ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR SEMESTER 1 / 2014 EMILY LUCCHESI 585234 Group 03 Tutors: Haslet Ground and Philip Belesky Thursday 4:15-7:15
INTRODUCTION EMILY LUCCHESI
Group: 3 Architecture being the Semester built1/2012 world around us has a giant impact on the way in which we live. Our whole lives are essentially designed around us and in turn we are designing our futures.
Iâ€™m a third year architecture student in 2014, to then go on and complete a Masters in Architecture. Architecture is a passion not only in designing built form, but also the relationships between design, person, form, and movement. For me architecture is more than just a design, it is a way of life. Different cultures all have their own language of their own interpretations of a broader language. How design has formed itself into more of a natural form is an interest of mine. Designing is a true passion and without design the world through my eyes would be dull. To be part of creating my own language through architecture is what I want to achieve.
CONTENT A.1 DESIGN FUTURING
.2 DEISGN COMPUTATION
.3 DESIGN COMPOSITION/GENERATION
.4 CONCLUSION .5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCH BOOK .7 RESOURCES
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD
.2 CASE STUDY 1.0
.3 CASE STUDY 2.0
.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT
.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES :DIGITAL :MODELING
.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL .7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES
.8 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK
.9 RESOURCES C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 76 .2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 90 .3 FINAL MODEL
.4 ADDITIONAL LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS
.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES
PART A - CONCEPTUALISATION 4
DESIGN FUTURING Design futuring is the idea that design can become almost anything. An organic system turning into architecture and design itself. The way of design is changing and how we involve ourselves in this is crucial.
LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE LAGI is a competition for better more renewable future. With the intention to create a more sustainable future the LAGI competition requires a sculpture/ design on a specific location each year (this years one in Copenhagen). â€œEach sculpture will continuously distribute clean energy into the electrical grid, with each having the potential to provide power to thousands of homes.â€?1
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014.<http://landartgenerator.org/ competition2014.html>
PRECEDENT - TREE
6 IMAGE 3
LAGI 2012 PREVIOUS SUBMISSION CREATED BY : Yijie Dang, Tom Tang
PROJECT SUMMARY This project would be constructed with PVC pipe and old industrial balloons, with the design intent to elude to the man-made history of the site. This structure would provide shade for visitors, energy harvested would be created by the swaying and bending of the PVC pipes picked up by kinetic generators. During the day the sunlight would heat up the ‘balloons’ thus creating the canopy to increase in size. Kinetic generators (i.e. MZE Power Kinetic Battery) at the base of each balloon would work like an automatic watch &produce electricity through swaying. Kinetic generators and LED’s are spread throughout the balloons.1
MY OPINION This project has an interesting concept with its use of kinetic energy. There is an obvious choice in material as the material for the balloons chosen (old industrial balloons) is not only a cost efficient choice but also an interesting design one with its expansion due to the suns heat. By using a design like this one could expand future possibilities in that the planting and growth of trees, not only being a lengthy period time of, but also (as expressed in this project) the depth of which some trees roots run. This project uses kinetic energy in an interesting way, one that is innovative. However in terms of the interaction within the site there is little. The viewers/ site users, simply would use this site no different to how it may have been used before. With the artificial tree on the site it does provide shade for users however the levels of interactive ness is low and can be improved. This project takes up minimal ground space of the existing site. This can be seen as a good thing, maximum energy intake off a small area. However there is still so much potential land use that could be occupied to create even more green energy that is not being used.
“The state of design and the state of the world need to be brought together” - Design Futuring, Tony Fry
This design has taken literally the state of design as a part of the world, by literally creating a tree and designing the energy harvesting within.
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014.<http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/>
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING
LAGI 2012 PREVIOUS SUBMISSION CREATED BY : GEMBONG REKSA KAWULA
PROJECT SUMMARY This project would be an artificial tree consisting of 450 flexible thread, 30 metres above ground. These would then be made of carbon fibre reinforced resin poles that would sway in the wind. In harvesting energy the ‘wind fountain’ essentially moves within the wind thus collecting the kinetic energy within the movement. However this design is mainly based on the piezoelectric effect - which is the property of certain materials to produce electrical power when they undergo strain and stress. Using this stress momentum they are then able to collect the energy from the piezoelectric crystals in pace at the stem of the ‘tree’.1
MY OPINION I have chosen this one as a second precedent as I find its concepts and ideas are very similar to that of the “Tree” submission, however this one in fact does not literally represent a tree (as much as the previous submission does) and has used a much more creative approach towards the design. This design has also researched the technology well and it is evident in the presentation that it has been done. Kinetic energy from the wind movement is not the only form of energy (as per previous), they have further developed their understanding of the piezoelectric effect and thus have created a design that is not only pleasing to the eye but is also a well constructed design.
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/WF252RKA/>
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING 8
9 IMAGE 5
RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY KINETIC ENERGY
Kinetic energy harvesting is the motion/absorption of movement into energy. The energy harvested from movement can be used as a renewable energy source throughout the world. There are many forms of kinetic energy, they include; vibrational: which is the movement due to vibration, rotational: being the movement occurring whilst an object is being turned around in any direction and there is translational: which is the energy due to motion from one location to another.1,2 All of these forms of kinetic energy are able to be harvested. Kinetic energy is harvested by using the pressure/ force that is applied in order to create a amotion, this force then generates heat due to friction between particles and thus the heat is harvested into energy.
The current technology of kinetic energy is an expensive one to use. Ways of harvesting this form of energy is through floor motion detectors, compression devices which can be placed on the under sole of a shoe. However more inventive ways of harnessing this technology have also arisen. A waterfall which is pumped by the movement of people waling around it. The use of stainability in future designs could be deemed as design futuring, however whether or not this is design can be debated, is this simply a manipulation of form rather than design.
Movement is all around us, and the ability to harness it is accessible. If we were able to harness every movement we create we could (perhaps) power every electronic device we use throughout the day.
1. Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. 2.â€? Work, Energy, and Power - Lesson 1 - Basic Terminology and Conceptsâ€?, The Physics Classroom, last modified 11th March, 2014. <http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/energy/Lesson-1/Kinetic-Energy>
A.1 DESIGN FUTURING 11
DESIGN COMPUTATION [C] SPACE PAVILION IN LONDON - WINNER OF 2008 ‘AADRLTEN’ PAVILION COMPETITION DESIGNED AND DEVELOPED BYALAN DEMPSEY AND ALVIN HUANG WITH ADAMS KARA TAYLOR AND MEMBERS OF THE AADRL
This pavilion was designed for the ‘AADRLTEN’ Pavilion Competition. This is constructed from an advanced technology concrete, located in Bedford Square London. IMAGE 7
This design, with the help of computer aided modelling was able to use advanced technology to design and thus construct it. The materials used to construct this pavilion were fibrereinforced concrete, rubber and mild steel. This design is said to be ‘A full scale construction that represents a rare collaboration between academia and industry’.1 This pavilion used the computational aid in such a way as to create connections between digital design and construction. There is a time lapse video of the construction that can be found on http://cspacepavilion.blogspot.com. au/. This manufacturing process can be deemed as unique and something completely different all together. Using calculations based on non-linear analysis the construction process itself becomes one of a digital enhanced state, thus creating a strong man to machine relationship building on what already exists in todays’ society of design.2
This design communicates an interesting concept to the builders, utilising computation as the main communication device. However could this (had it been a much more complex design) IMAGE 8 have had severe design communication issues if the engineer/construction worker were unable to understand the mathematical aspect of the computational design. The Pavilion benefitted from the use of computational design and as a result furthered the understanding of relationships between design and built form, using the technology to in fact also create the form. enhancing the link between design and construction. In itself this is creating and developing new forms of construction. In this case the designer in fact found the solution to misunderstanding or lack there of computational skills between designer and builder.3
“BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN...THE DESIGN PROCESS”
1. “[C]space - DRL10 Pavilion”, Blogspot, Last modified 25th September 2010, < http://cspacepavilion.blogspot.com.au/> 2.Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 3. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 12
13 IMAGE 12
DESIGN COMPUTATION AL BAHAR TOWERS RESPONSIVE FAÇADE IN DUBAI DESIGNED BY AEDAS ARCHITECTS. COMPLETED IN JUNE 2012
These towers have been designed with a shading device derived from cultural cues of the ‘mashrabiya’ (a traditional islamic shading device). Given the location of these towers the idea of a shading device is ideal. This facade becomes one of a responsive nature due to temperature conditions. 1 This design was assisted with the aid of computational design, using parametric geometry to create the look of the facade, and then in turn using computation mathematical methods to calculate the use of the faced to interact with the sun. Using incidence angles to calculate this. 2 In this case here we see the designer using computational methods to become a performance orientated design.
The sun shade operates as a curtain wall 2 metres from the glass facade to give the illusion of it standing alone. Each panel was able to be programmed to move to the response of the suns movements in aim to reduce the heat intake from the solar rays. Screens close in the evenings.
1.”Al Bahar Towers Resposive Facade / Aedas”, Style of Design, Last modified 5th of September 2012, <http://www.styleofdesign.com/ architecture/al-bahar-towers-responsive-facade-aedas/> 2.”Al Bahar Towers Resposive Facade / Aedas”, Style of Design, Last modified 5th of September 2012, <http://www.styleofdesign.com/ architecture/al-bahar-towers-responsive-facade-aedas/>
IS PARAMETRIC DESIGN THE WAY FORWARD? Nympha Cultural Centre is a concept proposal for Bucharest. Using computational design and parametric modeling. (Image below). Design in parametric modeling can become the form of design that is understood by all in the logic form of algorithm.4 Parametric modeling allow the capability to modify and change the parameters of design, however to what extent can this be done. Does the design of the building then become a much more simple form and thus referring back to (week 1 reading) that everyone is in fact a designer. However parametric design does create interesting and intriguing forms (as seen below) and could be a way of the future. Educating young designers to use this software could be beneficial, however limiting to what design could be. Traditional pencil and paper should not be forgotten.
There are in fact limitations to computational design in (ironically) the design aspect of the program. Computational design relies heavily on ones ability to understand the workings of the program itself, if one does not know the program completely it can be extremely difficult to almost impossible to design something new and interesting. In terms of design is parametric modeling then a limitation to design? Its limitations refer mainly to the users ability. This inability in fact defines the preceding theory, that an architects position is in fact conception, rather than construction and how far separated they have now become3
IMAGE 16 3. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp8. 4. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architectureâ€™s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25
A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 15
COMPOSITION TO GENERATION MORPHOGENESIS Morphogenesis as literally translated meaning “the beginning of shape” is the physical process that gives the growing shape of an organism.1 Morphogenesis in design is achieved through computation and allows the designer to use digital media to form shapes rather than a representational form.2 Research has been conducted into the underlying principles of morphogenesis and how this process can be utilized in computational design in architecture.3 Composition to generation is the way in which a concept is created or design to how it then becomes a ‘rea-life’ three-dimensional structure. To the left is a representation of a morphogenic design representational of the ‘network generated by human lung cells as they interact with an extracellular matrix in three-dimensional space and time.’4 Interacting with the people who walk in and out of it. This demonstrates the way in which the designer has chosen to represent the computational design in three-dimensional form. The movement and interaction of people has all been considered within the design.
In understanding the way in which modeling of any form works a designer will need to understand how the form can come to life. Below are some examples of computational form and development and how the designer has chosen to construct them.
1.”Menges”, Digital Theory, Last modified March 27, 2014, < http://digitheory.wordpress.com/authors/menges/> 2. Kolarevic, Branko and Ali Malkawi, eds (2005). Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality (New York; London: Spon Press), p. 195 3.” ICD Research: Computational Morphogenesis - Morphogenetic and Evolutionary Computational Design”, Universitat Stuttgart, Last Modified, March 27, 2014, < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=5867> 4. “Jenny Sabin: Branching Morphogenesis”, Archimorph, Last modified, August 13, 2012, < http://archimorph.com/2010/08/13/jenny-sabinebranching-morphogenesis/>
A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION 17
COMPOSITION TO GENERATION EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION
In designing form, traditionally form follows function, and in Moh Architects way they certainly believe so. The organic nature in which parametric modeling forms is in itself a form follows function nature. Nature itself is one of that technique also.1 A sunflower as a perfect example grows to face the sun, so that the maximum sunlight is reached at all times, thus the form of the flower created by the function of the flower. “Every organism and life form emerges through the process of evolutionary self-organization.”2 Without the organization of human cells even, the form and function of a persons body could be considered void.
IMAGE 24 1. “p_007 evolutionary computation “, Moh Architects, Last modified, March 25, 2014, <http://www.moh-architecture.com/projects_p007. htm> 2. “p_007 evolutionary computation “, Moh Architects, Last modified, March 25, 2014, <http://www.moh-architecture.com/projects_p007. htm>
Architecture has moved on from the traditional use of computers, in that the only function of computers were to merely layout and organise the design in such a way to make it easier to re-adjust in a later on stage, to now the development and form of the design itself.3 This change in technology has assisted so many in what they are able to achieve. Below you see a range of forms all generated by inputting a certain algorithmic pattern allowing the software to then generate a form such as those, adapting the way of the life emerging from a single cell. Using natural algorithms already in existence one can create multiple designs. The changing pattern on a single algorithm is based upon the nature that is around. This surrounding nature (being the restraints in which the designer places on the algorithm themselves - as simple as a height limitation) may or may not change and shape the designs form.
Computation design allows the designer to extend their abilities to deal with higher complex situations, allowing them to delve further into the design with the use of algorithmic assistance. But can also be seen as the ‘process of information between elements which constitute a specific environment, it provides a framework for negotiating and influencing the interrelation of data sets of information with the capacity to generate complex order, form, and structure’4 This form of computation will allow designers to think intuitively and create opportunities in design. However, limitations to computational design come as simple as the inability to use such programs. Without the knowledge of use the design in which one would create can be deemed as basic, boring, and repetitive.
With these examples below one can begin to see an organic shape forming with the use of computational design, an interesting connection between the shapes and how together these connections can form a building.
3.Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 4. Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges, ‘Introduction’, in Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges (eds), computational Design Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (Chichester) 2011.
A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION 19
COMPOSITION TO GENERATION VANA: NEW DELHI/INDIA/2013
DESIGNED BY FRANCESCO BRENTA, LAURA MICALIZZI AND CHRISTOPH KLEMMT.
This project used computation in its design process. Computation being the use of a computer in design which allows the form to be designed with the use of algorithms1 This design in particular uses algorithmic methods to create ‘open and closed venation patterns’2 , this in turn represents the growth of topiaries and how they themselves formulate and grow. This system grows in such a way that branch towards the light to maximize exposure for each leaf3. Using the growth and structural stability of the topiaries the designers were able to obtain a sufficient geometry which is then transferrable to an algorithmic formula. Vana is designed from the roof to then come down and surrounds the four columns of light, with a triangulated surface (in tension) connected by stitch joints.4 This example shows how the architectural literature of algorithm became a generation of form through this practice of algorithmic modeling. Demonstrating how digital modeling has effected design methods5
Designing through using computation should be seen as an advancement in design, however, not to disregard it completely. Computational design aids the designers ability to create, but not the ability to be creative. Computational design aids the designer with constructing algorithmic function in the work they create. These functions can be applied to ‘real-life’ situations and thus produce organic-like works. 1.Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 2,3,4. “Vana”, Archilovers, Last modified, January 7, 2014, <http://www.archilovers.com/p111791/vana?sMiniImg=0#info> 5. Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62
The conceptual changes instigated by computing therefore are the assistance and almost reliance on the ability of the computer to generate form based on a limited knowledge. This potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer is obtained throughout design, however, the construction and knowledge of existence is still within the designers reach.6 If a designer creates a design in which he or she generates through computational methods are they then still able to produce this design in its real three-dimensional form? In answer to this the example set above demonstrates the realization of algorithmic modeling to form construction. The project has undergone the research to how to develop such a form that would replicate the topiary. Thus creating digital design in response to the environmental context.7 IMAGE 31
2.5D structures are the three-dimensional formations that are and can be fabricated from two-dimensional components as on the City Form Lab Research.8 These forms assist in the realization of algorithmic form in ‘reallife’. The City Form research is an on-going development of the Rhinoceros program and its tools of fabrication.9
6.Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 7. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 8.”2.5D Structures”, City Form Lab, Last modified, March 23, 2014, <http://cityform.mit.edu/projects/25d-structures.html> 9.”2.5D Structures”, City Form Lab, Last modified, March 23, 2014, A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION <http://cityform.mit.edu/projects/25d-structures.html>
Overtime Architecture became more and more separated from the construction process of a designed building and would simply constitute a design for the structure. However with the innovation of computational design we find that the architect is now slowly going back to the construction side of things once again. This going back is not only beneficial to the architect but also to the capability of their design ability. With computational design the ability to understand and comprehend the way in which the building could be constructed can assist the design outcome and therefore shape the design. Computation provides limitless possibilities of what a design could become, morphogenesis in architecture is even beginning to set root into the way in which things can be designed. A true form of organic. Using this idea that architecture can be organic will be the way in which I hope my design to form. Using the natural form/process of which something grows and applying that to my design. By using computational design it will assist me in achieving this outcome and also in realizing the design in three-dimensional form. Designing in this way will give me an opportunity to explore features in ways that I have not yet thought of. Using the computation I will be able to explore the programs individual functions and experiment with what each one does, this will then help in forming a shape/mould for my designing.
A.4 CONCLUSION 22
Throughout my learning of computational design and parametric modeling, I have come to realise that there is more than meets the eye with this form of designing. This design base is in fact a complexity within itself, involving all sorts of algorithmic functions to determine even the smallest detail in a design, this then creating the most interesting of designs from a single detail alone, as demonstrated in the morphogenetic process and programs such as grasshopper. Through the algorithmic explorations I was able to grasp a better understanding of the way in which the software programs; Rhino and Grasshopper, function. In understanding this I was also then able to grasp a better context and understanding of the weekly readings and thus further my research and understanding of the concept and workings of computational design. I believe that computational design will be something of the future, something that can benefit and assist the explorations of designs, the simple ability to grow on such a tiny source of information and evolve it according to the surrounding environment, as has done the evolution of time. If architecture were able to do such a thing as to evolve with time with the use of computational design then the product of this process can truly be deemed as an organic design.
A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES 23
IN THIS SECTION of the journal the exploration of different techniques and material systems used within computational design, taking what was previously learnt in the form and technology of computation and itâ€™s abilities and applying it to cases ourselves. Using these case studies to then apply a deign technique/idea to the LAGI brief.
PART B - CRITERIA DESIGN 25
MATERIAL SYSTEMS What is a material system? Material systems are the way in which we use computational design to create. Some forms of such systems include, tesselation, setcioning, strips/folding, geometry , structure, biomimicry and material performance. We have chosen to study the material system of strips and folding as it could potentially relate to the design for the LAGI brief, also because this system (we believe) to be an interesting on in terms of how many outcomes it can create.
STRIPS/FOLDING The use of strips/folding in parametric design involves the manipulation of an original form, however concentrating on the folding and stripping of the surface. Using this manipulation of form using folding, one can create such intricate forms from folding all different surfaces on a cube1. Something as simple as folding a surface can turn into more intricate design concepts and opportunities. In the images displayed on the pages the designers have used folding as a means of design in the parametric modeling. This allows them to create all sorts of forms and shapes. As shown the method of folding does not create identical outcomes a would occur if done by hand, but allows different outcomes based on the parameters and limits set on the design. These restrictions may include the ise of materials, size limitations, the sue, structure and ideas of the individual designer, and of course the users knowledge of the program in which they are using. In conventional design tools it can be classed as easy to create a simple form however it is the manipulation of that forms that proves difficult,2 this ‘difficulty’ being the major limitation to a design.
1. Hansmeyer, Michael “Building unimaginable shapes”, Ted Talks, June 2012, http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_hansmeyer_building_unimaginable_ shapes#t-179584 2. Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD 26 IMAGE 36
The ‘La Fabrique Sonore’ (Images 37-39) design uses computational design combined with the ancient technique of folding allowing the form to take the desired shape. To be able to construct such a design the idea of modulation was developed into a series of basic geometries. The flat sheets of aluminium/ polyethylene composite allow for the structure to also be acoustically sound. 3 With the assistance of the folding technique in parametric design this design was able to achieve its function and also able to be constructed in real life three-dimension. In this design the appearance of the structure resembles the technique used. Displayed in Image 40 is the result of a zero/fold application. This form of parametric design (folding) in designing creates a “conscious effort to minimize waste during fabrication” 4 and thus allowing the construction of such a design to be an easier task. Even though folding was the method used the form of the design does not replicate the method. Image 41 - “This challenging 3 month project required the studio to provide geometry consultation and digital simulations in the early design phases, before robotically folding and installing all 488 unique curved folding panels.” 5
In looking at these designs one can begin to see the possibilities that strips/folding system of parametric modeling can create. However, are there any limitations that may arise when using this method? How do designers overcome this limitation or would these limitations in fact enhance the design? Further research and practice of the method will reveal those queries.
3.Grozdanic, Lidija, “La Fabrique Sonore - Acoustically Amplifies the Sound of Champagne Bubbles”, Evob, January 15, 2012, < http://www.evolo. us/architecture/la-fabrique-sonore-acoustically-amplifies-the-sound-ofchampagne-bubbles/> 4.Kudless, Andrew, “Installation – Zero/Fold”, Adam Lazar Onulov, 2012, < http://adamonulov.com/installation-zerofold/> 5. “Arum” Sculpture by Zaha Hadid Architects. Image: Matthias Urschler, December 2, 2013, < http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/robofold_ nominated_for_emerging_design_studio_at_the_icon_magazine_awards_2/>
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD 27 IMAGE 41
B.1 RESEARCH FIELD 28 IMAGE 42
STRIPS/FOLDING - PRECEDENTS
In a further exploration of the strips/folding I found two designs in particular that I found to be interesting. The first design (Image 42) being the Luminescent Limacon lighting by Andrew Saunders. This computer fabricated design “integrates equation-based geometry , material performance and sartorial fabrication techniques to produce unique diaphanous and volumetric lighting affects” 1 Taking precedence from the dutch ruff this design eludes to folding elegantly. An advantage of the equation-based geometry in which this design used is the ability to define variables to geometric parameters. This allows for a more fluid and rapid flow of design evolution. The design is based on roulette curve rolls and using a folding technique by geometry and placing variants into the computation allows for the design to be structured as it is. This design integrates the use of computation, mathematics, fabrication and material performance. This integration allows the design to therefore accommodate and respond to “both intrinsic and extrinsic criteria simultaneously.” 2 The second design (Image 43) is made only from cardboard. This design takes on the method of folding more literally than the first. The triangulation of the structure is created by folding the cardboard into triangles. However, before this process occurred the junction of the triangular cells were done through a computational method. 3 A different way of utilizing the folding technique is demonstrated here with the literal folding of card but also the manipulation of form within the computational space. In most folding system examples the sole use of this system is not apparent, with the assistance of either patterning or another system of the parametric modeling.
1,2. Saunders, Andrew, “Luminescent Limacon lighting”, Retail Design Blog, November 29th, 2012, < http://retaildesignblog.net/2012/11/29/ luminescent-limacon-lighting-by-andrew-saunders/> 3.Manu, Pirate, “Pupa Pavilion”, Trend bump, August 28, 2013, < http:// trendbump.com/interior-design/pupa-pavilion/>
29 IMAGE 43
CASE STUDY 1.0 BIOTHING - SEROUSSI PAVILLION, PARIS, 2007
Seroussi Pavillion modeled using computational design is based on electro-magnetic fields, which in turns creates a self modifying line pattern. alterations based on site function and manipulation of material were factors that altered the design shape and form by inputting parameters based on these.1 “Six different geometrical systems were used for design and are all steaming out of primary trajectories.”2 The design of the pavillion was to purposely be one of complete difference to traditional architecture, for it to be a “dynamic blueprint closer to musical notation”3
Overall this designs use of computational assistance is evident in the way that the entirety of the structure flows within itself and its surroudning systems. I find that this structure reminds me of morphogenesis due to its complete natural looking form and the way the form seemed to naturally evolve around the magnetic points it is placed around, relating back to the growing of a single cell and how it changes due to surrounding conditions.
1. Steinfeld, Kyle and Andrasek, Alisa, “Seroussi Pavilion/paris/2007”, Biothing - Repository of computational design, March 24th, 2010, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> 2. Steinfeld, Kyle and Andrasek, Alisa, “Seroussi Pavilion/paris/2007”, Biothing - Repository of computational design, March 24th, 2010, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> 3. Steinfeld, Kyle and Andrasek, Alisa, “Seroussi Pavilion/paris/2007”, Biothing - Repository of computational design, March 24th, 2010, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5>
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 30
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 31
SLIDER CHANGE (TO LOWER VALUE)
BOOLEAN TO TRUE
SLIDER CHANGE (TO HIGHER VALUE)
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 32
ADJUSTING WITH COMPONENTS
ADDITION OF EXPRESSION COMPONENT SPIN CHARGE COMPONENT ADDED
MATRIX In exploring the grasshopper definition of the Seroussi Pavillion it is evident that it is in fact a charge based design and the curves follow the parameters set from those charges. In exploring these parameters and adjusting them you can begin to create all sorts of forms and designs. One small change, for example adjusting the accuracy, creates a total shift in how the curves takes form. In a way this design has used mechanism not to connect to culture but rather to connect to the land, and thus has explored different ways of ornament through its use of material and design. 1
1. Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 10-11
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 33
MATRIX - EXPLORING FURTHER ORIGINAL IMAGE
REPLACE POINT CHARGE WITH SPIN CHARGE
INPUTTING DIFFERENT GEOMETRY INTO ORIGINAL FUNCTION
EXPLORATION WITH KALEIDOSCOPE COMPONENT
GEODESIC CURVE FUNCTION APPLIED AS BEGINNING OF BASE CURVE
SLIDER MOVEMENT, EXPRESSION SIN(X)
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 34
MATRIX - COLLABORATION ORIGINAL IMAGE
SPIN CHARGES ADDED
.BOOLEAN SET TO TRUE - FROM ORIGINAL
CHARGE MAXIMIZED, DECAY MINIMIZED SPIN CHARGES RADIUS CHANGE, DECAY AND CHARGE ADJUSTED INTERPOLATE CURVE BOOLEAN TO TRUE ADJUSTMENT OF GRAPH MAPPER
DIMENSION CHANGE OF CIRCLE AND DIVIDE FUNCTION
SLIDER CHANGE, ADDITION OF TRIG FUNCTION, MOVEMENT IN X AND Y DIRECTION X AND WHY VALUES ADJUSTED
ADDITION OF SIN(X) FUNCTION SECOND BOOLEAN SET TO TRUE
DELETED THE POINT CHARGE - SPIN CHARGES ALONE
EXPRESSION OF FIX(X)
EXPRESSION OF SIN(X) ADJUSTMENT OF RADIUS IN SPIN VECTOR FIELD
EXPRESSION OF EXP(X) x TAN(X)
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 35
CHOSEN DESIGNS/ALTERATIONS SELECTION CRITERIA In order to select what we found to be the most successful iterations we set out a few guidelines according to what we thought would be appropriate in considering the LAGI design brief. The first consideration was of the technological system we were planning to use; water generated power, kinetic energy or wind technology. These energy harvesting techniques are all quite different and so a few other selection criteria were developed. We want our design to be intriguing to the eye of the viewer, have an interconnection between space and movement of people throughout it., representational of the function of one or more of the technologies used, and the overall continuity/ organic-like structure as a whole.
Selection 1. Shows an interconnection between space and could be developed further, could be as simple as marking on the ground or the structure of a pavilion like design, also representational of the circulation of water vortices. Selection 2. Connection between space, organic like form between ground and grown structure, and is able to be further developed to be a sculpture, pavilion or even play ground for site. Selection 3. Intriguing to the eye, opportunity to expand and develop further, potential to represent either technologies. Selection 4. Interesting geometric form (most unique of all iterations), representational of water vortices and literal representation of circulation and movement. Repetition and patterning throughout entire design, takes what was organic to a more geometric form (however opposing the desire to create an organic form) 2.
B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0 36
CASE STUDY 2.0 THE KLUPA 1000 CM BENCH DESIGN
This section asks us to reverse engineer a particular project. The project that has been chosen is the Klupa 1000 cm Bench Design. It was chosen as it relates to the strips/folding system that was previously researched. In reverse modeling this one will need to understand the basic concept of grasshopper.
THE DESIGN This bench design intends to “wrap around the urban landscape”1 in order to create harmony within the built environment and surrounding natural forms. Stretching for ten metres, this oscillating wood structure bends, twists and turns to create an interesting design. Lined with light allows the design to be visible at all times but also gives off a sense of serenity to surrounding environments. 2
The harmony within nature is achieved in this design with its organic form and use of material, however when the lights light up at night the intent disappears. What was once a harmonious structure stands out forcing attention onto itself, acting completely against nature and therefore it is in this sense that the bench may not completely fulfill the design intent.
IMAGE 50 1. Mings, Josh, “Generative Modeling Makes Freagin’ Long Wooden Bench a Cinch”, Solid Smack, July 7, 2011 < http://www.solidsmack.com/design/klupa1000cmbench-design-modelart/> 2. Mings, Josh, “Generative Modeling Makes Freagin’ Long Wooden Bench a Cinch”, Solid Smack, July 7, 2011 < http://www.solidsmack.com/design/klupa1000cmbench-design-modelart/>
B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 37 IMAGE 51
Loft form in rhinoceros Create lines from loft from boundary in Grasshopper
Create polygons and shift to be centred at end points of line; rotate one polygon.
Loft two polygons together
Create lines in lofted boundary.
B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 38
Using a twisted loft form we were able to create lines that ran in the appropriate direction. Even though this is not an exact representation of the klupa bench design, we find that this design has potential to be developed further to suit the LAGI design brief.
B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0 39
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 40
EXTRUSIONS OF FORM
POLY-ARC BETWEEN EDGE POINTS
LINES FIT BETWEEN EDGE POINTS/ LOFT OPTIONS
EDGE POINTS LISTS SHIFTED BETWEEN SUPERIMPOSED TOWERS
LINES FIT BETWEEN SHIFTED LIST
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 41
MATRIX - EXPLANATION
The main themes throughout reiterating our design through the matrix was to explore the ways in which the twisted form could be re-moulded to represent water vortices. Pushing the definition to the limits on grasshopper proved difficult as the definition itself was simple. A lot of add-on components were required to create the forms shown previously. FORMS IN MATRIX A 1-8: Changes made to this series was simply the movement of number slider in the grasshopper definition. The power of the sliders in this definition is not extreme however you can begin to see how it can change the overall form. B 1-8: Spin charges were added to the function to create the first form, from there the twisted loft form derived from the spin charges were added to the field lone component. Alterations to the spin charge was made, sliders added to the number of steps in the lines components, decay altered, and boolean adjusted. C 1-8: A tween component was explored in these iterations, adding the nurbs curves component to insure that lines would be able to run through it. The kaleidoscope component was also explored in these iterations. D 1-8: These iterations were an attempt to develop some form from the lines present. Split list component, rectangle box component, were explored in hope of creating a lofted from which could be represented in â€˜real-lifeâ€™ three dimensional form. Exploring the way in which a water vortex works and how this would be placed into a design on the Site defined by the LAGI brief is the next step.
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 42
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 43
CHOSEN DESIGN ITERATIONS
B 12 SELECTION CRITERIA Curved Formation; Allows for maximum performance of Water Vortex generation. Ability for Interaction; Between the site, design and audience. Interesting Characteristic; The optimal use of Computational Design techniques that results in a complexity of form that is aesthetically intriguing. Expression of Water; This acts as the concept of the overall design to conjoin the relationship between the technology system and the design.
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 44
B 14 FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Furthering the design each of us will take on a different aspect in attempt to combine the designs and create something more representational and â€˜belongingâ€™ to the site. To create a more interactive environment along the site and to re-think the connection between land and design.
For future development the main focus will be interaction with site, people, technology and movement between them all. In using these as new design parameters, focusing intently on the overall movement, it will assist the design in taking a more relevant shape.
The technology is chosen and therefore we need to also incorporate how this technology could be further represented and/if there is need to add another technology for the purposes of design and fulfilling the LAGI brief.
B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 45
THE BRIEF -LAGI - COPENHAGEN RETHINKING THE BRIEF
REQUIREMENTS Sculptural form that has the ability to challenge and stimulate minds of the visitors. To capture energy from nature and carefully think out the overall layout as to not harm the users. Not create greenhouse gases, as to not pollute surrounding areas. Employ technology that can be tested, and have a broader, knowledgable understanding of the history of the site. Be designed specifically to the restraints of the site.1 The current ideas in place for this site are not specific to its requirements and therefore the rethinking of scale, and movement through site need to be reconsidered in the designing process. In designing a sculpture for this site, we also need to consider the inclusion of the technology system that we have chosen to use. Hydroelectricity being the system chosen as water surrounds the site and to not make use of harnessing such a clean source of energy would be wasted.
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/>
ENERGY SYSTEM - HYDROELECTRICITY HYDROKINETIC - VORTEX POWER
As hydroelectricity is the technology in which our group has chosen to pursue some further research on this technology has been conducted. REASON FOR CHOICE: Water surrounds the site of the LAGI brief, and so why not utilise not only the land in which the site is located but also the water that surrounds it. Using hydroelectricity can influence our design on the site as under the water the use of this technology may not be seen however if we were to represent the way in which a water vortex (specified harvesting decision) works within the water in our design we could then also combine the use of kinetic energy to keep the vortex flowing perhaps. WHAT IS VORTEX POWER? “When you place obstacle in the path of flowing water, it creates vortices” 1 These vortices have - in recent studies- shown to be able to harvest energy from the flow and movent of the water. This form of hydroelectricity is the least damaging to the environment. 2 “Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) is an extensively studied phenomenon where vortices are formed and shed on the downstream side of bluff bodies (rounded objects) in a fluid current.” 3 This method of harvesting energy can be placed within the flowing water of the site in Copenhagen, and due to the constant movement of boats along the strip of water the vortex would work well within this site.
RE-THINKING ENERGY POWER Although the site is surrounded by water, and water may seem like an obvious choice perhaps a different technology should be considered. To be able to store this energy the use of gravity is required and due to the lack of slopes on the site this could prove to be a problem.
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/> 2. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/> 3. Wordpress, “Vortex Hydro Energy”, Technology, Last modified 2014: <http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/technology/>
IMAGE 53 IMAGE 52
DIGITAL PROTOTYPING FURTHER DEVELOPMENT - COMBINING FORM WHAT IS DIGITAL PROTOTYPING? Digital prototyping (in this case) is the further exploration of design, it may be exploring the overall layout and function of the design or it may be focused on certain components of the design. This form of prototyping is different to modeling a design with materials as it can be a quicker way to create an idea. Not only this but digital protoyping allows for errors and discoveries of what design can do, using other plug-ins on the grasshopper program, such as kangaroo physics, also assists in the understanding of three-dimensional form in ‘real-life’.
After much discussion with my group members we concluded that this current design was not what we are looking for. Each chosen iteration had aspects of what we were after however there was not one iteration that completely satisfied all our requirements. So we decided to attempt to combine the iterations we chose creating more unique and obscure designs that we wanted. What we had to keep in mind at this stage was the LAGI Brief. They require a unique proposal that uses renewable technology. As this brief is vague we have set a few parameters of our own. These include: The design must be representational of the chosen technology (hydroelectricity - water vortices) It must be a unique and intriguing design People should be able to interact within it (therefore also allowing the potential to use kinetic harvesting technologies) The interconnection between spaces and the way the design connects with the ground and is seen to ‘grow out of the ground’ must be clearly thought out.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 50
On right : prototyping.
All designs have the potential to guide the users through space, are representational of chosen energy (water vortices). In particular the way in which the water would move around the obstacles in place. One problem that arose for all designs were the amount of extrusions that the form created. This cause the design to be too bust and complex. Simplifying the number of ‘walls’ would create a much easier accessible site. Top: The top design was perhaps the least successful as it does not fully represent the way in which water moves as if it were flowing however representational of water if someone were to jump in a puddle.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 51
DIGITAL PROTOTYPING FURTHERING FORM
Field a line through these forces and adjusting constraints give the following forms
After re-thinking the brief we rethought how we wanted the visitors to interact within the site. The idea of a maze arose. The process of creating this was generated by the representational form of water movement and the correlation of people moving through space. We used a set of lines that showed a path of how we wanted people to move through the site and from this generated a diagram that would show how water would then move around specific points on that path, as though there were water vortices there forcing the water to therefore spin.
We divided these curves up to segregate the stronger vortices to weaker, where when you first enter the site the vortices would not have much power and to the edge of the site (closer to the waters edge) the vortices would be more powerful. This was represented in parametric design as demonstrated below
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 52
Once we were content with the form and shape that the design was producing we then experimented with how parametric design could effect the ‘wall-like’ structure that was previously shown.
PIPES ALONG MOVED LINES TO CREATE WALL-LIKE STRUCTURE
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 53
DIGITAL PROTOTYPING FURTHERING FORM - BREAKING UP FORM INDIVIDUAL WALL ELEMENT STRUCTURES
EXPERIMENTING WITH HEIGHTS IN THE DESIGN
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 54
This form or prototyping allows the designer to explore ideas that they may not know how to explore in digital design - the limitations of digital deigns are the limitations of the users ability to navigate the program
PROTOTYPES IDEAS - DESIGN INSPIRATION/EXPLORATION TRANSPARENCY
Using glass as a form of material will allow for the walllike structure to open up and appear more free. Transparency in design also allows for fragments of light to dance around in the design pending on the location of the sun at different times of the day. Transparency is also representational of water. The transparency will allow the visitors to see what goes in inside these walls, and allow them to gain more of an understanding of how water vortices would work.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 56
Exploring the materiality of the design and how it may look as a whole with certain junction and joints. This will explore how the system may be laid out and how it will interact with the vortex. With this layout acting as a wall element, the water would flow in between panels and then open up into the space where the vortex would be, allowing the visitor to see the full capacity of the
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 57
PROTOTYPES IDEAS - DESIGN INSPIRATION/EXPLORATION PERFORMANCE - Structure In testing how the structure would work/stand when constructed you are able to understand what will will and what wonâ€™t work simply by creating a form that replicates the design.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 58
HANGING Hanging the structure would call for extra support on order to hold the weight of the poles and the water. However this would allow the structure to sway slightly in the wind, not enough to cause damage to surrounding visitors, this swinging however would have to be further researched inorder to completely understand how the form would swing.
STANDING Standing the structure on poles of either stripped timber, or even steel would not require much more material than necessary, this form of support is simple and would still allow the design to move as we want it.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 59
PROTOTYPES IDEAS - DESIGN INSPIRATION/EXPLORATION WATER MOVEMENT This prototype explores the movement of water through an angular surface. Three angles were tested, 2 degrees, 5 degrees, and 8 degrees of elevation. In testing this we are then able to understand the fluidity and movement of water along a surface, to assist in bringing water into out design, and possibly flowing throughout. The photos shown are a time lapse of 2 seconds.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 60
ANGLE AT 2 DEGREES At this angle the water would move down the slop however would not move at a rate fast enough to power the vortices. (min 2 knots) ANGLE AT 5 DEGREES The water moves over the surface quicker, as expected.
ANGLE AT 8 DEGREES The water makes its way down the surface of the slop in less than two seconds.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 61
PROTOTYPES IDEAS - DESIGN INSPIRATION/EXPLORATION WATER PRESSURE This prototype explores the level of the water pressure in order to be able to go against gravity.
LOW PRESSURE At this level of pressure the water struggles to get over the hitch in the pipe.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 62
WATER PRESSURE Exploring the water pressure and its potential for â€˜defying gravityâ€™ allows us to understand the limitations oh how steep a climb may be able to go. Where there is the highest pressure of water entry steeper climbs are able to be put in place and where the pressure is low, climbs are to be avoided. This then allows us to alter the design technique in order to comply with these constraints.
HIGH PRESSURE At this level of pressure water has no problem running through the pipe.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 63
PROTOTYPES IDEAS - DESIGN INSPIRATION/EXPLORATION GUIDING WATER Using this prototype we will gain a rough understanding of how the water would flow into the sire (if it were not to be pumped onto the site) and therefore the curvature of walls/capturing forms would need to be altered to gain maximum water capacity.
OPENING : WATER INTO THE SITE TOP: Ends curved inward MIDDLE: Spread apart BOTTOM: Elongated
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 64
CURVED FORM In using a curved form to allow for the water to access the site it flows much easier than it would with edges.
B.5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES 65
PROPOSAL WATER AS A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE
B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL 66
ENERGY MAZE This maze would consist of water flowing walls powered and pushed by a pump, which in turn is powered by the water vortices placed throughout the maze. Using computational design to generate the complex pattern that the walls were developed by, representing the movement of the water that surrounds the vortices.
B.6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL 67
MAPPING SITE ATTRIBUTES
SITE BOUNDARY ENTRY/ACCESS POINTS
MAIN WIND SOURCE (on averager per year) MAIN VIEWS FROM SITE
SITE PROPOSAL Being situated in such an industrial surrounding the site has the ability to be turned into almost anything. The movement of people through the site is an important aspect of the design, manipulating where they move and go based on the placement of walls. Having only two access points this creates a difficult task however could also improve on the manipulation of direction. The aim is to educate people of water as a system through the movement of the maze and the placement of the vortices. As one moves closer to the waters edge the vortices power and strength becomes obviously larger (these vortices are to be placed in the flowing walls of the maze). The further away one is from the water the less powerful these vortices become. Overall the design will intrigue the viewer, take them on a journey and educate them through visual representation of what and how a vortex works.
NG BUILT UP AREAS
PROPOSAL WATER AS A GUIDE TO THE FUTURE ENERGY MAZE
WATER ACCESS WITHIN DESIGN
Water Movement through the pipes/ walls, will be initially pumped up. For the initial start of the â€˜moving wallâ€™ the pump will need to use outsourced energy however after that initial pump the vortices throughout the maze will be able to power the function of the pump.
THE TECHNOLOGY - CRITICAL REFLECTION Hydroelectricity storage requires the force of extremely large amounts of gravitational force to store usable amounts of electricity. Our design will not be able to meet such standards. The need for a pump at the beginning of the structure will also require the use of electricity. Over all the use of the technology is poorly administrated and only would work at higher scaled design, also would be suited for a more sloped site. The technology, even though remotely renewable, will not be able to reach the LAGI requirements as it will not produce enough electricity to power itself, nor give anything back to the electricity grid of Copenhagen. A rethinking of the technology use, and possible change in technology choice should be considered. This was also realised in prototyping where a large amount of force was required to push the water through the pipes and a steeper sloe was required for the water to flow at a constant (fast) rate.
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 72
THE DESIGN - CRITICAL REFLECTION Overall the design produced evocative imagery however has the ability to be computationally designed further. The consideration of a new technology also needs to be considered, but also how the design could relate more to the site and to the people that live within Denmark. A more intriguing development should be made, and through exploring a new technology with however keeping the reference to the surrounding water by the patterning of the design that is already made should create a more interesting structure The aim for this design now is to relate more to the LAGI brief in achieving maximum energy output but also in relation to involving people within the design, so to consider how one would use such a sculpture. Developing it further than walls should be considered and undertaken as computational design will be able to assist in creating interesting forms due to parameters set. The design should be considered in a more sculptural way also, thus can be achieved by furthering the form using computation.
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 73
RETHINKING DESIGN COPENHAGEN - IN SEARCH OF A NEW TECHNOLOGY
In realising through prototyping, the pressure of the water that needs to be running through the pipes in order to generate enough electricity through the vortices will need to be extremely high, and also the Such a high level of pressure is easily produced with the use of gravitational force, however due to the flatness of the site, there is no great slop that exists or that can be created, and so the energy required to pump the water into the pipes will be greater than the energy that will be harvested. COPENHAGEN
Copenhagen is well developed in its renewable energy scheme. The “government has set the target of 50 per cent wind power in the electricity system by 2020.”1 This will to produce green energy has spread throughout Denmark and now even the people within the country are positive about wind power.2 Could wind power be the way to go? Given that Copenhagen is a very windy city seems wasteful to not harness this wind energy.
1. Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark. dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/> 2. Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark. dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/> 3. Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark. dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/> IMAGE 56
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 74
RETHINKING DESIGN COPENHAGEN - MOVING FORWARD
WIND ENERGY There are many discovered forms of wind energy harvesting in the world toady, these include: - Horizontal Axis wind turbines : onshore : offshore - Vertical axis winds turbine - Concentrated wind - Blade tip power systems - High altitude wind power & airborne wind turbines - Windbelt The there are experimental ones. - Selsam multirotoe wind turbine. - Vaneless ion 1 “Recent surveys show that most of the population would welcome more wind energy in the electricity system.” 2 “Wind power is converted into electricity by magnets moving past stationary coils of wire known as the stator. As the magnets pass the stator, AC electricity is produced. It is then converted into DC electricity which can be used to charge batteries which store the electrical energy or can also be fed into a grid interactive inverter for feeding power into the electricity grid.”3
1. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/> 2. Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark. dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/> 3. Energy Matters Pty Ltd , “How a wind turbine works “ Renewable Energy, Last modified 2012 <http://www.energymatters.com.au/ renewable-energy/wind-energy/>
B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES 75
PART C - DETAILED DESIGN 76
CRITICAL FEEDBACK - MAIN OBJECTIVE “Design produces evokative form” “Possible experence gain from varying the heights” “Technology needs to be reassessed, it is not convincing enough” “Needs to convincingly produce electricity” ”Research a specific technology, work out its optimal conditions and constraints then propose some arrangements balance an optimised result with an interesting architectural outcome” “Focus on expressing the technology sculpturally” “create an experience of it’s interesting attributes”
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 77
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 78
THE DESIGN SO FAR The initial concept of the design was to create an interaction with people, thus the idea of creating a maze. This interaction would be stimulated by the water flowing through the walls powered by a pump at the waters edge, this pump, theoretically, would have been able to be powered by the vortices stationed throughout the maze as the water flow through them. However after several prototypes we realised that a lot of power was required to pump the water at such a speed as to produce enough energy to simply power the pump. Some critical changes then needed to be made. THE FORM The design of the maze was produced by representing the spinning vortices in a linear pattern as to mimic the flow of water around the vortices as if in place in a flowing stream. The pattern in which computational design produce proved to be a seductive one and therefore we shall incorporate this within the design, however further working the form in computational software as to make it more relevant to the new technology that will be adopted. THE TECHNOLOGY Given the flat nature of the site and the inability to produce enough energy to power itself from the harvesting of water vortices other ways of hydroelectricity were looked into. However an issue occurred in the realisation of the storage method of hydroelectricity; gravity storage. This requires a gravitational pull to generate the energy of the water to then store it. This would be an unrealistic task for such a flat site. Research of the climate in Denmark, Copenhagen was conducted and it was found that the city was almost always windy, sun would not be strong, and had on average a colder weather climate. From this research one can understand that solar energy will only be efficient in the sumer season, kinetic will potentially only be efficient then also (however this will depend on the population of people that are willing to venture out onto an unprotected site during the winter months). It therefore leaves wind energy harvesting as the most logical, and all year round solution to harvesting the most usable energy.
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 79
DESIGN CONCEPT ALTERATION COPENHAGEN - A NEW (MORE EFFICIENT) TECHNOLOGY
REVIEWING THE BRIEF The LAGI brief requires an interesting and engaging design that harvests natural energy. In designing what is to be new with the incorporation of wind energy harvesting the design should aim to strive for striking views at all angles and creates interest among users.
WIND ENERGY Wind energy is not a new technology (in comparison to other renewable technologies emerging) and therefore has been established to a point of creating more interesting and workable structures. This variety of available technology will enable us to incorporate a new technology within the existing design - with alterations made to the design according to the technology. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SITE AND USER The objective for the users along this site is to motivate/encourage them to want to walk through the entirety or if not all then most of the site. This must relate directly to the interest developed within the user by the site, and therefore the design on the site. How would the design encourage people to go to it?
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 80
HOW IT WORKS - A TWIST ON WIND POWER Piezoelectricity uses stretching and compression to generate force. This stretching and compression and idea of using wind to move the structure to then generate the form has been used before as seen in Image 58 and 59. This low cost energy genereration would be perfect for such weather conditions in Copenhagen. HOW IT WORKS “piezoelectric structures (toroids) compress and stretch when flexed in any direction, converting any motion directly into electricity with no intermediary mechanical generators, transmissions or propellors.”1 IMAGE 58 IMAGE 59
A weighted wind-capturing tip is able to contain the energy output from a “single gust of wind by the continuing oscillation of this inverted pendulum after the gust fades. In light winds the power extraction would be maximized while remaining robust in high winds.” 2 “Assuming a wind force of 226 Kilgograms, a height of 30.5 metres, and a width of 30 centimetres, we can generate a compression pressure of 22680 Kilograms” 3 Such energy from movement is also being further developed at the University of Maryland. “The Hybrid Adaptive Low Frequency, Low Intensity Vibration Energy Scavenging, or HALF-LIVES, is a system that converts ambient vibration in the environment into usable power for small scale microelectronic systems.” 4 Such technology, once developed could be implemented into the design.
1. Hodges, Dick. “How it works” The Windulum, Last Modifed, 2009 <http://windulum.com/page0/page0.html> 2. Hodges, Dick. “How it works”, The Windulum, Last Modified, 2009 < http://windulum.com/page1/page1.html> 3. Hodges, Dick. “How it works”, The Windulum, Last Modified, 2009 < http://windulum.com/page1/page1.html> 4. Ghodssi, Reza , “Hybrid/Adaptive Ambient Vibration Energy Harvesting “ University of Maryland, Last Modified 2014, <http:// www.umerc.umd.edu/projects/harvest01>
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT
DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT CHANGING DESIGN - INCORPORATING TECHNOLOGY WIND ENERGY WITHIN DESIGN - INCORPORATING EXPERIENCE With wind energy harvesting as a new technology, incorporating this into the design needs to be shown. This form shown below was generated by using a series of curves and inputting them into grasshopper to create an arc over them, the views that this creates sparks interest in the viewers eye, and should be taken on into finalising design.
The decision to use an arch as one of the main forms came from the idea of including the user within the design. By using arches this does exaclty that, with a path clearly defined by the arches themselves spread out in such a manner as to direct movement, however this movement should not be too restricting, therefore we should allow his to become a design constraint.
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 82
GENERATING THE ARCH The choice of an arch was decided based on the views that it would be able to project from the little mermaid. With its forms it will create a complex and confusing view from the little mermaid, inspiring those to walk over to see what this structure is. In order for this arch to move within the wind, the shape needs to be designed so its movement is optmised Some shapes were adopted to create an interesting form. First a geometric approach was applied in designing an arch however a design like this would not capture the wind as desired and therefore would not allow for the structure to move within the wind as the wind would slide right off it. The more curved design (to the left) showed more potential but not convincingly enough. To design an arch that would efficiently move within the wind the parts would have to be considered individually
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 83
GENERATNG THE ARCH GENERATING THE ARCH To generate such a form as to allow it to move easily within the wind was a process that required a schematic design approach. In order for the arches to move efficiently within the wind they needed to have a surface area large enough to capture the wind, but also must be of a lightweight- structurally stable material. The base of the arches should be heavier than that of the top to allow for that swaying movement. Most importantly there should be a form of capturing the compression and tension movement that can be created from these moving arches. Wires were therefore the solution to capturing this compression as with the use of piezoelectric disks. The wires would assist not only in transferring the energy but also stabilizing the arch so that itâ€™s movement is not too severe as to endanger the users on the site.
Contouring the base shape
Lofting between base shape curves to create a surface
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 84
Capping th to cover ho
he surface so as oled surface
Puncturing the sides, to allow for wire penetration
Final form - Wires, pipes in grasshopper from base curve
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 85
THE ARCH DESIGN
Thin width, streamlining against the wind
Flat surface to catch the wind
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 86
Hollowed section for light weigth area Thick section for weighted bottom for stability(varies per arch)
Curved bottom to allow for swaying movement
In designing this arch the components that would assist its movement within the wind were designed carefully so that it would be an efficient use of wind power, this design method is demonstrated in the top left corner of the page. This design will allow for the capture of the wind pushing the arch down, the arch will then be compressing the wires on one side and the wires on the other side would then be in tension, this force will be what stops the arch from completely falling over in the wind, and with the three wires, it ensures that if one wire fails there are still two to hold the arch in place. These wires not only stabilize the arch but will also be the energy generation point. The cut out section on the side of the arch allows the wide to run through without placing additional force onto the arch in the wrong direction, this hollowed out section also allows for the arch to be of a lighter weight so that not much force is required to push the arch. To assist in the differentiation of the upper section being lighter than the bottom, the arch is thinned out at the top. The bottom of the arch is then weighted so that the wind does not have too much power over the arch in terms of movement so that it is only able to move the top of the arch. Therefore a swaying movement is created, and to enhance this swaying movement is the curved base of the arch.
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 87
DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT GENERATING LAYOUT In creating the layout of the arches, three things in particular were considered; 1. The movement of people through the site 2. The representational qualities of wind and 3. The view from the little Mermaid statue and whether or not it would create interest within the eyes of the viewers as to aspire them to go to the site itself. On the right shows the possible variations of the site and the ways in which it can be laid out. These came from the movement in which we wanted the users to undergo, to involve them with the site and the explorations that would go on within the site, but also to minimise the amout of arches along the site. Even though the site is large it can begin to look too messy and not a structured lay-out if the design is to complex. So therefore considerations of the use of one arch pathway along the site was considered as well as multiple. On the right are shown the most successful layouts:
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 88
PROPOSALS AS SIMPLE LINES Based on wind trajectories and how it is unpredictable, a wider more variable direction was taken thus the reconsideration of layouts and the exploration between multiple curves along the site or a sinuglar curve along the site. Using the views from the little mermaind and the proposed entrance views to selct which was the more intriguing choice.
VIEW FROM LITTLE MERMAID STATUE
VIEW FROM PROPOSED ENTRANCE
VIEW FROM LITTLE MERMAID STATUE
VIEW FROM PROPOSED ENTRANCE
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 89
DESIGN CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT CONTOURING At the moment the site is rather flat and therefore simply placing the arches in pattern along a flat surface would be interesting however if the surface was to be more contoured in areas it would give users either shelter from the wind or maximize their engagement with the wind and the power that it has.
To reduce the amount in which we dig into the ground to create shading a small hill can be created so to block the wind from entering this cavity, but not so high as to deflect wind from hitting the panels.
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 90
CONTOURING IN RHINOCEROUS Using the ideas applied on the previous page a contoured layout of what the ideal contour of the site should look like was created.
WATER ON LEFT - INLAND ON RIGHT OF IMAGE
FACING THE WATER
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 91
The purpose of contouring the site is to create different levels of engagement within the site. In creating contours the arches will not sit flat along the surface and contours will be curved as a hill. This poses a problem of stability and will have to be looked into (for further details go to C.2 Tectonic Elements). The reason we have chosen to follow the arcs along the contours is so to further this experience along the site to ensure a close engagement, but also to generate interest amongst those walking underneath. When walking beneath an arch that follows the contour one would feel an unusual sensation of ‘feeling crooked’ this crooked feeling will be from the sloped arch and how we as humans naturally feel the urge for things to be upright.
Going against what is natural will temporarily make the user feel uneasy however will also generate a further interest in design, sparking the natural curiosity that is within human nature. The variation in heights also creates a messier outcome on the water’s edge and a calmer outcomes on the inland side, creating a transitional space not only in the pattern of arches but also in the movement of heights in contouring.
CONTOUR PLAN VIEW - SECTION CUT IN RED (DISPLAYED BELOW)
SECTION CUT (AS DISPLAYED IN CONTOUR PLAN)
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 92
In the higher levels of the contours the level and strngth of the wind, naturally, will become much stronger therefore allowing a closer engagement with the wind. The lower section (as divided by the dotted line below) will be a relaxation spcae, protected by the hills on either side of it, strong winds will not be able to reach this point. Not only does this point create a relaxation space, but it also creates a spark of interest for those walking onto the site to see what is beyond the hill, therefore thrusting them further into the design
The heights of the arches will vary in accordance to the height of the ground, the higher it is above the sea level the higher the arches will get, with the smallest arch being at four metres at the lowest point of the ground. A few manual adjustments were made to this method and therefore the most prominent/exposed wind areas (in addition to the previous method) were also areas in which higher arches would be. This method created a layout displayed below, with the darker arches being that tallest ones (at 16 metres tall) and the lightest coloured arches being the smallest (at 4 metres tall). Shown Below.
The two tunnels are divided up and arranged in such a way that represents two main wind types that will travel across the site. Closer to the entrance the tunnel follows a basic, simple curved pattern with arches varying in height (Height variation also specifically decided). This calm curved pattern represents the calmer inland wind that will cross the site, placed in this area given the proximity of this end of the site to the â€˜inlandâ€™ section of Copenhagen. The arches closer to the waterâ€™s edge are placed in a much more curved pattern creating a messier view also representative of the more harsher, unpredictable wind of the offshore gusts.
Arches closer to water Arches closer to land
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 93
DESIGN CONCEPT FINALISATION THE DESIGN
In this design the user will walk through a set of arches that will move within the wind harnessing the movement created by the wind by using piezoelectric generators at the base. Through the use of levels in the ground the intensity of the wind will either be maximized or decreased in accordance to the contours created within the site. This close engagement with the wind and the arches and the way in which they sway within the wind will create an interesting feel amongst the users. The level that is set below will be the relaxation point in which the users can sit back and view what wind is capable of doing. This drop in earth will also be the harnessing/storage point of the electricity generated. The positioning of the arches represent the different forces of wind in a diagrammatic representation as viewed from above, however when walking through it will be reflective of the un - predictableness of wind direction itself, as the arches will seem to twist and turn in all sorts of directions. This form was also generated from the unpredictability of wind and how the arcs are placed in every possible direction as to catch wind at any time.
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 94
CORE CONSTRUCTION ELEMENT
Due to the complexity of the arcs the way in which the design should be fabricated needs to be well thought out. Contours will need to be cut Fabrication of tectonics need to be considered in order to test if this idea will work The arch will be a difficult fabrication (even in real life fabrication using the correct materials) and therefore needs to be considered more carefully Below is the way in which an individual arch design was fabricated (as it would also in real life constrcuction using aluminium sheeting)
DEFINING A LOGIC TO UNROLL
P 27 (ABOVE) ADDING TABS AND NESTING TO BE SENT TO FAB-LAB TO BE CUT
CONNECTION FOR UNROLLED FACES FOR SEAMLESS JOINING
C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT 95
DESIGN TECTONICS EXPLORATION - HOW IT WOULD WORK With the use of arcs as the main feature of the site there are several things which need to be considered. One of those are the way in which the arcs would be held up and how they would move in the wind. Thigns such as tension wires and springs would help this process.
To test to see whether or not a structure held by flexible wire or string would sway within the wind a haridryer was used to mmic wind flow, placed 1 metre away from the model and then turned on. In this example it was clear that the wind would move these structures, and that in fact the flexible wire would move it back into its upright position when there was no wind.
Using springs (demonstrated by the elastics) would allow the structure to move back and forth within the wind, and would allow the structure to also retern to its upright position when wind is not applied to it.
Movement of structure in wind (Below)
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 96
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 97
DESIGN TECTONICS EXPLORATION - HOW IT WOULD WORK From the physical model it is noted that the base of the arch also moves, which could be problematic in terms of endangering those who may stand at the base of the structure, a connection point would have to be placed there to prevent this from moving. Even though the base of the arch moves it still performs well and does in fact move within the wind and place pressure on the wires.
In this tectonic (using the fabrication process as explained on page 95) the design is tested to see whether or not it would move within the wind. As shown below in the digital modeling theoretically the arch should sway from side to side placing pressure and tension constraints on the wires holding them in place.
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 98
P 28 (LEFT)
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 99
DESIGN TECTONICS TECHNOLOGY
P 29 (LEFT)
Above diagram demonstrates how the arch will move in the wind and how the piezoelectric disk are compressed and connected to the torque generator below.
This tectonic model below shows how the disks would be compressed inside the wires and therefore generate electricity to the grid.
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 100
The design will use piezoelectric disks that work under compression, when the disks are comressed they generate energy which is tranferred to a torque generator below. in our design this torque generator will be below the contoured surface encased in a hollow core concrete strip. (More details on page 102) The compression will be generated by the movement of the arches which will be pushed by the wind. This form of genereating electricity will generate 511KW per year for 24, 16 metre arches experiencing as little as 5 compressions per hour. (More detail on energy generation on page 112)
ALUMINIUM SHEETING - CALCULATING WEIGHT The chosen material for the design is Aluminium sheeting. Calculating the weight of an aluminium sheet using density of alloy 2014: Metric density (g/cm³) density x x x =
T W L weight
(0.80cm) (1.25m) (2.5m) (7.00kg)
Where the density is equal to 2.80g/cm3 Applying this to our design: 16 m arches have an area of 266m2. top = 51m2 14 m arches have an area of 220m2. top = 49m2 10 m arches have an area of 113m2. top =25m2 8 m arches have an area of 103m2.. top = 21m2 6 m arches have an area of 48m2. top = 12m2 and 4 m arches have an area of 23m2. top = 7m2 Given that only the top half of the arch is the section that needs to be moved by the wind the ‘top’ measurement will be used for calculation. Therefore the calculation rule will be : density x T x ‘top’ = weight
P 30 (ABOVE)
16m arches = 114.24 kg 14m arches = 109.76 kg 10m arches = 56 kg 8m arches = 47.04 kg 6m arches = 26.88 kg 4m arches = 15.7 kg The weight at the top of the arch is significantly smaller than that of the bottom so as to assisnt the wind in moving such a heavy material, however the weight distribution allows fort he design to sway. Highlighted ‘rolled out’ sections at top of arch shown below
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 101
DESIGN TECTONICS TECHNOLOGY The piezoelectric disks, that are inside the wire will transfer energy down to the torque generator below. The generator is encased in a hollow concrete rectangle. This rectangular shpe will follow the contours collecting all generators that are below each point of the arches (Shown in Fig.2). Within these rectangular hollowed concrete sections the wires carrying electricity will also flow to then meet up at the main access point located within the ‘ditch’ of the contours (As shown in Fig.1). This access point will follow the contour (shown in Fig.2) and only be 2.4 metres high, allowing sufficient storage for the electricity storage generators, and any other extra equipment needed.
T In the above diagram the green line is the ground line. This diagram shows how the hollow rectangular concrete section would work. The wires would be encased withing a section of the concrete that would be slightly above the ground so to create an upstand as to prevent water from penetrating the holes which the wires go through. Further protection is a rubber seal to to still allow movement within the wires, the compression then takes pkace within the box with the torque generator below (labeled “T”). Wires from the torgue generator then run through the hollow concrete.
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 102
The arch when fabricated/built will be bolted in the straight section and welded from the inside folds of the arch so to create a clean corner, however we understood that as this is a closed hollow aluminum framing, that the exterior of the arch (the outside framing as displayed in red below) shall expose the welding on the external of the fold. The choice to weld on this side of the arch was to create a cleaner area when walking through. IMAGE 61
The material choice (aluminum sheeting) is corrugated so to add grip to the ground but also to allow for a greater friction surface so that wind doesn’t simply slip past the arch.
The roller joint as shown on the left is the connection joint between the concrete slab under the ‘rolling point’ of the arch, and the arch itself. This roller joint will allow for the swaying movement as well as keeping the arch fixed to the ground (on the off chance that the wind will be strong enough to create an uplift.
C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS 103
THE FINAL MODEL FABRICATION Unfolding the arches to simply create the base profile was what we aimed to do at such a small scale (1:500). This however proved to be a little difficult, and such fiddly adjustments had to be made
P 31 (LEFT)
Simply unfolding the arches into rhino would create an egg-like shape and not an oval shape we were after so to fold over the arch to represent a curved from
Flattened and straightened faces, then reflected to create an oval shape to fold.
P 32 (LEFT)
The layout - ethcing layout to send to fab lab. There are 24 arches at 16m, 24 arches at 14m, 23 arches at 10m, 6 arches at 8m,6 arches at 6m, and 4 arches at 4m Using the height difference is how they were layed out on the page.
C.3 FINAL MODEL 104
The profile of the arch turned out just as we had wanted. And to map it out on the contours we would use string to be the guide in which one side of the arch would follow. (As displayed in the image on the bottom right of the page).
P 33-36 (LEFT)
Cutting contours was simple enough, however colour coding was required to assemble in the correct order. (As shown directly below).
C.3 FINAL MODEL 105
THE FINAL MODEL - 1:500 “FOLLOW THE WIND”
1. VIEW FROM LITTLE MERMAID STATUE (ABOVE RIGHT) 2. VIEW FROM FERRY (DIRECTLY ABOVE)
3 3. VIEW FROM APPROACH (BELOW RIGHT) 4. VIEW FROM TOP OF ADJACENT BUILDING (DIRECTLY BELOW)
“FOLLOW THE WIND” A MONUMENTAL MOVEMENT
â€œFOLLOW THE WINDâ€?
A MONUMENTAL MOVEMENT
In this design the users will walk through a tunnel of arches which move within the wind harnessing its power. These gleaming aluminum arches are designed is such a way that allows for this elegant movement. The separation of two tunnels on the site is based on the distinction between offshore and inland wind. The differentiation between the two main wind types are speed, power, and direction. The layout is ordered so to allow for a wholesome experience of the site, as well as to anticipate for the unpredictable conditions of wind. The form comprises of curvilinear shapes as well as three-dimensionality through the generated contours. These contours contribute to the functionality of the arches, through the difference between high and low, creating an intense spaces and a relaxation space. The highest sections of the contoured sight allows for the highest wind performance and is then also enhanced by the taller arches being placed on the higher sections of the contours. This is also contrasted by the dip in the sight that creates the relaxation space clear of any arches or movement. Throughout the tunnels different arch sizes are used. The biggest of arches face the prominent wind direction on average, as well as utilizing height, harnessing the most powerful and frequently occurring wind. The smaller arches are designed to create the cohesive connection of a tunnel, but to also capture the smaller unpredictable gusts. The arch is designing in terms of performance with the front and back faces wider than the rest of the arch allowing for greater wind capture with the hollowed section creating a lighter weight at top and heavier down the bottom.
The technology which is implemented is in the form of piezoelectric disks. These are placed in tubes connected between the fin and the ground which compress and stretch due to the swaying motion of the arch in the wind. The piezoelectric disks are stacked within the tube that is attached to the arch which harness the compression and tension caused by the movement of the arches by the wind. This connects to generators at the base encased in concrete allowing for cabling to run out of site underneath the contoured from. The cabling will run to the dip of the site where it can be accessed easily. The energy that this design is able to generate is based on the following formula: Microwats = Number of Arches [(630 x Number of compressions within the hour) x (Number of Disks per arch)] = Energy generated within the hour. Where 630 is the general generation of a piezo disk. DISKS PER NO. OF ARCH ARCHES
NO. OF ENERGY PER COMPRESSIONS DAY. kW
On Average (given 12 compressions per hour) the design will generate 744.6 kW of electricity per year.
C.4 ADDITIONAL LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS 118
MATERIALS IN DESIGN The chosen material for the design is Aluminium sheeting, this sheeting will be corugated in a patterned way (as shown on page 103) as to create friction so that the wind will not slide right past it but to capture the wind’s force. Given the weight of aluminium sheeting is not a light weight the arch was design so to counter the heaviness and use it to an advantage. This was done by creating a heavier weight at the base and a lighter weight at the top. Weight distribution on ‘top’ of arch: 16m arches = 114.24 kg. 14m arches = 109.76 kg. 10m arches = 56 kg. 8m arches = 47.04 kg. 6m arches = 26.88 kg. 4m arches = 15.7 kg. Aluminium is one of the cheapest materials in construction but also one ot the most flexible and so the choice to use this material was to be able to create the elegant curves but also to replicate the industrial siting this monument sits within.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT This design will further the engagement of human interaction on the site, by creating interest and possible learning experiences of the capabilities of wind. To see such a large structure move so easily within the wind will create awe and curiosity amongst those experiencing the site. The energy generated from the site will eventually become enough to ‘pay back’ the energy used to build such large metal structures, and furthermore, will continue to create energy. With future technologies in creating energy from wind, movement, and ambience this design will be able to adapt to such changes by, in the case of ambience, placing panels along the flat faced surfaces therefore harnessing this energy. (Details on ambience technology on page 81). This design will be one that is able to adapt to changing technologies, it will continually provoke interest in users and the giant forms will spark awe and wander in the eyes of those who see it move.
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LEARNING OUTCOMES THE DESIGN - CRITICAL REFLECTION - SEMESTER REFLECTION Throughout the course computational design has been a critical learning aspect and its capabilities. In this design computational methods were crucial in establishing where, how and which direction the arches should be facing, using computational design to gather these records and data to then place the arches along a line that best correlated with this data. Computational design is still able to be further developed however at the stage we are so far in design the capabilities of this design seem limitless (as displayed in algorithmic sketchbook). By experimenting with such software’s designs are able to be developed but also furthered by ‘accidents’, by simply seeing what one component does can lead to a whole range of other possibilities. But is computational design taking away the need for architects? With computational design in order to create beautiful and moving designs the users knowledge of the program needs to be extensive, and even the most brilliant of architects would create ‘okay’ designs using computation if the skills are not there. One thing computational design offers that the minds of creative people cannot is more possibilities, less bias and there is less room for human error. However one thing computational design is still yet to achieve is a more personalized aspect, with computational design designs end up looking similar, or having similar approaches or curves in the design. This may very well be an example of the limitations of knowledge of the software or perhaps it is a technological development that could be further improved. The ability to create, manipulate, and design in parametric modeling is based on the individual. For me manipulating design comes more naturally and easier (shown in the matrixes in Part B) on parametric modeling, however creating a new design beginning in parametric modeling is something I will need a while to get used to, as I am used to sketching on paper, drawing and then using computational methods as a way of formalizing design. But creating design is quite possible in parametric model, so long as you know what exactly you want to do. Using compuational technologies to fabricate models is, in my opinion, one of the most amazing things of computational design, not only does his save time but also creates a much cleaner model than one that would be hand made. Computational design had many beneficial aspects, the ability to create and use programs as a design process in it are extraordinary abilities, but the personification of such programs will need to be amplified in order to keep the individuality of design alive.
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THE DESIGN - FEEDBACK In designing a monumental, interactive sculpture there were a few hurdles in esign that had to be overcome. Many appeared in the first half of this journal, whereby the use of technology and technology itself was a difficult one to incorporate within design. However after much thought the decision to create a design based off the abilities of a particular technology being harnessed by a particular source was a ood choice. The design (after Part B) took off and became a much more convincing and interactive design. Some feedback from the design crit involved a thinking of how the structure would be assembled, and working on presentation of the images (this has been done previously in the journal). Over all the design is convincing, â€œthe integration of structure and energy generation was well designed, and the diagrams presented were logical and clearâ€?. This design will be one to truly move those to follow the wind.
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END OF PART A - REFERENCES ”2.5D Structures”, City Form Lab, Last modified, March 23, 2014, <http://cityform.mit.edu/ projects/25d-structures.html> ”Al Bahar Towers Resposive Facade / Aedas”, Style of Design, Last modified 5th of September 2012, <http://www.styleofdesign.com/architecture/al-bahar-towers-responsive-facade-aedas/> “[C]space - DRL10 Pavilion”, Blogspot, Last modified 25th September 2010, < http://cspacepavilion. blogspot.com.au/> Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 “Jenny Sabin: Branching Morphogenesis”, Archimorph, Last modified, August 13, 2012, < http:// archimorph.com/2010/08/13/jenny-sabine-branching-morphogenesis/> “ICD Research: Computational Morphogenesis - Morphogenetic and Evolutionary Computational Design”, Universitat Stuttgart, Last Modified, March 27, 2014, < http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=5867> Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003) Suggested start with pp. 3-62 Kolarevic, Branko and Ali Malkawi, eds (2005). Performative Architecture: Beyond Instrumentality (New York; London: Spon Press), p. 195 Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http:// landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/> & < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/WF252RKA/> & <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/YJBLLJSL/> ”Menges”, Digital Theory, Last modified March 27, 2014, < http://digitheory.wordpress.com/ authors/menges/> Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 “p_007 evolutionary computation “, Moh Architects, Last modified, March 25, 2014, <http://www. moh-architecture.com/projects_p007.htm> Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges, ‘Introduction’, in Sean Ahlquist and Achim Menges (eds), computational Design Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (Chichester) 2011. Tipler, Paul (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Mechanics, Oscillations and Waves, Thermodynamics (5th ed.). W. H. Freeman. “Vana”, Archilovers, Last modified, January 7, 2014, <http://www.archilovers.com/p111791/ vana?sMiniImg=0#info>
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END OF PART B - REFERENCES “Arum” Sculpture by Zaha Hadid Architects. Image: Matthias Urschler, December 2, 2013, < http:// www.bustler.net/index.php/article/robofold_nominated_for_emerging_design_studio_at_the_icon_ magazine_awards_2/> Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark.dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/> Energy Matters Pty Ltd , “How a wind turbine works “ Renewable Energy, Last modified 2012 <http://www.energymatters.com.au/renewable-energy/wind-energy/> Grozdanic, Lidija, “La Fabrique Sonore - Acoustically Amplifies the Sound of Champagne Bubbles”, Evob, January 15, 2012, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/la-fabrique-sonore-acousticallyamplifies-the-sound-of-champagne-bubbles/> Hansmeyer, Michael “Building unimaginable shapes”, Ted Talks, June 2012, http://www.ted.com/ talks/michael_hansmeyer_building_unimaginable_shapes#t-179584 Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170 Kudless, Andrew, “Installation – Zero/Fold”, Adam Lazar Onulov, 2012, < http://adamonulov.com/ installation-zerofold/> Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http:// landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/> “Loop_3”, Computational Design Italy, November 6, 2012, < http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/ loop_3.html> Manu, Pirate, “Pupa Pavilion”, Trend bump, August 28, 2013, < http://trendbump.com/interiordesign/pupa-pavilion/> Mings, Josh, “Generative Modeling Makes Freagin’ Long Wooden Bench a Cinch”, Solid Smack, July 7, 2011 < http://www.solidsmack.com/design/klupa1000cm-bench-design-modelart/> Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 Paul Ehret& Philipp Eversmann, “Slicing Opacity Pavilion”, In Silico Building, March 2012, < http:// insilicobuilding.wordpress.com/> Saunders, Andrew, “Luminescent Limacon lighting”, Retail Design Blog, November 29th, 2012, < http://retaildesignblog.net/2012/11/29/luminescent-limacon-lighting-by-andrew-saunders/> Steinfeld, Kyle and Andrasek, Alisa, “Seroussi Pavilion/paris/2007”, Biothing - Repository of computational design, March 24th, 2010, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> Wordpress, “Vortex Hydro Energy”, Technology, Last modified 2014: <http://www. vortexhydroenergy.com/technology/>
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IMAGES - PART B 32. “Loop_3”, Computational Design Italy, November 6, 2012, < http://www.co-de-it.com/ wordpress/loop_3.html> 33. Escobedo, Jessica, “Double Agent White”, Evob, July 28, 2012, < http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/double-agent-white-in-series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/> 34. Grozdanic, Lidija, “Archipelago Paremetrically designed Pavillion”, Evob, October 22, 2012, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/> 35,36. Paul Ehret& Philipp Eversmann, “Slicing Opacity Pavilion”, In Silico Building, March 2012, < http://insilicobuilding.wordpress.com/> 37-39. Grozdanic, Lidija, “La Fabrique Sonore - Acoustically Amplifies the Sound of Champagne Bubbles”, Evob, January 15, 2012, < http://www.evolo.us/architecture/la-fabrique-sonoreacoustically-amplifies-the-sound-of-champagne-bubbles/> 40. Kudless, Andrew, “Installation – Zero/Fold”, Adam Lazar Onulov, 2012, < http://adamonulov. com/installation-zerofold/> 41. “Arum” Sculpture by Zaha Hadid Architects. Image: Matthias Urschler, December 2, 2013, < http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/robofold_nominated_for_emerging_design_studio_at_ the_icon_magazine_awards_2/> 42. Saunders, Andrew, “Luminescent Limacon lighting”, Retail Design Blog, November 29th, 2012, < http://retaildesignblog.net/2012/11/29/luminescent-limacon-lighting-by-andrew-saunders/> 43. Manu, Pirate, “Pupa Pavilion”, Trend bump, August 28, 2013, < http://trendbump.com/interiordesign/pupa-pavilion/> 44-47. Steinfeld, Kyle and Andrasek, Alisa, “Seroussi Pavilion/paris/2007”, Biothing - Repository of computational design, March 24th, 2010, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> 48-51. Mings, Josh, “Generative Modeling Makes Freagin’ Long Wooden Bench a Cinch”, Solid Smack, July 7, 2011 < http://www.solidsmack.com/design/klupa1000cm-bench-design-modelart/> 52. Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 . Last modified 10th March, 2014. <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/> 53-54. Wordpress, “Vortex Hydro Energy”, Technology, Last modified 2014: <http://www. vortexhydroenergy.com/technology/> 55. Land Art Generator Initiative, 2014, Copenhagen, last mOdified 2104 <http://landartgenerator. org/blagi/archives/3146> 56. A, Susana, “Mermaid”, Cite seeing Copenhagen, Last Modified 28 April, 2014. <http:// www.tripadvisor.com/LocationPhotoDirectLink-g189541-d2024355-i55868420-City_Sightseeing_ Copenhagen-Copenhagen_Zealand.html> 57. Danish Wind Industry Association, “Wind Energy”, Danish.dk, the offical website of Denmark, Last modified, 2014 <http://denmark.dk/en/green-living/wind-energy/>
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END OF PART C - REFERENCES
Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley) pp. 8-71 Ghodssi, Reza , “Hybrid/Adaptive Ambient Vibration Energy Harvesting “ University of Maryland, Last Modified 2014, <http://www.umerc.umd.edu/projects/harvest01> Hodges, Dick. “How it works” The Windulum, Last Modifed, 2009 <http://windulum.com/page0/ page0.html> Kolarevic, Branko (2014). ‘Computing the Performative’, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, pp. 103–111
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IMAGES - PART C
58. “Windstalk”, Land Art Generator Initiative, Last modified, November 16, 2010, <http:// landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> 59. “Scene Sensor”, Land Art Generator Initiative, Last modified, November 16, 2010, <http:// landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> 60. Hodges, Dick. “How it works” The Windulum, Last Modifed, 2009 <http://windulum.com/page0/ page0.html> 61. “Wall Panel - Diamond Plate in Brushed Aluminum” Back Splash Ideas, Last Modified, 2014 <http://backsplashideas.com/wall-panel-diamond-plate-in-brushed-aluminum> 62. “Simple Universal Joint” Integrated Publishing, Inc. Last Modified, 2014 <http:// constructionmanuals.tpub.com/14273/css/14273_179.htm> GROUP WORK PHOTO AND DIAGRAM RECOGNITION P 1-5. Tectonic Exploration - Andreea Onofreiasa P 6 - 25. Tectonic Exploration - Neha Negarkar P 26. Wind Designed Arch Diagram - Andreea Onofreiasa P 27. Fabrication Layout - Neha Negarkar P 28. Arches moving in the wind Diagram - Neha Negarkar P 29-30. Tectonic Diagrams - Neha Negarkar P 31 - 36. Fabrication Layout - Neha Negarkar If no label on diagrams or images, those images/diagrams/photographs (and modesl in photos) were created by Emily Lucchesi. With the exception of the Final Model, this was a collaborative effort.
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