously. They provide print consultation service for those who are looking for print advice along with a fully bespoke screen print service for t-shirts and art prints.They are a very unique creative community who “enjoy working with brands, companies and educational institutions to execute fresh and impressive campaigns, create media partnerships and put on events”. They also self publish the print magazine called ‘Print Isn’t Dead’. There vast directory gives them “premium connections with unrivalled talent and expertise in the print-orientated creative and commercial domain”. They work many clients and other businesses in this sector for example with London Graphic Centre, Thames and Hudson, FERIGONI UK, Preprint Group, KK OUTLET, kuvva, DESIGN MUSEUM, ual: university of the arts london, university of brighton, V&A, Protein, ICN printing, Levi’s, Tumi, UEFA, Dove, MasterCard and Microsoft. People of Print presents their latest monthly publishing project titled ‘Posterzine’, a mini-magazine which folds out into a gorgeous A1 format poster (594x841mm) (Posterzine™ Issue 12 | Em Cole) showcases the work of photographer Em Cole with an exclusive interview. Printed by Pressision Ltd using three special spot colours onto gorgeous high quality GFSmith Naturalis Paper and designed by Tom Sutcliffe, directed by Marcroy Smith and interview by interview by Kate Hollowood. I chose this specific example for a case study because it is so vibrant and so unique from the rest of the research I have come across. The size and format are what caught my eye and was what set this piece of work aside from the rest of the crowd. It is a mixture of both a poster and a zine, a combination of two forms mixed together in one and it really works. It gives a sense of something new - something that has not been approached before a new idea or form of publishing. Instead of it being a broadsheet or poster - it is a folded zine with separate sections forming into a poster on the other side. The colour scheme is also a key part of this as inspiration for this project of mine because it is also bright and powerful. The subject may be different however the designer has also taken elements of the content - the from photographer’s work and made it part of the design. This is how the designer must’ve got their colour scheme idea through the work it is trying to promote - the content has driven the visual look. It has made an effect on the way it looks - it is interesting to see this as I will hope to try and use technique within my outcome. It is interesting how the designer has managed to combine visual information as well as written information, the way the designer has approaches the layout and imagery in this format it also really interesting. These poster zines are a really unique and vibrant way of promoting work - written and visual together in one outcome. The content is not only nice to look at but is also interesting to read and therefore addictive in that it makes you want to buy the next publication. In Figure 21 (Posterzine™ bundle | issue 1-11 | FREE GLOBAL P&P, 2017) You can see a selection of these different ‘Posterzines’ from the very beginning of issues 1 to 11. You cans see how they are all very different and yet still have a similar technique or visual language. Even though they are a collection of separate publications - they all still work together as one group or stack of self publications. Not just because of the bars of text and white background ‘labels’ on the bottom left hand side but also because the way they are designed - the visual style which embodies all of them at the same time but in different colour schemes, different layouts and different contents. I specifically chose to buy this specific one because of my personal taste but also because of the colours. Not saying I do not like the others however if I started buying them all then I fear it would become a severe print obsession, all of the ‘Posterzines’ have such character, a story to tell, something to read and something new to learn. It is almost a case of information design as well, in that you are informing your reader of new ideas, values, information etc. What I find interesting about these different elements however is that you can express them in many different ways - how does this link to these ‘Posterzines’ however? Maybe because they are not just communicating through the content, the visual aesthetic or even the writing, but through the format - the bold, big and beautiful format which is so different to what we have seen before. What is it that makes these so amazing? Not just because of these key elements but moreover I feel it is also because of the size - the impact it has on it’s readers. It is almost an act of protest - that print is NOT DEAD, that even though there have been some incredible developments in the digital sphere in the past 5 - 10 years which has moved publishing to the ‘new forms’ such as digital books, and kindles etc, print is still a huge part of publishing. It isn’t just where it all began but there is also without a doubt room for it in the future. In Figure 22, there is a mixture of the blue and the orange colours. This colour combination is so bright and powerful that it not only catches your eye from a mile away but also compliments the work within the poster. It does this by using the colours from the original photograph but also by clever techniques of light shades and gradients. This way it maintains it’s still very vibrant milieu but also doesn’t distract from the work itself I.e. the blue isn’t too dark so you cant see the images and the orange isn’t too light and doesn’t wash out the images or text either. The ‘vibrancy’ is there a huge part of this piece what is also evident is the composition and layout. Even though the format is big and bright - that doesn’t necessarily mean the images also have to be - instead they can work together and have a similar look over all of them. They are all very high in contrast and yet still have a slight transparency effect on them so the you can see what is underneath each one. This gives it almost another dimension


PEOPLE OF PRINT to the print form - it gives it another layer, another ‘characteristic’ or rule within the publication. For example the right side of figure 21 the images are very transparent which helps the reader see the underneath full bleed image, what could be the reason for this? The reader must read on to find out, this kind of look really drew me in and I’m sure this had an effect on many other readers. This layering doesn’t stop at the images however the text is also played around in terms of composition - it gives the reader a backdrop of the text but also a chance to visually see things as well as academically see things at the same time. It is a two type of communications which I found particularly interesting and seems to work really well on big formats such as this. The white text really stands out even still when contrasts with the bright orange and blue. It is still readable and understandable but also adds another dimension to work itself - to the print, as if it has been left out or cut out of the image. Contrastingly on the left side of Figure 1, the text at the bottom left is a darker version of the red/orange colour, this really brings out the background colour but also plays around with hireachy. The tricky thing about publications like this is the many ways it could be read, not only can it be viewed like this but also as separate pages, therefore when reading it like this it is difficult to understand the text hierarchy. The way the designer has challenged this and almost solved it also is by the top left hand corner. The size of the text is much bigger of that than the body text - this instantly catches my eye and that is where I instantly read first. In Figure 23 I am able to examine this example more closely and in more detail. This is a section from the zine itself, a photograph I took of my own copy. I found the text such a big inspiration within the publication and found that when using this as a cade study that I should be looking at typography very closely as it is a huge part of where this project may be going. Despite the overall zine being very bright, bold and very the fun the text is still quite traditional, it is still there to be read in a traditional way. I feel as if this really helps the publication as it gives it a professional and fun feel to it. Even though the rest of it is very loud and adventurous the text is maintained the same as other traditional means of reading. This really helped me understand that not all text has to be bold and crazy, it doesn’t have to catch your eye and if fact I found the smaller text is what caught my eye with publication in the first place. It caught my eye because of these reasons but also because it was very legible - it was approachable to read, and I thoroughly enjoyed reading it. Even though I could argue that the imagery, the layout and other elements of the piece are ways of communicating the overall ‘idea’ or ‘concept’ the writing and body text is still hugely important is there to be read - to be acknowledged as another art form - a story to tell but in the most possible detail it can give to the reader. The specific image behind it also tells the specific story of the subject 0 this section is used as an introduction almost - the first part of which the reader will instantly go to to understand what the publication is about. It is almost an overview - something which all publications need - an introduction, introducing the overview of ideas, a change for the author to signpost what the reader will then endeavour - the reader will here find out what will be coming. Even in the most loud and unusual formats such as - the bold, the colourful, the fun, edgy, unique; all publications in one way or another need that start up - they need to connect with the reader in a way that is clear and lays out the authors intentions. Maybe not word or word, or in a literal sense but also in a form of art and mutual understanding, without the author there is no reader and without the reader there is no author. Something which I have learnt from this example - as amazing as it looks there is not point in reading it if it doesn’t make any sense. Figure 24 is visually so enticing, which is should be as it is the front and back cover. Even though they may look like separate sections they still in fact work together as a spread. They sum up the whole publication in one and do this with many different techniques. The first being the most obvious of the colours - the similar coloured background is a great way of combining the two pages together. The other being the content, the images styles are similar; the font cover being a piece of work from the photographer Em Cole and also the back cover being an image of her collection as well - all the images are from the same source - the subject. This gives the overall publication an act of authenticity but also a mutual clarification for the reader an understanding that this is about one person and one unique individual only. The back gives also more information about who, where and how it was made, who by and who were the sponsors of the project which could be something that is arguably boring or unimportant but in fact they have made it look very intriguing and readable without being boring or too formal. With a bibliography, appendices etc. publications all have them and all need them. You cannot arguable publish something without saying how or who by, with what sources because how are you meant to see it as a formal stance on society? It may not be something published in New York Times, or other massive publishing companies but it is good to know these things for the reader to look at it more - to get more information and to understand the publication even more, to encourage them to do more research into the topic, author or even the craft of the piece. Overall this case study has helped me understand the many different ways you can make a publication a bit more interesting a bit more unique and how to entice your readers, not just by the big text, the big format but also the content, the form and many different techniques of visual communication.


Figure 25. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print (2017)






Figure 26. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print, Front Cover (2017)

Figure 27. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print:2&3 (2017)


Figure 28. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print: 123&124 (2017)

Figure 29. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print: 79&80 (2017)


CASE STUDY TWO: Oh So Pretty: Punk in Print 1976-80 by Phaidon Press Ltd (Paperback, 2016) is an unrivalled collection of visually striking ephemera from Britain’s punk subculture. A compelling visual portrait of a time, place, and subculture that raised a middle finger to modern society. It presents 500 artefacts - ‘zines,’ gig posters, flyers, and badges - from well-known and obscure musical acts, designers, venues, and related political groups. While punk was first and foremost a music phenomenon, it reflected a DIY spirit and instantly recognisable aesthetic that was as raw and strident and irrepressible as the music. As disposable as the items in this book once were, together they tell a story about music, history, class, and art, and document a seismic shift in society and visual culture. Upon buying this book I was interested to see it was written and contributed by Rick Poynor, a very well known postmodernist graphic design theorist and writer of the visual and cultured arts. I found this a plus and found the overall book extremely interesting from the content to layout, to the imagery and to the overall ‘branding’ and personality of the book itself. Written for a time where it was more fashionable to be against something than for it - a time where rebellion was a kind of fashion in society about a group of people - a subcultural group which was critically always antagonising the mainstream culture. It was interesting to see how this content or subject matter will be used in inspiration of the visual aesthetic of the book - how will the book designer communicate this subject of the ‘punk’ subculture through the cover, the layout, the pagination; I was extremely eager to find out. “Punk was a moment of social and cultural insubordination when the established ways of forming a band, writing a song, dressing in the street, or laying out a page or a flyer were thrown aside,” writes Poynor. In Figure 1, the cover is highly associated with the ‘style’ of the punk era. Cleverly the designer has taken specific elements from the content and implements it into the cover and spine the cover art by Garrick Gott and the book design by Joao Mota .While the work of Jamie Reid, Linder Sterling, Malcolm Garrett and Barney Bubbles has emerged as the most familiar (and celebrated) of the movement, much of the printed material in circulation at the time was produced anonymously and by untrained designers. Any coherent graphic style was one that largely stood in opposition to everything else – yet, initially, it wasn’t really a conscious style at all, more an amateur aesthetic that emerged simply because things were being made using whatever tools their maker had to hand. Mark Perry, for example, who created the first issue of the Sniffin’ Glue ‘zine in his bedroom in July 1976, relied on what he had around him – a children’s typewriter, a felt-tip pen – and the fact that his girlfriend had access to a photocopier at her work. Techniques, too, were those that required less ‘professional’ skills – tearing, cutting, pasting, copying – all adding to the vast collage that punk presented to the world. This ‘collage’ aesthetic is used already in the cover design as you can see here - the the collage of text and image - the bitmapping, textural effect of the image with the bright red colour of the lips on to the spine of the book. The bold and bright cover design depicts the kind of point in history where rebellion was a huge was or lifestyle - the visual arts were transformed into something homemade - rough, bold and vibrant with using these kind of techniques as Perry used when making zines. The rough technique promotes this idea of the subculture - and black, thick typography it rebellious, eye catching and very hard to ignore. In Figure 27 you see a combination of two different images from the collection. Not only do these clash next to each other but they also really work well with the overall aesthetic of this publication. This book isn’t a punk zine itself but a collection of them - a collection of visual culture surrounding this punk movement. Filled with zines and publications but also posters and cd/vinyl covers etc. What I have found interesting about this book is the way it is using the elements of the subculture but also how it presents the different parts of the collection. It is presented in a very formal way, a simple yet very effective way. It doesn’t distract from the imagery inside which this book could’ve easily done. The fact that the book is so formal gives the impression that the reader wants your to focus on the content more than the form, look and feel of the final book. In Figure 2 you can see the bright colourful and intricate pieces of the collection - if this were to be presented in any other way maybe it would’ve distracted the reader elsewhere instead of really looking at it’s content. The ‘art’ or the visual ‘style’ of the book is through it’s content - it’s through it subject matter through the examples of which they present to us - that is what is telling us the story. However on the other hand, some features of the book I cannot help to notice as to whether Perry had a used his old techniques of zine making within elements of this more ‘professional’ publication. For example the paper stock within the book. This very think, newsprint like paper stock is a very subtle characteristic of the content as this is the kind of paper zines especially in the punk era was printed on. This was because it was very cheap and easy to get hold of. The printing quality on this kind of paper is usually very good due to the thinness of the paper and the lack of pigmentation to it, it is quite a natural type of paper which is still uses today for newspaper and some magazines. However what this paper is not used in is books like these - publications of quite a professional and formal manner. It is nice to see how the book designer was able to add simple elements like this within the book - it gives the book a real edge and makes it even more interesting.


PUNK IN PRINT In Figure 28 and 29 you can see how this paper stock has really changed things for this publication - for the better. The fact that in Figure 28 you can see how smooth and easy the paper is able to lightly lay onto the next, it evidently really works with the perfect bound technique. In Figure 29, you can also see that the papers thinness is really making a difference to the way you open the page and see the content. The imagery is very bold and presentable and the fact that you can see the next one coming adds another dimensions to the book - gives it another feel for it being a collection of things, that it is an ongoing account of the many many different case studies that they have looked at and gathered in their findings. The see throw element of the book shows also the very similar look for zines back at this time, with the same paper comes this same effect of finishing touches, it has a kinaesthetic, slightly hands on feel to it even though it has been made 30 years later, the paper stock is still as effective as it once was. The off white colour also proves the point of it being from the punk era - instead of a bright crisp white, the goth period was far from the minimal, crisp sense of book design. If you see books now many use the colour white a background for minimal and smart purposes - this off white cream colour adds to the other element of how zines are not like that, punk zines were also never like that. The book also does this clever thing of having the descriptions of each study in the bottom in very small text. It is big enough to read and to read pleasantly but also still small enough that it doesn’t distract from the prime focus which again is the studies. What I find interesting about this book isn’t just these visual ideas that come out of it, or the concept but also the reason for and interest of this particular time in history. Why was the punk era so interesting? This is what this book is trying to answer - it is an in-depth account of the era, what is what and how it made the people feel through the visual communication surrounding it. Instead of it being a magazine or zine - it is a publication of research of a collection of things of object of which depict what the era was about. By looking back at punk we’re reminded of the true creativity it bore, but Toby is careful to distinguish between this inspiration from the nostalgia and imitations that also occur. “I think we look back because we can see it’s authentic and authenticity always rings true, especially in a world that’s dominated by brand awareness or commercialisation of music and culture. You can see that punk was free of that, it was raw, authentic culture, that took itself out of the gutter. I think people are always wistful about things like that.” Toby Mott. “Despite the terror of being hunted down by “a soulboy and having to run into Burger King”, the era of punk is still looked upon fondly by Toby and many others, due to the independence it gave people and the parallels that can be drawn today. “You look back to 1976 and 1977 and then jump forward to the New York Book Fair or Cultural Traffic and you see the connection between today’s zine culture and people doing stuff online. The draw is the idea that it’s autonomous and you take control by creating something that doesn’t rely on a major publisher or record company – that’s the link and why it’s still so current,” explains Toby. “I think the internet adds to that idea because it’s a gateway that’s open to everyone. There’s also been a resurgence in zine culture, where people want to make tactile things using paper and crude forms of reproduction.” Celebrating this idea of making and the accessibility that brings, is one the driving forces behind Punk in Print and the ongoing preservation of the Mott Collection. “What I wanted to do with this book is for it not to just be another piece of product that’s part of this 40 year celebration but to actually be a good document, which reflects the art and creativity of punk back then,” Toby says. “Hopefully it will motivate people to engage today, not to make stuff that looks like that but remind people that it’s not all about going to design school or buying a Macbook 5 or whatever. Back then it was about paper and glue, it wasn’t about skill, but rather drive and pure creativity, so that’s what I want people to take from this book.” The book is an “edited version of a two volume book created by Andrew Ross called The Complete Mott Collection, which had a small print run and was very expensive. “The director of Phaidon saw that book, so we decided to do a different version, which would be more affordable,” says the collector. The materials have been edited down by genre to create a comprehensive insight into Toby’s collection featuring paraphernalia for bands including the Clash, the Damned, X-Ray Spex, the Ramones and the Jam.” But it’s the anonymity of many of the designs that excites him: “The stuff I’ve collected is by unknown hands, meaning everyone and anyone could be a part of this culture and just add to it. There were a few stars like Jamie Reid and Linda Sterling, but on the whole, most of it’s still anonymous.” (Fulleylove, 2016)


Figure 30. DAZED: Winter 2016 (2016)






Figure 31. DAZED: Winter 2016 (2016)

Figure 32. DAZED: Winter 2016:94&95 (2016)


Figure 33. DAZED: Winter 2016:128&129 (2016)

Figure 34. DAZED: Winter 2016:76&79(2016)


CASE STUDY THREE: DAZED which was once called DAZED & CONFUSED, is a monthly British magazine which was founded in 1991. Its founding editors were Jefferson Hack and fashion photographer Rankin. It covers music, fashion, film, art, and literature. Beginning as a black-and-white folded poster, the magazine soon turned full colour, promoted with London club nights. In 1999 Dazed Film & TV was founded, a production company that would produce the first masthead television broadcast ever, the one-hour special Renegade TV Gets Dazed, for Channel 4. In 2001 the Dazed Group, as it styled itself, launched the luxury biannual AnOther Magazine. In 2005 the Group launched Another Man, a biannual fashion title for men. In November 2006, Dazed launched a new web based strand of the magazine titled Dazed Digital, which delivers fashion, film, music and art news and online events. In April 2011, Dazed & Confused launched its first live festival in East London, Dazed Live, featuring live music performances from Gang Gang Dance. Black Devil Disco Club, About Group (featuring Hot Chip’s Alexis Taylor), SBTRKT, Caribou, and more. Dazed exists to empower, entertain and educate tomorrow’s cultural leaders through radical fashion, agenda setting photography and fearless storytelling. This specific magazine is a trailblazer for emerging talent and proudly independent, Dazed aims to set the cultural agenda, both on and offline. Founded by Jefferson Hack and Rankin in 1991, Dazed is celebrating its 20th year of publication by making the entire archive of back issues available for digital subscribers.The independent British fashion, culture and arts magazine has a strong global reputation for its groundbreaking and trendsetting editorial and its support of new generations of fashion, art, literature, photography and music talent., their online magazine, is updated daily, hosting interactive projects, extra editorial content, exclusive music and fashion film. This powerful and fearless storytelling is what makes DAZED such an interesting magazine for me and for this project. Not only do the articles express interesting and insightful view, opinions and ideas of culture for the arts and for society but it is also presented in a highly effective and well designed way. Like with their articles they are constantly pushing the boundaries of publishing and editorial design through their skills in layout, typography and form. Interestingly in the past 5-10 years the publishing world has seen a rise or at least a change in the theory or notion of ‘Authorship’. Not only has this idea of publishing developed but so has the way we perceive and understand this kind of information. We collect books that have some kind of meaning to us, is it because of the authors behind them? Is it about the content? There are many reasons why but what is apparent is this new wave or trend which society has cremated; that we as humans and in the 21st century crave information, and it doesn’t always matter who we get it from. “Writing used to be black and white, on paper top the page to the bottom, left to right. Writing is now technicolour, it is dynamic, it’s full of all kinds of images and sounds.” Not only has self publishing transformed and developed through out history but so has writing itself, therefore the way people communicate their ideas change as well. “Writing is instrumental to everything we do in our professional and personal lives.” It has become both part of our work and play, whether you see writing as a pleasurable activity or as a chore and do it because you have to, you still do it in many different ways through writing greetings cards, to writing essays at school to writing a status on your Facebook page. Writing is now technicolour, it is dynamic, it’s full of all kinds of images and sounds.” Not only has self publishing transformed and developed through out history but so has writing itself, therefore the way people communicate their ideas change as well. “Writing is instrumental to everything we do in our professional and personal lives.” It has become both part of our work and play, whether you see writing as a pleasurable activity or as a chore and do it because you have to, you still do it in many different ways through writing greetings cards, to writing essays at school to writing a status on your Facebook page. In Figure 31, the cover is a pull concertina like cover which has one of the film stars from ‘Stranger Things’ on. What is also really interesting is the use of red and orange as a border round the concertina insert against the crisp white typography title and the spine of the publication. I love this and find it so eye catching, it really gives the front cover a new breadth, a new format, I think it’s great how it pushes the boundaries of print, of magazines, editorial and book cover design. It is something which adds to the publication and makes the reader want to pick it up even more. The strong typography choices and the colourful border work really well together and compliment each other - they are not fighting for attention and the hierarchy works very well. The red and orange pattern behind the text also works and brings the who book to life - it looks almost 3d - a dimension - a new age or layer of interesting information. The photography is strong and intriguing and advertises many things which will then be in the magazine, it promotes the content inside but in a unique, edgy and compelling way. The combination of white, orange and red with photography is slightly strange and original - something which embodies a lot of dazed qualities. These qualities are what helps this publication stand out in front of the rest of the crowd. In Figure 32, you can see how the magazine also doesn’t play with colour - and how their skills in typography and layout can be just as effective in black and white. The bold typography in white is extremely powerful and is so big that it almost becomes an image. The strong characteristics of the typeface really works and contrasts with the small text on the next page. The serif font is a well read and easy to understand kind of typeface which you would associate with big bulks of writing like this, the sans serif font used as a title looks so strong and is so thick that actually should stand out on it own. If the smaller type was


DAZED the same then this spread would probably look too busy. The shiny black background is very interesting, black as shiny can sometimes look cheap and a little weird but it works for this publication really well. When the content is really strong the shininess i feel actually works with it quite well and with the colour white it feels like it was planned and not just because it was cheaper to print on shiny paper. The shininess also realtes to the subject matter of ‘Stranger Things’ as it looks almost a bit syfy, a bit nineties or postmodernist design - something a bit weird, a bit strange and a bit different. The body text is also quite spread out which is a little weird - maybe this is to add to this similar visual aesthetic? What is clear however is how in publications like this will a lot of bosy text it is ok to not use the same font on both pages - if anything in this case it looks really effective and actually looks much better. It may be breaking rules for typography and editorial however DAZED have a reputation for that - and evidently do it very well. Within Figure 33 you can see that this monthly volume from DAZED there was a mini magazine inside called ‘rag & bone’. This almost reminded me how small publications within others can be really fun and effective way to attract your audience or to add this element of surprise. The small book was almost like a mini zine and had a visual identity of one; with the cheaper paper stock and stapled bound which was highly image based. It added another element of the DAZED magazine because it showed how it can still promote other smaller publications as well it’s own. I found this really rememberable and that is a way of gaining your audiences attention and then eventually their loyalty. It was interesting having it loose swell - I would definitely class it as a zine - even if it has been published properly it could still class as one because of it’s authenticity and unique marketing strategies. It also shows a different way of promoting your publish work, how will I make sure it gets to my readers and catches their attention? It was also inserted between two advertisements which meant it didn’t distract from the designs inside of the book. I found this not only memorable but also very clever - it is a mini, extra element to the book and what it stands for; community. It makes me wonder what my publication will stand for? What is the overview message which will engage to the readers? In Figure 34, the black is apparent again and looks also just as good with the orange and white. This spread was very interesting because it had both coloured photography and black and white photography on the same spread - which may seem a bit weird but actually I feel as if in all it really works well. The subject matter is presented here in a formal yet still a very original way. Breaking the rules of design and incorporating different elements and different no go’s e.g. the borders and the colours, they have really pulled something together that again is a bit ‘strange’ but still really professional. The writing around the photograph on the first page is also a nice tough - whether that be staged or was part of the editorial process it is nice to see some handwritten notes and signifiers. it reminds the audience that publications like these are made by hand - whether they are designed on screen before or after layout workshops they are still tried and tested in the printing form. They are still works of art in the print sphere. They are a combination of text, image and colour and form - presented in a way to tell a certain story in a certain way. Not just through type, image, colour and form but through all of these techniques. The one thing that really helps DAZED stand out from the rest of the crowd is it’s history and how it started off as something of rebellion. “This is not a magazine,” the first issue yelled, smudgily. “This is not a conspiracy to force opinion into the subconscious of stylish young people. A synthetic leisure culture is developing – plastic people force fed on canned entertainment and designer food. Are you ready to be Dazed & Confused?” (Wiseman, 2016) Today, as the magazine enters its third decade, with its own thriving publishing group and buzzing digital arm, Dazed reports an average monthly circulation of 90,529 globally. Debbie Harry says: “Dazed makes me want to paint my face and dance.” They emerged into the beginnings of Britart and Britpop, and thrived on their relationship with artists like Jake and Dinos Chapman, and bands like Blur and Pulp.”It was the height of ecstasy culture,” he adds, which means, “I think, that they lived at night: Hack and Rankin used to put on clubs, where they’d meet equally enthusiastic new contributors, who’d stay up until dawn discussing ideas.” (Wiseman, 2016) “I remember when the magazine first came out – there was no equivalent in America and there probably still isn’t,” says artist Barbara Kruger, who designed their human rights issue in 2006. “Dazed added a whole different edge. It con temporised the magazine form.” it was a new beginning of something which is still so popular and read about in youth culture today. What started off as something quite small has turned editorial design and publishing sphere on it’s head and is still developing as we speak. What I found most interesting about this publication is how it speaks to it’s readers, how it offers them exactly what they want. How do they do it? They are so deeply immersed with in the culture that they are talking about and trying to understand, they go above and beyond to understand these different elements and to celebrate community. They try to make a different through print, through publishing and through art. It is uplifting and inspiring to see a publication that can make such a difference and still to this day have such a good name for itself.


Figure 35. i-D Issue no 346 (2016)




Figure 36. i-D Issue no 346: Front cover (2016)

Figure 37. i-D Issue no 346: 176&177 (2016)


Figure 38. i-D Issue no 346: 186&187 (2016)

Figure 39. i-D Issue no 346: 102&103 (2016)


CASE STUDY FOUR: i-D is a British magazine devoted to fashion, music, art and youth culture. i-D was founded by designer and former Vogue art director Terry Jones in 1980. The first issue was published in the form of a hand-stapled fanzine with text produced on a typewriter. This is something which is really interesting as it started off as something very small,and over time has transformed into one of the most iconic editorial publications of all time. At first, these were of punks and new wave youth found on English streets and who were simply asked to stand against any nearby blank wall. The resulting pictures—the subjects facing the camera and seen from “top to toe”—are a vivid historical documentary photography archive, and have established the posed “straight up” as a valid style of documentary picture-making. Over the years the magazine evolved into a mature glossy but it has kept street style and youth culture central. i-D has built its reputation on being a consistent source of inspiration in fashion culture. It began as a fanzine dedicated to the street style of punk-era London in 1980, and quickly earned its position at the vanguard of fashion and style. i-D has come a long way since its pre-digital, cut-and-paste days and has developed into a glossy magazine that documents fashion and contemporary culture, and has broken ground defining it too. Constantly reinventing itself, as with our website, i-D continues to encourage creativity, which is why after more than 30 years, its editorial content still manages to surprise and inspire. “The wink and smile on each front cover – a graphic representation of the magazine’s logo – have become integral to the i-D identity. Over 300 of the world’s fashion elite, the great and the grounded, have given i-D a cheeky wink, from the likes of Madonna, Tom Ford, Chloë Sevigny, Björk, Tilda Swinton, Drew Barrymore, Lil’ Kim, Naomi Campbell and Kate Moss.” ( Heane, 2016) i-D features people in fashion, music, art, clubs, film and every other creative field. “Terry Jones spent most of the Seventies working for Vogue before becoming so intrigued by punk that he wanted to launch a magazine that catalogued all the idiosyncratic DIY style that the genre threw up. When he eventually did, he invented a new way of looking at the world, reflecting the cultural and sartorial shifts of a decade that was rapidly being defined by its excesses. i-D immediately became one of the most influential magazines of the decade; few outside the office knew that Terry’s wife, Tricia, was as important to the enterprise as her genius of a husband. Between them, they turned a cottage industry into a giant-slaying cultural behemoth, a magazine that inspired a whole generation of young hipsters.” (Jones, 2017) Terry was a whirlwind of creativity, and a man who found himself more than capable of nurturing talent. People walked in the door and were given a fashion story to lay out; students wandered by and five minutes later would be shooting a cover story. He was a legendary success and in turn helped many people in jobs within the editorial publishing world, many of which would thank him now for his creativity and such passion for the industry. In Figure 36, the typography becomes something entirely more than just to be read. It is so incredibly brave to use typography in this way because it is so bold and powerful, it is something which hasn’t always necessarily be done before. It is so simple yet so rebellious at the same time - it is something adventurous and is a great use of space on the page. This typography piece is in an effectively simple black and white colour palette and works really well as a title page of some kind or a quote. This is a really great way for the author/designer to show their typography skills but also to get a clear message across. It is an effective way to get the message to your reader loud and clear - to not sugar coat it or try to make it sound better than it is, it is purely those words and that is it. It is a true honest account or was of showing text maybe in a protest type of format? The fact that we now that this publication many years ago started off as a zine from the punk era makes you look at this publication in a different way. Was it originally made as a form of revolution? To make change happen, to reform an opinion and generate ideas? This magazine has now become something of that and this spread is a good way of showing their inner values and aims within the publications norms. Through this act of rebellion or rejuvenating the punk era if you like you can see that this magazine is trying to spark change - the big bold letters is one of the many ways they are trying to achieve this. The over lapping to the next page full blessed text is also very interesting - they are using up the space well on the page but also on the whole spread. Stretching the intake of information onto two pages - making the information bigger and therefore more powerful. It makes the spread look almost like a form of a poster - pushing the boundaries on a magazine spread in a way by the non restrictive proportions and arrangement of the typography. In Figure 37 you can see a range of skills that the designer has expressed. The range of typography weights and sizes really makes this spread more intriguing. The title being bold, high caps and serif really stands out from the crowd of text - it is obvious that that is the title of which holds most importance. This interview/ documentary spread is very effective in that it is very smart and readable but still has it’s unique stance on typography and layout and above all story telling. This ‘identity’ like publication is laid out in a really nice and peculiar way. For something which is meant to explaining and interrogating this person in formal way it actually looks really relaxed which makes it even more relatable, readable and approachable. Despite the weights not being in order of size in the order hierarchy - the thinnest is slightly bigger and also in full caps placed under the title which highlights this being the second thing to read and plays around with the hierarchy. It plays around with it in terms of style but cleverly still doesn’t do this too much that the spread becomes problematic in terms of readability and


i-D it doesn’t confuse the reader either. All the different fonts, sizes and placements are strong components on there own but also come together very gracefully and naturally. The long line lengths are also very interesting - they are longer than the usual line but I feel look extremely good and makes you as the reader want to read it! Seeing a big body of text like that could usually be quite intimidating and a bit too head strong however this text is very neatly presented on the page and overall I feel makes a great use for the space of which is available. Similarly having the text on one side of the spread and full bleed image on the other is also an interesting and unusual use of space and format. When playing around with format and layout with the combinations of text and image you usually would find text and image separate to be quite boring and not very adventurous, however in this case it actually look not just classy but slick and fearless. The combinations of all the texts on one side could be seen as too much if it were to be accompanied by image as well. That’s why having them separated it quite nice, it means you can look at the two types of communication separately, individually on pages and also together on one spread. They compliment each other and don’t distract from each other because they are different types, the photography is very strong and so is the typography however they compliment each other and through the colours, the tones and opacities, despite being so different they are also very similar. This makes me wonder whether combining text and image on the same page could be too much. How separating them like this could help the reader understand the ideas and concepts better. So they are able to focus on two things at the same time - put their own time so they would not be forced to look at the both at the same time but after one another. Even though the typography in Figure 37 is so strong, if this was used throughout the whole publication, it could get quite repetitive especially if it were for a magazine - one that is so vibrant such as i-D. Figure 38 shows another alternative or style in which capsulates these ideas in the same possible effectiveness as the other spread design. They are similar in ways for example the range of different text weight, sizes and fonts. The difference is the line lengths and column widths. The large text quote is also very powerful and draws you in instantly which you then as the reader will start to read the rest afterwards. It very nicely spread out and the full line length is a good use of space on the page. The columns widths and line lengths however suggest a slightly more structures interview or article with many different questions and answers - these two different spreads not only look different but are also communicating two different things. Where as Figure 37 was a bulk of text about one topic or thing Figure 38 suggested a slightly more in-depth analysis of something or someone. The question and answer format suggests more structure in the interview and more specific information to be addressed and found out. This 2 column grid in the first page works very well with the centred alignment of the top of this page for the big quote. The designer has managed to combine lots of different types of text - not the forms but has been able to distinguish the different parts of the article; the quote, the questions, the answers, the title and the titles. It makes me wonder which is the best way of getting information across from the author to the reader and thats when I realised it depends on the content. i-D have found 2 clever ways of illustrating and communicating two different kinds of interviews or articles both which are as effective as each other. Figure 39 is one of my favourite spreads within all of my research. It combines the large typography with the medium size and the small. But also with imagery and coloured and strong photography. The bold and effective contrast between the black and white with the colourful really works because they look interesting next to each other - they contrast each other and work in a weird and unusual way. Something which I had not thought possible. The colours within the photography are extremely intriguing and glad they are still there. Making the photograph black and white may have given the spread more depth and contrast but in heigh sight the colours are too powerful to get rid of and actually adds more authentic feel the publication. This makes it look less edited and more real - which would then suggest the writing and rest of this spread is also realistic and true. The 3 size text rule also really works here and looks extremely vivid even though there is only 3 types of text here. The caption sentences on the right side of the image in white are also very powerful in that they stand out against the photograph enough to be able to read properly but also goes well with the image - it doesn’t wash out as such, they work together through the similarity in opacities. This concept of storytelling through image and text is really successful in these spreads due to the high level of quality in the photographs alongside the simple yet effective almost postmodernist use of typography. The simplistic yet intense use of typography becomes a graphic image which is to be read by the reader but also as a title or message or which we as a reader will understand and signposts us to what is in the rest of the article. i-D is a magazine that not only inspires me to stretch my use of typography to the limit but to also keep my records and discoveries real - to not over edit my findings and to keep things as authentic as possible. The photography within this project is extremely important and by the looks of it ,in my research so far, in the publishing world there is more than one person per publication, they usually work in teams so maybe the best cause of action is to hire a photographer. Even still the strong typography is something that is very effective - especially on large formats and could see this really working for a subcultural theme. i-D’s link to arts and culture really helped understand how culture can effect visual communication. This particular study helped me see this through photography, layout, colour, style and typography.


Figure 40. You Say You Want A Revoltuion? (2016)





A 75



Figure 41. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:26&27 (2016)

Figure 42. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:98&99 (2016)


Figure 43. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:98&99 (2016)

Figure 44. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:234&235 (2016)


CASE STUDY FIVE: Published to accompany the V&A’s major autumn exhibition You Say You Want a Revolution: Records & Rebels 1966-70 10 September 2016 - 26 February 2017. The book was written Victoria Broackes and Geoffrey Marsh. The book was also designed by Johnson Banks. Victoria Broackes is senior curator in the department of Theatre & Performance, and Head of the London Design Festival at the V&A. She has produced several major V&A exhibitions relating to music, culture and design, including David Bowie Is, The Story of the Supremes and The House of Annie Lennox. Geoffrey Marsh is the director of V&A’s department of Theatre & Performance and co-curator of David Bowie Is. Past exhibitions include The Story of the Supremes and Diaghilev. Previously he ran the London office of AEA Consulting, was Director of Development at the Imperial War Museum and has often worked as consultant for the planning of cultural developments including projects in Australia, Canada, Italy, Belgium and Iraq.The late 1960s were a period of great turbulence and rapid social and political change. “You Say You Want a Revolution?” examines that moment when youth culture drove an optimistic idealism motivating people to come together and question established power structures across every area of society in both Britain and in America. “1960s design culture culminated in an orgy of colour and form: a sensorial overload of Barbarella-style inflatables plush Verner Panton playrooms and hightech 2001: Space Odyssey furniture systems. Here essays on music politics the counter-culture social living mind-altering experiences festivals and more chart revolutions across media and culture illustrated throughout with some of the most iconic images of the time - including the records that provided both the soundtrack and the key means of identification. Half a century later we can reassess the genesis of these movements and explore whether the revolutions they started can be considered complete ongoing or interrupted.” (Victoria and Albert, 2017) In Figure 41, you can see a chapter opening spread form inside the book, it shows a combination of text and image skills that the designer is expressing. What is interesting about this particular spread is this combination of text and image in a peculiar and almost frantic kind of way. There is no grid or system for the text - it is all jumbled up which makes me as the reader believe that it may be there for imagery instead of there for a heading or for it to be read at all. The red is also a really peculiar colour choice as it is still bright but also still very dark, its darkened the image behind swell which makes it harder to see what the image is of exactly however this is something which is still quite interesting in terms of the content of the book. Again this case study is about a rebellious time in history and I cant help but bare the coincidence of the rebellion red colour forming as a trend within these kind of publications. Not only the colour choice but this avant grade - cropped up and sectioned off text that is very tactile and experimental aesthetic reminds you very much of the punk era and forms of protest art. Despite this book being a very formal one - one which is presented within a well established museum such as the V&A, the designer has still managed to add weird and wonderful elements within the design of the book but still maintaining this act of professionalism. The bold bright red as colour for the big title is also pretty ‘cool’ and dresses up the book quite well as it not only encourages you to read whats underneath but also doesn’t really take no for an answer either. It’s impact boldly forces your eye onto the page. The font chosen is also very sixties like - through it’s curvaceous, romantic eleaur of the edges and how the letters are formed. This couldn’t be more appropriate for a book such as this: a professional and civilised account of one the most revolutionary and vibrant, experimental all round wacky periods in British and American history. In Figure 42 one of the ways designer has worked together to the content was the different chapters and their different contents. Each section looks a bit like this with the different iconic “rebels” within that time or age within this particular period. This biographical, documentarian account of this period in history was so bold, so vibrant with so much energy and excitement, it is great to see this kind of tone of voice within element of the design decision when creating this book. The bright contrasts of colours really caught my eye for example in Figure 2, the red and blue - originally quite corporate and formal colours when forced tog the run such a way like this and used almost like a backdrop for these specific images - you are able to see them in a new light, and also the images in a new way too. The different people collaged together like this is really interesting way of representing the different elements of the book but still communicating this idea of them all being a part of something - them all coming together as part of something bigger. This widely board concept has also therefore been restricted to these specific topics and people which makes the book far more focused and attentive. This means the design and visual culture within the book bares no difference. The images set out in a collage way really contrast with the vibrant background and the bold colour of the red then signifies the next stage of the account - the person or rebel which the book will be analysing next. This is kind of hands on feel to preparing imagery and love the way they feed into each other - it gives the book a dimension in which there are many layers to this spread - which means there are many layers to this book. Layers in which the reader will learn and after reading this book will understand the different layers that existed within the society which exists in this historical and revolutionary decade.


YOU SAY YOU WANT... In Figure 43 you can see the vibrant coloured backgrounds are part of the visual identity and aesthetic which runs through this book consistently. What is also consistent is this bold typography and larger than life titles. What is new within this spread is the big letter T starting off the paragraph. Something which is an old technique throughout publishing - used to engage and entice the reader to read the body text. I don’t personal like it, but that would just be based on personal preference. The T works for this kind of tone of voice however because it is a very key beginning word within this publication ‘the underground’ “was a catch all sobriquet anti-establishment, anti war, pro rock and roll individuals.” (Kramer, 2016: 98) It is setting the scene and setting the culture - a key sentence which introduces a key point of the book. One which the writer is using to bring the reader in to the publication and the catch their eye to read on. The slightly strange typography used for the ‘the counter culture’ title is made up on lines which at first I thought was slightly weird but once I saw it in the rest of publication it made sense. These different key ideas made up of different blocks, different layers of what they call the ‘counter culture’. The line lengths are very interring and actually become an interesting, unique element throughout the whole publication, because the designer actually plays around with this typography and editorial technique on each spread - some look similarly and some look totally different. This kind of communication could highlight the inconsistency within this period of history - politically, visually and emotionally. Similarly with the one page being blue and the other being white, it is highly unusual to have this in a editorial piece however as much as I hate to say it I really think it works and actually quite like it. Again this could represent the different elements within the book and also within this era. This highly visual period in history is almost used for inspiration of the design in this piece. Also from the exhibition itself of course but the exhibition was once also influenced by the visual style which surrounded the counter culture back in the sxities, therefore the book will be too. In Figure 44, the image is of the packaging for poster dresses, 1968, designed by Harry Gordon issued by Scott Paper Company V&A E.375-2011. (Kramer, 2016: 234) This specific image is a huge inspiration for typography, colour and photography. It again is bold and powerful. Despite this being on packaging instead of publishing this is still relevant as it was this publications great choice of imagery for the full account of the book which led me here to this specific image. The overall books imagery was extremely interesting and inspirational - they did a great job of finding enticing images which went well with the written information. They worked very well hand in hand together and this is because the images were so good. If the content is interesting then that would usually mean the content will also look interesting and be intriguing to read.The likes are that the target audience will be reading this book because they are interested in what is inside. The readers therefore would be interested in seeing the full account of the publication - the images and visuals surrounding the subject and the detailed written accounts of what the late sixties early seventies really were like. This publication really brings the era back to life and the designer does this through the different techniques of assimilating the aspects of the culture but also through the excessively iconic and intriguing imagery within. “‘The counter-culture is such a broad and diverse phenomenon that writing about it is like herding cats, but this is what Jon Savage is good at and the book would be worth buying just for his essay...’ - Robert Irwin, Times Literary Supplement, 30th September 2016; ‘An entertaining read’ - Rebecca Wallersteiner, The Lady, 21st October 2016; ‘The writing and cornucopia of images are simply outstanding’ - Herbert Wright, Design Curial, 5th December 2016”. (Waite, 2016) ‘You Say You Want a Revolution’ “examines the moment when young people challenged everything. The late 1960s were a time of rapid social and political change. Those few short years of unbridled optimism and experimentation brought to the fore issues that continue to dominate the headlines today: inequality, globalization, and environmentalism”. (Broackes and Marsh, 2017) It examines music, fashion, film, design, counterculture, mind-altering experiences, festivals, and politics, this book, published to accompany a major touring exhibition, investigates the cultural upheavals of those five revolutionary years. Punctuated by the music that provided the soundtrack to the era, from Sam Cooke’s “A Change Is Gonna Come” to The Who’s “My Generation” to Jimi Hendrix’s “Purple Haze,” and focusing on defining moments and movements such as Woodstock, communes, and the Paris protests of May 1968, this new book looks at how the revolutions of the 1960s changed the way we live today—and shaped the way we imagine the future.This particular case study was extremely interesting because of the obvious connection to my dissertation and to the content of this book. It is interesting the way the designer is able to use sections or characteristics of the content within book to communicate to it’s audience. For example the bold and bright colours, to the different layouts, the non rigid margins or grids used, the typography use and style. This iconic sixties ‘style’ which we all know so well already has subtly influenced the design decisions within this book and therefore made this an all rounder, enthusiastic and effective publication of the decade.


Figure 45. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017)






Figure 46. One Way Ticket to Cubesville: Cover (2017)

Figure 47. One Way Ticket to Cubesville : Contents page (2017)


Figure 48. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017)

Figure 49. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017)


CASE STUDY SIX: It’s first issue was published in the UK in 1987 and featured interviews with Bad Brains, Doom and Concrete Sox. It became essential toilet reading for punks, predominantly in the North of England, although its early run ambitiously went into the thousands with a global distribution, without ever improving its quality or layout. The fanzine’s early run continued for six issues, growing increasingly cider-fuelled and psychotic and covering ever more bizarre music and subject matters. Cubesville underwent a long haitus before its “Reformation” issue in 2009. This only featured punk bands who had split up and reformed. These included the UK Subs, Amebix, Stupids and the Hates. Four subsequent issues have appeared, the most famous of which was a punk rock tribute to George Orwell. This issue, number 11, featured Welsh, Gaelic and Basque language punk bands, together with a punk response to 1984 from Faintest Idea, Zounds, Left for Dead, Andy T and Eastfield. The issue featured a response to George Orwell’s essay, Politics and the English Language, on journalism in a time of another recession. Cubesville fanzine has remained commitedly vegan throughout its 11 issues. However, in keeping with its absurdist take on life, recent issues have featured a “vegan time machine” focusing on veganism during Victorian times and WWII. Its author believes this highly retrospective take on veganism is the way forward and is planning more Doctor Who type culinary ventures in future issues. Issue #19 states that it is refreshing to see their zines sell out so quickly. That “when most of this world is zombified by Smartphones, it’s inspiring to see punks, freaks and weirdos still have an appetite for zines.” Bringing you anarchy and absurdity since 1987 one way ticket to cubesville is a long-running paper fanzine and a staple “bog read” of the UK DIY/punk community. we also publish absurdist veganzines, such as the smash hits Vegan’s Guide to People Arguing with Vegans and The Victorian Vegan. BigCartel us if you want to see it in the flesh as it were. Cubesville is a very interesting and random zine - which content is particularly clear however has given me a huge amount of layout and concept inspiration. In Figure 46, you can see the pink and white squares which almost look like a bitmapping and pixelated kind of effect. It gives the zine a textured look to it and also it the only place where it uses colour which is also very interesting. The paper stock of the cover is much smoother and only slightly thicker to the rest of the book but still maintains this off white, light brown, cream kind of colour inside the zine. The airing of these different elements on the cover is really eye catching weird - it is so fun and yet also so very pessimistic at the same time. With a young boy with his middle finger up on the front cover, you as the reader instantly know what kind of zine this is going to be. One that has a lot of swear words in and a lot of middle fingers to the rest of society. The pink is really interesting choice of colour and even though this may not being designed publication and is in fact just rough and not intended for design inspirational use but elements of it is really interesting. The many different sizes of type for example alongside the main different fonts on one page. As you can see in Figure 1, the main typeface used within the whole of this zine is this typewriter like font which as you flick through the book is used a lot but at different weighted and for different reasons. As you can also see at the bottom left hand corner of Figure 1 is the staple which is used to bind the zine together - a budget and tactile way of publishing but doesn’t not necessarily make it any worse than the rest of them. What makes a good book? Do these small craft decisions really matter? Or is the reader looking at this zine specifically for the content? In Figure 47, you can see the different sections within this publication. The different boxes and layers of text. This zine is almost like a small newspaper in terms of it’s layout. It reminds me very much of the job opportunity pages at the very back of the old fashioned newspaper, and judging by the small columns and typography layout choices this wasn’t the only design decision made with newspaper visual aesthetic in mind. The off white colour really goes well with the bold black. The fact that the designer has not used pure white coloured paper interests me. For the cover it is very different stock but the inside is made up of this newsprint kind of paper - which is why the printing of the black comes out a bit washed out. It is very budget but that is definitely part of it’s charm. Even though the publication may not stick to these design rules or restrictions, part of the zine is actually using traditional publishing characteristics in the design, some of which are surprising especially as they are probably the most boring parts. These include the acknowledgements to the suppliers and thanks to the contributors - but on a whole page as you can see in Figure 47. This is an interesting and very weird, surprising trait for a zine to possess because they are usually made by one single person, so the idea of group of people doing this is very unique and actually makes this all the more intriguing for a case study. The imagery and text alongside the column width and typography are hugely experimental in this spread because there is just so much of it. There is a lot of it on one and it is’nt very spaced out at all. The format is very small and with that doesn’t come a huge amount of space. However the designer or author has managed to fill nearly every inch, within reason, of the zines pages and actually it looks really interesting and fun. The whole vibe you get from this spread is, is that there is a lot going on behind this zine - there is a lot of work that still goes into this zine. Even though it is a zine and it is self published - there is still an element of designing and editing within this particular one - there must be for it to be so packed with life.


ONE WAY TICKET TO... In Figure 48, you can see that there is a key amount of knowledge about the format and overall form of this publication within the zine itself. It is interesting to see that the author and group who made this zine is aware of the what they are doing in terms of everyone else. It makes you wonder whether the zine world is a competitive one - do you need to keep designing them to stick to you image? Within this page I really like the cars behind the text and find them extremely aseptically pleasing in that they really help the text stand out form the rest. These are key for things like headings and for quotes and by the looks of the rest of the zine - this is an evident design or strategic trend within this specific realm of publishing. They help the text stand out but also gives the pages another dimension - something added in extra to the publishing - another level of communicating. Zines have authentic feels to their pages and this zine in particular leaves a mark, it is so very pessimistic however the visual look of it to me looks more optimistic and humorous. Bringing the readers anarchy and absurdity … absurdist veganzines, such as the smash hits Vegan’s Guide to People Arguing with Vegans and The Victorian Vegan. Weird et still humorous makes this zine really strange but kind of still interesting - but above all definitely stands out from the rest of the crowd - the rest of my case studies that is for sure. Figure 49 similarly is very much text based - which is key characteristic for the whole of this zine. It really takes text on a whole other level and apparently has a lot to say. It shows that not only do the authors of this book have a lot to say but the fact that they feel the need to say it in print makes them even more interesting to look at for a case study. Researching into this particular zine is highly difficult because it is self published there isn’t a huge amount of information about it out there. This absurdity vibe I am getting from this zine is definitely something it lives up to. The swear words, the inappropriateness of the whole thing is so bad that it is almost funny. It is such pessimistic account of what society is about today that it is almost a bit depressing and sad to read. Even still this page is quit formal compared to the rest of them which is quite weird - and definitely stands out as almost being a little out of place. In Figure 49, the image shows different sections to different publications through different weights of type. The columns line length isn’t too risky and in fact is quite simple and lack of better word boring. That is at least compared to the rest of it! The actual spoken language within this publication is also something to consider. The sarcasm and joking kind of informal and unprofessional voice which it is written in adds to this pessimistic vibe but also a carefree example of free speech. It shows that anyone can write anything now and actually there is no stopping the zine makers, they will keep making them for as long as they can. Looking into this zine was very entertaining as it is such a vast difference to all of the other case studies which I have examined so far. This one in particular is very challenging to read as it can be a little annoying at times but at the same time it is very open and says it how it is. It is a very honest publication with a very unique narrative. It is an unforgettable piece and will stay with me while the project develops for better or for worse.


Figure 50. EXHIBITA Zine (2017)




Figure 51. EXHIBITA Zine (2017)

Figure 52. EXHIBITA Zine (2017)


Figure 53. EXHIBITA Zine: Back Cover (2017)

Figure 54. EXHIBITA Zine: Front Cover (2017)


CASE STUDY SEVEN: EXHI-BITA is a zine which I bought from the Housemans Bookshop, in Kings Cross London. The frustrating thing about this book is that I struggled to look up things about it because it really is a one off designed zine. It is made of many different science articles which are not exactly relevant to my content choice however what was interesting within this piece was the brilliant use of typography. I love how bold and powerful it is and this book had just as much of an impact on my development of the project that the others did. Figure 51, shows the first spread of the zine. The visual style of this is so simple and bold, strong creates so much impact. Even from the contrast of the very first page with no content on the second page with minimal content on is very powerful. The headline like and newspaper feel you gain from looking at this really catches my eye - as a reader and also as a designer. Not only do I love the visual aesthetic of the page but it is so different to everything else I have seen so far. The oversized margin around the main body of image and text is different to the rest I’ve seen and find it very powerful with the technique or the way it uses the small amount of space it has there to use. the minmal - white space doesn’t look too unbalanced or unneeded, and looks as if it could be a style used consistently throughout a small publication like this. The size of this book is fascinating as well sue to it being so small - a6 size, it makes me wonder what this may look like on a much bigger format. What would it look like if it were on an a3 size paper book? would it be as effective or would it be more so, the question is, is how much impact do you want to make should it be really small or should it be really big? Even still the typography really works with this size and despite the white space due to the margins around the content the typography is very big - larger than the norm which almost even it out however due to it being black and white this also plays around with hierarchy and form giving as well. It is unique for a small publication to go for such big type - it isn’t however over powering or too much - interestingly it looks like the right amount of big to me. In Figure 52 you can see the designer has attempted to use the full spread for the typographical imagery. This is similar to the other case studies I have looked at in that they all start to break away from the traditional rules of typography and seem to make up their won. The typography on this page is very prominent and actually highly effective in terms of the wording as well. This word would not necessarily has the same effect it were half the point size. The size and thickness of the letters really make an impact on the way your readers perceive the word. I now understand that the ‘BOMBSHELL’ is an important element of the article and I must read on to find out more. Not only is the large title big and bold but it is also in High caps. This is interesting as usually high caps are slightly harder to read than low caps, however within a title - the readability isn’t so crucial unless it were the main body text. The big lettering shapes better and looks better in caps because it is more square and rigid shape - it means you can use it in more areas of the composition and it actually is better to proportion. It also contrasts well with eh body text and sub headings - it creates a huge different between the two which it why it works so well. In Figure 2 you can also see the binding technique of the zine. The one staple form of binding is so simple and it a very common trend within the zine making sphere. It to so easy to do and yet in this case very powerful. I actually really like the simplistic way of binding this book - it goes with the rest of the visual imagery that coincides with it. If it were threaded or coptic bound it would look messy for one and wouldn’t necessarily go with the tone of voice this zine is going for either. Again similarly to the zine before it is quite negative and actually has a criminal side to the look swell - it looks almost criminal and investigative which is probably due to the newspaper look it is going for and is using all the way through the publication. In Figure 53, you can see the back cover of the zine. This is also where the price tag was from the Housemans bookshop. The price of this zine was quite reasonable I thought as the print quality over all was quite good and all in all was quite well put together. It is a very small zine however with only 20 spreads so that also brought down the price a bit. It is also all in black and white and that usually is the cheapest printing so this is also why I would think the zine was only £2.50. In Figure 3 we come to the end of the zine ‘FIN’ I’m guessing means finished and signifying the end of the zine - it is bold and brilliant and still maintains the same look and visual aesthetic to the rest of the boo. The one thing about this zine that is really striking is the ability to maintain the came consistent visual style through the book. This might be easier to do as it is quite a short book however it’s principles and techniques stay the same throughout. What I also find interesting about this particular zine was the look of it - why does it look like a crime scene, newspaper like style? With big titles and articles which are big and investigative. The overall look is very interesting and is what stood out to me alongside the rest of zines in the shop. It is so simple yet so bold at the same time - it has an edge about it, it’s criminal look adds to this element of the underground press. It is almost an act of protest or standing up for something that is not right the subject matter overview within the book isn’t exactly clear but when you get the end of it you are reminded of the style - the authoritative connection it has over you as


EXHIBITA the reader. It is tell you what is going, it is telling you how it is, no room for interpretation or conceptualising for the reader, the author is fully in charge. The presentation of the back links to the first spread Figure 1 almost exactly but becomes an assimilation of it - to show the reader or remind the reader of what has been and now what has ended. In the simplistic sense it is a summarisation of what has been in the book, it is a conclusion of the different elements within. The woman image to the white border, and the black framing is almost identical to the original first image we see. However by placing the image of the woman in the centre and having just one set of typography you can see this is the finishes idea - the end to the narrative, the good bye from the author to the reader. In Figure 54, you can see a zoomed in section of the front cover, the reason why I decided to examine the front cover last is because I feel it is the most important part of this zine - for any zine in fact. The typography again is hugely similar to that of what is in side the rest of the publication. It also has the combination of black and white within the look of it as well and therefore it is almost a signpost of the design rules or techniques in which the author is communicating to the reader. The front cover of zine - or any publication for that matter is one of it not the most important part. It is the first part of the publication the audience or reader will eventually see. It is the author’s responsibility to make sure what is on the front cover is right in terms of communicating a true picture as to what is inside of the book. This the opportunity for the author to draw in their audience and the first step is to understand what is the author trying to say, how can this ‘aim’ or message be named in order to gain the right readers attention. The name of this zine is really interesting because it looks very unique but the name isn’t exactly clear - my only criticism would be that I as the reader would like to of been told the reason for the name as it is a very board name, with hundreds of meanings attached to it. Overall this zine is probably one of my favourites due to the confidence within the placement and size of the typography. It is hugely inspirational to see all these different types of people publishing and I find it very uplifting how publishing is becoming more of a wide range skill for many people. That you don’t have to have a degree or any english qualifications or anything necessities other than the need or want to publish something yourself. These zine makers are the future of publishing, they may not be perfectly bound, or perfectly designed but what exactly does it mean for a book to be perfect anyway? These ‘zines’ not only challenge the notion of authorship and who can publish text but also challenges the idea of a book. In these small but powerful publications they are questioning why books are meant to be this way - why do they have introductions? Why do they have to have bibliographies - do these techniques or specification really entice and gain the readers attention? Or is it the content in which the reader then choses to then read your book. Despite this zine being very authoritative and factual - does the author in fact realise that in fact the reader could be interpreting it in a different way? The fact that anyone can express their thoughts and opinions in these kind of publications makes me feel very intrigued as to what will hold for the future of publishing - and the future for zines and zinesters. This study has helped me understand what zines are about - what the underground press is trying to do and how they are trying to change the world.







Figure 54. Proposal Presentation: Title Page (2017)

Through the 3 disciplines on design which consist of Self Publishing, Authorship and Art Direction I will hope to create a sustainable and objective account of which highlights the specific necessities which are surrounding these areas of expertise. Research in that the different approaches, the many examples of areas and theoretical perspectives which will better my knowledge of this area. This is for the book of which I can then better my technique in my research skills. The self publishing world in that the ways in which the process works, the ways I can apply this to my own work and the ways I could publish my own dissertation. Authorship in that I can evaluate the different areas of the contextual study and concept which will give me an insight into contextual studies and areas of publishing I have no come across yet. Art direction in that who could I create a psychedelic experience which will entice my readers and audiences - which will enable me to catch their attention and for them to find the outcome interesting and effective.


The aim within this project is to design and create a ‘field of study’ and professional account which tries to interpret and understand the idea of authorship, how I as a designer have the responsibility to share my research, and to share my ideas. My dissertation: “An exploration of the visual culture surrounding the Psychedelic movement of the UFO Club in Britain between 1967 to 1970, with reference to Dick Hebdidge” is a form of research, which I will publish in a poster zine. ‘Zines’ are self made publications which are about a topic or ‘culture’ of interest to the author and to the reader. The target audience is: readers of all ages who are interested in the psychedelic underground culture, whether you were there to witness it yourself or not. People who have an ‘appetite’ for culture and enjoy reading, visualising and learning about a specific subcultural group..

Figure 55. Proposal Presentation: Introduction (2017)


Figure 56. Proposal Presentation: History (2017)

Within my research into these subject areas I will look into both the history of authorship and of self publishing. I hope to depict how this evolution has come about and what were the key stages in time which really made an impact into what we call authorship and self publishing today. How have these two key aspects of this project evolved alongside society and how have they been seen or used differently throughout the ages. How differently did they adjust or transform in different areas and different times of society. How has the digital revolution effected not only the way we write but how we read - has this new age of technology changed these two notions for the better or for the worse? Something which started off as religious and has now become a social phenomena - how did this happen, was ti a gradual change throughout time or did things rapidly change - and have old traditional means really been abandoned, print is still here today, this part of the project will be an accurate and literal account of the times in history which sparked changes and developments of these key areas of interest.


I will embark on the process of which I will analyse different key examples which has a key relation to my project. Whether that be zines, or monographs - publications about one specific subject. The idea is to chose a great number of case studies which will represent the work that I am interested in and discover trends with these examples of what I hope to achieve int eh final outcome. They will range form inspirations of content and subject area, to concept and strategy and to format or binding - typography and layout styles which I feel are appropriate for the project. Many I will analyse will be books of some kind which are about a certain subject or group of people - specifically a subcultural group one which stands out side the norms and to then signify the key ways in which the designer has communicated these ideas through design, through format, typography and over all visual aesthetic.

Figure 57. Proposal Presentation: Original Case Studies (2017)


Figure 58. Proposal Presentation: Literary Review (2017)

The literary review will be a discussion of the different theories and contextual sources I have looked into, from the ‘death of the author’ to the author being ‘mediators’. This will also include a summarisation of selected topics which are evident within the reading and are reviewed in a way that it suitable to for the aim of this project. not only can I declare my point of view in all of this but it will also be a formal account of how all of the theory relates for example; I will link the process of which I came across each theory from the beginning of self publishing to authorship and to zines - to this idea of postmodernist graphic communication and how today authorship has transformed into something and how I have approached my own definition of author within this project.


A conclusive section which is a form of evaluation and clarification of the topic in question. It is the judgement or decision reached by reasoning. It will be a short essay which explains and attempts to understand the ways in which I have found my answers, through this excessive amount of in-depth research I have done within self publishing, zines and authorship. I will state my concluding argument of which highlights these three ideas and concepts through this pirhect and my understanding of visual communication. The aim of this study is to not assess whether the project and final outcomes are successful but to understand them within their contexts - to see what stages they have been through to see why they are where they are now. Alongside this element of publishing, authorship and zines I will try to develop my creating and understanding what the ‘psychedelic experience’ really means - what it is actually about and how I could use this research within this final zine.

Figure 59. Proposal Presentation: Conclusion (2017)






SUBCULTURES & THE ACT OF ASSIMILATION Using Dick Hebdidge’s Theory in Subcultures: The Meaning of Style (1979)

In 1979, Sociological theorist Dick Hebdidge published ‘Subcultures: The meaning of Style’. This publication is viewed even today as one of, if not the most, influential theory and analysis of how we understand and come to comprehend this idea of ‘Subculture’. Hebdidge describes culture as a “notoriously ambitious concept,” (Hebdidge, Page 5, 1967) written in a time of “rapid and radical social change” (Hawkes, preface.) Britain’s post-war youth subcultures were the key subject to Hebdidge’s writings, including the Mods and Rockers, Hippies, Teddy boys, Skinheads and Punks. In many influential readings into the psychedelic underground culture however, the group has been documented as a counter cultural group; counter culture being “an alternative culture, deliberately at variance with the social norm” (General et al. Page 362, 1998) , with “counter” meaning against. A subculture is “a subdivision of a national culture or an enclave within it a distinct integrated network of behaviour, beliefs and attitudes.” (General et al. Page 1525, 1998) It is a group that differentiates itself from the parent culture from which they have derived, often maintaining some of its founding principles. With “sub” denoting under, a subculture is a “small segment of people that operate within the framework of the dominant culture. In contrast, a counterculture is a group of people with shared values that go against one or more significant values of the dominant culture”. (Credit, 2017) Through Dick Hebdidges theory of Subculture, this essay will apply his ideas to this subgroup of the psychedelic underground culture of the UFO club which was around in Britain during the late 1960’s. The dissertation examined the group as a potential “subculture” and how it may be assimilated into modern day mainstream visual communication. Hebdidge argues that they reveal, emphasise, and demonstrate the constructed nature of ‘common sense’, ‘normal’ meanings. He challenges the typical stereotype that it is only upper class people who wear nice suits. These groups derange mainstream meanings and values centred around ideas such as: class, gender and sexuality. Subcultures use their visual ‘style’ to disassociate themselves from the mainstream and to disrupt it. The analysis asserted throughout this study was explained through these key areas from Hebdidge’s writing and still applies to all subculutral groups in the past and ones that will appear in the future; The subculture must have a ‘group’ identity; The word ‘psychedelic means ecstatic’; the ‘significant’ difference; the subculture generates ‘shock’; the ‘repositioning and re contextualising of commodities’; the ‘unnatural’ weirdos from the underground; the moment when ‘mad creativity was born’; Revolution: the ‘sense’ of rotation; influences from the 19th century and finally, The Act of Assimilation with reference to Aizone. This ‘Act of Assimilation’ has acted as a lense to understand and depict the work being done in this project, this idea of my work being an assimilation of the sixties really makes sense and links perfectly. Figure 160. UFO Poster (Mills, 2017)


The only way the mainstream is able to coexist with the subculture is to then dilute the messages and ‘normalise’ them. “That which yesterday was reviled today becomes cultural consumer - goods, consumption thus engulfs what was intended to give meaning and direction (Lefebvre, 1971).” (Hebdidge, Page 92, 1979) Hebdidge’s over arching argument is that because of the threat the subculture has on the mainstream and the subculture is seen to be directly antagonising the mainstream. He argues that it is not a sustainable situation, that you can not have the lie and the thing revealing the lie, coexisting. Therefore the way that the mainstream responds to that is to assimilate the subculture, and adapt into itself to take away it’s threatening power. This Psychedelic ‘style’ started challenging the mainstream, which initially frowned upon it before being assimilated by them. Last year, Sagmeister & Walsh constructed a new campaign with Aïzone, where they are “shifting inspiration from illustration to illusion. The latest visual campaign (see Figure 1) sees the infusion of both the psychedelic and constructivist worlds as the striking optical illusions radiate amongst the mesmerising myriad of motifs, both juxtaposing and camouflaging into the vivid and trippy backdrops.” (Entry, 2016) The infamous duo designed the campaign for Aizone, a branch of “luxury lifestyle” (Azzarello, 2016a) as part of Aïshti in Lebanon and is universally acknowledged one of their greatest works together. “Trippy optical illusions, flying furniture, and a pink painted horse are a few of the animated motifs that appear on billboards, magazines, newspapers, and in stores across the middle east.” (Azzarello, 2016a) There is no denying the distinction between this work and the original psychedelic style example (Figure 1). It is not certain whether the designer’s intentions were to purposefully use the psychedelic style for conceptual purposes but what is clear is this idea of assimilation. How this style was once associated with the “catch-all sobriquet for a community of like minded anti war” (Kramer, Page 100, 2016) individuals who were constantly threatening the mainstream to then be used in a commercial sense for a furniture brand campaign. A style which was once used for rebellion and a dawn of ‘new’ era in culture, arts and music, is now used in something that is so far from revolutionary - a store for furniture, a campaign that everyone has access to, something overground as appose to hidden under the streets of London. It is stripping the rebellious use of the colour pink, the op art, “fluid” and romantic psychedelic style, it is not so much threatening anymore. It is a form of recontextualising or a reinvention. Using an old idea, or past style and recreating it. Likewise, the same can be said for the UFO example as this visual aesthetic takes inspiration from the movements of Art Nouveau with an Op Art accessory. Barthes refers the “Other” (the subculture) as a “scandal” or threat, which can be “trivialised, naturalised, domesticated.” (Hebdidge, Page 97 ,1975) However the assimilation of ideas proves the “Other” even more vital as it has gone through this process of regaining or “recuperation” that Hebdidge describes in his writings. This ‘style’ that is being “naturalised” has become part of conventional society - the mainstream ‘narrative’ or story within the Aizone campaign. It goes beyond the visual to the majestic or hypnotic attraction you feel when admiring it. The “vivid and vibrant milieu” (Azzarello, 2016a) is only part of the recuperation, the style of impact and effect the image has on us as audience is almost the same if not identical to that of the UFO club. The energetic, out of box mindset and “tuning out” and “going out of your mind” (Leary, Page 4, 1999), effectively losing self control is incorporated into this example. It does this through the spectacular colour scheme and sequence of repetitive shapes you are taken into this new fantasy, a new world of thinking - a new way of looking at furniture and how they could be sold or presented. It is drawing the consumers in, in a much more in-depth way, not just to make it look pretty but to dress this old illusive idea and incorporate it into the new form of reaching out to the consumers at the same time as producing a new idea, trend or direction in the creative industry. The mainstream example is assimilating by “creating new commodities, new industries or rejuvenating old ones” (Hebdidge, Page 132,1975). The stylistic and swirly shapes, curvaceous and sexual, romantic and revolutionary, the bright clashing colour scheme and vibrant style are commodities of the subculture - the recognisable distinctions of the group, the visual signs or characteristics you associate with that subculture. Commodities, according to Marx are “social hieroglyphics.” Symbols of representation which say something about that group, the drugs, rock and roll, light shows and bright lights, clashing colours are commodities of the culture. Once these commodities have been “removed from their private contexts by the small entrepreneurs and big fashion interests who produce them on a mass scale, they become codified, made comprehensible, rendered at once public property and profitable merchandise.” (Hebdidge, Page 95 ,1975) If you had the UFO poster on your wall now it wouldn’t necessarily mean you are part of that subcultural group, that you are attending the club. In time but also through the mainstreams reaction to the threat of the subculture, the commodities now mean something else - it is now a poster of style, which has not lost it’s original purpose or meaning but has formed into something new, a product, an object of commercial merchandise. Figure 161. Aizone Campaign, (Mills, 2017)


The free flowing, curvaceous style conducted by English could arguably be seen as having a sensual, seductive meaning - a form of experimental sexuality. Not to say the whole club was full of sex parties - but it was at a time of social change in this realm of society. “The important thing to remember about the 60’s is that it was totally male dominated.” “You were not really encouraged to be a thinker. You were there really for fucks and domesticity.” (Green, Page 400, 1999) In a sense this poster is challenging that, through it’s colour choice but also the shapes within it and the ‘rhythm’ or sequence within the stylistic lettering. It is obviously pink and girly in a way but also adds to this idea of a sexual nature, flirtatious maybe but also a sensual vibe - a seductive gaze which you may look upon and be reminded of aspects of the human body or of seductive manipulation or hallucination. At a time where both gender and sexuality became more blurred and less conventional - where more and more people started to experiment, where women had free access to the Contraceptive Pill (1961, 4th December) and the introduction of the Abortion Act (1967) and Sexual Offences Act (1967). This Act of Parliament decriminalised homosexual acts in private between two men, both of whom had to have attained the age of 21. This poster almost challenges what we may think of women out in the evenings at clubs such as these but also sexuality for men. This was a time of great change which was incapsulated by the poster and it’s use of visual communication - a colour such as pink now used not to denote femininity but as used to promotion the alternative nature of the club. The shapes and identity of the typography suggests a new age of “organic” typeface but also suggests a new age of gender and sexuality through English’s “distinctive” lettering (Owen and Dickson, Page 122, 1999). Some may argue that this representation of their radicalness does not entitle them to the term subculture, however in this expression of “forbidden” content such as ‘sex’ was experimental at the time, however secretive - not something discussed in public or apparent in visual communication in posters on the streets of London as was the case here. “Psychedelic art is not only recognisable for antiestablishment form of expression it was also influenced by art from the 19th century.” (Whitaker, L 2010) Hebdidge calls this a system of “rejuvenating” and “recuperation”, the reimagining or reinventing of a style. Whitaker establishes two types of “revolutionary design” which boomed in the late 1960’s, the first being the need to or “wanting to change the world”. The second being a “revolution in the more literal sense of ‘rotation’, a historian revivalism after three decades of modern and forward looking designs.” (Whitaker, 2010) Society had enough of the modern and started to “rediscover the Victorian era and art.” (Whitaker, L 2010) The mid to late sixties saw a drive for non stereotypical ideas, and trends, society was constantly looking ahead to the future, and hoping for rapid change which was ‘new’ and exciting. Waymouth and English were influenced by the passion of past art movements when creating the “melting, amoeba - like lettering” or when designing this “dazzling op art like graphic”. Their inspiration were a multitude of influential designers and artists from a range of movements in history, such as; “Aubrey Beardsley, Alphonse Mucha, Edmund Joseph Sullivan, Bridget Riley or Josef Albers.” (Kramer, Page 108, 2016) The partnership used op art as it’s stimulus for this particular poster of the UFO. It was the first creation in a series of the many posters on which they collaborated. This first design stands out from the others as it is both a combination of the fluctuating nature of Art Nouveau with the optical fantasy of Op Art. These were two of the biggest influences of the psychedelic era, more specifically in the Hapshash and the Coloured Coat collection. Pictured here in Figure (a), is ‘Intake’ by Bridget Riley from 1964 and Figure (b) ‘The Arts: Painting’ by Alphonse Mucha from 1898. This demonstrates how the subculture is a combination of two ideas. The combination helps us see this almost as a form of assimilation in itself. The posters were extremely popular within the subculture but also within the rest of society; the visual style of the work was starting to grab the mainstream culture’s attention. “Suddenly all these separate scenes began to merge together and became one gigantic scene. It’s growing fast and getting a lot of publicity.” (Owen and Dickson, Page 134, 1999) In 1967 this subculture was born, defined and became progressively noticeable to the rest of society through these explicit and bold images. This club or psychedelic ‘scene’ was “so closely identified with the (subculture) that during one drugs raid on a musician’s house the police informed him ‘we intend to stamp out the Roundhouse and everything it stand’s for.’” (Kramer, Page 112, 2016) However it was only a matter of time until the underground subculture “was soon infiltrating mainstream culture”. (Hoggard, 2016) According to Hebdidge’s theory the mainstream’s response to subcultures is that they are “returned … to the place where common sense would have them fit… it is through this continual process of recuperation that fractured order is repaired and the subculture incorporated as diverting spectacle within the dominant mythology from which it in part emanates.” (Hebdidge, Page 131, 1979)

Figure 163. Intake Op Art, (Mills, 2017)

Figure 162. Mucha Painting, (Mills, 2017)


REVOLUTIONARY DESIGN: THE ‘SENSE’ OF ROTATION; INFLUENCES FROM THE 19TH CENTURY The ‘rejuvenating and reinvention’ of design is something which has been through every stage of this project - it has given me the focus and the drive to be like the UFOs example and to seek inspiration from past movements such as Art Nouveau and Op Art. Alphonse Mucha and Bridget Rilley have been inspirations through this project as well from the screen printing work shop to the overall aesthetic that embodied the sixties psychedelia style. This outcome could be seen as an act of assimilation through these different movements. After all if it is an assimilation of the Psychedelic underground visual culture therefore it is also these other two movements. Style is rotating process - it always comes back around again in time.


Figure 164 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October]


Figure 165 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October]


In 1966, Nigel Waymouth teamed up with Michael English and formed the graphic design partnership, Hapshash and The Coloured Coat. At that time, English was working as a free-lance graphic artist for various alternative publications and venues. Waymouth had recently opened London's first counter culture boutique, Granny Takes A Trip, designing its multi-faceted decor and many of the clothes. They were aware of each other's work but it was Joe Boyd and John Hopkins, the organisers of the UFO Club, who had the idea that their combined talents might produce something special for the club's posters. During the next eighteen months Hapshash and the Coloured Coat produced a series of posters and designs that defined the ideals and visions of that time as distinctively as any of the music or fashions. From the beginning they both understood what each other had to offer and, in sharing their talents, they were certain that they could produce a style that was both unique and exciting. English's talent lay in his ability to balance an unrivalled attention to detail whilst creating the most fluid designs. Waymouth brought to the work a strong imagination bursting with romantic ideas and a facility for figurative drawing. Their very strong sense of colour was also important, given the cost limitations and the strictures of the silk-screen process. At a time when the prevailing fashion was for an indiscriminate use of rainbows and any clashing colour combination, they strived for maximum colour effect without sacrificing balance and harmony. To this end they introduced , numerous innovations that have since become common practice. Expensive gold and silver inks had not been used much on street posters before but they made it a regular feature of their designs. English and Waymouth also pioneered the technique of grading one colour into another on a single separation. The effects were startling, bringing an explosive vitality to the fly posters on the London streets. Nothing like it had been seen before or since. Looking at a whole block of some twenty or thirty of a single Hapshash poster was a powerful visual shock. It was not long before people began to tear some of them down in order to decorate their own walls. It was eye candy to match any psychedelic experience. Figure 166 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October]

HAPSHASH & THE COLOURED COAT In the UFO club poster in Figure opposite this re- contextualizing of the gold, which is widely associated with wealth, power, royalty and the middle class into a poster for an underground club for a subcultural group in Tottenham Court Road, London, challenges almost what it means and re institutionalises the message by reinventing the context in which it is shown. “Expensive gold and silver inks had not been used much on street posters before, we made it a regular feature of our designs.” According to Cosmic Visions, The statement or concept they were trying to communicate was to “brighten the lives of people going about their everyday business on the gray streets of London.” They brought this ‘gold’ element to design and to everyday life - to everyone of any stature, not just for the wealthy and middle class. (Cosmic Visions, 2013) Similarly the choice of pink for promotion of a club was also interesting the fact they used this colour (the commodity) which has always existed as a sign or symbol of femininity was, quite a daring yet well thought out idea. They appear to have almost stripped this colour’s traditional meaning. Did they use this symbolisation to promote what the club represented? Even still the fact that they ‘recontextualized’ the gold and pink in this way

for this kind of communication, for a subject matter such as this, is a new style that was a huge part of the partnership’s collection. As well as in design, “psychedelic sixties fashion was also channelling the past;” taking inspiration from it and reinventing it in the current time. “Everyone looked like renaissance paintings” and “John the Baptiste.” The mid to late 60’s culture swapped the white heat of technology for an older Britain; an Edwardian fantasy known as a “beau-colic bliss.” (E.Young, Psychedelic Britannia, 2015) It was about “old ideas dressed up in new forms” (Diski, 2010) through influences in Art Nouveau and Edwardian, mythical and old English fairy tales. Similarly, it is obvious these posters have been heavily influenced by Art Nouveau painting, architecture and patterns through the fluidity, abstract and imaginative form together with visual style. It was these things which set these these designers apart from the rest out there. They challenged norms, challenged values and overall had a great time doing it. Picture of all three people of the group in Figure top next page just chose how they totally immersed themselves in their work how they managed to collect and design a range of so many different designs, this is extremely inspiring. 108

The mid to late 60’s culture swapped the white heat of technology for an older Britain; an Edwardian fantasy known as a “beaucolic bliss.” (E.Young, Psychedelic Britannia, 2015) It was about “old ideas dressed up in new forms” (Diski, 2010) through influences in Art Nouveau and Edwardian, mythical and old English fairy tales.

Figure 167 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October]

Figure 168 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October]


Figure 169 Urquhart (2014)


Figure 170 Urquhart (2014)


VICTOR MOSCOSO Known for being ‘Master’ of psychedelic posters and comics, Moscow’s work has had a huge influence for psychedelic art and visual communicaiton. Born in Spain, Victor was the first of the rock poster artists of the 60’s era, he was the first one who of which had experience and qualifications for the industry. After studying art at Cooper Union in New York City and at Yale University, he moved to San Francisco in 1959. There, he attended the San Francisco Art Institute, he was there for many years and eventually became an instructor. Moscoso is best known for his use of vibrating colors and he has frequently states this was influenced by painter Josef Albers, one of his teachers at Yale. He was the first of the rock poster artists to use photographic collage in many of his posters. A mixed media style which was highly unusual at the time but became extremely popular in poster design then on and other areas of graphic communication. I came across his work originally on the internet and saw the electrifying portfolio of

work he has created which totally had an impact on felling my interest in this kind of style and design. I particularly found his work extremely vibrant and energetic which is exactly what psychedelic is about. It’s about experience - it’s about movement, it’s about an out of mind experience. This was due to the immensely bright colour palettes of which clashed quite a bit at times and also is was style that incorporated intensely stylised lettering and imagery. The mixed media approach is also a great mixture of different ideas and layers of communication which is something that is used within visual communication today. It is evident that aspects of this style and elements of Moscoso’s work are still evident in visual communication today, specifically through my piece. Moscoso’s work has been a huge influence within this project due to it’s intense and imaginative style - and above all how fun it was.

“ Moscoso exploited the techniques of modern lithography more than any other artist.” (Owen and Dickinson, 1999:73)

“ He explored the potential of colour combinations which makes the edges of form to jump or vibrate” (Owen and Dickinson, 1999:68)

Figure 171 Urquhart (2014)


Figure 173 Urquhart (2014)

“ He took psychedelic consciousness simple as matter-of-fact background reality that informed the creation of graphic art.” (Owen and Dickinson, 1999:68)

Figure 172 Urquhart (2014)




Figure 174 Bridget Riley (Lopez ,2016)

BRIDGET RILEY Bridget Riley’s work is an exploration of the possibilities within vision. She frequently refers her inspiration to the sun, to how one day she was looking up at the sky and was blinded by how bright the sun was. She saw the bight colours and could then see colours and forms coming from all kinds of directions. Her work is a collection of experiments in utilising this idea of vision, and to understand what the eye can see. To try and visualise what looking feels like. The aim was to not demonstrate anything or the prove anything but to explore this idea and to something unexpected - something unforeseen into being. Through trial and error Riley seeks to find what works and what doesn’t works in these collections of vibrant and imaginative experiment pieces. She does this through colours, shapes, movement and patterns to seek what the eye can make of these in real light. Riley explores the different ways form affects space and pattern - and the meanings within reality. In drawings by Leornado, he uses stylised patterns and energies which cannot be seen but as felt and experienced, it combines all of our sense together. Van Gogh also is famous for his paintings with the agitation of water, the dazzle of light and heat are expressed by

the rhymtic pattern through marks on the paper. They are a stylised repetition of lines and dots with generates its own excitement and feeling and sense of energy. It gives a sensation of atmosphere, Riley sought inspiration of old paintings and recreated them in this way - to generate her own optical technique to form excitement. “Rhythm and repetition are the root of movement”, “They create a situation within which the most simple basic forms start to become visually active.” (Lopez, 2016) Repetition acts like an amplifier. A rhythm that is alive is to do with the changing pace to create movement - form needs space to breath, they can expand and contract. The whole thing must live and have a living presence. These are factors of what Op Art is and what it stands for and it is Rileys work and this concept which helped me understand the psychedelic art and how it generates so much movement, vibrancy and feeling. Riley’s work is so incredible infused with excitement and feeling and is a huge inspiration in furthering knowledge of visual communication. It is through these idea of rhythm and repitition that creates emtional tendencies within art and specifically with Op Art, her work is an ispiration by creating feelings through shape.


Figure 175 Bridget Riley (Heane,2016)


Figure 176 Bridget Riley (Heane,2016)

Figure 60. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. Dick Hebdidge (2016)


Figure 61. Dissertation Notes (2016)



“ Britain is a museum of style. We had a sort of hippie scene of our own, well, we smoked a lot of dope and took acid” (Jonathon, 2017)

Thevin Kumar Photography

Figure 62. Jonathon Green taken by Thevin Kumar (2017)


Jonathon Green offers a time trip from late-fifties to latesixties CND, beatniks and bop to the threshold of our own decade’s designer revolutionaries and style warriors. Green had collected 101 quintessential sixties groovers and lovingly teased out their memories, all of them refreshingly selfcritical and remarkably sharpened by hindsight. ‘Glasgow Herald claims that this is the “first publication I’ve seen on the 1960s to address all closely the question: how did it feel in that dawn to be alive?” (Jonathon, 2017) It had the reputation of an action packed tapestry of illuminating flashbacks”. “Days in the Life is undoubtedly the best available summary of its period and milieu, and will probably remain so for quite some time to come” . (Jonathon, 2017) Jonathon Green is Britain’s most well known lexicographer of slang. His many recent publications include the Chambers Slang Dictionary, the Slang Thesaurus and Slang Down the Ages. He has also compiled dictionaries of quotations and oral histories of modern culture. His latest work is the multivolume Green’s Dictionary of Slang on Historical Principles. Back in1998 Jonathan Green, published a book with Pimlico called Days In The Life: Voices from the English Underground, 1961-71. It is a thoroughly investigates and researches into the underground culture in Britain in this iconic moments in history. He did this by collecting interviews from people of the time and then created a book of all of his findings. When interviewing him, he was extremely bold and verbal to say the least however very happy to help and sparked many interesting answers of which made an impact throughout the development of my knowledge of this period in history but also how to research into it. “What people didn’t seem to realise was, that the UFO underground way made up of 1,000s of people as appose to the psychedelic culture in America which was more like 10,000s”. (Jonathon, 2017) It was a much smaller group of individuals than people actually realised and in fact is something that I was not aware of either. When asked about his own experiences within that time of history Green goes on to say that “Britain is a museum of style”, and back in that time this was no different. When gathering interviews and materials Jonathon tells me many stories of encounters he had with famous people. He was lucky enough to catch many of the people which were big parts of the club - famous or not, he was able to gain information of which I could not do now fifty years later. In his words he in fact said to me that I need to get a move on because all the people involved or at least had something interesting to say about the UFO psychedelic underground were “dropping like flies”. In fact he tells me that one died that morning of the day I arrived at his flat in Farringdon. It is an unfortunate thing, and is quite sad - “an awful shame” (Jonathon, 2017) and shame that they are no longer here to tell there wonderful stories. Evenstill in that time Green was in fact at University nowhere near London however was still immersed in the psychedelic lifestyle of and “had a sort of hippie scene of (their) own” as he states “well, we smoked a lot of dope and took acid” even though “I think we were too poor to be wandering back and forward to London” there was still this relevance elsewhere in other parts of Britain and which these psychedelic happenings still took place. What was something I also found interesting was how he told me the different ways he prepared for his research and specifically how he managed to gain so many interviews. He says that it was because the publishers he was with helped with that what he did in a way was art direct the whole thing. The key to research is do it because you find it interesting - I agree with him and that “it is not research if you know


what you are looking for” which replies with a smile and a passionate nod. The conversation was running smoothly and I was asking him about specific people for example when speaking to Paul McCartney and how that experience was - one which he will never forget. He also gave me some names of people to interview; one being Joe Boyd, the UFO club founder and is now a very well established record producer still in the same industry as many years ago. He also mentioned Barry miles who has written many books about the period and in fact said not to depend on it as he by now “is quite bored of talking about the subject.” (Jonathon, 2017) I mention then how I went to a psychedelic underground club in London the other night for research to see what he thought of that - predictably he laughed and found it very amusing to think things like this still go on. He also then made a joke and said “why don’t all you kids get on with your own generation” which was funny - but also alarming as I wondered whether he also bored of the subject and wanted to call it a wrap. However in fact he didn’t and instead asked me what my plan was I politely told him I was unsure yet, and he un politely told me to “get a move on then.” (Jonathon, 2017) As insightful as this experience may be I was at times alarmed and inspired by what he had to say - are the people from this area bored of what is already said about them out there? Are they already sick of all the books that try to uncover what the sixties ‘are really like’? Am I then running down a rabbit hole and in fact polishing a turd? One in which no-one will want to read about. Seeing the alarmed look on my face he seemed to sympathise with my situation and in fact could understand it perfectly as his experience with research this topic was not all smoothly either. In fact at times it was extremely challenging. One excited person he wanted to interview was Germaine Greer but unfortunately contacted back with just a simple sentence of “I don’t do nostalgia” which makes you question, is this project I am doing a lost cause? Is it really going to mean anything by the end of it? In the end Green carried on with the project and didn’t let things like this stop him, in the end he gathered over 100 interviews in a short space of time. What he thought was interesting and an area he did like was the original book cover for the final book shown next page in Figure 1. He actually preferred it to what was used in the end which was a shame - the fact that this author was able to write and produce such a brilliant book, surely he should’ve had a say on the cover choice. Apparently in the publishing world that’s not how it works. Overall my interview with Jonathan Green was extremely insightful in many. Through this idea of research and how to gain research from a subject so broad as this, to the publishing side of book making and authorship and to the overall ways in which this iconic era in history became so rememberable. Days in the Life covers the history of the International Times (IT), early Pink Floyd and Soft Machine, The Pink Fairies, Friends Magazine and much more via 1st person interviews spliced into a chronological narrative. Green’s later book, All Dressed Up, covers some of the same era from Green’s point of view. This is an essential and thoroughly enjoyable read for anyone interested in the history and roots of the UK hippie movement, the music of that era, and underground publications.

Figure 63. ‘Days in the Life’ Cover: Thevin Kumar Photography (2017)

Not only did Thevin take great photographs of the experience for research purposes he also really captured the atmosphere of the interview. He did this by also taking great photographs of the scene and the surrounding areas, Green’s Central London appartment was pleasantly charasmatic and extremely interesting and insightful. It said as much about him as it did through what he said, how he looked and how. He similarly also showed many signs of him being successful - with the luxury apartement and holidays planned - he seemed to of done very well in his career of publishing. This was heartening at the fact that you can build a great life by doing something you enjoy such as writing, if anything Green is, it is defintiely passionate about literature and language.

Figure 64. Green’s Workspace: Thevin Kumar Photography (2017)


This whole experience of meeting Jonathon and arranging the interview process was not as daunting you may think. It was with this organised visit, that helped me determine my next step and encouraged me to carry on searching. Hiring a photographer for the interview was a much better idea than doing this on my own, not just because I felt safer organising to meet this person I have never met before but also because it gave me a chance to focus on the interview instead of be distracted by me taking the photographs. Thevin Kumar is a second year film student who had an interesting portfolio of work and even more interestingly and real eagerness to progress his photography skills further. I found him on social media and we arranged several meetings to discuss the job, the timings, the approach and the payment side of things. This ‘team work’ which both Victoria and Catharine mentioned at the beginning of this project really does pay off and actually helps you create better findings and in the end better outcomes.

Figure 65. Green’s Flat in Farringdon, London :Thevin Kumar’s Photography (2017)


Figure 66. Interview Room: Kitchen Table :Thevin Kumar’s Photography (2017)

Figure 67. ©2017 Joe Boyd (2016)




5. Do you remember the reactions to the UFO club poster by Micheal english (Pictured below) what did people say about it? Did they like it? Was the visual communication a big part of the events? IF YOU MEAN THE GOLD AND PEPPERMINT UFO POSTER, THAT WAS BY MICHAEL AND NIGEL WAYMOUTH TOGETHER AS HAPSHASH AND THE COLOURED COAT. PEOPLE LIKED IT ENOUGH TO STEAM THEM OFF THE WALLS AND TAKE THEM HOME.


3. What is your take on the idea of the UFO psychedelic underground as a subcultural group, instead of a counter cultural group? A subculture who’s style which has been assimilated into the mainstream? DON’T MOST COUNTER-CULTURAL GROUPS END UP AS SUBCULTURAL? THAT’S THE BRILLIANCE OF CAPITALISM, IT CAN ABSORB AND COMMERCIALIZE ANYTHING. GANSTA RAP IS USED TO SELL TOOTHPASTE THESE DAYS...




Figure 68. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017)


Figure 70. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017)

Sherran Clark has always been a writer. She is a woman of many talents and interested which stem from topics such as Rock and Roll music, literature and culture. Upon the interview Clark I hired a photographer for the job which worked out very well as I was able to focus on the interview more so than worrying about the way it will ‘look’ later on in my studies. Again Jessica Lynah works on many sets for films and tv etc, both as a make up artists and assistant. She also options an A* Alevel in photography and takes many photographs for a hobby which she does a lot in her spare time. What is also interesting about Jess is that she is very good with people, she is very bubbly and funny. For all these reasons, Jess felt like the best fit - especially as Sherran is also very chatty and fun - so this interview ended up being extremely enjoyable because of these reasons. This arrangement first started when I mentioned to her about my dissertation subject and she offered to look over it for me - not even just because she was interested but also because she wanted to help by providing me with her professional opinion. After her feedback of which I was extremely grateful for, she then started to talk about why she liked, what it reminded her of that period in history and how interesting the whole idea of them being a subculture really was to her. The fact that Sherran doesn’t like computers and actually lives a very natural lifestyle without a TV, without any computers or phones made her an even more interesting character. In an age where everyone pretty much owns a smart phone and is very reliant on all the digital world has to offer - to meet someone not interested or doesn’t use that was very intriguing. She is a very bold and bright personality who is always about sharing the love and peace to everyone she meets. Overall Sherran was an absolute pleasure to interview - she was so attentive and so helpful, passionate and made a huge effort to go out of her way to help me within this project. Because of this non digital way of life she is unfortunately not as well known as some authors - she is in fact a hugely talented linguist who has a real eye for poetry and other forms of writing. Her second love is music - something which has got her through many challenges in her life such as when her son went to Afghanistan and when her son got sick. She has had tragic times in her life and when she mentions this part she starts to get emotional just because of how powerful music is and how it has helped her through many difficulties. She has interestingly written a book for Cliff Richard, which he in fact thanked her for and it went on to become his biography. She is currently writing a book on Elvis Presley as we speak. She visited Memphis back in April time last year and she claims he is probably her favourite all time musicians. After visiting this iconic place of his life she decided that it was time for her to write a book on him, everything she knows and everything there is to find out about him. - The real Elvis Presley not necessarily all the glamour and stardom he was associated with; but the real person behind all the riches and the tabliods.


Figure 69. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017)

Figure 71. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:1 (2017)


Figure 72. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:2 (2017)


Figure 73. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:3 (2017)



Figure 74. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017)

Figure 75. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017)


According to Sherran the “psychedelic thing was necessary” and “totally relevant” to and for the people of the time. “We weren’t horrendously affluent back in the sixties, not a lot of people had cars, it was a lovely straight forward lifestyle” (Sherran, 2017) What many people don’t know is that there was actually two sides to this iconic decade there was the simple life and the extravagant lifestle. “The sixties was a phenomenal time on many levels; full of a lot of experiences, seeing things” he psychedelic era was when everything “kicked off” for the sixties, it wasn’t so much a “rebellious situation in the true term, it more of an exploratory idea, they wanted to stand out” Everyone was dressed in “orange, pink and yellow - which were the main three colour of the psychedelic era.” (Sherran, 2017) “They were away with the fairies” most of the time. She goes on to say how she was very impressed with the thesis and how it “pulled back the different layers” of the subculture, and “what it actually stood for.” Sherran then mentioned the dissertation I wrote and says how it was “ written technically and got to the “pits of what relevance it has on today - which occurs it has done.” (Sherran, 2017) Of course it will, she states because “everything is cyclical, everything comes around again at some point in time. Sherran interestingly says she never felt threatened by the subculture - “it was more a form of expressionism.” “Not a lot of people have an understanding of technical writing, they seem to see it as a bit frilly” She says the way I “illustrated things, how I crossed referenced ideas in a way that makes it understandable, whether you are from that time or not- that is the knack in good writing.” She goes on to say how she lives on a very famous road back then it was like “the beverly hills of Horsham” she calls it and tells us the story of John Lennon waving at her outside of his “psychedelic roles royce.” She was young at the time but remembers the feeling of such excitement. Lennon was to Sherran quite a “dichotomy” a very “fascinating dude” - a fantastic lyricist and how he got into a very emotional place with his writing. He was “intensely creatively” and very open with religious influences and out of experiences with deeper meanings. The psychedelic era was a time when people were searching for something different - “a different means of expression” not necessarily rebellious but got “very engrossed in the mystical attitude towards life” (Sherran, 2017) When she was 8 years old at school she published an article in the school paper called ‘The Chronicle’ which said was at that point she knew she wanted to be a writer - it was this experience when she “caught the bug”.“The teachers then saw something special in me but didn’t pursue it properly until secondary school.” (Sherran, 2017) She tells us of a story of how one her friend Mary back in school was worried about a certain essay and Sherran offered to write it for her. When the teacher read it she then read it out to the class and embarrassingly for Mary said “a brilliant essay - it’s a shame Mary didn’t write it, isn’t it Sherran.” This is when Sherran discovered that she has “established a style” of writing. (Sherran, 2017) Which then “set her on the true path to writing.” (Sherran, 2017) “Seeing your name in print is a very powerful thing” (Sherran, 2017) She wrote her first book at 17 when she was working for Birdseye in Walton on Thames, as an office junior. It was based on a show back in the early seventies, and then she wrote a book of poetry about Elvis called ‘Elvis through my eyes’ - published herself and created an Elvis fan club. She states that she went about publishing it herself because she has a friend in Hersham village, one of the councillors of the Hersham press printed it for her. It cost and a lot and Sherran goes on to say that “she was never really a business woman.” (Sherran, 2017) it became a monthly magazine - from that the book was then written. She then wrote a book about her son being ill and how it made her feel - an account on the experience with hope to raise money for Baths hospital where her son was being treated. The next book was the Cliff Richards book. She says back when she was at school she “studied 3 main books Brighton Rock by Graham Greene, Withering Heights and Twelfth night by shakespeare - I had the whole collection at one point.” (Sherran, 2017) I was “fascinated with everything” at that point. Cliff Richard at this time was organising a musical called ‘Heithcliff’ back in 1998. He financed this show himself because like her he was a massive fan of Withering heights, Sherran then as a homage to him wrote a poetic version of it. “It was basically the book in a poetic form”, handwritten for thank you for hosting the show. She then afterwards wrote a book of poems about her sons experiences in the war in Afghanistan of which he was there for 6 months back in 2012, she claims she finds “poetry an easy means to write” because it “flows.” And now Sherran gives us a little insight into her aims for the next book for Elvis. How she was influenced by him right through her life, something so personal and so touching - it will no doubt be a must read. This will be narrative with “some poetry for effect - to show feelings and emotions because I think poetry can become very powerful in that respect.” It was interesting how she says that this book will be also a depiction of herself a combination of “two sides” of her that this book will be a “blend of both sides” of her as a writer, the narrative and autobiographical means of communication and the emotional poetic kind. It will be “reprised but in a different format” with photographs in it - all of her experiences - the “whole gamut.” “Everyone is multilayered, but for me with writing I can break through those layers, and I could just sort of cover anything that I want to talk about, I could be inspired by anything.” “Theres so many different experiences in life that I have embraced, and it makes you the person you are, you never stop learning and there is always something you can give. Whatever you go through whether it’s nice or not - theres always someone else coming along behind you that you can give that sort of element of help to. Thats what I find fascinating about life and I try to portray certain aspects of that within my writing.” Not only does Sherran have an excessive knowledge of this time in history but she also has a very open and honest front about her experiences within writing and in life. What she says about her life experiences and how Elvis’s music helped her through some difficult times really touched me. When she mentioned what inspires her to write and how she uses it as a way of helping people - that she is able to communicate her ideas through writing but also her past experiences which her audience can learn from and understand. This Elvis book will be extremely intriguing as well because of how she says it will embrace and present “both sides” of her as a writer - could this be my chance to use this project to then define what kind of designer I will be? Could I use this project to then also understand what my take on graphic communications is, and what my graphic style has become?


Figure 76. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

MOUSETRAP is an underground club event organisation which holds events in the vibrant city of Central London. I visited the club for both field study research and for some kind of visual inspiration. The intention was to not base the UFO psychedelic underground in the late sixties events from this because of course this is not the same thing. However the fact that it was promoting itself as a psychedelic underground event made me wonder what it would be? How will they recreate the iconic psychedelic scene which is such a rememberable period in british history. It intrigued me as to why people were still interested in this kind thing and what exactly do they do at these kind of events. Who was it that visited these events and why? I wanted to see what exactly it was like before my own eyes and found this was the only way I could gain my own personal understanding of the psychedelic underground scene. What was also interesting was how it is something which is still apparent or at least heard of today. That this idea of psychedelia, illusions and out of mind experiences alongside weird and wonderful light shows still exists today - but in what form and who are the people interested in it? It was my task now to immerse myself in the club and it’s possibilities - for all I know literally anything could happen. I could be going in blind to something I have never witnessed before - something that may be strange or completely out of my comfort zone. I did not know what to expect and this uncertainty is what interested me to venture out and discover new ways of experiencing research and all things psychedelic.


Figure 77. Psychedelic allnighter Leaflet (2017)


Figure 78. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

I attended the club night with a friend Ruthie Mckay who is a full on hippie. She loves to experience these kind of things and was more than up for showing me the ropes and how you can enjoy yourself, and just let loose! It was a very comfortable atmosphere and surprisingly very relaxed. The music was slurry and trippy but it didn’t make every go wild instead it made everyone look sleepy and happy. My friend Ruthie is an adventurous individual who enjoys meditation and other hypnotic and out of mind activities. Whether that is yoga in the middle of a field to taking small doses of LSD she claims she has been able to find the answer - the answer to all questions in life, that in order to be truly happy you have to lose control and let yourself go. Within the club I came across a few characters, people with so much curiosity and energy, who attended the club just because they wanted to have a good time. By the looks of some they definitely were enjoying it. Some groups of people also came dressed up in sixties gear, whether they are pretending to be people from the sixties or usually just dress like that normally I don’t know but what I do know is they were enjoying every aspect of the club from the thrill of seeing others in costume, from the music or from even the venue itself.

Figure 79. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)


Figure 80. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

Figure 81. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar : Ruthie Mackay (2017)


Figure 82. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

The venue was decorated in such a way you also thought you were attending the UFO psychedelic underground club for example; it was actually underground, under Seven Sister’s station which has quite a busy night life on Saturday night. Like the UFO this club was in a basement underneath the rest of society - whether this venue was chosen or that specific reason or not doesn’t hugely matter but what does matter is this relevance and also what is inside. The trippy light shows they had going were just like the ones we had seen in pictures. Not fully bean lights which are very over bearing and fully developed like lights in clubs nowadays but budget slightly old fashioned ones - again just like the UFOs. These psychdedlic lens in Figure 83, are owned by Ruthie in Figure 81, they have an amazing keliedoscope effect when you wear them, which really made the whole exprience for me. When you wore them they made youfeel like you were on a psychedelic trip - everything looked so much more fun, colourful and illusive. They were a big hit with everyone at the club as well - many people wanted to try them on and dance to the weird and wonderful music that was playing.

Figure 83. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)


Figure 84. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

Figure 85. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)






“Self published , tomes, and periodicals are starting to seep into the mainstream culture - and on the shelf or in a specialist bookshop near you.”(Gestalten, 2011:5) The more and more time goes by - zines are becoming more and more evident in certain aspects of society. There are multiply places in London and other cities now which sell zines and they have been many more events worldwide for these specifically interesting and fun form of self publication. Zines are self published books of any kind which as solemnly designed, crafted, written and bounded by the author or in other words ‘zinester’. This new form of publishing is a “vital concept prevalent in the self publishing scene: the idea of 100 percent authorship.” (Gestalten, Page 4, 2011) It is completely and utterly up to the writer however they would like to sell it and what ever they would like to sell to the people. This concept or new idea of zines “slashes through the regular publishing set up and industry, this approach of cutting out the middlemen, of peddling your ways directly to the reader and getting close to your recipient” (Gestalten, Page 4, 2011) You now can no longer be restricted by the all the rules within the publishing industry - you can take all of the work on your own and do what you like with it. By cutting out the ‘middle men’ these writers are able explore the different opportunities open to them - the different roles they are able to play when they essentially do everything on their own - they are freelance. This approach has become very appealing due to it’s “promising of more focus and less compromise” and removing of “filters like publishers, distributors, editors, or bosses” (Gestalten, Page 4, 2011) The process from the very beginning of conceptualising to the very end in terms of marketing and advertising can be all done by one single person and they are free to do it in whatever way they like to. Due to recent developments in digitalisation, suddenly “it is up to you which parts of the process you want to outsource or tackle yourself: from creation and design to promotion, production and distribution.” (Gestalten, Page 4, 2011) They are free to try out new skills or have the option of teamwork. They have ‘choice’. This concept or idea of the author in fact having these choices - totally turns the notion of authorship on it’s head. It means that the writer is able to communicate to their readers beyond the words and narrative but the binding to the print quality and much more. The craft, process and final visual aesthetic is evermore authentic and important within these zines because you know there is less likely to been much compromise in the desicison makings of the process. Every aspect of the book has now become in total control of the author.

Zines are made by “the variegated voices of a subterranean world staking out it’s identity through the cracks of capitalism and in the shadows of mass media.” (Duncombe, Page 2, 1997) Despite these publications starting to have a presence within mainstream culture - they are still regarded as part of or if not associated with a subculture or some kind of culture which differentiates itself with the rest of society one way or another. “Zines are speaking to and for an underground culture.” (Duncombe, Page 2, 1997) They have a story to tell about their culture - about who they are and what they are about. For example in the Punk zines back in the late sixties early seventies publications such as ‘Sniffin Glue’ and ‘Slash’ were totally immersed within the punk culture and lifestyle. Even from the front covers you were able to see ‘who’ this zine was for and what exactly it could be trying to say. “Some zines speak to devoted subcultures” and “others also exist not to serve an audience but to satisfy the expressive impulses of their makers.” (Lupton, Page 74, 2008) Many zinesters communicate through zines to their fellow group ‘members’ whereas others just publish zines because they are able to. They like to cause havoc or stir an opinion in some way or another - whether it be because they want to start some kind of rebellion or keep peace and enjoy the process they still are contributing to this new wave of thinking - this new angle or opinion of publishing in any form. Zines “run the gamut from staple bound booklets produced on the cheap at the local kino’s to glossy, full colour publications.” (Lupton, Page 74, 2008) They create these cheaply and work through this idea of a DIY culture. Zine makers define themselves as “against a society” that is “predicted on consumption”. “Zinesters privilege the ethic of DIY, Do it yourself: make your own culture and stop consuming that which is made for you.” (Duncombe, Page 2, 1997) An attack on the rest of society through materials and words - through image and layout and through typography and format. However “zines seem to form a true culture of resistance” it was “organic” in that they are not “cross referenced and citied.” (Duncombe, Page 3, 1997) They like to make these zines in their own ways - not through any kind of ‘polished’ binding or high quality techniques but simple and like minded. They would rathe you look at the content and the overall message which is inside the zine. In zines “everyday odd balls were speaking plainly about themselves and our society” with an “honest sincerity” a “revealing intimacy” a “healthy “fuck you” to sanction authority”. (Duncombe, Page 2, 1997) They use them almost as a form of protest or taking advantage of their freedom of speech. In the past 100s of years as we have looked at before previously in this book, publishing has transformed dramatically over the years - authorship is no longer linked with authority in terms of religious mentors or higher and lower classes. The authors do not do this for profit or for a living as such for “no money and recognition.” “uniting for an audience of like minded misfits.” (Duncombe, Page 2, 1997) The aim or at least the importance to them is to make sure they are spreading the word of what they want to say - to whoever wants to hear it! Upon ready a zine like publication called ‘Sharpie Revolution’ the writer being unknown, I discovered different ways or approaches to understanding this new craze of publishing. The writer begins with saying that we as humans all “have stories to tell and no one is going to tell them for us” (Page 13) Which is true - whether we post a photograph on instagram every now and then or we post a Facebook status - we are all constantly publishing something. No-one else will do this for us - it is us who already do this. Unless you are famous, or royalty or someone of a high ranking which is less than quarter of the population then no-one will be posting or publishing your story, if you want it heard then its up to you and only you to tell it.“We can be our own media and share our experience with the world on our own terms.” (Page 13) They have the freedom to do as they please and in their own time, on their own terms and without anyone to tell them what to do - or how to do something. “Zines can be a powerful tool and they are a very versatile medium with zines, you can incorporate many different skills from writing, art, production and even research.” (Page 13) It can be also a good way to show off your skills in which you feel as if haven’t been made public yet. Zinesters are able to try out new skills but also show what they can do through this vibrant and unique form of communication. For example “Interesting layout is not an excuse to ignore the writing aspect. Layout is more like a backdrop that can influence your work.” (Page 21) Through these new exciting approaches - layouts and ideas of ways of communication through people who aren’t ‘designers’ as such makes this project even more interesting. It is great to see how all people are getting the chance to get creative and embrace the written and visual word and forms of expression. Within zine making “layout is about being conscious of how you use space on your zine pages.” (Page 21) how this could communicate something about your zine - something about message of which you want to convey and expose to your reader effectively. “Zines are what you make of them and they also offer a chance to be part of a community that also enjoys sharing their experiences on paper.” (Page 13) This idea of bringing people together and enjoying each others company from all walks of life , all cultures and all ages is tackling exactly what is wrong with the world. In an age where terrorism is still an issue, where gender inequality is still evident in society and racism etc. It is great to see some kind of community out there that brings like minded people of all kinds together. It gives these people a sense of being a chance to socialise with others, to be part of something greater than their own.


Figure 86. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017)






Figure 87. Selection of Zines at Housemans Bookstore (2017)


IT WAS A VERNACULAR RADICALISM, AN INDIGENOUS STRAIN OF UTOPIAN Zines are made by “the variegated voices of a THOUGHT.” subterranean world staking out it’s identity through the WHAT ARE ZINES?

cracks of capitalism and in the shadows of mass media.”



A factor so significant in defining the difference between zines and blogs that it’s shocking this issue is so far down in this piece is that zines are finished products ternet users who read blogs via an aggregator (RSS).[16] s are in danger of only being as strong as their most recent post. The pressure is to add to it daily. Zinesters also put pressure on themselves to produce more regularly, but ultimately it doesn’t matter much. I am sad when my friend Celia[13] doesn’t send out a new zine for a year, but that doesn’t make me any less likely to read the new one when it finally comes. In fact, the delay adds to the thrill. If the blogger doesn’t post for a couple of weeks, zhe m If the blogger doesn’t post for a couple of weeks.


DUNCOMBE, S. (1997):2




On Friday the 15th of February a group of us organised a day trip to London to hunt down some zines - to buy and to gain inspiration from. Not only was there loads to see but they were also very easy to find - there seemed to many different areas within london selling or occupying space for Zines, such as bookshops, museums, libraries and galleries etc. We specifically looked at four main places in the day: LCC London College of Communication had a few library boxes of zines held for us to look at. Housemans was also a very helpful and enlightening source - we saw how zines are still sold, how expensive they are and the many different forms that they could take. They had basement full of them for very cheap prices. The Orbital comic shop was more for comics than for zines but even still it was very interesting to visit as it gave us a chnace to see more open areas of hand made books - the small zine section in the shop also proved to be really interesting. GOSH similarly had a small section for zines however had a wide range of different kinds of books - the top floor being published books with all kinds of topics, this is where the small zine corner was and downstairs was a basement filled with comic magazines. The day overall proved to be extremely insightful and interesting - I found that it was really helpful to visit these places not just for the zines but to get an atmosphere of what the culture is more or less about. Who are the kinds of people who read these kind of publications? Where sbouts do they get them from and how does relate to this project of mine. I left the day wondering where would my zine be shown, would I want it to be sold for a more expensive price in a more developed book store like Foyles or would I rather it be accessible to everyone and therefore be much cheaper in price? What was particularly interesting was this energy or atmosphere you felt when walking into one of these zine shops, like you were descending into another world - a rebellious and exciting world. The zines whether in the basement or in the corner of the shop were not necessarily a prime focus of the store and intact the main ‘zine’ shops or locations are usually temporary events and festivals etc. Unfortunately none of these were on around this time however there is still a presence of these kind of publications in the mainstream book stores. Not necessarily Waterstones or WHSmiths just yet but only time will tell. Normal one off and independent book stores seemed to start selling them - for cheap prices swell as expensive ones. You could tell by the format, the materials used and how many pages whether the zine was going to be expensive or not and also usually by the paper stock, printing quality and binding. If I have learnt anything from this experience is that zines can come in all shapes and sizes. Zines can be about anything that you want them to be - anything that author wants it to be about or what they want it to say. Zines can be stapled, hand bound, perfect bound, strip bound - they could just be a poster folded into 4 sections which are like four pages. Zines can be sold online, sold in a book store or at big events and festivals for Zines. They can be bought or collected from all kinds of people and companies even universities - LCC is probably not the only university out there with zine collection and in the next 5 years or so won’t be the only one in London either. Hand made books are making an appliance everywhere and gradually as beginning to have a presence in mainstream culture and looking forward to see that develop over the next few years and into more and more countries and cities all over the world.



The Zines at the LCC collection were the best ones out of all the places we looked at because there was such a range in the collection. The zines that I were mostly drawn to were the punk like zines because of the visual aesthetic that is starting to form throughout this project. This experience gave us a chance to see real zines - ones of which hold some kind of authenticity and are quite precious. The university made a great effort to keep them all safely boxed away in a clean and manageable form. They were able to spare us 2 boxes filled with many zines from all over - they had ones in colour and others in black and white all ranging in formats and sizes. This experience taught us hat zines are becoming a form of research - that they aren’t all about shitty little books that are badly designed but actually there is beauty in this kind of aesthetic. There is a beauty in the way they are made, the way they look and the way they make you feel.




Figures 88,89,90,91. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017)

The zines specifically associated with a cultural group were the most interesting and most helpful to my process because that is infact what I will be doing for this outcome. It gave me an insight into how the real Zinesters do it and I was very shocked to see how much I liked their work - I was almost envy of their talents of making such tactile publications and to use this form to communicate the message that they wanted to protray.


The black and white publications seemed to provide the most impact and in fact stood out to me the most. If a design looks good in black and white that usually means it is a good and week thought out designed outcome. I hope that eventhough my publication will be colourful the design will still look visually interesting in black and white.


Figures 92,93,94,95. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017)



Figures 96,97,98,99. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017)



Figures 100. Housemans Book Store (2017)



Figures 101,102,103,104. Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017)

This range of zines with a range of different contents was in fact helpful instead of distracting as it taught us how exactly to communicate a message - through both type and form to colour and typography.



Figures 105, 106, 107, 108. Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017)





Figures 109, 110, 111, 112. GOSH Book Store (2017)

Eventhough the GOSH shop wasn’t particularly helpful for research into zines as the collection was almost non existent - the book store was very energetic and there we a few books which I found looked quite interestiing. This shop was a bit more of a commercialised zine and comic store however the atmosphere was great and there was plenty of different things to see.



Figure 113 Orbital Comics Shop (2017)



Figures 114, 115, 116, 117. Orbital Comics (2017)

Eventhough we are not creating a comic for this final outcome they were still interesting to look at in terms of format and style. They are very similar to zines in millions of ways but what was intersting more than anything was this culture or community in which combines the two.


Zine Workshop with OOMK at the Serpentine Gallery


The workshop and the Serpentine was an extremely enjoyable activity to do. I gave me a chance to start playing around with my hands and not think so much about designing through a computer or using any digital liabilities. It gave me a chance to not only see what OOMK do but to also see everyone else work - but also give me a chance to try something new. I have never made a zine before and actually this has to been one if not the most vital part of the research I have done in Zines so far! Just because it gave you chance to really get the grips literally with the craft, the concept and the atmosphere. What I found challenging was of course the time frame and the fact that I was doing this in a whole new environment however the atmosphere was extremely pleasurable and very relaxing. The task was to make a zine using the inspiration by the late architect Zaha Hadid - one of my all time design icons and role models, I personally found her work extremely inspirational and found that instead of cutting up her designs and making a landscape like the brief asked I instead made a book let type of zine which showcased her work one after the other. I found this more fun and actually saw this as a kind of practice when possibly making my own zine for this project. What I will bare in mind next time is my audience - even though my idea was unique it didn’t necessarily stand out against the rest of the interesting creations. Other people really took the brief hands on and really experimented with form and collage. This was hugely inspiriting and would hope to implement every aspect of this experience within my project and hopefully within my final outcome. It gave me a chance to actually step back from the project and from whatever else was going on that day and just sit down and create something. It was really therapeutic and actually reminded me of why I enjoy designing so much - I just love being creative. On top of this I also pleasantly supersede myself and actually was happy with what I came out with in such a space of time. This taught me that I am a designer and I am an artist - when researching and interviewing various things its easy to lose that feeling of creativity and that spark. I found this exercise reminded me of why I wanted to be a designer in the first place - because I want to design good shit and actually that I can do it!



Figures 118, 119, 120, 121. Serpentine Gallery (2017)



Figure 123. Serpentine Gallery (2017)

Figures 124, 125, 126, 127. Serpentine Gallery (2017)


Figures 126 and 127. Screenprinting Workshop (2017)




SCREEN WORK SHOP The screen printing workshops with Nicole were thoroughly enjoyable. They were exactly what the class needed at that time, it was a good chance for us to have a different experience to our usual everyday. Instead of creating things on our laptop as we usually do we were able to thoroughly immerse ourselves in all the creativity that comes with this tactile, hands on process. The aim for us in the workshops was to visualise our project in a different way - to try and use these workshops to look at our projects from a new angle and new approach. It was a chance for us all to have an out of comfort experience - where we tried something new whether he had done this before or not - this was new environment and activity which we have done in the studio. Above all the process wasn’t tricky as such but it was definitely fiddly. This workshop also came at a good time for me as I at this stage had written quite a bulk of my dissertation - which then meant I had an idea of where my project will be going. Inspired by the research I had done so far into the period of the sixties - I used this exercise to start creating my own patterns and forms with influences from art nouveau, op art and psychedelic art. The stencil making etc was the hardest part which would’ve been easier to of used the laser cutting machine - at least I know for next time. In conclusion this whole experience was also a massive step in my conceptual development also as I was able to experience what it was like for Nigel Weymouth and Micheal English to produce the psychedelic posters for the UFO Club - they screen printed all of them. This link really helped me understand how much hard work they put in to the posters and really helped me understand appreciate how skilled they were at it as well. I was not very good - they were definitely experts in this field.



POSTERZINE: WHY NOT A POSTER OPEN UP INTO A MAGAZINE? ‘Poster Zines’ such as People of Print ( see case study) are usually publications which are a combination of a poster and a zine. They are in essence just big zines that are poster formats - they open up to a poster at the back. This idea was invented by a company called People Of Print, the name is really interesting and inventive and saw a relationship between this and what I was starting to create in this project. Instead of my zine opening up to a poster why can’t my poster Zine be a zine of posters? Where every page is different - where every spread represents a different theme?


FORMAT book bʊk/ noun noun: book; plural noun: books; noun: the book 1 1. a written or printed work consisting of pages glued or sewn together along one side and bound in covers.” a book of selected poems” 2 synonyms: 3 volume, tome, work, printed work, publication, title, opus, treatise; Morenovel, storybook; manual, handbook, guide, companion, reference book; paperback, hardback, softback; historicalyellowback “he published his first book in 1610” “A book is a means of organising and presenting many pieces of information in one package.” (Ambrose, 2005:11) It is a way of communication which has been thought about and appropriately made for it’s readers. Books are there in existense to be looked at, read and used - whether that be academically, socially, religiously or leisurely even politically. Books have been a huge part of society from the very beginning of time. After looking through the history of print and authorship it is evident that only the content or ‘authority’ has changed but also the many forms that books now take. Despite the many changes in format of book over the years and the changes and developments that are soon yet to come, some principles and views of books have stayed the same. According to Gavin Ambrose Gavin Ambrose who is a graphic designer that has worked extensively within the arts, fashion and architecture sector and has written many publications within the industry states that “books become a sum of their parts” through many different ways such as “compiling related vignettes, applying a sequential order or collating otherwise random pieces of information.” (Ambrose, 2005:11) Ambrose has written a selection of interesting and insightful books which work as guides in order to understand many aspects within the industry and techniques within visual communication. Since 2005 Gavin has authored and designed his own award-winning book series for AVA called Basics Design. He lecturers on the Graphic Design courses at Brighton. One which has been extremely useful in the development of this project is the ‘Format’. According to Ambrose “format is often overlooked because of it’s almost exclusively utilitarian nature” (Ambrose, 2005:6) Format is so important especially when publishing an designing a book because “it provides a physical point of contact with the user that affects how receive the printed and online communication.” (Ambrose, 2005:6) He then goes on to talk specifically about magazine design and states that “some of the most impressive design in the 20th century centred around magazine design, a field that contuse to innovate. While the majority are of standard format, these are exceptions.” (Ambrose, 2005:6) Magazines throughout the years have changed and developed dramatically - newspaper have also changed but interesting not as much as other types of publications. One thing that has stayed the same is the size. “Two main factors affect the final size of a page: the size of the original sheet of paper, and the number of times the sheet of paper is folded before trimming.” (Ambrose, 2005:19) With reference to magazines and posters - there has now been an increase in the mixture of formats. Of both posters and zines for example. What is interesting about book design is that “publications come in all shapes and sizes, ranging from educational and academic to the full range of children’s and aunt rade books: fiction and non fiction. All books are published with the goal or satisfying some need, whether this a desire to be entertained, a search for information to pursue formal or informal education, for our hobbies and personal relationships, or for spiritual and moral guidance.” (Smith, 2012:41) The content drives the design in ways that some designers unfortunately forget. The format is extremely important and its getting even more and more important as we are rapidly moving even more far in to a digital age. “Now that there are so many format and digital platforms for publications, publishers have lots of new decisions to make.” (Smith, 2012:117) Not only does the writer, publisher, author and designer need to control the way the content is captured to the audience but also how it can be memorable - how do they stand out form the crowd? One way would be through the format.


Figure 177 (Ambrose, 2005:48)

Newspaper, magazines can come in huge sizes but why not zines? People of Print has touched on this hole in the market however as a form of poster made up of a zine. What is someone made a zine as big as this one? (above) Would this generate even more an impact. The ideal situation is that the zinester will gain interest from readers. The way they do this is by grabbing their attention. Format evidently is one of the most original and interesting ways on doing this. Would the book be like a newspaper or would it be huge bounded book? Looking into format and also binding has been insightful as all the different ways of bindings say very different things. I hope to have a combination of a wacky zine visual aesetic with also a professional look about it.

Figure 178 (Ambrose, 2005:20)


Figure 180 Zine making experiment(2017)

Ambrose then goes on to talk specifically about magazine design and states that “some of the most impressive design in the 20th century centred around magazine design, a field that contuse to innovate. While the majority are of standard format, these are exceptions.� (Ambrose, 2005:6)

Figure 179 Zine making experiment(2017)


Figure 172 Final Outcome (2017)

Format is so important especially when publishing and designing a book because “it provides a physical point of contact with the user that affects how receive the printed and online communication.” (Ambrose, 2005:6)

2017 “is the year of the free-floating book block; as in, the pages are bound to each other, but not to the cover. This does make the books that employ this design more delicate—the pages are liable to fall out anytime—but it also gives designers space to play. Sjoerd Knibbeler’s Paper Planes, for example, features one long, double-sided accordion of pages, and is meant to be flipped and swiveled.” Coordinating editor of The PhotoBook Review, Madeline Coleman, highlights design trends found in this year’s PhotoBook Awards shortlist. Large format book are becoming more and more of a trend - the evidence of this is within my case studies and through the example of People of Print. The age for small miniature books is dying and as nice and as ‘cute’ as they are the bigger the format - the more the designer can do with it. Similarly - when conducting my experiment of 60 zines in one day I found that there are millions of ways I could bind this book. Ways in which would still maintain the DIY zine aesthetic but also professional ways. The bigger the format the harder it was to bind however - the final outcome looked far more interesting and in fact stood out from the rest of them. The size for this project is definitely as big as I can manageably go. This format also links to all of the past research which has been done on poster designs by the Hapshash partnership and Victor Moscoso, as well as the PosterZine case studies. The bigger the better - the more impact the zine will have and the more “shock” it will generate - just like the subculture did within those iconic years in history.






Figure 181 (Poynor, 2006)


Poynor is a british writer, critic, lecturer, and curator, specializing in design, media, photography, and visual culture. He has worked with some of the biggest names in publishing and design sector such as Blueprint magazine, Eye magazine and the blog Design Observer - which he co founded. His writings have been powerfully inspirational to designers and makers globally and have impacted the way that design has evolved during the past 20+ years. He has also lectured at many universities and design schools for example the London Royal College of Art and at the Jan van Eyck academy in Maastricht, Netherlands. He wrote many influential articles between the years of 2003 and 2005. During a “time period when the design community was just really beginning to utilised the internet as an asset for learning, collaboration and communication.” (Design is History, 2017) Design Observer published many of his and other writers articles online. It also proved to be an interactive discussion grounds that was often alive with heated arguments about graphic design. He has published several monographs of famous British artists and designers, including Herbert Spencer. He has also written several books that document and analyze movements in design such as No More Rules: Graphic Design and Postmodernism and Typography Now. He has also published three collections of the essays that he has written during his career. While he has never been a practicing graphic designer, his words and writings have influenced the industry more so than some designers in that field. According to Poynor the last 20 years “has seen an explosion of creative activity in visual communication, as designers re-examined existing rules and forged new approaches. Graphic design is a much more open, diverse, inclusive and, perhaps too, inventive field as a result of these challenges. (…) As a professional activity, graphic design faces an uncertain future now that the new technology has opened up graphic production and expression to many more people.” (Poynor, 2003:17) “Postmodernism remains a difficult, slippery and, for some infuriating topic” (Poynor, 2003:8) Since it is so broad and yet so relevant to today’s design world, there has been ,any theorists who have attempted to try and understand and make use of this term that we call postmodernism. “No More Rules’ central argument is that one of the most significant developments in graphic design, during the last two decades, has been designers’ overt challenges to the conventions or rules that were once widely regarded as constituting good practice.” (Poynor, 2003, Page 12) Postmodernist designers such as Wolgang Weignhart pushed boundaries and made up their own rules about design.


Figure 182 (Poynor, 2003)

Figure 183 (Poynor, 2003)


“ If modernism sought out to create a better world, postmodernism - to the horror of many observers appears to accept the world as it is.� (Poynor, 2003:11)


Figure 184 (Poynor, 2003)

Figure 198, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017)



Wolfgang Weignhart was a swiss designer who I have personally looked up to ever since I decided to study graphic communication for many reasons, not only is he a well known - well established legendary designer, who pushed many boundaries but also someone who really made a difference in the development of design, and was a huge part of making design what it is today. Everything that made (Wolfgang) curious was “forbidden”. He attempted to strip back the profession and “question established typographic practice, change the rules and evaluate it’s potential.” He was motivated to provoke development and to “stretch the typeshop’s capabilities to breaking point.” (Poynor, 2003, Page 20) Everything that made (Wolfgang) curious was “forbidden”. He attempted to strip back the profession and “question established typographic practice, change the rules and evaluate it’s potential.” He was motivated to provoke development and to “stretch the typeshop’s capabilities to breaking point.” (Poynor, 2003, Page 20)


Figure 195, Typography by Wolfgang Weignhart (Burton, 2017)


Wolfgang Weignhart was a swiss designer who I have personally looked up to ever since I decided to study graphic commun ication for many reasons, not only is he a well known - well established legendary designer, who pushed many boundaries but also someone who really made a difference in the development of design, and was a huge part of making design what it is today. Everything that made Weignhart curious was “forbidden”. He attempted to strip back the profession and “question established typographic practice, change the rules and evaluate it’s potential.” He was motivated to provoke development and to “stretch the typeshop’s capabilities to breaking point.” (Poynor, 2003, Page 20) Above all part of the impact of his work was due to the his work being “spontaneous, intuitive, deeply infused with feeling.” (Poynor, 2003, Page 20) In Poyner’s study ‘No Rules: Graphic Design and Postmodernism’ he introduces the infamous Wolfgang Weignhart who “was a seminal figure in the development of the ‘new wave’ that came, in time to be called postmodernism.” (Poynor, 2003:19) The bold and bright typography is used as a form of imagery. This daring typography which was used as the main focus of the page was risky and experimental nonetheless. His style, essence and confidence with typography and form is what really drive me to research into weignhart for this final outcome. his work always has so much energy about it and so much originality that it seemed sense to look into him especially if i were to be looking into postmodernism. In Figures, they consist of the bars of colour which amplify the words and phrases. It is playing around with the hierarchy and challenging the way the reader may view it. (Figure A) struck me as it abided by the rule of 3 font sizes - which still made the poster look traditional. However, the way he played around with the positioning of the text helped it give the poster character - a slight ‘wrongness’ or ‘unnaturalness’. Within (Figure B) again there is a layering of different size text however, it was the colour scheme which sparked my interest - the clashing of the orange and yellow both in the background shapes and text gives the poster an energetic feel - gives it movement and vibrancy. Which is exactly what I hope to achieve in this final outcome. This postmodernist style is very energetic and adeventurous which is what both the movemenof ts postmodernism psychedelic art is.

Figure 185 First year sketchbook (2015)


Figure 196, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017)


Figure 197, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017)




In ‘A type primer’ John Kane writes an introduction to typography, analysing the basic principles and approaches of type, John Kane teaches graphic design and typography at Northeastern University and Rhode Island School of Design. Has attained over 20 years of experience in this field and a huge influence in my understanding typography today. This guide to typography is focused to help student understand and to not underestimate the challenges and detail which goes into working with typo -graphy. “Type is a uniquely rich set of marks because it makes language visible. Working successfully with type is essential for effective graphic design.” (Kane, 2011:viii) You cannot go anyway now without stumbling upon typography, whether that be in branding, logo design to handwriting and packaging it is an intrinsic part of visual communication and without it graphics would seize to exist. Kane writes this book in order to teach what he knows to students - to share his knowledge of working with typography. His aim is to teach it to us “to the point where you can understand and demonstrate basic principles of good typography”. There are many principles which come under the subject of typography and in fact it is impossible to touch every single component within this book let alone within this spread of this book. What he highlights in the introduction is the main things to start thinking about and to start getting the conversation going. Paul Rand rites: “Typography is an art. Good typography is Art.” This stimulates the question as to whether you are able to teach or learn from it or are you just born with the creative flare? This is an issue between both students and designers; “Craft can be taught. Art lies within the individual.” To say that typography is a craft would mean anyone can learn it if they do there research which I believe is true. You learn to have an eye for detail and within your studies you learn to appreciate

Figure 185 (Kane, 2011:58&59)

the complexity and the possibilities of communication through typography. Throughout his teaching Kane has frequently been asked by students if what they are doing is ‘right’, when in fact the real question is does it work? does it communicate the concept effectively? and is at all useful? “Designers use type as a response to a message, to an audience, to a medium. The only way to recognise successful typography is through informed, direct observation.” (Kane, 2011:viii) He goes on to explain that the book is not about “style” but a “clear-headed way of thinking and making. Style belongs to the individual; delight in thinking and making can be shared by everyone.” (Kane, 2011:viii) Again after reading this book I learnt a lot about typography but what I didn’t learn was my style - what I like, of course I discovered new idea however this was not learnt this was from within. This book reminded me that I do have a style - that this project is in fact assisting my view as to what my style is; it is typographical, postmodernist and assimilated. Moreover the guiding attitudes from this book have come from views and approaches from the 20th century where he quotes “Content dictates form. Less is more. God is in the details.” These three themes according to Kane emphasise the typographers job; “appropriate clear expression of the author’s message, intelligent economy of means, and a deep understanding of craft. He concludes that instead of finishing the book with a summary - he signifies key strategies of which he leaves us with; the most important one that we should take our time. He states that “time is essential to good work.” (Kane, 2011:226) What I will do in this project is take my time and not rush into things - typography is something that needs to be curated elegantly and precisely - it needs to be done to best of your ability and with an intense amount of detail, and the best way I possibly can.

Figure 186 (Kane, 2011:8&9)

In Figure 185, you can see pages 58 and 59. I loved this spread not only because the way it looks but also the content was very interesting. I found how he portrayed this idea of really looking at the letters in detail very helpful and very true. “ A serious typographer constantly monitors and manipulates the relationship of form (where type is) to counter form (where it isn’t). To understand this relationship, it is essential to see type as a progression of spaces. These images really show the different spaces which make up the letters and what they are formed as in Figure 171 on the next page you will see an in-depth diagram of all the possible spaces and components within typography by Kevin Whipps. In Figure 186, Kane goes on to ‘describe’ typefaces. Something which he describes as a “small nuisance even for the experienced designer” because it is a confusing ideology. The best way to deal with this he describes is through “memorisation”.



Figure 171. Whipps (2016)

CHOOSING A TYPEFACE Raleway is an elegant sans-serif typeface family intended for headings and other large size usage. Initially designed by Matt McInerney as a single thin weight, it was expanded into a 9 weight family by Pablo Impallari and Rodrigo Fuenzalida in 2012 and iKerned by Igino Marini. It also has a sister family, Raleway Dots.

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Why Raleway? The typeface was an easy choice for me because I knew exactly what kind of mood I wanted to portray so when I looked into typeface I knew what I was looking. This elegant yet retro kind of typeface has it’s straight and curvaceous edges. The straight edges give the typeface structure where as the curves in parts of the letters give the typeface a romantic and flirtatious but also a kind of fluidity. This instantly reminds me of the sixties specially the psychedelic style, the curvaceous and adventurous look of it but still also maintaining a sense of professionalism and minimalism. When used in Black even more so does the typeface portray the sixties subculture. Due to the thickness of the letters and the kind of authoritative tone of voice it has on it’s readers. the whole idea of the psychedelic sixties was to stand out, this typeface portrays this idea in more ways than I could possibly be thankful for. At the same time the black is extremely versatile for both big and small text. When writing in body text is very thick however it is still readable and still looks smart but also has a lot of character. That’s the key word I would use to describe this typeface: It has character it attracts your attention and brings you in to the reading. It is very aseptically interesting however it is also not distracting in a sense that you cannot read what has been written without admiring it. Overall this was the typeface for this specific project for these many reasons, and I couldn’t be happier with the way it is presenting the research and work I have done so far in this book and the final outcome of the poster zine dissertation.



Layout is the arrangement of text and images according to a plan and to provide the appearance of the printed page. It is how the page is visualised and what it looks like but also how it ‘works’ in that different layouts mean different things - they are a way of visualising something, a piece of content of which the author or designer would like to show in a certain way. Grids are conductors or templates to help obtain design consistency. They are there a framework to the designs and are there to abide by and also to break. Without a grid your work could potentially look sloppy and would not look as professional. They are there to be guides and to help the creator frame their work in a way that helps communicate the content successful. The word Structure is reference to the skeleton to which elements on page are positioned. It is the numerical and objective side to designing in that it determines the layout and grids - it is the overal process of editing and forming a page of any content. Hierarchy is a rational, organised and visual guide for text headings indicating different levels of importance. It is a logical sequence which guides you the reader to the specific areas of the work and to signpost the different orders and importance of each section of a spread. It helps the designer phrase and communicate effectively in that they are able to objectify different words, put them in order of importance but also to look visually pleasing and interesting enough to read. The word Measure is referring to the width in picas of a page or text column. It is the numerical side to designing in that it allows the designers to work in more detail and maintain precise performance. It gives the designer a chance to play around with different elements but still be aware of the rules and measurements they are working with. According to Smith the key to successful layout design is that the designer “need to have a good understanding of readability, the effect of design features on meaning, and how readers navigate around the physical page.” (Smith, 2012:124) The readability factor is an obvious concern in that if the audience is unable to see or understand what the spread is about then communication will fail. However what is also true about this statement is this idea of navigation: the idea that reader is being led by the designer through these layout techniques and approaches. The best way of maintaining this approach is by being aware of all of these simple factors and to have them in mind when designing a layout for a spread. Layout can also be quite a fun and tactile process - it doesn’t necessarily have to be really boring and simple. Once you have a grid and structure you are able to play around with all the different possibilities and effects the structure lets you do. At times you can even break the grid and at times just not follow what you have made - even though these factors are very important - layout is still creative it is still an art of expression and is a tool that can be used to express your ideas effectively.

“ When we think of layout design we often think in terms of grid, structure, hierachy and specific measurements and relationships used in design.” (Ambrose and Harris, 2011:9) From reading Gavin Ambrose’s book on Layout I have learnt a massive amount of new industry words and language of which I did not know before. The word ‘imposition’ means the arrangement of pages in the sequence position in which they will appear when printed before being cut folded and trimmed. Interestingly I have never heard of this word before - well not in design anyway so this was a new one for me and now I know what it means I can now plan my process of the book better - knowing that I need to look at the imposition before I make the pages into the book format. An imposition plan is also something new, it is a series of thumbnails of all the pages of publication showing how it is laid out, I have done this many times before however instead of me calling it a storyboard I can understand the process in a more professional manner ready for the industry. ’Passe Partout’ is the frame around an image or other element. Instead of me using the phrase a border like I usually do when I go into the industry I will now know what the correct term is. Accordion fold is basically a different word for a concertina fold, this sounds much more professional and will use this in the future. ‘Display type’ is large and/or distinctive typography which is intended to attract the eye, usually cut to be viewed from a distance. Each of these specific words have taught me something new about layout and structure and in a much more professional context. Figure 187 Second Year sketchbook (2016)



Figure 188 Third Year Journal (2017)



199 Figure 189 Figure 190 Figure 191 Figure 192

(Poynor, 2008:26) (Poynor, 2008:6) (Poynor, 2008:14) (Poynor, 2008:n/a)










“It is language which speaks, not the author” (Gallix, 2010) is something that has stuck by this process of research in that if the author is in fact ‘dead’ then that must be the birth of ‘reader’ the language is a fabrication of different cultures, which is communicated through the author. This links back to the Noble and Bestley’s theory of this “notion” that authors are designers that they are ‘mediators’ and as much as they say it’s there own work, it cannot be as it has been formed through other past theories, images and perceptions.”

Figure 193, Final Outcome (2017)


Within this area of self publishing, authorship and research, there have been many theories of which have come to light in understand and evaluating these subject areas.“Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.” (Wikipedia, 2017) To define what self publishing is Ellen Lupton in ‘Indie Publishing’ claims it to be “putting together content in practical forms” Ellen Lupton is Adjunct Curator at the Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum and Co-Chair of the Design Department of the Maryland Institute College of Art. In “Indie publishing : how to design and produce your own book” Lupton has written a comprehensive, illustrated guide which concludes with a curated portfolio of the most exciting examples of independent publishing from the contemporary scene. Indie Publishing’s special focus on the visual design of books makes it unique among publish-it-yourself manuals. Readers are taken in a step by step process of how to design, publish and market your book on your own. She then goes on to explain how the publishing has changed dramatically over time that “the publishing world is being transformed by new social attitudes about making and sharing content. More and more people see themselves not just as consumers of media but also as producers.” (Lupton, Page 3, 2008) Not just socially but also according to Andrea Lunford writing in general has dramatically developed over the years not just the form but also the way it looks, how it communicates and how it has been transformed into a kind of art form. She explain that “writing used to be black and white, on paper top the page to the bottom, left to right. Writing is now technicolour, it is dynamic, it’s full of all kinds of images and sounds.” Because of these rapid changes Kelvin Smith explains that this time in history is an “exciting time to starting a career in publishing”. The “effects of the digital revolution are creating major advances in ways that affect everyone in publishing, whether they are writers, agents, editors, designers, marketers, booksellers, journalists, librarians, or researchers.” (Smith, 2012:6) Evaluating these different theories is difficult as they all say the same thing however in different ways. However with reference to the subject of zines - Ducome has a slightly different outlook or mindset to that of the other theorists before him. He quotes “The ease with which you can self publish your work (or set up as a publisher and publish other people’s) has had an unfortunate side - effect, and that’s to hugely increased the amount of poorly produced work which is available.” David Moody, quoted in ‘How self publishing came of age’ by Alison Flood, the Guardian, 2011” (Smith, 2012:84) This new age of publishing has started to seem into the mainstream culture but at the same time is also changing the notion of what we call publishing. It is now something which is so broad where as in early history it was far more restricted. Upon all these theories as well as the ‘Sharpie Revolution’ by unknown and ‘Notes from the underground’ by Stephen Ducombe you can gather many ideas of what publishing is. However after analysing each theory I have come to terms with that in fact this concept is something which is so broad that in fact no-one can really explain in a way which totally sums up what it is. It is an area which is rapidly changing and will develop even by the end of me writing this sentence. These principles of authorship, messages and communication as well as the readers are embedded still in self publishing and this will never change. What also comes out of this idea of self publishing or publishing as a whole is this idea of authorship. In ‘Visual Resarch’ Ian Boble and Russell Bestley states that this “notion of authorship lies in the possibility that designers can also operate as mediators, that they can take responsibility for the context and context of a message as well as the more traditional means of communication.” (Noble and Bestley, 2004: 73) Similarly In ‘Authority matters’ Donovan and Fjellestad explains that this concept has been something which has been continually assessed throughout time “that authorship is, how it should be determined, and why it is important have actually been the subjects of contentious cultural debates for centuries. Identification of the authors of the Gospels, authorship in the case of Shakespeare, Marlowe and others, collaborative authorship, the scope and degree of an author’s autobiographical information in interpretation - these are all issues that have been discussed with a vigour that testifies to the high stakes of the authorship question.” (Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) They explain how this is still evident today and in fact “in contemporary usage an ‘author’ is an individual who is exclusively responsible for the production of a unique, original work.”(Donovan and Fjellestad, 2008:1) According to Roland Barthes however when a text is written, it is a multifaceted manifestation of different cultures, languages and ideas. “A text consists of multiple writings, issuing from several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody, into contestation; but there is one place where this multiplicity is collected, united, and this place is not the author, as we have hithero said it was, but the reader: the reader is very space in which are inscribed, without any being lost, all the citations a writing consists of; the unity of a text is not in its origin, it is in it’s destination.” He argues that through literature the author is not intact the point of origin but in fact the reader is. This turns the notion of authorship on it’s head dramatically, because before what we thought was so obvious was this idea of authority - however Barthes this tricky concept from a whole other angle. Kelvin however argues “Authorship, as recognised by publishers, reviewers and readers, represents the exercise of a skill in communicating with an audience. A central part of the publishing process is the way in which agents and editors work with authors to develop their writing abilities.” (Smith, 2012:72) This concept is also an extremely broad subject area which is still today under question. The difference in however is the everchanging theories which have come apparent over the past 100 years. Starting with Barthes - a literary theorist who was always a head of his time, created a theory which totally transforms this idea of what an author is and what their role is within any form of publishing. Despite the excessive detail and evidence the other theorists successfully point out, Barthes ‘Death of the Author’ theory is probably the most significant and the one I could most relate to and agree with. “it is language which speaks, not the author” (Gallix, 2010) is something that has stuck by this process of research in that if the author is in fact ‘dead’ then that must be the birth of ‘reader’ - the language is a fabrication of different cultures, which is communicated through the author. This links back to Noble and Bestley’s theory of this “notion” that authors are designers - that they are ‘mediators’ and as much as they say it’s there own work, it cannot be as it has been formed through other past theories, images and perceptions. However what is even more accurate is this idea of assimilation. “The whole being of writing: a text consists of multiple writings, issuing from several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody, into contestation” (Rivkin, 2017: 521) Of course Barthes is still correct about this idea of texts consisting of ‘multiple writings’ however in Dick Hebdidge’s account within Subcultures and the meaning of style he talks about this theme of assimilation. That no of course things are not all your own work however they are in ways because of the ‘reinvention’ of the ideas - the ‘recontextualisng’ of these forms. This constant process of recuperation as Sherran Clark called it - a “cycle of creativity” that “everything is cyclical, everything comes around again at some point in time.” This is true in this idea of authorship through which what you as an author is writing may not be of original context however you doing so and creating this work “contributing to a collective information base” (Lupton, Page 3, 2008) Of course it may not be made up of original truths which have never been accounted before but what is evident is this process being of assimilation which happens all the time in publishing - all authors or publishers of any kind has been influenced by the past but at the same time, they have different minds to their originals and the key to assimilation is this idea of reinvention - to ‘use and abuse’ what you know and make it your won.



â&#x20AC;&#x153; Through the element of publishing within this project I have also learned how to have my own voice. The dissertation was really the beginning for me - it gave me a chance to write something powerful, something meaningful which will then be shared for all my readers.â&#x20AC;?


Throughout this three year degree I have always challenged what my role is as a graphic designer, or a graphic communications graduate. I had no idea the amount of possibilities that came under that title - from researcher, author,art director to editor, lecturer - the list goes on. My career aspirations have transformed and developed dramatically throughout this degree and this project. This project alone has developed my way of thinking in both visual communication and in cultural studies. This project helped me determine what kind of designer/ creative I would like to be: a research designer, someone who likes working on big projects with big ideas. Immersing myself in different groups and cultures really brings out the best in my work, people interest me, cultures interest me. Research can take many forms from reading an essay to interviewing someone or attending an event which you have never been to before, watching a film. There is so much more interesting ways of researching out there instead of doing a survey on Survey Monkey, more qualitative research which has been interpreted in different and intriguing ways. That is what research is for - to generate ideas, to inform and to challenge. Above all what really fuelled this project from the very beginning was the interviews I held - the different opinions and ideas which came known to me through another person - someone of interest in my process and the subject matter. This authentic qualitative research is what set me on a path to greatness and enjoyment throughout this project because I was able to research in my own way - not by just reading books and articles online but by the real kind of research which you don’t get from anywhere else. Activities which involved the zine making workshop, the psychedelic underground club, the visit to cal zine collection and also through talking to real people. You can gain a lot more know-ledge from talking to people than just looking at books, I wanted to approach this research project in a different way to everyone else. This dissertation isn’t necessarily a dissertation at all in that the research and ideas developed throughout time. This formal account is both a reflection of my research skills, typography, layout and my skill to link certain ideas - to respond to different features of the project which I come across and have a chance to have my own say. Publishing isn’t just about referencing, essay structure and well thought out sentence structure but a chance for the author to express what they know - or what they want to know. Throughout this boom I have stated both formal research and my own opinion at times on this research - it is a reflective and evaluated piece of work which both portrays this idea of a formal body of work but also a personal expression. This personal expression, research which is illustrated in a form to gain my target audiences attention is exactly what publishing is - it’s about having your say on a subject which is of importance to you and I’ve done my best to implement this throughout my research book. Through the element of publishing within this project I have also learned how to have my own voice. The dissertation was really the beginning for me - it gave me a chance to write something powerful, something meaningful which will then be shared for all my readers. This idea of me writing used to be such a daunting ideal however what I found is, is that if my heart is in it then I will write for ages and ages and will find it hard to stop. It is this drive and motivation that I get when I truly believe in something or feel truly interested or passionate about something.What I have learnt in graphic communications so far is that there are many ways to communicate - within this project I have been able to do this through my writing and through my creative flare. This “creative flare” or natural “eye” for it so they say is I feel what sets me apart from other writers out there, other communicators - the combination of being able to visually understand and interpret something as well as academically is something which I think is quite special and never thought I could be someone like that. This project has given me the confidence to speak my mind - to have a voice in the industry and has encouraged me to speak out. Whether this be an opinion about something ethical or personal or if I find something I personally find interesting - the fact that in this industry you are able to show this to people encourages me even more to pursue a long successful career within the world of graphic communication. Print has also become a huge part of my design experience. As much as I’m sure the world is becoming more and more digital every day print is a personal place which has belonged in my heart ever since I could hold a pen or cut paper up. This project helped me understand the importance of practical DIY, tactile forms. Through the zine making experiments and the real thing I was able to try out kinaesthetic abilities which I thought I long lost after doing Fine Art A level. It is important to appreciate the print form as well as the digital because both are still as relevant today as ever. In the case of this project however I learnt that in fact I work better with print - I am naturally more creative when I am working with my hands instead of with my laptop mouse all the time. Having a break from the usual Adobe Suite helped me think my project through clearly. With workshops such as zine making at the serpentine or the screen printing days - they all contributed to process one way or another. Overall they all taught me - that there is something quite powerful about having your name in print. This ‘old’ idea of print has been coming back into visual communication again and if anything has become more apparent in the industry more than ever - thanks to organisation like people of print, GF Smith, Arjowiggins and other print specialists. All companies which almost in a way dress up this old idea of printing on normal paper to totally transforming it into something different and new. What else this project has taught me is this idea of Assimilation of style and Postmodernism. These theoretical subjects have been extremely vital within this project through the ideas they have generated and what they can tell me or contribute to my understanding of my professional practice.These different theories has acted as sense for which you are able to reflect on my work in many ways but overall the interesting thing about them is that they are not particularly creative theories however these texts have been the most influential and encouraging in every aspect of my process. Through this idea of the recontextualizing and reinvention of ideas - the continual process of recuperation. The fact that my ideas may seem new to me however they are reinventions of things that I have seen in the past - they are combinations of other movements. This project my intention was to portray the psychedelic movement iconic ‘style’ but through this process of doing so I started to understand my own style. What I was taking from the research I had done in the psychedelic sixties period in history was similar to what I personally liked. This project became personal - subjective in that I was researching into an era I liked the visual communication of - it was my own personal taste which drove this project - it my own personal ideas and views. Through this process of reinventing this past style I then found my own. Postmodernism and the psychedelic sixties visual culture are exactly what my graphic ‘style’ is - it’s what I like to do - it is my niche. I love working with clashing colours and un set typography - I loved breaking rules in design and making my own, I love the pattern designs I’ve done for this project -which are inspired by a number of movements. I have started to develop my own unique edge - something which will help me become rememberable. Of course not all of my work will be about the sixties however, art movements vibrations and intensities are evident in all of my work and are visually evident also in work that I love from fellow designers ; from typography to form, image making and layout. This ‘style’ of my own that I have now possessed has helped me understand where I want to be going later on in my career; research, art direction and overall creative immersing myself in every aspect of the amazing world we have to offer. Overall what this project has taught me more than anything is about myself - myself as a designer as well as an author. This project has given me new insights into how I can see my work differently and fully understanding the meanings behind each decision I make.The point of a personal reflection is to be able to reflect your work in a way that shows you who you are - as a person and a designer. Following on from that this project in my person opinion is a key representation of what kind of designer I have become. The final outcome - is big, it’s bold and powerful similarly with the visual aesthetic of this research book as well. Through out this project I have learn that this is the kind of design I want to do - it is a key representation of all the things in graphic communication that I love. Through cultural studies and research, to working with colour, pattern and form and typography, layouts and grids. It also represents my ‘style’ of which has been played out in the previous statement. I am a fan of bold, colourful and thoughtful design - one in which causes some kind reaction one way or another instantly. I have always been a fan of work the stands out from the crowd and feel this project has helped me achieve this through the visually vibrant subject matter and what I have done to present it. This is a project of which I have reflected on throughout as I have come at this from a personal place. I don’t believe that designers are puppets that are only good for designing layouts or logo but are figures who could make a difference in the world - they can create social change for the better if that is something that they want to do. Overall this project has helped me define what kind of designer I am, what I would like to go into later on in my career and even more importantly enabled me to define my own unique style. 207


The compilation of the facts for this dissertation and research project have allowed for a deeper knowledge and understanding of many interesting topics which are apparent with in contextual, theoretical, visual and cultural studies today. In this project I have thoroughly researched into the key topics of publishing, research, authorship and many more. As this project has developed through time, the ideas and range of concepts I came across grew and this objective account of research grew into something that I did not expect. Within research - if you know what you are looking for then it not research is it? This project started off as a research project into publishing however as the experimentation of form and concept progressed there was a development in ideas - a chance to understand these concepts much deeper and a much more in-depth analysis of what the final outcome of this project may become and why. From the very beginning of this project the initial aim what to understand and be able to recite every single aspect of Self publishing. Publishing my dissertation sounded like the perfect idea to me because of many reasons. The first being I was able to develop my editorial, narrative and innovation skills which will push my target audience service skills even further, I also was able to define my typography and layout skills - the publishing theme or concept didn’t necessarily interest me but what did inspired me was this process and the content within the dissertation.To start with the research took me on a path of basic understanding of both the publishing business and the concept of self publishing. Within this I looked into the history of this where I came across other concepts such as Authorship and Print, Communication and Digital communication. With my dissertation topic in mind I saw these ideas as a opportunity to better define my research project to what is most relevant and interesting to me. At the beginning the notion of self publishing was to be frank, boring and not necessarily what I wanted to go into which was frustrating as this project was meant to help me later on in my career - publishing was definitely not on the cards. Instead the idea of authorship and the ‘role’ of the designer was what fuelled this process. The idea of designers being “mediators” (Noble and Bestley, 2004:73) really interested me and forced me to look into this project in a slightly different angle - a more personal approach. This is then when I discovered the concept of ‘Authorship’ and how this could be something of which helps me define my understanding of the role of a designer but also in tern better development of this project. Through theorists such as Roland Barthes ‘Death of the Author’ and Kathleen Fitzpatrick and Donovan and Fjellestad, I was able to understand the many different areas of authorship of which I could go into. Even though it is such a broad un answered subject - what I found particularly interesting is this progress and development of authorship throughout time, how now there more opportunities for everyone to be authors - to communicate through platforms such as social media, through visual communication and through things like zines. Zines were then a prime focus due the interesting visual aesthetic and the link between these hand made publications and the idea of self publishing. After the zines influences came the poster zines from people of print and then after them came my own development of a poster zine. A poster zine is a zine in which the poster is one side and the rest is the zine on the other folded in a way that is like a zine and opens up in a large format. I found this reinvention of the poster and zines format really interesting and in the end came out with my own poster zine composition: inspired by the ‘poster zine’ presentation, but where each page has been treated as an individual poster. A large a2 zine made up of posters instead of the a poster design made up of zine content. This then helped me develop ideas for typography, craft and then a postmodernist influence brought my project to life in ways I never knew could! Throughout the developments of focus in this project comes the evolution of reasoning. Within big projects of these they are so many conclusive judgments and mindsets which have to addressed and rationed. Throughout the depth of knowledge and excessive breath of detail which I have looked into, I have established forefront of the discipline a full understanding what there needs to be know when going into publishing. This is through both historical and contextual influences such as the history of publishing and history of authorship to the contextual theories by Roland Barthes, Lupton, Ducombe, Noble and Bestley and many more. I have challenged, experimented and researched into many relevant specialist techniques and processes such as the zine making workshops to the format of a book by Gavin Ambrose - to the interview with Victoria and Catharine. This process of publishing come sin many forms but what I was able to do in this project is use what I have learnt and apply it to what I was doing within my outcome - I was doing it my own way, developing my own processes of both knowledge and craft swell as developing my own style. This style of typography and layout but also my own style of publishing , I began to challenge what was ‘expected’ of me as a writer, author, publisher and designer and applied it to what I wanted to accomplish later on in my career. For example through the patterns - they were a form of research an experiment if you of my own consciousness, a different way to communicate than what I am used to, this is how I defined a new meaning and approach to publishing through my own experiences and practcies. Through these systematic approaches and thorough application of research methodologies such as the psychedelic experience of the underground club and interviews - investigative process of hunting down UFOs shows evidence of highly focused independent thought and some new insights into the subject. Insights in which I found the most interesting highly exhilarating - these are what drove the project even further with more depth and intense authenticity. This project has fuelled my interest in contextual studies to se my project in a new light and to understand it in relation to ambitious theories such as Postmodernist graphic communication and assimilation of subcultural studies - all immersed into one project. These theoretical practices has a huge effect on my creative practices and were used in the process of this piece to the core. This outstanding ability to produce a range of creative practices and to critically evaluate them in a wider context, generating sustainable arguments and highly effective original results. Within this project I have sustained a range of practical and technical skills in an accomplished fashion through practical time management skills, to the software abilities and strengths in research and practices which are not so obvious - the ability to see things different and from another angle to see this counter culture that is in fact a subculture. I have managed to obtain both professional and skills through complex situations such as the format of the book - the different mock ups helped me understand the range of different bindings techniques. The networking in advance for the interview processes - organising photographers, interviewing past students and relevant individuals in the industry - these people skills will be extremely important within the industry and is an accomplishment which I have lived up outstandingly. Asking for feedback and progression of the process of designing has been key to this project, every week having some kind tutorial frequently help day direction and to keep organised - driven and to plan what the next step was. Throughout the project in my design journal I have progressed the ability to critically evaluate my process and to manage my own learning in a sustainable manner - through tutors to fellow students and teacher elsewhere. Alongside this element of publishing, authorship and zines was this idea of creating and understanding what the ‘psychedelic experience’ really meant - what it is actually about and how I could use this research of which I had done to find this within this final zine. Through research strategies into the psychedelic movement such as interviews, field studies and research from the dissertation I was able to not only immerse myself in my subject but also create my own unique style - one in which would help development with the designing and craftsmanship within this final piece. The bright, bold colours with the swirly romantic shapes were what inspired me to make my own psychedelic patterns. Through earlier influences and maininfluencial designers from iconic movements such as Bridget Riley with Op art and Victor Moscoso within the psychedelic era but based in San Francisco in the seventies also the Hapshash and Coloured coat partnership which was the original influence from the very beginning of the project. Throughout this project, I as a designer has developed my understanding of many areas within communication. Through the ways in which we write to the ways in which we read. This formal account of all of the research which has inspired this project has been developed in many ways that you couldn’t imagine, the specific areas in this book highlight the important and most relevant theories, findings, essays, books and individuals which are most important when you want to understand this final outcome. The aim of this study is to not assess whether the project and final outcomes are successful but to understand them within their contexts - to see what stages they have been through to see why they are where they are now. In conclusion this research book has developed in style, in concept and in understanding of what it means to be graphic designer and has done anything less than inspire me to create more - to have my own say and to publish ideas, concepts which are of interest within the areas of visual, social and cultural studies.


Figure 84. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 85. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 86. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figure 87. Selection of Zines at Housemans Bookstore (2017) Figures 88,89. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 90,91. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 92,93. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 94,95. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 96,97. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 98,99. Zine Collection at LCC Library (2017) Figures 100. Housemans Book Store (2017) Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017) Figures 103,104. Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017) Figures 105, 106. Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017) Figures 107,108. Zines at Housemans Book Store (2017) Figures 109, 110. GOSH Book Store (2017) Figures 111,112. GOSH Book Store (2017) Figure 113 Orbital Comics Shop (2017) Figures 114, 115. Orbital Comics (2017) Figures 116, 117. Orbital Comics (2017) Figures 118, 119, 120, 121. Serpentine Gallery (2017) Figure 123. Serpentine Gallery (2017) Figures 124, 125, 126, 127. Serpentine Gallery (2017) Figure 172 Final Outcome (2017) Figure 179 Zine making experiment(2017) Figure 180 Zine making experiment(2017) Figure 185 First year sketchbook (2015) Figure 187 Second Year sketchbook (2016) Figure 188 Third Year Journal (2017) Figure 193, Final Outcome (2017)


Figure 2. Visual Research Assimilation (2017) Figure 3. “Transferable Research Method Diagram” (2017) Figure 2. Visual Research Assimilation (2017) Figure 3. “Transferable Research Method Diagram” (2017) Figure 9. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 10. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 11. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 12. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 13. Fusion: selling via sense (2016) Figure 77. Psychedelic allnighter Leaflet (2017) Figure 160. UFO Poster (Mills, 2017) Figure 161. Aizone Campaign, (Mills, 2017) Figure 162. Mucha Painting, (Mills, 2017) Figure 163. Intake Op Art, (Mills, 2017) Figure 164 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October] Figure 165 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October] Figure 166 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October] Figure 167 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October] Figure 168 [V&A Exhibition: 1 October] Figure 169 Urquhart (2014) Figure 170 Urquhart (2014) Figure 171. Whipps (2016) Figure 174 Bridget Riley (Heane,2016) Figure 175 Bridget Riley (Heane,2016) Figure 176 Bridget Riley (Heane,2016) Figure 177 (Ambrose, 2005:48) Figure 178 (Ambrose, 2005:20) Figure 181 (Poynor, 2003) Figure 182 (Poynor, 2003) Figure 183 (Poynor, 2003) Figure 184 (Poynor, 2003) Figure 185 (Kane, 2011:58&59) Figure 186 (Kane, 2011:8&9) Figure 189 (Poynor, 2008:26) Figure 190 (Poynor, 2008:6) Figure 191 (Poynor, 2008:14) Figure 192 (Poynor, 2008:n/a) Figure 194, Roland Barthes (Whips, 2016) Figure 195, Typography by Wolfgang Weignhart (Burton, 2017) Figure 196, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017) Figure 197, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017) Figure 198, Typography Poster by Weignhart (Burton, 2017)


Figure 51. EXHIBITA Zine (2017) Figure 52. EXHIBITA Zine (2017) Figure 53. EXHIBITA Zine: Back Cover (2017) Figure 54. Proposal Presentation: Title Page (2017) Figure 55. Proposal Presentation: Introduction (2017) Figure 56. Proposal Presentation: History (2017) Figure 57. Proposal Presentation: Original Case Studies (2017) Figure 58. Proposal Presentation: Literary Review (2017) Figure 59. Proposal Presentation: Conclusion (2017) Figure 60. Subculture: The Meaning of Style. Dick Hebdidge (2016) Figure 61. Dissertation Notes (2016) Figure 62. Jonathon Green taken by Thevin Kumar (2017) Figure 63. ‘Days in the Life’ Cover: Thevin Kumar Photography (2017) Figure 64. Green’s Workspace: Thevin Kumar Photography (2017) Figure 65. Green’s Flat in Farringdon, London :Thevin Kumar’s Photography (2017) Figure 66. Interview Room: Kitchen Table :Thevin Kumar’s Photography (2017) Figure 67. ©2017 Joe Boyd (2016) Figure 68. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017) Figure 69. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017) Figure 70. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017) Figure 71. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:1 (2017) Figure 72. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:2 (2017) Figure 73. Sherran Clark: Interview Originals notes:3 (2017) Figure 74. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017) Figure 75. Sherran Clark: Jessica Lynah Photography (2017) Figure 76. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 78. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 79. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 80. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 81. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar : Ruthie Mackay (2017) Figure 82. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017) Figure 83. Mousetrap Underground Club, Orleans Wine bar (2017)

Outsourced Images:

Insourced Images:

Figure 1. Final Outcome (2017) Figure 4. Thevin Kumar’s Photography: Jonathon Green Interview (2017) Figure 8. Victoria Arden Portrait (2017) Figure 14. Catharine Slade Brooking Portrait (2017) Figure 15. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016: Front Cover (2017) Figure 16. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016: Back Cover (2017) Figure 17. Creating a Brand Identity 2016:9 (2017) Figure 18. Creating a Brand Identity, 2016 (2017) Figure 19. Case Studies image (2017) Figure 20. EM COLE issue no12 (2017) Figure 21. Posterzine™ bundle | issue 1-11 | FREE GLOBAL P&P (2017) Figure 22. EM COLE issue no12 (2017) Figure 23. EM COLE issue no12 (2017) Figure 24. EM COLE issue no12 (2017) Figure 25. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print (2017) Figure 26. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print, Front Cover (2017) Figure 27. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print: 2&3 (2017) Figure 28. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print: 123&124 (2017) Figure 29. OH SO PRETTY: Punk in print: 79&80 (2017) Figure 30. DAZED: Winter 2016 (2016) Figure 31. DAZED: Winter 2016 (2016) Figure 32. DAZED: Winter 2016:94&95 (2016) Figure 33. DAZED: Winter 2016:128&129 (2016) Figure 34. DAZED: Winter 2016:76&79(2016) Figure 35. i-D Issue no 346 (2016) Figure 36. i-D Issue no 346: Front cover (2016) Figure 37. i-D Issue no 346: 176&177 (2016) Figure 38. i-D Issue no 346: 186&187 (2016) Figure 39. i-D Issue no 346: 102&103 (2016) Figure 40. You Say You Want A Revoltuion? (2016) Figure 41. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:26&27 (2016) Figure 42. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:98&99 (2016) Figure 43. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:98&99 (2016) Figure 44. You Say You Want A Revoltuion?:234&235 (2016) Figure 45. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017) Figure 46. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017) Figure 47. One Way Ticket to Cubesville : Contents page (2017) Figure 48. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017) Figure 49. One Way Ticket to Cubesville (2017) Figure 50. EXHIBITA Zine (2017)

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Let me take you on a Trip  
Let me take you on a Trip