Broomfield High School 2010
This is a collection of simple guides & tutorials created to be used in conjunction with Eric Mickens Digital Art Classes copyright 2007.
Version 2.0 beta
L O B M SY KUP N O I C T A A T E B OU R C Y LA ISTIC T R A S L O O T
E L B T A T NTEN O C
S T EN
LS O TO
M T S U J D A A I D ME FX KS R O S T A A M R T S U ILL OFTWARE NTS S E E E M FR N G I S S Y A R A S S O GL
Symbol Key Symbols will appear on certain page to help guide you.
Canvas/ Starting (new project) -
Non destructive -
Color tools -
Edge control -
Transform tool -
Levels Back-up -
Layer styles -
Digital Art logo -
Hyperlinks - Any word or phrase that looks like this
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P U K C A B & P U
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SAVE AS Always use (save as) instead of (save). -If you use (save) you will loose the ability to (re-name) your file. You will save over any file that has the same file name.
SAVING FILES Remember these settings & set-up are not optional....
FIRST THING TO DO... CREATE a TURN-IN FOLDER All files must be placed in a Turn-in Folder WITH YOUR LAST NAME then FIRST NAME as the title.
SECOND THING TO DO... (project nameWorking.psd File) (This is your saved photoshop file with all LAYERS intact & visible)
THIRD THING TO DO... (Project name Final.psd File)
“USE ONLY MERGE VISIBLE”
(This is your saved photoshop file with all VISIBLE LAYERS merged & with only one layer visible) Note: this file is what we use for printing
This merges all visible layers, so make sure this is only done when you are at the end of your project... -Then save your file as (project nameFINAL.psd) note: make sure your saved file name is accurate.
FOURTH THING TO DO... ADD Media that you have used to your turn-in Folder: ALL pictures used, scanned drawings used, Artist statements, and self-evaluation in .pdf form... Your Turn-in Folder should be labeled like this...
Your Turn-in Folder should contain... 1. Your working file labeled properly 2. Your Final file labeled (& merged) properly 3. ALL of your original Media (This includes your self-evaluation & all pictures used.
Backup/Storage USB FLASH DRIVE AT LEAST 1GB OF STORAGE. -note: try to look for a flash drives that is compatible with both Mac & Windows.
IPOD DOCK CONNECTOR
CD-R’s can be used as storage. Students can purchase blank CD-R’s using their “Art Cards”.
In order to use your ipod as a storage device, you will need to enable the disk use feature in the preferences & have a USB dock connected.
-note: CD-R’s are not re-writable. so once they are finalized, no more data can be added.
If you have only one copy
of a FILE then you have no copies!!!
BACK-UP CHECK LIST
Knowing how to properly back-up is key to surviving that inevitable bad â€œtechnologyâ€? day...
Do I have multiple copies of my file(s) that are up-to-date?
Do I have multiple files saved in two completely different places? i.e. two different
ALWAYS BACK UP
5 Truths About Flash Drives by Jeremy Brock Many devices such as USB flash drives, Solid State Drives (SSD), and memory cards (CF, SD, etc) use NAND memory to store data. NAND memory is inexpensive however it does have its faults. These are some interesting things i've learned while recovering data from bad USB flash drives:
1. Files ARE NOT deleted While NAND memory is solid state (no moving parts) individual sectors fail after 10K to 100K writes. To prevent failure each write operation stores data in a different location (wear leveling). If a file is deleted or overwritten numerous times using a “file shredder” application the original data will remain on the physical chip because each pass will write to a different physical sector. The only secure way to use flash devices is with an encryption layer such as TrueCrypt for USB drives and BitLocker for Solid State Drives (SSD).
2. Cheap Components As flash drives come down in price so have the quality of components. Many USB flash drive manufacturers are using untested NAND memory, choosing to rely upon the controller to handle bad blocks. Bad clock generators, faulty controllers, and buggy firmware are other common failures. While it’s no guarantee (*cough* PNY Anttache) I recommend buying flash drives from known manufacturers and staying away from inexpensive unbranded drives.
3. Flash Drives ARE NOT Indestructible USB Flash Drives are susceptible to wear and tear, static shock and power fluctuations. One frequent killer of USB Flash drives is removal during a write operation. This can cause corruption to the internal wear leveling tables that tell the controller where each sector is stored on the NAND flash chip. To prevent further corruption the drive will stop working resulting in errors like “Unknown Device” or “Unrecognized Device” and incorrect drive capacities (ie. Total Size: 0MB). Never unplug the drive while it’s in use. If possible, always use the “Safely Remove Hardware” applet.
4. Short Lifetime Newer high capacity NAND chips (MLC) have a shorter life time (~10K writes per sector) than older SLC chips (~100k writes per sector). Remapping bad blocks, wear leveling, and error correcting code (ECC) are used to prevent and identify failure. These technologies show their faults when there is no free space and a file is continually written to. For example premature failure can occur if the drive is full and the page file is actively used.
5. Very Difficult Data Recovery While data recovery is usually possible if the NAND chip isn’t physically damaged, this often involves removing the NAND chip and reverse engineering the controller to decode the data. Unlike hard drive data recovery, NAND data recovery is a relatively new field. Besides us, there are very few small data recovery shops that specialize in it. Most NAND data recovery is performed by the government and big data recovery shops at a high price. As with any other storage medium,
Don’t rely on a flash drive to keep backups of your important data. Instead use a flash-drive to transfer data between computer hard-drives.
G T T N C I U T E O J R Y A O A R L ST P
B A C K
P O W H NE S O T O H P S A V N CA L BAR UND O GRO O T RE ND FOCKGROU BA
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R E K C I P S R O W L O O D C N I W / I W N I O M D N I W I N R I A M B L O O T S R E Y LA S S P E U D I O U G GR / S R E L RU
Starting a New Project To start a new project: Go to FILE and select NEW.
NEW “CANVAS” SCREEN Your canvas size should not be bigger than 11 x 14. Your Resolution should always stay at 300 resolution. Note: 18 x 14 is a big canvas, your canvas’s will always be smaller than this...
CHANGING YOUR CANVAS AFTER YOU START A PROJECT MAY CAUSE SOME ISSUES. Note: It is better to know your dimensions at the beginning.
THE BIGGER THE IMAGE SIZE THE SLOWER PHOTOSHOP WILL RUN...
PHOTOSHOP LAYOUT Menu Bar: save,print, & other
individual Tool: toolbar
Your Tools (right side)
Mini -Windows free space
Document/Canvas size info
"THE SCIENCE OF HOW THINGS ARE KNOWN VIA THE SENSES." How you arrange your desktop is up to you. But keep in mind that functionality is key to having an
enjoyable user experience when using software.
CANVAS The canvas is “where the magic of creation happens”.
TRANSPARENT (you can see the Pixels)
This Indicates if the file has been saved
This tells you how much or little you are zoomed in on the canvas.
This tells you how big or small your complete file is.
Tool Bar Tool Bar
“KNOWING YOUR TOOLS IS HALF THE BATTLE”. It is very important that you familiarize yourself with the types of tools PhotoShop has to offer.
CLICK AND HOLD (ARROW IN BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER) TO REVEAL MORE TOOLS. This will not only change the tool you are using, but it will change the individual tool, tool bar.
FOREGROUND & BACKGROUND Color Picker The Visible-Color Spectrum Wheel
Foreground (in front of)
hex triplet Is a six-digit, three-byte hexadecimal number used in HTML, CSS, SVG, and other computing applications, to represent colors.
MINI-WINDOWS “DON’T OPEN TO MANY WINDOWS.”
Try to limit the number of mini-windows you open.
-Navigation -Layers -History -Color
MENU BAR Each category title will help you to determine what is located within the sub categories. (Editing tools are located under Edit, image tools are located under Image.
MINI-WINDOWS SELECTION Simply click the mini-window you want to become visible. A check mark will appear by the visible mini-windows. To hide a window single click the checked item.
HISTORY Go back to the future...
The history section of the mini window lets you go back to an earlier state of your project. -NOTE: The History state is not unlimited, the default range is generally between 20-30 steps that you can go back to.
-Mini Window Toolbar
Add Layer Styles
Add Layer Mask
New Fill or Adjustment Layer
Add new Group
-linking layers is helpful when you need to moving or adjust more than one layer
-used to open Layer Styles window
-Adds a layer mask to the (selected) layer
-Adds a Fill layer or New adjustment layer (i.e. Levels, Curves, color, etc)
-Adds a new group -If you drag an existing layer onto this symbol it will (put that layer
Add new layer -Adds a new (blank layer) to your project. -If you drag an existing layer onto this symbol it will (duplicate) that layer.
-click to delete selected layer or Drag onto this symbol to delete layer
Lock transparent pixels protects all transparent areas.
Lock image pixels protects all which is not transparent.
Lock position protects the layer from being moved.
Lock all combines the previous three items.
LAYERS Understanding Layer order is essential to Photoshop. *Layer Order: Top to Bottom
Navigator View (similar to a print view)
*Top Layer *Middle Layers *Background
Groups Groups are fundamental to keeping your projects organized.
Right click on folder
Using Groups as a powerful tool-
When layers are within a Group you can do things that effect all of the layers at once (such as: moving, merging, transforming, copying, layer blending, etc...)
Click on Folder icon to create a
Rulers/Guides First thing- make sure that (Rulers view) is checked. TO GET GUIDESsimply (click on the ruler) and drag into position. -Drag from the top ruler for (horizontal) guide lines -Drag from the left ruler for (vertical) guide lines
To clear a guide simply drag the guide back to the ruler from which it came Or goto the (view) section of the Menu bar and click on Clear Guides.
B A C K
T & R S A T F N SO E M E E L L E IP C N N I R O I P IT S O P M O C
C I T S I N T O R I A EAT R C E V I AT
E R C INSIDE 23-29
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G N I S T E N I I PA ATEG R T S
PRINCIPLES & ELEMENTS OF
Elements of art Line Shape Form Color Texture Space Value Principles of art Emphasis Balance Harmony Variety Movement Rhythm Proportion Unity
LINE + SHAPE = FORM
Elements of Art
Principles of Art
Line is an element of art which refers to the continuos mark made on some surface by a moving point. It may be two dimensional, like a pencil mark on a paper or it may be three dimensional(wire) or implied( the edge of a shape or form) often it is a outline,contour or silhouette. Shape is an enclosed space defined by other elements of art. shapes may take on the appearance of two-d or three- objects. Form is an element of art that is threedimensional and encloses volume. Cubes ,spheres,and cylinders are examples of various forms. Color Is an element of art with three properties 1) Hue, the name of the color, e.g. red, yellow, etc. 2) Intensity or the purity and strength of the color such as brightness or dullness. And 3) Value, or the lightness or darkness of the color. Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object, such as roughness, smoothness, or softness. Actual texture can be felt while simulated textures are implied by the way the artist renders areas of the picture. Space refers to the distance or area between, around, above or within things. It can be a description for both 2 and 3 dimensional portrayals. Value describes the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is needed to express Volume.
Emphasis in a composition refers to developing points of interest to pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work. Balance is a sense of stability in the body of work. Balance can be created by repeating same shapes and by creating a feeling of equal weight. Harmony is achieved in a body of work by using similar elements throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to your work. Variety refers to the differences in the work, You can achieve variety by using difference shapes, textures, colors and values in your work. Movement adds excitement to your work by showing action and directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane. Rhythm is a type of movement in drawing and painting. It is seen in repeating of shapes and colors. Alternating lights and darks also give a sense of rhythm. Proportion or scale refers to the relationships of the size of objects in a body of work. Proportions gives a sense of size seen as a relationship of objects. such as smallness or largeness. Unity is seen in a painting or drawing when all the parts equal a whole. Your work should not appear disjointed or confusing.
COMPOSITION How you arrange objects within your piece (canvas), is one of the most important decisions you will make about your art.
THE CREATIVE My Sketchbook
My sketchbook holds my thoughts, ideas, & dreams
Artist Checklist Do I throughly understand what my goal and/or what the (assignment) is about? Do I understand the requirements to meet my goal? Artistic requirements Technical requirements What sketches or Layout designs do I need to do prior to creating my digital art? Will another medium help to enhance my digital art?
THE MATRIX A Computer Generated Dream World ... THE
What is real? How do you define real? If you're talking about what you can hear, what you can smell, taste and feel then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.
By William Irwin
THE REAL WORLD The world as we know it...
EDGE CONTROL! Edge control
Creating Digital Art in Photoshop is all about blending image elements together.
you are doing digitally
painting or photo manipulating an image.
â€œThe key to your success is controlling
the edges of the added elementsâ€?.
PAINTING LINE + Shape = Form
Blending All types of digital art require a knowledgeable understanding of blending techniques.
Layering Painting â€œeven digital paintingâ€? is about layering of colors to create depth & details.
Opacity Opacity is key to blending when digitally painting.
Work form Background to Foreground. Work form Light to Dark
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Selection Tools Magic Wand
MAGIC WAND TOOL Use the magic wand to select a certain area of an object based on the color or value of that object.
TOLERANCE The Higher the Number (0-225) the more accurate the tool matches the color.
Check Anti-aliased to define a smooth edge to the selection. Check Contiguous to select only areas which are joined together. Check Use All Layers to select areas from all layers.
A good beginning tool for simple selections, but do not use this tool for precise detailed selections. Instead use the Pin tool.
Selection Tools Square Selection Tool:
best used for selecting big areas
Circular Text Tool:
best used for selecting round objects/areas.
Use the selection tool to select a whole or part of an object. (once selected you will see marching ants..) -The selected area can now be edited.
The BRUSH Tool Brush quick access toolbar: Only visible when brush is selected from the side toolbar.
Type, Diameter & Hardness selection box
The Brush tool: hold bottom right corner for more tools i.e. pencil tool
Foreground & Background Color selector: double click on color to expose color swatches.
â€œALL GOOD PAINTERS NEED GOOD BRUSHESâ€? * Round: The long closely arranged bristles of these brushes make them useful for detail * Flat: These are used for spreading paint quickly and evenly over a surface. They will have longer hairs than their Bright counterpart. * Bright: These are flat brushes with short stiff bristles and can be useful driving paint into the weave of a canvas in thinner paint applications, as well as thicker painting styles like impasto work. * Filbert: Flat brushes with domed ends. They allow good coverage and the ability to perform some detail work.
* Fan: These are used for blending broad areas of paint. * Angle: These, like the Filbert, are versatile and can be applied in both general painting application as well as some detail work. * Mop: A larger format brush with a rounded edge for broad soft paint application as well as for getting thinner glazes over existing drying layers of paint without damaging lower layers. * Rigger: Round brushes with longish hairs, traditionally used for painting the rigging in pictures of ships. They are useful for fine lines and are versatile for both oils and watercolors.
Brush Creation Brush creation link
1. First import your picture into (photoshop), then go to EDIT. Select Define Brush Preset.
2. You will then see a labeling box. After you label your new brush click 3. Open up the brush selection window. Make
sure you see your newly created brush, then click on the little arrow in the top right corner. Go to save Brushes....
Blending Modes Multiply Multiply blend mode makes the black values in a layer darker and the whites values transparent. Depending on the amount of values within a given color, that color will either become darker or more transparent. -Multiply tends to darken an image.
Screen Imagine looking through a screen door. You can see through it, but images are filtered. -Screen mode tends to lighten an image.
Overlay Overlay blend mode tries to blend the different colors within each layer together.
The transform tool is able to change the size, shape, and look of an objects (pixels).
Click on the check mark to finalize the Transformation.
Transform (bounding Box) Free Transform Allows you to (freely) or transform an object in different ways. -You can scale, rotate,skew, and warp
The transform tool is able to change the size, shape, and look of an object.
Warp is a free form tool.
Click on the Warp mode to switch between warp and free transform modes. -Warp mode gives you a selectable guide w/ points & side handles and arm-bars.
By clicking & Dragging on the side handle will make arm-bars appear. This will let you warp more accurately).
The transform tool is able to change the size, shape, and look of an objects (pixels).
Skew - is a transform tool that is a orthogonal. Skew restrict movement to strictly vertical or strictly horizontal. Skew
Perspective - is a transform tool that fallows the rules of perspective aligning with a vanishing point. Perspective
The pen tool is like a vector based tool. Vector images are represented by geometric shapes such as lines, circles and curves ( & not pixels ).
Make sure you see & use these settings!
To Add points: (single)
Use the Convert point tool (to make points visible).
+ Anchor points let you make a strait line curved. To use: Click & (release) between the two points. Pull on arms to fine tune curves Note: Put points at the beginning and end of a curve.
DONâ€™T USE THESE SETTINGS!
-Once you have created the Work Path around your image.
-Select the Path tab and drag the (working Path) to the load selection icon: -this will load the path as a selection -Now that the path is a selection you can edit the selected area.
Pen Tool Exercise (use this exercise to fine tune your pen tool skills) -note: Try to use as few points as possible
This exercise is to be used with the pen tool exercise .PSD file you were given.
DODGE & BURN Exposure can be treated like the (opacity) option of the paintbrush tool.
The Dodge & Burn mini toolb
ar is similar to the paintbrus
Choose which area of the picture you want to (effect) Shadows = Blacks (dark areas) Midtones = Middle greys (in between areas) Highlights = Whites (light areas)
DODGE TOOL -USE this to LIGHTEN (shadows, midtones, & highlights).
BURN TOOL -USE this to DARKEN (shadows, midtones, & highlights).
Click & (hold) to see the tools that are not displayed.
h mini toolbar.
â€œA rate of change with respect to distance of a variable quantity.â€? Radial
Hi-light these little images (by clicking on them) to change the type of Gradient.
Click and Drag cursor across Layer to determine the length/size of the Gradient.
The Gradient tool allows you to select different color patterns.
AbB CdE FgH IjK
TEXT Tool STEP # 1 Select The (selection )text tool then type your font. -You will see a selection font that will allows you to put a picture into the font. -Make sure you are on the layer that
STEP # 2 Once you have your selection, use the mini tool tool-bar to resize
STEP # 3 Once you are finished (deselect) the text and COPY & PASTE to a new
ONCE YOU HAVE YOUR TEXT IN IT’S OWN LAYER. TOOLS TO USE: TRANSFORM, GRADIENT & LAYER STYLES TO REALLY MAKE YOUR TEXT “POP”.
Clone Stamp Origin
STEP # 1 To clone the Sand Hold Down ALT key then click (w mouse the area you want to clone: The Clone SCOPE will appear. Conclusion: up w/ CLONED SAND Here
STEP # 2 You should now see What/Where you are going to clone (circle symbol). Note: This is the place where you are going to put the newly clone
STEP # 3 You will now see the (whatâ€™s being Cloned crosshairs) note: Watch this symbol closely, because this is what is being clone.
Healing Brush Tool used to remove the Text But (still preserving the skin texture).
USE THE HEALING BRUSH TO REMOVE AND ADD TEXTURE. The Healing brush tool is used like the clone stamp (hold down option key to get the “scope curser”). It removes text, spots and scratches while preserving the texture and values underneath or next to the text, scratch, or spot.
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-MORE CONTROL of your EDITING go under the Edit menu, choose Fade Healing Brush
CUSTOM SHAPES Custom Shapes can be used & created very similar to (see: created brushes).
Make sure you see these settings.
By clicking on this icon you will get a drop down menu were your custom shapes can be found
Once you have selected & made your shape you have created a work path (notice the skinny gray lines). -This work path can be edited in the same way any Path can be edited.
Click on the load selection icon to make the path a selection
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If you find that you cannot edit a file, and a lot of tools are grayed out, check the image mode.
RGB Every color computer monitor and television in the world displays color using the RGB image mode, in which every color is produced with varying amounts of red, green, and blue light. CMYK Traditional full-color printing presses can print only four colors in a run: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. Every other color in the spectrum is simulated using various combinations of those colors. When you open a file saved in CMYK mode, Photoshop has to convert the CMYK values to RGB values on the fly, in order to display the image on your computer screen. It's important to remember that when you look at the screen, you're looking at an RGB version of the data. Bit Map "flat" black-and-white images, in which each pixel is defined using one bit of data (a zero or a one), are bitmaps. limited in the sorts of image editing you can do. For instance, you can't use any filters Grayscale Grayscale files consist of an image that only uses values. -In Photoshop are always either 8- or 16-bit images: Anything less than 8-bit gets converted to 8-bit.
extra colors aren't typically used to simulate colors in the image; rather, they're used to extend the dynamic range of the underlying grayscale image. Those expensive Ansel Adams books on your coffee table were very likely printed using three or four (or even five or six) different black and gray inks.
While indexed color can save disk space (it requires only 8 bits per sample point, rather than the full 24 in RGB modeâ€”see below), it gives you only 256 different colors. That's not a lot of colors, when you compare it to the 16.7 million different colors you can get in RGB.
This mode is the generic mode: like RGB or CMYK -Many scientific and astronomical images are made in "false color"â€”the channels may be a combination of radar, infrared, and ultraviolet, in addition to various colors of visible light.
Lab Color Lab doesn't describe a color by the components that make it up (RGB or CMYK, for instance). Instead, it describes what a color looks like. Photoshop uses Lab mode as a reference when switching between CMYK and RGB modes
LEVELS Middleâ€ŠGrey Black
Adjusting each slider will increase or decrease the input level of the Value. Adjustments: can dramatically effect your piece with a click or a slide.
Output Levels effect all values at once.
A full range of Values can add a lot to a picture, such as depth, distance, and texture, to name a few...
Color Adjustments Adjust the sliders to change the color of the layer you are currently on. The Visible-Color Spectrum Wheel
It is best to start your adjustments with the Midtones, as they will have more of a global effect than either Shadows or Highlights. You will need to adjust all three Shadows Midtones and Highlights settings before you click OK.
The Preserve Luminosity option prevents the brightness from being changed.
Color Adjustments B
You need to have an understanding of what colors are in an image. -This will allow you to adjust the sliders to effect those colors when you turn your image black & white..
Red slider at -200 (red removed)
Yellow slider at 300 (yellow maxed out)
Adjustment Layers The best thing about creating an adjustment layer is that it is non destructive (â€œno pixels are being harmedâ€?). Click on the Adjustment Layer icon then select the desired adjustment option. Make sure you are selected on the image layer before clicking the adjustment layer icon.
The Adjustment Layer can be adjusted at anytime. -And If you wish to delete the adjustment layer you will not effect your original image layer.
The blending mode: specified in the options bar the blending mode controls how pixels in the image are affected by a painting or editing tool.
When you think of the blending mode you should always ask yourself simple questions: How can I bring this piece/ Layers together? How can I control my edges?
To see the Description of ALL the Blending Modes click the link below: http://livedocs.adobe.com/en_US/Photoshop/ 10.0/help.html? content=WSfd1234e1c4b69f30ea53e41001031ab 64-77e9.html
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.FILE TYPES .PSD
.GIF .BMP .TIFF
“Your files are your art, you must know how and where they are saved at all times”
Raster If vector programs are usually "drawing" programs, then raster applications tend to be considered "painting" programs. Just as Van Gogh used to paint a brush point or dot at a time, raster applications create their images a pixel (based on "picture element") at a time.
.PSD - Adobe Photoshop The file format photoshop uses
Vector As opposed to the raster image formats (where the data describes the characteristics of each individual pixel), vector image formats contain a geometric description which can be rendered smoothly at any desired display size.
.AI - Adobe illustrator The File Format Illustrator uses
.JPG or (jpeg)- Joint Photographic Expression Group A format developed by the Joint Photographic Expression Group, it is popular for Web use with continuous-tone (read: photographic) images, -but is less appropriate for use in print, as it achieves its economic file sizing by being a "lossy" format
.PNG - Portable Network Graphics more potent and flexible than GIF, retaining all of GIF's latest improvements (such as GIF89a transparency) while adding features, such as full 8-bit and 24-bit color palette options.
Graphics Interchange Format A Compuserve®-trademarked format for online transmission and display of pixel-based images. These files are generally small, and images best saved as GIFs are line art, those containing solid blocks of color, and lacking in continuous tone, gradient-type images.
.BMP- Bit MaP
not unlike TIFF, but far less universal. Photoshop-friendly, and has some cross-platform virtue, albeit limited. Tagged Image File Format The Tagged Image File Format is, perhaps, the most crossplatform-friendly of file formats, at least for the printed world
OTHER FILE FORMATS These are other file formats that are important for digital artists.
.PDF - Portable Document Format Not considered a graphic file format to purists, but the default "image distribution" format.
.FLV - Flash Video Flash Video is a file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player
.PDF Use PDF’s to distribute graphical documents
Why use PDF’s? Multimedia capable
You can store & also print large amounts of information from the web.
The content you want to add is a form you would like people to be able to print, fill out and send in to you.
If the content is a long document, it can be difficult to read on a computer screen. PDF’s can help make viewing long documents look more natural and easier to read.
COPYRIGHT Always know where you are getting images from. -Only use stock photo sites that have pictures that are public domain and royalty free.
T, EI US U IT” YO E G “IF AN CH Respect & Understand what a watermark means.
Read the License agreement
images Use the (Adv. Image Search) to get better results. IMAGE SIZE FILTER
Image Type Filter
1920Ă—1080 (HD on TV)
This is the best HD quality currently available on a TV. -Note: A computer monitors resolution is generally much higher than that of a TV.
Your resolution should always be HD quality or above.
This image is 315 X 290 (it looks OK now?) THIS IS NOT A USABLE RESOLUTION IN THIS CLASS (REGARDLESS OF THE PROJECT) Small images become pixellated & loose detail when you make them
STOCK PHOTO 1. Stock.Xchng http://www.sxc.hu/ index.phtml
3. Everystockphoto http://www.everystockphoto.com/
4. StockVault http://www.stockvault.net/
5. Pixel Perfect Digital http://www.pixelperfectdigital.com/ free_stock_photos/
INPUT DEVISES The path between the The Real World & The Matrix.
(Human) Input devises: Eyes, nose, mouth, skin, hands & feet
The “Real World”
1080p Digital Camera
INPUT DEVISES TABLETS & Multi Touch
More and more we want our interaction with computers to be more natural.
Tablets are (a must for a true graphic artist).
Bamboo Fun Wacom Tablets ( The beginner tablet).
Intuos 4 (Advanced tablet)
Bamboo Wacom Tablets ( The intermediate tablet).
Cintiq (A tablet with a pen tough screen)
Cintiq (A tablet with a pen tough screen)
Augmented Reality -A 3D (holographic) concept that allows you to physically interact w/ the “matrix”.
Micro-Soft Table Top PC w/ MultiTouch. Apple’s touch screen tablet concept). Apple’s touch screen tablet concept).
iPhone (cellphone w/ multi-touch)
Palm Pre (cellphone w/ multi-touch)
TECHKNOWLEDGE Life Changing
Write a 1 page or 500 word paper on one of the subjects (below) to increase your tech knowledge.
Augmented Reality M Ne L5 tN e utr Streisand effect alit g y n i t u p m o c d u o l C
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LAYER STYLES Take your piece to the next level...
Double click blending options to open the:
(Layer Style Box)
Layer Styles/Effects used on that specific layer. note; click on the eye to turn style off/on
double clicking the style to open up more options.
note: within the layer style box you can select individual effects.
“Layer Styles should be used to enhance an already solid piece...”
LAYER STYLES These effects can add a lot to an already solid peace.
To activate the Layer Styles menu (double click) on the layer or click the FX icon on the Mini-windows tool-bar.
Click on the check mark to activate the default style.
Click on the style word to get blending options.
Clipping Clipping Masks let you easily put an images inside another image. Once you have clipped, you will see this symbol
An example of this would be when you see an image inside text. Because you are using a
mask the layers are not (destroyed) Step # 1 duplicate your image layer. Step # 2 create a blank layer, then fill with desired color. Step # 3 make a text layer (make the text color black) Step # 4 Put your layers in this order.
Make sure the layer order looks like this...
While holding down (ALT) move your mouse in between the (image layer: top layer) and the text layer. You will see the clipping symbol
What your image should look like with the the (black & background layers) turned off.
(Black & background) turned
Filers are used to add effects to your piece.
Filters are very powerful tools that should be used with caution.
DESTRUCTIVE to the layer(s) they are used on.
Generally filters should be used
towards the end of your creative process.
Smart Filters are Non destructive -They will allow you to edit the filter without permanently editing the original layer
Selected (Original Layer)
Go to the filters (menu) to convert the layer into a smart object.
Now that your layer is a (Smart Object) -You can add (non-destructive) filter Note: you can always identify which layers are smart object when you see this ICON.
Smart Filters are Non destructive -They will allow you to edit the filter without permanently editing the original layer
Click on the (EYE) to (de)activate the filter
Click on the filters box to select it -you will see (Brackets) around the smart filters box -You can then delete the filter.
DEPTH Gaussian blurof FIELD Blurring an image by a *Gaussian function.
STEP # 1 -Duplicate the layer that you want the Gaussian blur filter to be on. -Make sure the (new) Blur layer is on top of the Original (non blur) layer.
Use the Gaussian blur filter to create a dynamic depth of field within an image.
*Note: gaussian function (named after Carl Friedrich Gauss) is a function of the form:
STEP #2 -Then go to Filter in the menu bar (select blur, Gaussian Blur) -A *Gaussian blur (radius) box will appear. (see next page)
DEPTH Gaussian blurof FIELD :continued Perspective
Blurring an image by a Gaussian function.
STEP #4 -*Gaussian blur (radius) box
Zoom in or out of preview
Increasing the (Radius), will increase the area effected & the amount of the blur.
STEP #5 -Use the (ERASER TOOL) to erase the blur effect from the desired part of the image you want to become (in-focus). Use (LOW) opacity% to control your edges.
SHADOWS You must decide where your light is coming from to create realist a shadows.
Click on the Drop shadow to (move) it
Adjust the Drop shadow settings to get a realistic shadow.
SHADOWS Once you are done creating the drop shadow right click on the FX symbol to get the drop down menu.
SHADOWS Use the Transform Tool to adjust your shadows.
Make sure you are on the drop shadow layer.
Use the Transform (skew) tool to create a realistic shadows.
DEPTH of FIELD Perspective
Depth of Field is: the distance between the nearest and furthest object. By understand the idea of Depth of Field you can guide the “viewers eye” around your piece.
-Make the viewer see what you want them to see, you are in control of your art.
Before adding (Lens blur) edit your image so each part of your piece is edited properly.
DEPTH of FIELD Lens blur
Try these settings the first time. Then adjust as needed.
This is the background duplicated layer (with some erasing) added to help with EDGE CONTOL.
DEPTH of FIELD Lens blur
Lens Blur effect (creates) a dynamic depth of Field
“Shallow” Depth of Field
Original picture without lens blur
Notice how the perspective has changed. “Large” Depth of Field
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MASKS The Basics
A mask is a powerful non-destructive editing option. Your ability to use masks will increase your edge control.
This diagram illustrates what a layer mask does to your photoshop document. In this example;
Your eye view
The black ellipse is hiding the the corresponding pixels in the yellow layer (Layer 1).
The Background layer is Green. Note: What you see in a photoshop document window is always the result of looking down on the layers in the layers palette, starting at the top layer and in most cases ending with a background layer.
(layer 1) which is above the background layer is yellow. The layer to the right of (layer 1) is the Layer Mask.
The yellow layer has a hole in where the black ellipse is. That' is why it's the only area where we can see the layer below or (green layer). The result is a yellow canvas with a green ellipse.
Layer Mask button: To create a layer mask single click the mask button at the bottom of the layers mini window.
hides pixels (or hides the result of an adjustment layer).
reveals pixels (or reveals the result of an
MASKS Step # 1 - Create a background layer (it can be anything, just not exactly like the original background).
Step # 3 - After you have made a (White reveal) layer mask. Select RING
Step # 2 Click on the add layer mask icon on the mini-window toolbar. (make sure you are on the Layer you want to mask ).
the Magic Wand Tool and select ALL of the white areas (or the background of your image). Note: You may have to adjust the tolerance of the magic wand tool to get better edge control.
MASKS The Basics
A mask is a powerful non-destructive editing option. Your ability to use masks will increase your edge control.
Step # 4 - After you have selected the background w/ the magic wand tool. FILL the selection with Black (to hide the white pixels and reveal the underneath layer). Note: Before filling make sure you are on the layer mask and not the image , You should see the brackets around the layer mask.
Step # 5 - For some images you may need to FILL multiple selections. Note: after you fill the selection w/ black you will see the underneath layer or in this case Transparent canvas.
Notice the mask layer now shows the black (hide pixels) and the white (reveal pixels) of the mask.
MASKS A mask is a powerful non-destructive editing option. Your ability to use masks will increase your edge control.
Final Layer Mask (all areas are masked) -Remember that this image had a white simple background which is easy to select.
Final selections that needs to be filled w/ black.
More complicated backgrounds will require the use of the Pin tool and advanced layer mask techniques to make a good Layer Mask.
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“I started Free Software Friday With the sole purpose of helping you experience some of the great software that is available on the internet. Creating good software is an art form that is widely under-appreciated”. Discuss and make suggestions about your favorite free software.
Google Sketch-up Blender
Evernote Jungle Disk Floola
Podcasts Firefox Extensions
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Self-Portrait/ “Mug shot” A self-portrait is a portrait where the artist is also the subject. Usually it is in the form of a painting, drawing, or similar graphic image; self-portraits occur in other media such as sculpture, photography, cinema, literature, and digital art. A good portrait tries to let the viewer see into the soul of a person….
Assignment Your job is to paint a self portrait of yourself using your real life "Mug Shot" as a guide. You will need to use painting strategies to create your piece. Remember that your goal is to have a finished piece that looks like a painting of yourself.
Technical Stuff -You can only use these Tools: Paintbrush/pencil, selection tool & eyedropper tool. -You will then import that picture into PhotoShop. -Canvas: needs to be: 8.5x11 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: (Transparent) -Layers: You can only use three layers. (Not including the background layer) One layer is your "painting", the the next layer is your “Self-Portrait”, the last layer is “Background” blank & transparent.
Due Date: Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms). 1. Opacity: 2. Pixel: 3. Layers: 4. Selection:
LANDSCAPE PAINTING The fine art term 'landscape' - deriving from the Dutch word 'landschap', a patch of ground - describes any fine art painting or drawing whose "principal subject" is the portrayal of a scenic view.
Landscape art depicts scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests. Sky is almost always included in the view. However, it is difficult to paint a successful landscape as it is very hard to capture a 3D view in 2D. In the past, rules of perspective, use of colour and effective compositions were all things that had to be experimented with. Painting landscapes presented a great challenge to artists and many rose to that challenge making it an important genre in its own right.
Assignment Your job is to create an “awesome” landscape painting using photoshop. You will need to use two different techniques to paint your landscape. One technique must be the technique of overlaying your painting layer over a photo layer. The second technique must be done “free hand” from a photo or a sketch. You will also need to create at least one brush that you use in your piece. It is up to you to determine how much of technique one or two that you will use. It will be important for you to understand proper painting strategies. You will also need to understand what composition is and how to use it. Lastly you will need to use color to create depth and mood.
Technical Stuff -You can only use these Tools: Paintbrush/pencil, brush creation, adjustment tools (levels/ color balance), eye dropper, Transform tools, brush creation, & selection tool. -You will need to use and import 2 Hi-Res. pictures into PhotoShop. -Your Canvas needs to be: 11x14 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: (Transparent) -You must only use six layers. (Not including the background layer) One layer must be your sketch layer & two other layers need to be your hi-res. photos.
Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms). 1. Composition 2. Feathering 3. Intensity 4. Line + Shape = Form 5. Resolution
”Expressionism” -Germany 1905 Expressionism is the tendency of an artist to distort reality for an emotional effect. Expressionism reflects the artists’ state of mind rather than the reality of the external world. Expressionism can be defined as the use of distortion and exaggeration for emotional effect. This art style first surfaced in the literature of the early twentieth century. Expressionism can be described as a stylistic art that uses intense color, agitated brushstrokes, and disjointed space. Unlike Impressionism, an Expressionistic artists’ goal is not to reproduce the impression suggested by the surrounding world, but instead to strongly impose the artist's own sensibility to the world's representation.
Assignment Your job is to create a piece that represents an Expressionistic style. You will need to first plan out your picture using your sketchbook. (Ask yourself questions such as: what emotion/ mood am I going for, and what colors, pictures, and/or drawings will I use to create that emotion/ mood.)
Technical Stuff -You must use at least 3 Hi-Res. Pictures, but not more than 5 total Hi-Res. Pictures that you will import into PhotoShop.
You can only use these Tools: Paintbrush tool, Transform, Clone Stamp, Eraser Tool, Pen Tool, Selection Tools, Adjustment tools, Layer blending options, Layer style tools & Move Tools, and Vector Mask.
must use Layer Styles (as many as you feel necessary) must use only 2 filters (one filter must be a smart filter.) -You must use at least 1 Vector Mask. -You must use at least 2 adjustment tools. -You must use at least 2 blending modes. -Your Canvas needs to be: 11x14 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background Layer: white (untouched) -You must use 12-layers not including the background layer. -Your layers need to be organized into groups. -Each student is required to write an Artist Statement (A paragraph describing your idea).
Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms). 1. Masking 2. Non-Destructive 3. Copyright Law 4. Adjustment levels 5. Sharpen edges
“Logo Design” Hiring a professional logo designer is an important step in forming a business—“but being Digital Art and Design students you already know that”. What you may not realize is that the growth of logos from a simple craftsperson's signature to the basis for relationships between companies and customers is a new development. Before the Industrial Revolution, people purchased goods directly from the craftsperson, the grocer, and the farmer. Pottery, woodwork, stonework and even bread carried a stamp of the craftsperson—a signature of someone you could shake the hand of. When designing a logo, it's important to think carefully about what it will convey to others. Every shape, line, and color in a logo will send a message to all who see it. Logos surround the world that we live in, they give us a visual representation of something that would not other wise be visual. There are basically three kinds of logos. Font-based, literally illustration, abstract graphic. Font-based logos are primarily edited type/Font. Sony’s logo is an example of a font-based logo. Then there are logos that literally illustrate what a company does, such as when a house-painting company uses an illustration of a brush in its logo. And finally, there are abstract graphic symbols-such as Nike's swoosh.
Assignment You have been hired to design a new logo for your favorite company. The company wants to change their image. The CEO has stated that this new logo must be new and refreshing: “We must go in a new direction.”
Technical Stuff -You must do at least 5 different sketches of your design before you can use the computer. (I will check your sketches before I let you use the computer..) -You will make 2 different logos for your favorite company. (They will both be printed) -Tools you must use: Paintbrush tool, Free Transform, Eraser Tool, Pen Tool, Selection Tools, Gradient Tool, Move Tool, & the Text tool. -You must use a Layer Style. -You must have at least 1 path. -Use must use only 2 Filters… -Your Canvas needs to be: 8 x 10 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: (Transparent) -You must use between 5 & 10-layers not including the background layer. -Your logos must be clean and ready to be printed.
Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms). 1. Rasterization 2. Gradient 3. Vector graphic 4. PNG (file Type) 5. Text/ Fonts
“Movie Poster” Los Angeles is considered the “Entertainment Capital of the World”. So it should be no surprise that there are many artists in Hollywood CA. that are not actors. One of the most popular areas that many artists work in is film advertising and art directing. These artists are responsible for designing the movie poster we see all over America. In order to design a movie poster an artist must understand the basics of design which consist of: Audience, layout, Typography, Image, and Color. They must also be well versed in traditional principal and elements of design. A movie poster is a representation of that specific feature film. In order to create a successful movie poster, you must capture the tone and emotion of the movie.
Assignment Design a new movie poster for a fictional movie. You will use traditional movie poster layout designs. -Use this web site to see how to do your layout design: http://bighugelabs.com/flickr/poster.php (You Must Create Your Own Layout using photoshop tools) Remember, the Typography of the poster is very important. Use the principles and elements of design to guide you.
Technical Stuff -You must do at least 3 different layout sketches of your movie poster. (These will be part of your total grade) -Tools and Editing you must use in your project: Pin Tool &/or Selection tools, Free Transform & Transform, Clone Stamp, Eraser, Selection Tools, Clipping Mask, Gradient Tool, Move Tool, Ruler/Guides, and Text tool. -You must use Layer Styles (as many as you feel necessary) -You must use only 3 filters (2 filter must be a smart filter.) -You must use at least 2 Masks (one must be a clipping mask). -You must use at least 3 adjustment tools. -You must use Layer Blending Mode. -Your layers need to be organized into groups.
-Your Canvas needs to be: 11x14 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: (Transparent) -You must use between 10- 12 layers including the background layer. -Your movie poster must be clean and ready to be printed.
Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms). 1. Scale 2. Basics of Design 3. Copyright 4. Histogram
“Surrealism” -What is real? How do you define real? If you're talking about what you can feel, what you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain. -Morpheus the Matrix -Have you ever had a dream, that you were so sure was real. What if you were unable to wake from that dream? How would you know the difference between the dream world and the real world? -Morpheus the Matrix Surrealism is an artistic, cultural and intellectual movement oriented toward the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative faculties of the "unconscious mind" and the attainment of a dreamlike state different from, "more than", and ultimately "truer" than everyday reality: the "sur-real", or "more than real".
Assignment Create a surrealistic piece using the fundamental ideas of surrealism which are: size, shape, juxtaposition/space, and morphing. This piece will represent a dream-like state. Objects will be depicted realistically in unrealistic situations. Think outside the box, and let your creativity run wild.
Technical Stuff -Tools and Editing: Tools you must use in your project: Paintbrush tool, Free Transform & Transform, Clone Stamp, Eraser Tool, Pen Tool, Selection Tools, Move Tool, Text tool, and selection tools. -You must use Layer Styles -You must use filters -You must use a Mask -You must use adjustment tools. -You must use Layer Blending Modes. -Your layers need to be organized into groups. -Your Canvas needs to be: 11x14 -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: any color or value (untouched) -Layers: You must use between 10-15 layers including the background layer. -Extras: -Your surrealistic piece must be clean and ready to be printed. -You must (first) do paragraph # 1 of your two paragraph artist statement. This statement will explains your thoughts and ideas in your piece. Do Paragraph 2 once you’ve finished your piece. (This will be a big part of your total grade) Digital Art Language: (you will be tested on your knowledge of these important technology terms).
1. Emphasis, Space, Movement 2. Jaggies 3. Montage 4. RGB
"Scanography" Webster's Dictionary defines a scanner as a device that scans documents and converts them into digital data. Scanography is a new type of art that requires the artist to use a scanner to create Art. Just scanning something on the flatbed glass does not make it "art". Scanography requires compositional decisions, and an understanding of the fundamental principles of art.
Assignment Your job is to design an interesting piece using only a scanner and the (provided) materials. "You will only need to use photoshop to clean up your picture and possibly crop it". This is why it will be very important for you to arrange your composition using your knowledge of space, emphasis, balance, and unity.
Technical Stuff -You will import your scanned picture into PhotoShop. -You will only use photoshop to fix you piece: -You only need to use these Tools: Healing brush, Crop tool, and any Image Adjustment tools. -Your Canvas needs to be: ? -The resolution: 600 -Color Mode: RGB 8 bit -Background: (Transparent) -You only need Two layers. (Not including the background layer) One layer is your "Original Scanned image", the other layer is your "improved picture".
"Tee Shirt Designâ€? Most research mentions the idea of the T-shirt came to the United States during World War I when US soldiers noticed the light cotton undershirts European soldiers were using while the US soldiers were sweating in their wool uniforms. Since they were so much more comfortable they quickly became popular among the Americans, and because of their design they got the name T-shirt.
Assignment Your job is to either use your original logo that you created for this class, or a new design that would look "cool" on a White T-shirt. You will only get one Iron-on Transferable sheet, so it is important that you fallow the Iron-on direction closely.
Technical Stuff -Use whatever Photoshop Tools you need: if needed -Your Canvas needs to be: 8.5 x 11 (same size as the Iron-on paper) note: You can also do multiple small logos for shirt sleeves, breast pockets, etc... -The resolution: 300 -Color Mode: RGB 8bit -Background: (Transparent) -You can use as many layers as possible. -IF YOU HAVE ANY WRITING ON YOUR T-SHIRT LOGO YOU WILL NEED TO REVERSE THE IMAGE. (The lettering should read backwards) -You will have your design printed on Iron-on Transferable paper (supplied and printed by me)
You will need to bring your own White(cotton) T-shirt by: Due Date:
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Glossary of Digital Art and Design by the Digital Art Practices & Terminology Task Force (DAPTTF) ÂŠ 2005 Digital Art Practices & Terminology Task Force (DAPTTF)
Use these links to go directly to Glossary letter sections: A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W
A 8-bit color In 8-bit color, each pixel has eight bits assigned to it, providing 256 colors or shades of gray, as in a grayscale image. 24-bit color Digital color model that uses eight bits each for the three additive colors red, green, blue. It can reproduce 256 shades of each primary color. Same as true-color image. Generally refers to 24-bit or better images. In 24 bit color, each pixel has 24 bits assigned to it, representing 16.7 million colors. 8-bits - or one byte - is assigned to each of the red, green, and blue components of a pixel. alpha channel An image-editor channel used to contain a mask or partial picture element or color. Created by Alvy Ray Smith and Ed Catmull at N.Y.I.T. in 1997, the alpha channel is used to calculate the transparency of each color in an image. In a three color image, the alpha channel would be the fourth channel. analog data consisting of or systems employing continuously variable signals or data, as opposed to discreet steps or levels of digital data. anti-alias The process of smoothing and removing of aliasing effects by electronic filtering and other techniques, such as blending of hard edges. Also, blending object-oriented art with bit-mapped art. archiving Retention of images, often on CD-ROM. Information necessary to reproduce the print is also archived, including ink, tables, sizes, and media used. artifact In digital graphic applications, unwanted visual anomalies or defects generated by an input or output device, or by a software operation, that degrade image quality. (see also "aliasing" and "moirĂŠ pattern") ^ back to top
B bitmap A rasterized graphic image formed by a rectangular grid of pixels or dots. BMP file A Windows bitmap file, with the extension ".bmp," that defines an image (such as the image of a scanned page) as a pattern of dots (pixels). From Bit mapping, the process of addressing the pixels on the screen. brightness The overall intensity of the image. The lower the brightness value, the darker the image; the higher the value, the lighter the image will be. (see "chroma") BYTE A standard unit of digital measurement. 8 bits = 1 byte. Each 8-bit byte represents an alphanumeric character.
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C calibration The act of setting or adjusting the color settings of one device relative to another, such as a monitor to a printer, or a scanner to a film recorder. Or, it may be the process of adjusting the color of one device to some established standard. capture Acquiring information, such as an image, with a scanner or digital-camera device. CD-R (CD-Recordable) A CD format that allows the users to record data to a disc when using the proper hardware. Recorded data is not erasable. CD-RW A CD format that allows users to erase data. Certificate of Authenticity 1. A written or printed description of the multiple which is to be sold, exchanged, or consigned by an art dealer. [CALIF. CIVIL CODE] 2. A written statement by an art merchant confirming, approving, or attesting to the authority of a work of fine art or multiple, which is capable of being used to the advantage or disadvantage of some person. [IOWA CIVIL CODE] 3. A written statement disclosing certain key facts about a multiple print. channel A component of a digital image that carries the data for a color component or a mask. clipping The grouping (usually unwanted) of all tones or colors above or below a certain value into one composite tone. The loss of visual information caused by too little contrast, in which certain gray scale values are lost or compressed either into the range of pure white or pure black. CMY (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow) Three subtractive primary colors used in color printing. In theory, the combination of pure CMY inks produces black; in reality, black must be added to produce a full color gamut. CMYK Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Black (or Key) are the four colors used in process-color printing. Also known as subtractive color, the color black is achieved by the presence of all inks. color balance The ability to reproduce the colors of a scene to some acceptable standard. compression The process of removing irrelevant information and reducing unneeded space from a file in order to make the file smaller. Compression can cause losses and distortion, depending on the method. Some types of compression can cause losses and distortion. In Run Length Encoding, rows of pixels of the same colors are stored as a number and color, reducing the file size while keeping the data in tact. contrast Tonal gradation between the highlights, midtones, and shadows in an image. High contrast implies dark black and bright white. Medium contrast implies a good spread from black to white, and Low contrast implies a narrow spread of values from black to white. Also, understood in terms of "Rate of Falloff." High contrast implies a rapid transition between black and white, whereas a slow "rate of falloff" produces gradual or smooth transition between light and dark. copyright Legal basis for the owner's control of the usage of his images or artworks. crop To remove part of an image.
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D DPI Dots per inch. A measure of the detail of a print. "Apparent dpi" refers to the fact that the eye perceives a giclĂŠe as having greater detail than in does in physical reality. database An organized collection of data or information. density (optical density) The degree of opacity of an image; a measure of reflectance or transmittance equal to log10 (1/reflectance) of log10 or (1/transmittance); the ability of a material to absorb light; the darker it is, the higher the density. Density measurements of solid ink patches are used to control ink on paper. digital Type of data consisting of (or systems employing) discreet steps or levels, as opposed to continuously variable analog data. digital art Art created with one or more digital processes or technologies. digitize The process of converting analog data to digital information. dot Dots make up an image in color separations or halftones. Halftone dots will have a fixed density but have variable size (amplitude modulation). down-sampling The process of receiving data from another computer, server or system. The reduction in resolution of an image, necessitating a loss in detail. dynamic range The measurable difference between the brightest highlight and the darkest value. ^ back to top
E edition The aggregate of identical prints produced from a single matrix. (see also "open edition,""limited edition," and "variant edition") effective resolution The final appearance of a scan that has been enhanced to produce more data than the scanner can record. This is done by interpolation. ^ back to top
F fading A subjective term used to describe the lightening of the hue of a colorant following exposure to the effects of light, heat, time, temperature, chemicals, and so on.
feathering A technique in many image-editing programs that allows for the softening of the edge around a selection. filters Software or subprograms within image manipulation software that employ algorithms to control modifications to digital images by altering the values or arrangement of entire or selected areas of an image. format Characteristic identifying size of printer, media, or graphic, according to width of media roll, printer's print area, or graphic. "Medium Format" is generally taken to be between 11-24" in width; "Large Format" (Wide Format), larger than 24" in width; and "Grand Format," larger than 72" in width. fractal A mathematically generated pattern that is reproducible at any magnification or reduction, and repeats infinitely. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) The method for uploading and downloading files to/from Internet server systems. ^ back to top
G gaussian blur An image-softening effect used in digital imagery. Named after French Mathematician Carl Friedrich Gausse. GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) An image format type generated specifically for computer use. Its resolution is usually very low (72 dpi, or that of your computer screen), making it undesirable for printing purposes. graphic A non-text item (illustration or photograph) or non-text component of an image. graphics tablet An input device that uses a stylus or specialized mouse to write or draw on the tablet surface to communicate with the computer. grayscale An image having no color hues but containing a range of gray levels as opposed to only pure black or white. ^ back to top
H hex triplet a six-digit, three-byte hexadecimal number used in HTML, CSS, SVG, and other computing applications, to represent colors. high bit (see "8-bit""24-bit" etc.) highlight The lightest area within an image. Also called "specular reflection." histogram
A graphical display that represents the distribution of tones within an image. The horizontal coordinate represents each pixel value possible from black to white. The vertical values indicate the number of pixels in the image that occur at each value level. hue The attribute of color by means of which a color is perceived to be red, yellow, green, blue, purple, etc. ^ back to top
I inkjet printer A type of printer that sprays tiny spurts of ink onto coated paper. (see "Digital Printing" analysis) indexed color A color system that defines a palate of colors to be used in a specific image. Often this makes images small and manageable. intensity The amount of light reflected or transmitted by an object with black as the lowest intensity and white as the highest intensity. interpolation A technique for increasing the size of a graphic file by creating pixels. Also an extrapolation algorithm. There are two types, sequential and bi-cubic. Note: increasing the size of an image by interpolation does not increase or enhance the ability to resolve the detail in that image. It only makes the details that are already present larger. ^ back to top
J jaggies The effect caused by images or lines being rendered at too low a resolution. It can easily be defined as a stair-stepped effect giving the line or image a rough appearance. JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) Standardized image compression format developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. Usually used for compressing full-color or gray-scale images. ^ back to top
K ^ back to top
L large-format A printer, media, or print 24" or greater in width. laser printer A laser printer uses a laser beam to write on a photoconductive revolving drum that is coated with toner, which is a fine, black powder. After the image is transferred to paper it passes through a pair of heated rollers or a fuser that melts the toner fusing it with the paper fibers.
layers Layers are used in digital image editing to separate different elements of an image. lightfast Resistant to the destructive action of light. line art (or line drawing) 1. Single color diagrams or drawings. 2. An image that requires sharp edges and high contrast between areas of the image that have ink and those areas that do not have ink. A drawing that consists only of black and white with no intermediate grayscale information. These images require a higher resolution to create the sharpness that is necessary. LPI (Lines Per Inch) Measurement of resolution on a traditional printing press. The number of lines per inch on a halftone screen. As a general rule, the higher the lpi, the higher the printed resolution and quality. ^ back to top
M mask A special effect that can modify images so that only part of the image can be seen, or so that the image blends into the background. matte finish A low-gloss finish with very little reflective quality. media Another term for substrate; the materials to be printed, such as watercolor papers, canvas, copper, wood veneer, cotton, or plastic. The common term used in digital printing. midtones Tones in an image that are in the middle of the tonal range, halfway between the lightest and the darkest. Also called "middle values." montage The seamless combination of divergent images into a singular image. ^ back to top
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O OD (optical density) (see "print density") opacity The measure of the amount of light that can pass through a material. Also, the property of a film that prevents "show through" of dark printing or marks on a substrate (media). The degree to which a material obscures a substrate, as opposed to transparency, which is the degree to which a material does not obscure a substrate. Also "hiding power." optical resolution The maximum physical resolution of a device. Optical resolution provides better quality than
orientation The direction that the page is printed; horizontal = landscape, vertical = portrait. output In digital printing technology, to translate information from the computer to an external device (e.g., a printer or monitor); to print. Also, the visual display of digital information, or that which is printed or displayed. overlaminate A protective clear film that extends an image's durability and enhances its visual quality. Most often used in commercial signage. ^ back to top
P palette The number of colors a device is capable of displaying and producing. Also the tools used in paint programs. PDF (Portable Document File) A proprietary format developed by Adobe Systems for the transfer of designs across multiple computer platforms. Photo CD A proprietary format developed by Eastman Kodak for storing photographic images on a compact disc. Images can be easily accessed for use in professional printing. photograph An image or picture made by photography, whether traditional or digital. (see "photography") photography The art or process of capturing an image onto a recording medium (whether photographic film or image sensor/detector) by the action of light or other radiant energy with the aid of a camera or other device. PICT A picture file format. pigment Colorant consisting of particles made up of many synthetic dye molecules or carbon black. Generally more stable than dyes of the same color. Pigmented inkjet inks are credited with better longevity and may have a narrower color gamut. Finely ground insoluble dispersed particles that, when dispersed in a liquid vehicle, can be made into a paint or ink. pixel Term derived from pi(x)cture element. Refers to the simplest or smallest element of a digital image. pixel depth The amount of data used to describe each colored dot on the computer screen. Example: monochrome is 1 bit deep, grayscale is 8 bits deep, RGB is 24 bits deep. Images to be printed as CMYK separation should be 32 bits deep. (see also "bit depth") plotter A term applied to a peripheral unit that, through computer control, prints data via the Cartesian (X/Y) coordinate system. portrait, portrait mode The orientation of an image that is taller than it is wide; a setting controlling an output device to properly fit a computer document to the print medium. Vertical. posterization An effect created by having a limited number of levels or gradient steps within an image. This
may be a planned/desired effect, or it may be a mistake requiring correction. PostScript A page description programming language created by Adobe that is a device-independent. PostScript is an industry standard for outputting documents and graphics. PPI (pixels per inch) A measure of resolution or density of pixels in a digital image. print 1. In the context of fine art, an original work of art (as a woodcut, lithograph, photograph, or digital print) where the art object or artwork does not exist until it is printed. The print is made directly from the matrix by the artist or pursuant to his/her directions. Also known as "fine print,""work on paper," and "original print." 2. A physical image, usually on paper, produced by, but not limited to, such processes as etching, lithography, serigraphy, relief printing, photography, or digital methods. Prints are usually, but not always, produced on paper and in multiples. Traditional, photographic, and digital processes can be used to produce prints. print density or optical density (OD) The print density of an inkjet hardcopy is the visually perceivable and densitometrically measurable absorption of light on the surface due to the presence of a colorant. OD only measures the surface density of a dry hardcopy, not the density of the total amount of ink that was sprayed onto the medium. printer driver Printer-specific software that allows a computer to communicate with the printer. If available, provided by the printer manufacturer. (see also "RIP") printing The process of applying ink to a substrate. printmaker A person producing actual prints from the artist's master file, under the artist's supervision. process color The mechanical process of reproducing a full color image with the three primary subtractive color inks and black (CMYK: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black or "K"). When viewed under a loupe, the individual color halftone dots can be seen in a process color image. profile A file of data or values. In digital printing, generally used to refer to a color profile, especially of a specific piece of equipment (monitor, printer, scanner, etc.) that enables the user to correlate color consistently on various devices. proof A preliminary print used to evaluate aspects of the image (color, density, resolution, etc.) prior to final printing. ^ back to top
Q ^ back to top
R raster A horizontal row of pixels on a screen. The process of rendering an image or page, pixel by pixel, in a sweeping horizontal motion, one line after another. raster image
An image that is defined as a collection of pixels arranged in a rectangular array of lines of dots or pixels. (see "bitmap") rasterization Changing vector-type image information to raster image information. reflective art Artwork that is neither digital nor transparent. Refers to artwork that is viewed with the light on the same side of the image as the viewer. relief process In printmaking, a process using printing plates that are incised, etched, or sand-blasted before the surface is inked. Lines or areas that have been cut away do not print. The ink is transferred from the surface of the plate to the paper either by hand-rubbing or with a press. rendering Applying shading and lighting effects to a two dimensional image. reproduction A copy of an original work of art. In the context of digital art, a copy of artwork that already exists in some other original form or material (painting, drawing, et al.) prior to the fixing of the image of that original work on the current printing matrix. (see also "giclĂŠe") resampling Changing the resolution of a bitmap file without altering its physical size. resolution A definition of resolution in terms of pixels per inch, or pixel density. Refers to the number of smallest discernable dots or pixels. A measurement of the "fineness" of detail reproduction given in line pairs per mm, or pixels per inch. (see "DPI" and "PPI") retouching Removing imperfections or unwanted portions of an image. RGB A color model using red, green, and blue; the additive primary colors. Video display systems use RGB data to create screen images. RIFF (Raster Image File Format) A storage format used with grayscale images. In Corel Painter the RIFF format is used to save color image files that retain all of the Painter capabilities such as "wet canvas" and active layers. Saving in any other format disallows further modifications and interaction with these tools. RIP (Raster Image Processor) "Bridge" software allowing the computer to give specific instructions to a printer. Often includes add-on features such as color-calibration routines and various tools. ^ back to top
S saturation A measure of purity of color. Saturated colors contain pure color only, colors desaturate to gray. Saturation is a measure of the degree of pureness or movement away from gray. The amount of gray in a color. More gray means lower saturation; less gray means higher saturation. If a color has no saturation, it is a shade of gray. Saturation is also the degree to which a color is undiluted by white light. (see "chroma") scale To enlarge or reduce an image by increasing or decreasing the number of scanned pixels or the sampling rate, relative to the number of samples per inch needed by the printer or other output device. (see also "interpolation") scan
The process of translating a picture from reflective art or transparency into digital information. scanner A hardware peripheral that illuminates, reads, and then converts original text, artwork, or film into digital data. Types of scanners include flatbed, film, and drum. selection Any of several processes by which the digital artist can isolate a portion of a digital image in order to perform additional work or protect the selected area from manipulations applied to the remaining "unprotected" areas. Similar to frisket paper and masking tape in traditional painting. shadow detail Subtle features in the darker part of an image. shadow point The darkest tone printable in an image without being black. All tonal values below this threshold will print as black with no detail. sharpen edges An image-editing technique to enhance the edges of an object. sharpening 1. A picture enhancement making the image have more distinct borders, areas, lines, or tones. 2. An option on some scanners that emphasizes detail by increasing the contrast of the boundaries between light and dark areas of an image. silhouetting A masking or image blocking that isolates an image from the background. silk screen An archaic term for screen printing, since most screen printing is now done with synthetic-fabric screens. signed Carrying an original signature of the artist. In law: 1. Autographed by the artist's own hand, and not by mechanical means of reproductions, and if a multiple, after the multiple was produced, whether or not the master was signed. [IOWA CIVIL CODE] [GEORGIA CODE SIMILAR] 2. The artist signed the print multiple by hand to signify the artist's examination and approval of the print. "Signed" does not mean the act of leaving an impression of the artist's name upon the print by any mechanical process. [HAWAII CIVIL CODE] SLR Single Lens Reflex, a form of small format (35mm or 6cm) camera that has a reflecting mirror that retracts when the shutter is released. An SLR allows the photographer to view the image exactly as it will be framed in the photo. soft proof Viewing a digital image with a monitor instead of generating a hard copy proof. Can be done from a remote location via the Internet. sRGB One of several standard RGB color working spaces. Best used for images on the Internet. stylus A tool that is used on a graphic input tablet as a drawing instrument, or as a mouse. subsampling Scanning at a less-than-optimum sampling rate. substrate Ultimately, the material that receives the printed image. Sometimes called "media" in digital printing. The single or multi-layered base material of the medium, which can have a very simple or complex structure and is a carrier for the coating, if present. subtractive color / reflective color The color mixing system associated with pigments, as opposed to pure light. The term refers to
the CMYK color space used by conventional and digital printing devices to produce full-color printing. Theoretically, when all three subtractive primary colors are mixed together the resulting color is black. (see also "CMYK") The three colors that are used to create all other colors in color photographic printing. (Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow) ^ back to top
T tablet (graphics tablet) thumbnail A small low-resolution version of an image. TIFF (Tagged Image Format File) A file format for storage of digital images. tiling The process of breaking down an image or page into sections for editing or printing purposes. transform A color-space exchange from one system (RGB or CMYK) to the other, or changing from one hue base to another. translucent Diffuse transmission of light. No clear image can be seen. transparent Adjective to describe a material that transmits light with minimal diffusion or scattering. (Clear, not opaque.) ^ back to top
U unsharp mask A sharpening process that first blurs the edges then subtracts the image from the blurred areas to yield an image of apparent enhanced sharpness. ^ back to top
V vector A term given to a graphic drawing, specified as a color, start and end point, and applied to line segments, type, and tints. vector graphics Drawing software. Vector graphics files are usually stored in formats such as PICT or EPS. Any of a number of graphics formats including EPS(F) and DXF that describe objects on the screen not as colored pixels but as mathematically defined shapes. Vector graphics can be rescaled to any size without any effect to file size. Typically, vector graphics occupy less disk space than their bitmapped (rasterized) counterparts. vector image A computer image that uses mathematical descriptions of paths and fills to define the graphic, as opposed to individual pixels.
video card An add-on device that accelerates the digital screen refresh rate in order to display complex digital graphics and motion. ^ back to top
W watermark A faint marking on the back of some photographic papers indicating that the picture was taken by a professional photographer. Also, term for a faint image superimposed on a digital image to protect rights of ownership. An identifying mark or symbol imbedded in the substrate on which the art is made, usually referring to the maker of the substrate. white The result of combining the additive primary colors (Red, Green, and Blue). In the subtractive color mixing system, "white" is the result of the absence of any color. white balance The balancing of color components to create pure white when photographing or scanning a white object. A substitute for a color temperature setting. white point The color and intensity of a device's brightest white. With printers, this is usually the white of the paper. With scanners, the color that when scanned produces values of 255, 255, 255 (RGB). Ideally, the white point is 100 percent neutral reflectance or transmittance. (see also "reflectance") WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get. Refers to the ability to output data from computers exactly as it appears on the screen.
CREDIT Jeremy Brock
This is a collection of simple guides & tutorials created to be used in conjunction with Eric Mickens Digital Art Classes copyright
F N L O E I S UAT L A V
G T AR
L A T I G I D C I R B U R
E D RA
You will use Adobe Acrobat Professional to fill out your Self
-After you have filled out the self evaluation (save as: Self eval. Assignment name) and put your edited .pdf file in your assignment folder which will also contain your completed photoshop documents and media. Step # 1 - Open your self evaluation PDF file. Click on the Review & Comments icon. Then go to Comment & Markup Tools.
Step # 2 - Click on the Sticky Note icon. Your mouse curser will become a + . Then click on the area where you want the sticky note to appear. Then add text.
Step # 3 - For the highlight text tool (fallow step 2 instructions) note: your mouse will become a text icon . Then click & drag on the area you want to be highlighted.
You will use Adobe Acrobat Professional to fill out your Self
-After you have filled out the self evaluation (save as: Self eval. Assignment name) and put your edited .pdf file in your assignment folder which will also contain your completed photoshop documents and media. (optional) Step # 3 - You can also add check marks by going here: -Comment & Markup Tools -Stamps -Sign Here
Step # 5 - (Save as) your newly created PDF. And put it into the assignment folder that you are turning in to me.
Remember to highlight and add comments in the appropriate areas of the self Evaluation.
Digital Art & Design 1 Self-Evaluation Artist:
Are objects within your piece arranged interestingly? Does the piece use the space provided to it’s fullest? Are placement of object appropriate.
Did you use the techniques, tools, filters, ect. required for the assignment? Did you show control of the techniques/tools? Did you “PLAY”!
Planning/ Sketches: 10
Did you plan out your piece by doing initial sketches or writings?
Does the piece show understanding of the medium used? Is the piece a finished product? Is your piece consistent with your Artist Statement.
Ready to Print:
Is the piece free of stray marks? Is the paper appropriately taken care of, not purposely rolled up or folded in anyway? If the picture is window mounted, is the piece well adhered to the window matte?
Principles & Elements of Art used in piece:
List at least three Principles of Art that you used in your piece, then List as least three Elements of Art that you used in your piece.
Give yourself a 6 or above if you think you have been especially creative and insightful. Circle 5 if your think you have simply fulfilled the assignment. Circle 4 or below if your piece is less than inspiring and misses the intent of the assignment.
Files & Folders:
Is your work saved/backed-up properly (three files saved at least: one with media, scans & pictures (visible), & lastly one with all layers merged.)
used, another with all layers intact
Tools, Filters, Layer Styles & Masks used:
List the tools, filters, & layers styles that you used for this assignment.
Tools Used: Filters Used: Layer Styles: Masks Used:
Is this form completely filled out? Were you honest and thoughtful with your evaluation?
Digital Art Language: (list & define the terms located on the assignment details paper work).
Back up: Did you back up in another place (some where other than on your flash drive or on the school’s network) circle one: YES NO “Remember, if you only have one copy, then you really don’t have any”
(Note: If needed, add any comments that are appropriate and help to support your opinion/s.)