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A magazine for Earth


a thought


arth naturally and graciously provides us with food, water, air, sunlight, and temperature - the five basic needs of all living things. I want to emphasize all living things. It seems that humans have forgotten that without the planet, we would not be able to thrive, let alone survive. It seems that we have forgotten that we are not the only beings on Earth. Not only can we thank the planet for our survival, but also all plants and animals that function only to keep our ecosystem in sync. We rely on every single one of those plants and animals - more so than they rely on humans. Over the past few decades, humans have taken these gifts for granted, always wanting more than necessary. This greed has hindered Earth’s ability to naturally provide for its inhabitants. The resources Earth provides for us have been abused through our overwhelming desire for more. The reality of our planet is that if we continue to turn our heads to climate change and its contributing factors, and continue to consume and live the way that we are, Earth won’t - and doesn’t - have much more to give. The air we are given, we pollute. The water we are given, we taint. And the food we are given, we overly consume. Earth is calling for a change, and the human race must make take action. In acknowledging our roots that stem from Earth, we realize that we are one. When Earth thrives, we thrive. In helping Earth, we are helping each other. Humans were not put here to take care of the planet - we have damaged Earth and now it is our responsibility to restore it. We live on a beautiful planet full of endless opportunity. We have the opportunity to take action and make changes that can help heal Earth. It is necessary that we seize this opportunity. Let us retrace our roots back to the core of our common home - Earth.


Contributors EDITOR-IN-CHIEF:











05 09 15 19 23



Climate Change: A Reality MARIAH WEINAND


limate change is no longer some far-off problem; 84 percent of all greenhouse gases emitted by humans. In an attempt to save energy, Princeton University it is happening here, it is happening now,” President Barack Obama stated in August of 2015 at the GLACIER graduate and agricultural specialist, Lindianne Sarno practices and “energy fast” every Thursday. Unplugging Conference in Anchorage, Alaska. In an attempt to reduce the United States’ carbon all cords from outlets, keeping lights turned off, and using footprint, in May of 2014 the President established the water only for drinking, Sarno believes that, “If for one first ever national carbon pollution standards for power day a week, everybody relied only on natural resources, plants, the largest cause of carbon dioxide release in the we could greatly reduce our carbon footprint.” The increase of factories, other industrial processes, country. On emitting mass amounts of carbon dioxide into the environment, the President said, “It’s not smart, new urban development, and burning fossil fuels, have together caused a 31 percent increase of carbon dioxide it’s not safe, and it doesn’t make sense.” Greenhouse gases, according to the US in Earth’s atmosphere since 1895. This increase traps heat Environmental Protection Agency, are gases that trap that would otherwise be naturally released, causing the heat in the atmosphere. For centuries, greenhouse gases “greenhouse effects.” The greenhouse effect has caused such as methane, ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, Earth’s temperature to warm 1.9°F in the past 120 years, chlorofluorocarbons, and nitrous oxide, were regulated 2015 being the warmest year recorded, according to by Earth’s natural system. The natural greenhouse gases NASA. kept Earth’s core temperature around 59 °F, rather than The rapid increase of Earth’s temperature has changed and will continue to change 0°F without the gases. The greenhouse “CLIMATE CHANGE Earth. Due to the unusual and extreme gases found in Earth’s atmosphere have increased significantly since the start of IS NO LONGER SOME warmth ice around the globe is melting the Industrial Revolution in the early FAR-OFF PROBLEM; IT and water is expanding. Ice including 1700s. IS HAPPENING HERE, IT glaciers, ice sheets, and Arctic sea ice are Prior to the Industrial Revolution, IS HAPPENING NOW.” slowly disappearing. Sarno, who has been living in Earth was capable of maintaining the -President Barack Homer, Alaska for over seven years, balanced amount to greenhouse gases in Obama claims she’s already seen a change in the air through natural decomposition, Grewingk Glacier. “I’ve seen a small ocean release, and respiration. The “balance” consisted of Earth receiving, generating, and iceberg break off the glacier. And every time I visit it transferring the correct amount of heat to support life looks more grey and dirty - not wondrous as it used to.” in the ecosystem. According to, Julie Kasper, author of Extreme differences of temperature between Global Warming: Greenhouse Gases, since the start of the tropical water and the upper atmosphere have scientists Industrial Revolution the natural greenhouse effect has predicting that hurricanes will become more intense. been altered to such an extent by human activity that the Since the Industrial Revolution, on average, sea levels have risen around 9 inches. Cities such as Miami, New natural greenhouse effect is no longer in balance. Burning fossil fuels such as coal, natural gases, and Orleans, Manhattan, London, Shanghai, and hundreds oil, release energy that is used for electricity, heat, and of others located along coastlines are at risk of extreme transportation purposes. When fossil fuels are burned, flooding. The rise in Earth’s temperature is causing large amounts of carbon dioxide are released into Earth’s thermal expansion which is occurs when seawater atmosphere. The rise of carbon dioxide in the air hinders expands because of high water temperature. Warmer Earth’s natural ability to regulate the correct amount of water occupies a greater volume, causing the sea level gases crucial to maintaining a temperature necessary to to increase. Rise in sea level greatly affects the ability to sustain and support life. Carbon dioxide constitutes for drain storm water, resulting in more severe flooding,


leaving lasting consequences. A study from the U.S. there is less time for pollination. Bears who wake from Geological Survey found that the coastline from North hibernation sooner go starving because the fish have not Carolina to Massachusetts is at risk or very high risk hatched yet. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate of impacts caused by rising sea levels, estimating that Change estimated that 20 to 30 percent of plants and by the end of the 21st century sea levels could rise animals could be at risk of extinction by 2100 if the rise 11.4 inches. The inhabitants of coastal cities and those in global temperature patterns continue. surrounding are at risk of displacement and could 97 percent of climate scientists insist that climate likely become climate refugees. change is real and caused by human action. The Plants and animals are being affected by climate Intergovernmental Panel on climate change declared, change just as humans. The increase “Scientific evidence for warming of in temperature is causing birds to the climate system is unequivocal.” lay eggs earlier in the year and in “THE CHANGING CLIMATE Scientists are working with some cases, birds aren’t migrating political leaders striving to reach WITH ITS MORE EXTREME to warming climates because their an agreement to reduce carbon WEATHER IS ALREADY location is suitable. Plants are dioxide emissions. The United blooming sooner and mammals AFFECTING MANY PLANT Nations Framework Convention on are coming out of migration much AND ANIMAL SPECIES AND Climate Change created the 1997 earlier. Animals that thrive in DISRUPTING ECOSYSTEM Kyoto Protocol, which commits 192 FUNCTIONING.” colder environments are moving countries by setting international farther North. Earth’s natural state emission reduction goals. The is changing at such a rapid rate that UNFCCC’s goal is to stabilize natural plants and animals do not have time greenhouse gas concentrations in to evolve. the atmosphere to prevent further According to Renee Cho of harm caused by human interference. Columbia University, “The changing climate with Christina Figueres, executive secretary of the its more extreme weather is already affecting many UNFCCC, stated, “As human beings, we are vulnerable plant and animal species and disrupting ecosystem to confusing the unprecedented with the improbable. functioning.” In our everyday experience, if something has never An ecosystem is a biological community of happened before, we are generally safe in assuming it is interacting organisms and their physical environment. not going to happen in the future, but the exceptions can Every aspect of an ecosystem is reliant on another kill you and climate change is one of those exceptions.” aspect. With plants blooming sooner than usual,

Renee Cho


“ You carry

Mother Earth within you. She is not outside of you. Mother Earth is not just


your environment. - Thich

Nhat Hanh

Buddhist monk and peace activist



Agriculture and Its Impact MARIAH WEINAND


istory shows that meat has been part of man’s diet since the beginning of time. Though, from man having to hunt for meat, to having the ability to walk into a grocery story with endless carnivorous options, meat consumption has greatly evolved over the past 10,000 years. 10,000 years ago, man’s survival was dependant on his ability to be nomad. Changing seasons brought change in food supply. In order for man to eat, he had to travel from place to place to hunt and find plants, using large amounts of physical energy. As man evolved, he became more sedentary and began to raise livestock and only grow certain vegetables, using less physical energy. In discovering the New World, many saw the vast amounts of grazing lands as one of its most valuable assets. Meat has been a staple in the American diet since the discovery of the New World. With the Industrial Revolution in full swing, new technologies allowed man to obtain food with little to no physical energy. Rather, using large amounts of Earth’s natural resources to create energy to produce the food. The opportunity to transport meat via railroad and the ability to refrigerate the meat catalyzed the boom of the livestock industry. It was the call for energy that sparked the Industrial Revolution. The British creation of the steam engine was the first big invention of the revolution. In need of heat energy, the British discovered that burning fuels, such as coal, could boil water. Boiling water converts to steam which then expands and transforms heat energy into movement - the basis of the steam engine. The invention of railroads was made possible because of the steam engine. This invention opened a door to the world that showed that by creating the right machine, any kind of energy on Earth could be used to make it run. Industrial products and machinery made farming more productive and profitable. Products such as artificial fertilizers, artificial insecticides, and industrially produced hormones and medications all contributed to the boom of farmland production. History professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Dr. Yuval Noah Harari, explains in his best-selling book Sapiens: A Brief History of Mankind that the Industrial Revolution was also an agricultural revolution. In his lecture, “The Scientific Revolution”, Dr.


Harari explained that during the Industrial Revolution, “farm animals stopped being viewed as living creatures that could feel pain and distress, and instead became viewed and treated simply as machines for producing food.” These “machines” for producing food can not be produced without energy from Earth. The Industrial Revolution introduced technology that provided the ability to freeze and preserve all types of food. At this time, the eating habits of most Americans changed drastically. New technologies allowed for food that had prior been produced by hand - such as cheese, butter, flour, and jams - to be produced inexpensively, quickly, and by the mass. With society changing as well, women were becoming emancipated from their roles as housewives and were spending less time cooking in the kitchen and began turning to readily accessible, inexpensive, pre-made meals. The new technologies that came along with the Industrial Revolution made meat production more efficient which greatly decreased its price. The demand for meat and animal products was higher than ever before, and since then the demand has only continued to grow. The evolution of meat consumption has reached a point where the majority of American’s eat meat or an animal product with every meal. The average American consumes about 270 pounds of meat per year, compared to the average Bangladeshis who eats around 4 pounds per year. In order to sustain the meat demand, forests are cut down in order to create more grazing pastures as well as more land to grow crops - that will be fed to livestock - making agriculture the leading cause of deforestation. Growing crops to feed the animals account for 56 percent of US water consumption, according to the US Department of Agriculture. Trees are responsible for absorbing greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, which cause global warming. Fewer trees result in larger amounts of greenhouse gases lingering in Earth’s atmosphere, causing the rise in temperature. The impact of this industry is so large, Bryan Walsh in his article The Triple Whopper Environmental Impact of Global Meat Production, said, “there may be no other single human activity that has a bigger impact on the planet than the

raising of livestock.” The amounts of natural energy that dwarfs the contribution from the transport sector by an are needed to sustain the demand of the livestock industry even greater margin.” Dr. Pimentel, in his study, said, “the are causing extreme harm to Earth. meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and Sophomore Spring Hill College student and water resources” than the plant-based diet. executive member of the Green Keepers club on campus, Goodman reports that his study, “implies that Cecilia Von Mann, spent the summer of 2015 working on replacing livestock products with better alternatives a farm in northern Virginia. On the farm, they focused would be the best strategy for reversing climate change. on sustainable living, conserving water and energy in any In fact, this approach would have far more rapid effects way possible. “We used hoop houses to grow greens and on greenhouse gas emissions and their atmospheric other vegetables. The heat collected in concentrations than actions to the houses made it possible to grow replace fossil fuels with renewable “FARM ANIMALS STOPPED energy.” all year around. It’s a lot of work but definitely sustainable,” Von Mann BEING VIEWED AS LIVING According to a study done by explained, “Most people on the farm CREATURES THAT COULD the Organisation for Economic FEEL PAIN AND DISTRESS, Co-operation and Development, were vegetarian or vegan.” AND INSTEAD BECAME According to Robert Goodman, more eat is eaten in America than VIEWED AND TREATED a former environmental advisor for almost anywhere else in the world. the World Bank, wrote in his report, SIMPLY AS MACHINES FOR Agricultural-systems scientist Maria Livestock and Climate Change: What Herrero stated that, “Demand PRODUCING FOOD.” if the key actors in climate change management has to be part of the were pigs, chickens and cows?, that solution as well.” domesticated animals release 32 Meat has been a staple of man’s billion tons of carbon dioxide into diet since the beginning of time, but the atmosphere, more than industry and burning of the amount of meat consumed today is not sustainable, fossil fuels combined. Livestock, most prominently causing major environmental damages. Research done by cows, exhale methane gas, another greenhouse gas that scientists at Oxford Martin School found that changing contributes to the warming climate. Livestock industry a diet to mostly vegetarian would make a large impact causes more climate-changing emissions than all the in cutting down greenhouse gas emissions caused by world’s transportation combined. Goodman found that the livestock industry. Herrero stated that, “shifting to livestock and their byproducts account for 51 percent more plant-based foods is essential to combating climate of all worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Vegetarian change, soil, air and water pollution, ocean dead zones, activist Justin Kerswell said, “Now it appears to have been and myriad other problems caused by industrial livestock proven that the environmental devastation from livestock production.” production is in fact staggeringly more significant – and

-Dr. Yuval Noah Harari


us remember that animals are “Let not mere resources for human

consumption. They are splendid beings in their own right, who have evolved along side us as co-inheritors of all the beauty and abundance of life on this planet. -Marc Bekoff Professor of Ecology at the



University of Colorado






he population on Earth has nearly doubled since 1970, on that water will have to find it elsewhere. The trapped according to the World Bank. Earth houses an estimated heat in the atmosphere can also cause more precipitation. 7.1 billion inhabitants today. This extreme population Areas that regularly see snow will most likely receive much boom has caused a strain on Earth’s natural resources. more rainfall. These areas that rely on melting snow and More people calls for more water, food, and energy, which ice are at risk of rain increase because soil moisture and groundwater resurfacing, which source freshwater, is less are all provided by Earth. The human body can survive up to three weeks likely to occur. without food, but only up to one week without water. The The relationship between fuel and water is a difficult phrase “Water is life” is being used more than ever. Still, one. All water that is used and consumed requires energy according to the World Health Organization, an estimated to transport. Everything that is made, transported, and 780 million people lack access to clean drinking water. thrown away requires the use of fuel and water. The Water covers 70 percent of Earth, but only 3 percent of systems that are used to treat and move public water that is freshwater and safe for consumption. Within that supplies takes mass amounts of energy. Much of this 3 percent only one-third is accessible to humans. Now, energy requires the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, which release carbon dioxide into the with more people inhabiting Earth atmosphere, contributing to global than ever, water supply is scarce. Not warming. Therefore, reducing water only do humans depend on water, consumption saves energy that would Earth’s entire ecosystem does as well. Through climate change, pollution, “WHAT HAPPENS TO THE be used in transport, creating less WATER HAPPENS TO US. of a carbon footprint. Conserving and overconsumption, humans are contributing to water shortages on a WE ARE INTERCONNECTED water and other resources can play a major role in reducing energy global scale. AND DEPENDENT.” usage, minimizing greenhouse gas Bridget Sperduto, executive emissions. director of The Well Spirituality Much of the freshwater on Earth Center, is an educator of the human is no longer drinkable due to pollution. role in environmental issues. Upon Fertilizer, pesticides, and manure that discussing the importance of water wash away with rain from farms are conservation, Sperduto said, “What happens to the water happens to us. We are interconnected a major contribution to water pollution. These chemicals and dependent.” Sperduto further explained, “We no also seep into the ground, tainting groundwater that could longer listen to Earth. We think Earth is full of endless be used for drinking. Factories produce chemicals and gases that are released into the atmosphere which also resources - it isn’t.” Climate change is a major contributor to the world’s contribute to water pollution. When the chemicals are water shortages. Human emissions of greenhouse gases released into the air, many are returned to Earth through are causing Earth’s core temperature to rise so quickly that rainfall. When that rainfall is mixed with freshwater the Earth is unable to adapt. The changing climate is likely to water can become polluted and undrinkable. cause more droughts in some places and flooding in other. While 780 million people in the world lack clean The warming temperature increases the rate of water drinking water, 80-90 percent of US water consumption evaporation into the atmosphere, causing wetlands to dry is attributed to the agricultural industry, according to the up. While wetland freshwater is drying up, glaciers are United States Department of Agriculture. 56 percent of melting as a result of the heat. Glaciers hold over half of water in the US is used to grow feed crops for livestock. the world’s freshwater. Once these glaciers melt there is no Dr. Michael Jacobson explained in his article More and way to get the freshwater back and those who once relied Cleaner Water, that communities near farms are facing

-Bridget Sperduto


water shortages and water-quality problems more than anywhere else in the country. Jacobson explains, “Farms, especially those growing feed grains and cotton and livestock, are using up groundwater and surface water - permanently.” The demand for meat and animal byproducts in the US far exceeds any other country - this can’t be met without mass amounts of water and energy. Freshwater is being used today at unsustainable levels, causing major concerns of future water availability. According to the World Water Vision Report, “There is a water crisis today. But the crisis is not about having too little water to satisfy our needs. It is a crisis of managing water so badly that billions of people - and the environment - suffer badly.” Cutting back on water usage, whether through eating less meat, taking shorter showers, turning off sprinklers, or any other form, is conserving energy. In using less energy, less greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming are emitted into the atmosphere. Which, in turn will help water accessibility for years to come.




On Care For Our Common Home P


ope Francis is not only the first pope to acknowledge the negative ecological impact human beings are having on the environment, but also the first pope to write an encyclical devoted to ecology and the related impacts. Argentine Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected pope on March 13, 2013, after Pope Benedict XVI resigned. Shortly after, Bergoglio chose the papal name Francis in honor of St. Francis of Assisi. The newly elected Pope Francis explained that he chose the name to honor St. Francis of Assisi’s love for the poor and “our common home”, Earth. Following the election, Pope Francis said that St. Francis of Assisi was a man of poverty, a man of peace, and a man who loved and protected creation. He asked, “these days we do not have a very good relationship with creation, don’t we?” then wrote Laudato Si’. Pope Francis’ encyclical, Laudato Si’, was published on June 17, 2015. It was written to call all human beings, not only Catholics, to acknowledge climate change. He is the first pope to place blame on the human species for contributing to climate change. The pope firmly believes that climate change is reversible and that all humans must take action, especially those in power. The White House Office of the Press Secretary responded to the publication by releasing a statement from President Barack Obama, “[I] deeply admire the Pope’s decision to make the case - clearly, powerfully, and with the full moral authority of his position - for action on global climate change.” Pope Francis stated, “This sister [Earth] cries out to us because of the harm we have inflicted on her by our irresponsible use and abuse of the goods with which God has endowed her.” The second major focal point of Laudato Si’ is addressing the poor of the world. In Argentina, just after he was elected pope, Cardinal Claudio Hummes embraced Pope Francis and said to him, “Don’t forget the poor.” Known for his humble way of living, Pope Francis stated, “How I would love a church that is poor and for the poor.” In his encyclical, the pope explains that the poor are most affected by climate change. He explains that a basic human right to clean drinking water is not present in many communities that are living in poverty. It is our duty, as human beings, to care for Earth so that others can thrive and, “live to their full potential,” Pope Francis states. “The deterioration of the environment affects the most vulnerable people on the planet,” Pope Francis explains in his writings. Thus in caring

for the poor, he claims, that humans must also care for Earth. Though Pope Francis is the first pope to call for human action to reverse climate change, in 2008, the Vatican listed pollution as “a new sin.” Pope Francis, who has a background as a chemist, worked with a team of scientists and together they dubbed that climate change, caused by humans, is the greatest threat to life Earth has ever seen. Pope Francis states that, “human life is grounded in three fundamental and closely intertwined relationships: with God, with our neighbour and with Earth itself. According to the Bible, these three vital relationships have been broken, both outwardly and within us. This rupture is sin.” In his encyclical, Pope Francis calls to all humans to examine their connection to all elements of creation and act accordingly. The Well Spirituality Center is a sponsored ministry of the Congregation of St. Joseph dedicated to strengthening, healing, and calling forth the inherent wholeness of Earth, out human community and all creation. Bridget Sperduto is the executive director of The Well Spirituality Center in La Grange Park, IL. The Well Spirituality Center is dedicated to “creating a future for one and all.” Sperduto is dedicated to educating people on the role of humanity on Earth. “I struggle with the stuardist language because that means we are above Earth. We need to recognize our interconnectedness.” she said. Referring to the Big Bang Theory, Sperduto explained, “Chemically we have the same make up. [We] all come from the same star burst.” Members of The Well are dedicated to exploring the oneness with God and all creation, then passing on this knowledge to others. President of the Vatican’s Council for Peace and Justice, Cardinal Peter Turkson, said, “We should not think that our efforts - even our small gestures - don’t matter. Virtue, including ecological virtue, can be infectious.” Pope Francis, in writing this encyclical, calls for a dialogue between humans to acknowledge the harm humans are inflicting. Acknowledging this is the first step of many to hault and reverse climate change. The encyclical addresses four major ways humans can decrease one’s carbon footprint: consume less, plant trees, separate garbage, and increase car pooling. Pope Francis wrote, “Human beings, while capable of the worst, are also capable of rising above themselves, choosing again what is good, and making a new start.”


“ We recognize the ongoing diminishment of planet Earth and claim our part in this devastation. We courageously engage with others to address and heal this reality. � -The

Well Spirituality Center




Collaborating for Solutions HANLON WALSH & JAMIE BULLOCK

At Mobile Baykeeper, our mission is to provide citizens

a means to protect the beauty, health and heritage of the Mobile Bay Watershed and our coastal communities. We’re a group of more than 4,000 active citizens in Mobile and Baldwin Counties working every day to ensure clean water, clean air, and healthy communities. This can mean anything from investigating sewer spills or issues related to stormwater runoff, educating and engaging citizens on watersheds and water quality, or working with businesses and government to ensure BP Restoration dollars are spent on projects that benefit the triple bottom line – the environment, economy, and community. We serve as the environmental watchdog, informed voice of reason, and collaborator for solutions in the community. We are “solutions based” because we focus on finding answers, not just raising problems. In fact, it surprises some to learn that we work closely with industry to encourage responsible growth. We understand the need to balance a strong, growing economy with the protection of our environment, public health and our quality of life. Can you imagine the natural beauty of our area preserved and nurtured alongside a thriving business and industrial economy? That is our goal, and it can happen with the proper management and collaboration. In addition to our work with industry and business, we also place a strong emphasis on sustainability, which we all know is the requirement of our generation to manage the resource base such that the average quality of life that we ensure for ourselves can potentially be shared by all future generations. We are developing education programs, campaigns and programs with the end result in mind to ensure future generations of the Gulf Coast can enjoy these precious resources for years and decades to come. One campaign we launched on Earth Day this year was our #ReduceTheUse campaign. The goal, which is ongoing, is to encourage local businesses (specifically restaurants and bars) to reduce their use of common plastic items that oftentimes become litter

in our waterways. Each business will “take the pledge” to reduce their use of plastic straws, plastic bottles and plastic bags and encourage consumers to “hold the straw, bring your own bottle and bring your own reusable bag.” We are an out of sight, out of mind culture but for us at Mobile Baykeeper, litter is never out of sight. We see it everywhere and we want to empower our local community to live more consciously and take responsibility for the items that they purchase and acquire. We recently partnered with local bars and restaurants in the downtown area during BeerFest, an annual event that draws hundreds of individuals to the streets of Mobile. More than 30,000 bottles and cans of beer are purchased or donated and in years past, all of those bottles and cans were sent to the landfill. This year, a small group of dedicated individuals were able to recover 24,000 of these valuable materials for recycling through the Government Street Recycling Center and spared them from becoming “waste.” We also developed a partnership with UMSWright to assist them in the implementation of “Bulldogs Go Green”, an on-campus recycling program of paper, plastic, and aluminum products. Internally, we have created various sustainability challenges in our office - simple things like unplugging cords from outlets, turning the lights off when we leave a room, and encouraging each other to carpool or bike to work each week for #TransportationTuesday when it is feasible to do so. Sometimes sustainability can be much easier than you think. Over the years, we have realized that behind every successful campaign has been a successful collaboration. Whether we are collaborating with businesses and industry, local and state government, schools and community organizations, or restaurants and bars, we know that we can’t do it alone. We must continue to be a collaborator for solutions in our community so we can all have clean water, clean air, and healthy communities.




root1 verb

past tense: rooted; past participle: rooted 1. cause (a plant or cutting) to grow roots 2. established deeply and firmly


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