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Building knowledge together


EMES International Research Network asbl c/o University of Liege Bd du Rectorat, B33, box 4 4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) Belgium Tel.: +32 (0)4 366 31 39 Fax.: +32 (0)4 366 28 51 Design and layout:


Table of contents 05







Communication and dissemination


Research initiatives


EMES membership




Functioning and governance of EMES


Training and education


Overall evaluation for 2016 and overview for 2017


Glossary AICCON



Research Centre on Cooperation and Non

Expert Group on Social Entrepreneurship

Third Sector Impact (project)

Profit Organizations (IT)

of the European Commission



UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Social and

Centre for Co-operative Studies (IE)

Interuniversity Attraction Pole - Building

Solidarity Economy

CES-BE Center for Social Economy (BE) CES-PT Centre for Social Studies (PT) CIRTES Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Travail, État et Société (BE)

interdisciplinary and integrated knowledge on social entrepreneurship and social enterprise (project) ICSEM International Comparative Social Enterprise Project (project) LEST


UCL Université catholique de Louvain (BE) Ulg Université de Liège (BE) WISEs Work integration social enterprise

Laboratoire d’Economie et de Sociologie



du Travail, LEST. Univ. of Aix-Marseille

Welfare innovations at the local level in

Conservatoire national des arts et


favour of social cohesion (project)

métiers (FR)

OECD LEED Programme



Organisation for Economic Cooperation

Yunus Centre for Social Business and

Co-created social innovation research

and Development, Local Economic and

Health, Glasgow Caledonian University


Employment Development Programme




Recherche et d’Information sur la

Post-Graduate Program in Social Sciences

Démocratie et l’Autonomie (FR)

of Unisinos



Centre for Social Entrepreneurship (DK)

Red de Investigadores Latinoamericanos


de Economía Social y Solidaria

Institute for Social Research, Oslo (NO)



Sustainable Development Goals

European Economic and Social



Social enterprise, social economy,


solidarity economy

EMES Junior Experts’ Blog



Social Innovation Europe (project)

European Research Institute on


Cooperative and Social Enterprises (IT)

Associazione Promozione e Solidarietà



Finnish Social Enterprise Research


Network (FIN)

Social and solidarity economy


EMES Activity Report 2016

EMES Network in figures Norway Sweden Luxembourg The Netherlands

United Kingdom








Bulgaria Lebanon Israel

Slovakia Spain Greece









Belgium United States


Slovenia Latvia


Czech Republic

Switzerland Italy


China India

Taiwan Bangladesh Singapore

Saudi Arabia

United Arab Emirates



Chile South Africa

New Zealand







Since 1996, when an international group of scholars launched the first research network devoted to social enterprise.

The institutional pillars of EMES, leading research centers acting together to carry out influential collaborative research.

We believe in the power of connecting individual researchers around the world.





Have participated in the five EMES Summer Schools.

International comparative projects.



2016 was the first year of a newly elected Board of directors including a new President and new members. It confirmed the stability of EMES as a research network with increasingly solid alliances across the world. On the one hand, two of EMES’ flagship projects, the International Comparative Social Enterprise Project (ICSEM) and Third Sector Impact (TSI) projects continued to be implemented and produced intermediate findings and outputs such as working papers, policy briefs and audiovisual material. In addition, the Social Innovation Europe (SIE) project ended in June 2016 with the contribution of EMES in the form of a publication specialized on social innovation research. Regarding ICSEM, its 2nd General ICSEM Meeting was held

Regarding the 6th international research conference of

in Stockholm (Sweden) in June as well as three regional

EMES, hosted by Belgian institutional member Centre

symposia in Albania, France and Brazil. Overall, these

Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Travail, État et Société

meetings gathered more than 250 Research Partners from

(CIRTES) and to be held at the University of Louvain-la-

55 countries, confirming the interest by an international

Neuve, the call for proposals was launched in October 2016.

community of researchers in the topic of social enterprise

The paper submission period will run until January 2017 and

models and processes of institutionalization. On the

preparations are at full steam for this major biannual event

basis of a common questionnaire, data about some 650

gathering the largest social enterprise research community

social enterprises has been collected, with a view to

around the world.

strengthening international comparative analysis and to proposing a worldwide typology of SE models. As for the TSI project, it continued to improve understanding about and to raise awareness about the sector across Europe. The active engagement and participation of local stakeholders contributes to making the results from the research relevant to citizens, practitioners and policy-makers at all levels across Europe. Although the project officially ends in January 2017, the final event was held in November 2016, thus marking the end of quite a unique project. After

Membership remained stable in 2016 in terms of figures while the enthusiasm continued to grow. The individual researchers and PhD students who renewed their membership or joined in 2016 constitute a unique resource to consolidate the work that EMES does. In addition, our institutional members ensure that scientific events and collective research projects continue to emanate under the EMES umbrella. This is why members constitute one of the basic pillars of the functioning of EMES.

two years of work in the framework of the SIE project, a

Our deepest appreciation goes to all of you who are reading

co-created social innovation research agenda (CO-SIRA)

this for your interest and ongoing support to EMES. We

was finally produced in collaboration with the research

remain at your disposal for your feedback and your ideas

community working on social innovation.

regarding the initiatives of EMES hoping that you consider

Regarding events, two major appointments took place in 2016. Firstly, the 2nd International Seminar EMES-Polanyi –

yourself as part of this international community and can make it your own.

“Societies in transition. Social and solidarity economy, the commons, public action and livelihood” was held in Paris in May. Secondly, the 5th EMES PhD Summer School took place

We look forward to welcoming you in Louvain-la-Neuve for our 6th International Conference!

in Glasgow in June 2016 and gathered 41 students and 12 faculty members from over 40 countries.

Marthe Nyssens

Rocío Nogales


Managing Director


EMES Activity Report 2016

Research initiatives One of the three ongoing international projects (SIE) ended in 2016 while the other two (ICSEM and TSI) continued throughout the year. In addition the update of the European mapping of social enterprise was commissioned to EMES in collaboration with Euricse. Lastly, EMES teamed up with a number of members to prepare international research proposals whose evaluation will be known in the course of 2017.



EMES research projects

The ICSEM project The 68 ICSEM national teams (comprising more than 250 researchers) continue to work on identifying and describing the social enterprise models and writing about their results. A number of meetings were organized in connection to the Project. The 2nd General ICSEM Meeting took place in Stockholm (Sweden) on June 27 and 28, 2016. It brought together over 40 Research Partners from 25 countries. The meeting was hosted by Södertörns högskola, the institution of ICSEM Research Partner in Sweden, and by the Swedish Red Cross. After a brief presentation, by

Full name:

the Project’s Scientific Coordinators, of the development of the ICSEM research

International Comparative Social

community (Research Partners, major events) and current advancement of the

Enterprise Models Project (ICSEM)

Project’s first phase (publication of ICSEM Working Papers), Elisabetta Severi, who is in charge of the data collection-related aspects of the Project, presented

Scientific Coordinators:

some preliminary results in this field. As of June 2016, data had been collected on

Jacques Defourny (ULg-Belgium) and

more than 550 social enterprises, on the basis of a common questionnaire, thus

Marthe Nyssens (UCL-Belgium), EMES

feeding a large international database on SE at the global level. To conclude this

Belgian institutional members

first day of work, ongoing joint publication projects were presented, thus opening the way for the discussions of the second day, which started with a presentation

Participating EMES members:

of the guidelines for transversal/comparative papers in special issues or books,

250 researchers from 55 countries (+50

before focusing on proposals for transversal and comparative analyses. ICSEM

are EMES members)

Research Partners once more brought proof of their highly active involvement in the Project. The exchanges were particularly rich and fruitful; ongoing joint


publication projects were considerably enriched by the discussions, and many

July 2013 - April 2017

new joint publication projects also emerged from the interactions that took place during this meeting.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Secondly, the ICSEM regional symposiums gather

presented ICSEM-related contributions during the

researchers from a specific area of the world to discuss

2nd International Seminar EMES-Polanyi – Societies

about specific comparative research issues and plan

in transition. Social and solidarity economy, the

common actions for the future. Three ICSEM regional

commons, public action and livelihood, which took

symposiums were organized in 2016:

place immediately after the ICSEM Symposium.

Central and Eastern European ICSEM Symposium, Tirana

2nd Latin American ICSEM Symposium, Florianópolis

(Albania), April 21-22, 2016

(Brazil), December 15-18, 2016

The Swiss Agency for International Cooperation

The 2nd Latin American ICSEM Symposium took place

sponsored a scientific colloquium entitled “Solidarity

in Florianópolis (Brazil) on December 15-18, 2016.

in Transition? Researching Social Enterprise in Post-

It was hosted by ICSEM Brazilian partner Luiz Inácio

Communist Societies”. The colloquium was jointly

Gaiger (Unisinos) and his team. The meeting brought

coordinated by the Yunus Centre of the Glasgow

together participants from Argentina (Gonzalo

Caledonian University, Euricse and the EMES

Vázquez), Bolivia (Fernanda Wanderley), Brazil (Luiz

International Research Network. This colloquium was

Inácio Gaiger, Adriane Ferrarini, Marília Veronese,

at the same time a Regional ICSEM Meeting for Central

Paulo Cruz Filho, Kellen Pasqualeto, Gustavo Oliveira),

and Eastern Europe as all paper presentations were

Chile (Nicolás Gómez, Michela Giovannini), Ecuador

made by ICSEM researchers from Albania, Croatia, the

(María José Ruiz), Mexico (Carola Conde) and Peru

Czech Republic, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Russia

(María Angela Prialé, Susy Caballero) as well as Marthe

and Serbia. These contributions were discussed in

Nyssens, one of the Project’s Scientific Coordinators.

depth by some 30 participants from 12 countries and

The Symposium directly followed the 5th Unisinos

a meeting gathered all ICSEM Partners to prepare

Symposium, “Desigualdades, Direitos e Políticas

publication projects in the last afternoon.

Públicas – Protagonismos e Alternativoas” / 1st RILESS-

Western European ICSEM Symposium, Paris (France), May 18, 2016

e Empresas Sociais”, organized in São Leopoldo (Brazil) on December 12-14, 2016. Many participants

This Regional Symposium brought together ICSEM

in the ICSEM meeting also took an active part in this

Research Partners from Western Europe and was

conference. The major goal of the ICSEM Symposium

divided in two parts. The first part, entitled “Social

was to prepare a book, to be published by Routledge,

enterprise and the social and solidarity economy”,

about “Social Enterprise in Latin America”. With a view

focused on the relations between social enterprise

to adapting the ICSEM Working Papers for the book,

and the social economy—or the social and solidarity

an original process of discussion was implemented,

economy—in Latin European countries. The second

within which each contribution was discussed

part of the meeting was devoted to “Social enterprise

by another national team, thus enhancing cross-

in Europe”. Participants discussed the typology of

fertilization of ideas for the country chapters. In a

SE models in their respective countries in relation to

second step, the participants worked in subgroups on

the “analytical triangle” presented by the Scientific

the transversal chapters.

Coordinators in their transversal paper, “Fundamentals for an International Typology of Social Enterprise Models” (ICSEM Working Paper No. 33). Both parts of the meeting also focused on precise publication projects. The meeting brought together ICSEM Research Partners from France, Switzerland, Belgium, Spain, Germany, Finland and Italy. Most of them also


EMES International Conference, Economia Solidária



The ICSEM Project is supported by the Belgian Science Policy through an Interuniversity Attraction Pole on Social Enterprise (IAP-SOCENT, 2012-2017). It also relies on several major “Supporting Partners” from Belgium and France: The InBev-Baillet Latour Fund was created at the end of

The Institut CDC pour la Recherche is a programme of the

the 1970s upon the initiative of Alfred de Baillet Latour,

Caisse des Dépôts, within the Strategy Department, which

manager without heir of the Artois breweries. Nowadays,

aims to support research works in the strategic fields of

the InBev-Baillet Latour Fund grants nearly 3 million euros

activity of the Groupe Caisse des Dépôts. The Institut

yearly, mainly to four sectors representative of Belgian

thus supports new works, in connection with the Group’s

excellence at the international level: medical research,

operational issues, whether they are missions of the Group

training, Belgian heritage and Olympic spirit.

itself or activities of its affiliates. Its action, which is based

The Baillet Latour Chair in Philanthropy and Social Investment was born from a partnership between the InBev-Baillet Latour Fund and HEC Management School of the University of Liege. The Baillet Latour Chair aims to study and understand the various forms of philanthropy, in

on cross-sector research, is transversal. It organizes the valorization of results through contributions to the public debate. Finally, it feeds strategic reflection on an internal level on the basis of the new trends identified in the field of research

Belgium and in Europe in particular, but also to valorize and

For some 30 years, the Fondation Crédit Coopératif has

teach philanthropy. The Chair currently develops a research

been supporting a social economy open to the world and to

programme focusing on Belgian foundations. It offers

innovations. The Fondation implements partnerships with

various courses on philanthropy and social investment within

social economy movements in many fields of activity: social

the University of Liege, as well as many activities open to all

cohesion, access to citizenship for handicapped people

and which help professionals and the general public to know

through sport and culture, sustainable development,

philanthropic action better.

etc. The Fondation also actively supports research in the

The Caisse des Dépôts supports the networking and development of the social and solidarity economy. It backs up public policies and local communities through the support it provides to the 106 Local Support Agencies (“Dispositifs Locaux d’Accompagnement”) and it provides advice to associations. It also supports the sector’s financial

social economy. Through new significant partnerships with university research poles, the actions of the Fondation aim to establish links between the results of works carried out by renowned research laboratories, on the one hand, and practices of social economy actors and leaders, on the other hand.

organization by increasing the equity capital of social and solidarity economy organizations and by setting up specific bank guarantees. Finally, it manages, on behalf of the French state, a 100-million-euro fund dedicated to the social and solidarity economy within the Programme of Investments for the Future (“Programme d’Investissements d’Avenir”).


EMES Activity Report 2016

The TSI project The main objective of the TSI project was to create knowledge that would further advance the contributions that the third sector (TS) and volunteering can make to the socio-economic development of Europe. The project was a response to the lack of a common definition the third sector across Europe which has created a need to adopt a joint official conceptualization of the third sector not only to allow for collecting statistical data on its various components but also to generate Full name:

a sense of common identity of people working and engaging in foundations,

Third Sector Impact (TSI)

associations, cooperatives, mutuals, social enterprises and civil society. The coordination unit of EMES was in charge of the project dissemination and

Scientific coordination:

stakeholder engagement.

Bernard Enjolras (ISF, Norway)

Together with SPES, EMES facilitated bringing together key stakeholders from academia, practice and policy making, organised a number of key dissemination

Participating EMES members:

events, and ensured the communication of all intermediary and final results,

two institutional (coordinator plus

meeting and events, both TSI and related to the project’s objectives.

LEST, France) and two individuals (Taco Brandsen, Danijel Baturina)

This was done via TSI website, social media, TSI news alert, other specialised news letters and web page.

Date: February 2014 - February 2017

The objective was to help help to establish a network of relevant stakeholders who gave their professional input, will help to share findings and will take the agenda of building a third sector that can fulfil its potential to further an economically, socially and democratically sustainable Europe. The European dimension of the stakeholders’ engagement exceeded by far the initial prevision of the original plan, as can first be noted from the number of the meetings organized and the number of the participants to the meetings. But this



would in no way be sufficient were this not the product of an open and cogent collaboration between EMES and the leaders of the research tasks within the project. This integration of different expertise and the common quest for a wider society impact of the research work are the major characteristics and the most valuable qualitative outcome of the project on engagement of stakeholders on European level. The project intended to clarify the concept of TSI, and identify the scope of the sector in terms of its size, structure, composition, sources of support and recent trends. It also identified the forms of impact of the sector to various social and economic sectors, and highlighted internal and external barriers for its development and how these can be overcome. The partnerships between the research community and European TS practitioners were a key part of the project, as they ensure that the understanding of the third sector generated by this work remains grounded in reality and enjoys sufficient support among key stakeholders, which in turn will assure respectful attention from policy makers and sector leaders long after the project is completed. In the beginning of April 2016 a series of reports on barriers impeding the ability of third sector organizations to generate socio-economic impact across Europe were launched. These reports were based on extensive empirical work in seven findings were also discussed with the national stakeholders’ networks in the


course of the meeting of the TSI consortium in Rome on 7-8 April 2016.

National stakeholder institutions

EMES took the lead to organise the final conference of the TSI project on 9


countries. In line with TSI’s focus on involving stakeholders the most recent

November 2016 at European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) in Brussels. It was entitled “The Third Sector: A renewable resource for addressing Europe’s

European stakeholder institutions

challenges – An action agenda”. More than 80 participants joined to discuss the requirements of a future action agenda for policy makers at local, regional, national and European levels to make sure they use the third sector’s potential and do not continue to drain the sector of its resources, creativity and transformative abilities. Scientists, third sector stakeholders, statisticians and policy makers spoke and exchanged opinions. They reached agreement that the sector needs more visibility to publicly recognise what it can and cannot deliver to support the wellbeing of European citizens. It became evident that this requires a broad coalition of stakeholders from research and practice. This event was highly successful in that it brought together practitioners from a number of countries who recognised that the challenges they face in their country are similar to those in others and that it is therefore possible to build coalitions. In terms of statistically measuring the impact of the third sector as defined by TSI the event triggered a number of new civil society stakeholders to express interest in joining the work of the coalition of TSI researcher Lester Salamon and statisticians from six countries in Europe who pledged to push for solid statistical data on the third sector. Here as well it would be good to have some stakeholder and dissemination budget beyond the end of the research part of work to make sure that the appropriate follow-up and networking can be provided to support such efforts of building synergies.


EMES Activity Report 2016

All written outputs were published on the TSI website (www.thirdsectorimpact. eu), after making sure they follow stylistic and visual identity guidelines developed by EMES at the very beginning of the project. There are eight national reports on TS barriers, 12 national and EU policy briefs, and eight working papers on different aspects of impact and impact measurement as well as overview reports of the work on barriers and measurement, all available for download as PDFs. Partners published or so far successfully submitted nine articles in peer reviewed academic journals, delivered a total of 68 presentations to academic audiences in 17 First TSI Meeting with National Stakeholders in Spain

countries and another 40 to civil society and policy stakeholders in TSI countries, Belgium and Luxemburg (EU and statistical stakeholders). So far three articles in edited volumes, two books based on TSI work in Poland and Spain, a comparative case study e-book and the final report will be published in 2017. Four PhD theses were written in relation to TSI. In order to end the project with a powerful visual tool that can be rapidly shared via social networks and the web, EMES and TSI project coordinators decided to develop a short animation film that captures the essence TSIs findings. The goal is to keep awareness of the role and contributions of the third sector alive in public discourse, while clearly stating the limits of impact measurement demanded by

TSI Midterm Seminar with EU third sector stakeholders shows multiple barriers

donors today, as well as outlining other structural restraints and possible policy solutions beyond the scope of the project. Another goal is to promote the TSI brand and the expertise of the international research community behind it. After


a call for tenders and a selection process going for the best visual offer for the limited budget available, we worked with a group of Berlin based animation artists

News Alert subscriptions

to produce a 3’17’’ animated video which was launched during the TSI event. It has


of views.

Facebook likes

major question raised was how to sustain and influence the results of the project

210 Twitter followers

since been distributed via social media networks and steadily builds up the number

Although, the project contributed to the visibility and legitimacy of the TS, the after its funding ends. The open issues still remain to be dealt with, namely adoption of statistical standards by the European statistical authorities, common methodology to measure the impact of the sector and how to renew culture of government-TSO relations, while recognising TSO’s specificities and distinctive contributions across Europe.



The SIE project The goal of SIE was to collect the different research approaches on social innovation (as an aspect of an evaluation process, a policy area, an organisation, a technological trend), and to give researchers the opportunity to co-create a future research agenda on social innovation, while bringing a variety of stakeholders to the table. The joint efforts resulted in the report “Co-creating a Social Innovation Research Agenda for Europe” launched in July 2016. The report is a useful snapshot of themes addressed and research areas that EMES recommends to pursue. It involved a research community that shares the purpose to identify study social innovation approaches free from instrumental objectives. A core group of researchers identified a selective number of themes and actions, covering different topics based on consultations during several international conferences; coordinators from 15 EU-funded European projects on social innovation provided input to their research questions, research approaches and methodologies as well as open questions; online input came via a Facebook discussion group and an online survey. A group of experts also provided final feedback. The report not only offers the sector a powerful tool for aligning visions for the

Full name: Social Innovation Europe (SIE) Core Academic Team: Taco Brandsen (Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Giulio Ecchia (AICCON-UNIBO, Italy), Lars Hulgård (CSE, Denmark) Participating EMES members: 5 Date: August 2014 - July 2016

sector on how new avenues can be explored but also the basis for engaging in debates with policy-makers about future research support and coordination




EMES Activity Report 2016

Social Enterprise Mapping Project Full name:

EMES and EURICSE were commissioned for the scientific and facilitation

Mapping study on social enterprise

coordination of the project “Mapping study on social enterprise eco-systems”


launched by the DG Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion of the European Commission (EC). The goal of this follow-up project was to update and complete

Core Academic Team:

seven of the 28 national reports in EU countries and Switzerland published by the

Carlo Borzaga and Giulia Galera

EC in 2014. Specifically, it aimed to improve the quality of evidence presented in

(EURICSE – EU scientific coordination)

seven country reports (Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, and Spain),

and Rocío Nogales (EMES- EU

exploit the potential of the country reports for boosting public awareness on

facilitation coordination)

social enterprise, and to allow for a comparative analysis and the assessment of policy implications.

Participating EMES members: Anna Ciepelewska Kowalik, Barbara Franchini, Benjamin Huybrechts, Mary O’Shaughnessy, Francesca Petrella, Nadine, Richez-Battesti and Millan Díaz-Foncea Date: February - November 2016

The seven countries and the researchers mobilized in each of them were: \\ Belgium: Benjamin Huybrechts \\ France: Francesca Petrella and Nadine Richez-Battesti \\ Ireland: Mary O’Shaughnessy \\ Italy: Carlo Borzaga, Barbara Franchini and Giulia Galera \\ Poland: Anna Ciepelewska Kowalik and and Bartosz Pielinski \\ Slovakia: Mitja Stefancic, Gabriela Korimova and Zuzana Polačková \\ Spain: Millan Díaz-Foncea and Carmen Marcuello

In addition, a European report was produced which included an overview across the seven countries as well as some reflections on future trends. The project Advisory Board aimed to ensure the scientific rigor of the national reviews and the quality and relevance of the EU comparative report. This 16


Advisory Board was composed of NaděŞda Johanisovå from the Czech Republic, Fergus Lyon from the UK and Victor Pestoff from Sweden/US. ICSEM scientific coordinators, Marthe Nyssens and Jacques Defourny from Belgium, also provided valuable feedback on the process and on the content of the reports. One of the innovative features of the proposal was the incorporation of a stakeholder participation and facilitation dimension that had not been included in the 2014 mapping effort. This process included an active involvement of various categories of national stakeholders through an on-line consultation. A Facilitation plan was designed to provide support to the national moderators so they could fully focus on the process of wide outreach, coordination and regular communication with various categories of key stakeholders involved in the mapping effort. The exercise has confirmed the consistency and evolutionary dynamics of the various organizational typologies that form the social enterprise universe of each country. The reports placed social enterprises in their societal and economic context, notably explaining their relation to so called social economy, which has a strong tradition for example Italy, France, Spain and Belgium. An important finding included that both social economy and social enterprises have shown resilience and job retention during the economic crises and beyond. The major blocks identified included the differing ways of measuring social enterprises across Europe, articulating the social enterprises communities across countries and supporting financing from private and public sources in a context of deep transformation of traditional funding sources.


Publications The results of the various research initiatives in which EMES and its members are involved have been published in 2016 in various forms. They include traditional printed books, open access online publications and downloadable conference papers.



EMES Publications Books First volume of the “Routledge Studies in Social Enterprise and Social Innovation” Series Over the last decades, in parallel to major changes towards privatization in the welfare regimes of advanced industrialized countries, social innovation, social enterprise and social entrepreneurship have gradually become “à la mode”. They are interpreted in policy documents in market-economic terms, making social enterprises a valuable partner for policy makers looking for innovative ways of addressing social and societal problems, among which bringing the excluded back into society and increasing social cohesion. However, the task of sustainably balancing active citizenship and empowerment on the one hand, and marketbased social service delivery and innovation on the other, represents a daunting challenge. In this context, social innovation is conceived as creative solutions to existing wicked social problems, at the level of both concrete outcome and process; and social enterprises are heralded as vehicles for such societal improvement. However, beyond the superficial approaches to social innovation, its relationship with social enterprises and social entrepreneurship remains to be better understood and systematized. Therefore, the “Routledge Studies in Social Enterprise and Social Innovation” Series includes contributions that are committed to understanding the complexity of these transformations by engaging in new dialogues within and among all regions of the world, each with its specific historical, cultural, social and political contexts, as well as among disciplines, as these evolutions must be tackled in their multi-dimensional nature. The first volume of the Series focusing on the Nordic model was published in August 2016 under the supervision of EMES members, Linda Lundgaard Andersen, Malin Gawell, and Roger Spear. This new series is marked more by the excellence and innovation of the works published than by a focus on any one particular sub-element of social enterprise or social innovation or any particular thematic area. EMES is equally interested in publishing books on the new frontiers of the field that do two things: break new ground theoretically, while also being well grounded empirically. The Routledge Studies in Social Enterprise & Social Innovation is coordinated by Jacques Defourny, Lars Hulgård and Rocío Nogales.


EMES Activity Report 2016

WILCO book “Social Innovations in the Urban Context” available in open access The book “Social Innovations in the Urban Context” was published in 2015 as a result of the Welfare innovations at the local level in favour of social cohesion (WILCO) project in Springer’s Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies series. Thanks to funding from the EU, the book has been available in open access. The interest generated has been impressive, and resulted in more than 24,000 downloads since it had been launched. The book analyses how social innovations emerge in cities and how they relate to local welfare systems. In addition to critical reflections on social innovation, the book also contains several case studies of European cities and of innovations (specifically in the areas of childcare, housing and migration). The editors Taco Brandsen, Sandro Cattacin, Adalbert Evers and Annette Zimmer had been the scientific leaders of the WILCO project and they were thrilled that the book can be access free of cost by all readers interested in the topic.

Second edition of the “Best Paper Awards” The “Best Paper Awards” were launched in 2013 at the 4th EMES International Research Conference in Liege (Belgium) in two distinct categories, “Best Conference Paper” and “Best PhD Presentation”. The goal of these awards is to recognize the work of scholars who help advance social enterprise as a research area with theoretical or methodological contributions. Given the commitment of EMES to emerging scholars, the awards specifically distinguish a PhD category as well as honoring the work of researchers who are in the initial phases of their careers. The winners in 2015 were selected by an evaluation committee composed by the two co-chairs of the 5th EMES International Research Conference in Helsinki, Pekka Pättiniemi and Marthe Nyssens, as well as Simon Teasdale from Glasgow Caledonian University, United Kingdom (recipient of the first Award) and Benjamin Best Conference Paper 2015

Huybrechts from HEC-University of Liege, Belgium.

Knowing what Social Enterprises know

The winner of the “Best Conference Paper 2015” was María L. Granados from the

María L. Granados. Lecturer in

Kannampuzha from the Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics

Information Management – University

(Finland) for her paper “Social Innovation and Earned Income – Antecedents and

of Westminster

Outcomes of the Institutional Logics in Hybrid Social Enterprises” (together with

University of Westminster (UK) for her paper “Knowing what Social Enterprises know”. The winner of the “Best PhD Presentation 2015” was Merie Joseph

Kai Hockerts).



Projects published outputs ICSEM Project In 2016, 14 new papers were added to the ICSEM Working Papers series. All the papers in the series are available for download on the ICSEM website: icsem-working-papers.  Glémain, P., Hénaff, G., Urasadettan, J., Amintas, A.,

Bioteau, E. and Guy, Y. (2016) “Social Enterprise in France: Work Integration Learning Social Enterprises (WILSEs)”, No. 25 (French version).  Anastasiadis, M. and Lang, R. (2016) “Social Enterprise

in Austria: A Contextual Approach to Understand an Ambiguous Concept”, No. 26.  Thiru, Y. (2016) “Social Enterprise in the United States:

Socio-economic Roles of Certain Types of Social Enterprise”, No. 16.  Huybrechts, B., Defourny, J., Nyssens, M., Bauwens, T.,

Brolis, O., De Cuyper, P., Degavre, F., Hudon, M., Périlleux, A., Pongo, T., Rijpens, J. and Thys, S. (2016) “Social Enterprise in Belgium: A Diversity of Roots, Models and Fields”, No. 27.

 Kostilainen, H., Houtbeckers, E. and Pättiniemi, P. (2016)

“Social Enterprise in Finland”, No. 37.  Claeyé, F. (2016) “Social Enterprise in South Africa: A

Tentative Typology”, No. 38.  Johnsen, S. (2016) “Social Enterprise in the United Arab

Emirates: A Concept in Context and a Typology of Emerging Models”, No. 42.

 Barraket, J., Douglas, H., Eversole, R., Mason, C., McNeill,

J. and Morgan, B. (2016) “Social Enterprise in Australia: Concepts and Classifications”, No. 30.  Pham, T. V., Nguyen, H. T. H. and Nguyen, L. (2016) “Social

Enterprise in Vietnam”, No. 31.  Vidović, D. and Baturina, D. (2016) “Social Enterprise in

Croatia: Charting New Territories”, No. 32.  Defourny, J. and Nyssens, M. (2016) “Fundamentals for an

International Typology of Social Enterprise Models”, No. 33.  Fraisse, L., Gardin, L., Laville, J.-L., Petrella, F. and Richez-

Battesti, N. (2016) “Social Enterprise in France: At the Crossroads of the Social Economy, Solidarity Economy and Social Entrepreneurship?”, No. 34.  Hwang, D. S., Jang, W., Park, J.-S. and Kim, S. (2016) “Social

Enterprise in South Korea”, No. 35.

In addition, ICSEM produced the following two transversal publications: Ciências Sociais Unisinos: special ICSEM-related issue on “Comparación internacional de modelos de empresas de economía social y solidaria” The September-December 2016 special issue of Ciências Sociais Unisinos (v. 52, n. 3), on “Comparación internacional de modelos de empresas de economía social y solidaria”, is introduced by Marília Veríssimo Veronese (ICSEM Brazil) and Marthe Nyssens (ICSEM Scientific Coordinator) and includes inter alia contributions by Maria José Ruiz Rivera and Andreia Lemaître (ICSEM Ecuador), Isabelle Hillenkamp (ICSEM Bolivia), Nicolás Gómez Núñez (ICSEM Chile), Carola Conde Bonfil (ICSEM Mexico), and María Angela Prialé Valle and Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles (ICSEM Peru). For more

 Pratono, A. H., Pramudija, P. and Sutanti, A. (2016) “Social

Enterprise in Indonesia: Emerging Models under Transition Government”, No. 36.

information, click here.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Special issue of “Nonprofit Policy Forum”, journal edited by Dennis Young, on work integration social enterprises now available on-line A special issue of Nonprofit Policy Forum (Volume 7, Issue 4) on work integration social enterprises (WISEs) is now available on De Gruyter online. The issue, which is edited by three ICSEM Research Partners, Kate Cooney, Mary O’Shaughnessy and Marthe Nyssens, includes contributions by ICSEM Scientific Coordinators (Marthe Nyssens and Jacques Defourny) as well as by ICSEM Research Partners from the USA (Kate Cooney), Ireland (Mary O’Shaughnessy and Patricia O’Hara), Japan (Rosario Laratta and Sachiko Nakagawa), Switzerland (Stefan Adam, Gregorio Avilés, Domenico Ferrari, Jeremias Amstutz, Luca Crivelli, Daniela Schmitz, Bernadette Wüthrich and Daniel Zoebeli) and Austria (Maria Anastasiadis).

To view one of the articles below, click on its title. \\ Editor’s Note, by Dennis Young \\ Public Policies and Work Integration Social Enterprises: The Challenge of

Institutionalization in a Neoliberal Era, by Kate Cooney, Marthe Nyssens, Mary O’Shaughnessy and Jacques Defourny \\ Work Integration Social Enterprises in the United States: Operating at the

Nexus of Public Policy, Markets, and Community, by Kate Cooney \\ Social Enterprise in Ireland – Why Work Integration Social Enterprises (WISEs)

Dominate the Discourse, by Mary O’Shaughnessy and Patricia O’Hara \\ Work Integration Social Enterprises for People with Disabilities in Japan, by

Rosario Laratta and Sachiko Nakagawa \\ Work Integration Social Enterprises in Switzerland, by Stefan Adam, Gregorio

Avilés, Domenico Ferrari, Jeremias Amstutz, Luca Crivelli, Enrico Cavedon, Anja Gafner, Spartaco Greppi, Daniela Schmitz, Bernadette Wüthrich and Daniel Zoebeli \\ Work Integration Social Enterprises in Austria – Characteristics, Evolution

and Perspectives, by Maria Anastasiadis

Two articles were published focusing on Asia:  Bidet, E., Defourny, J. & Nyssens, M. (2016), Entreprise sociale et économie

sociale en Asie (Partie I), RECMA, Revue internationale de l’économie sociale, n° 341, 21-86.  Bidet, E., Defourny, J. & Nyssens, M. (2016), Entreprise sociale et économie

sociale en Asie (Partie II), RECMA, Revue internationale de l’économie sociale, n° 342, 19-65.



Polanyi-EMES seminar "Open Movements" series launched in connection with the 2nd EMESPolanyi Seminar In parallel to the 2nd EMES-Polanyi International Seminar held in Paris on May 19-20, 2016, an interesting initiative entitled “Defending democracy, rethinking the left” has been launched. The series is part of the Open Movements series jointly published by Open Democracy and the Research Committee 47 “Social movements” of the International Sociological Association. The Open Movements series invited leading social scientists to share their research results and perspectives on contemporary social struggles and challenges of democracy. Edited by Jean-Louis Laville, one of the two chairs of the Seminar, this series includes six pieces. Two of them were written by two members of EMES and the rest by scholars involved in the 2nd EMES-Polanyi International Seminar.

1. “Defending democracy, reinventing the left” by Jean-Louis LAVILLE (member of the EMES Board of Directors) 2. “End of a cycle for the left in Latin America?” by José Luis CORAGGIO 3. “A human economy approach to development” by Keith HART 4. “A new politics from the left?” by Hilary WAINWRIGHT 5. “The crisis in European social democracy: a crisis like no other” by Benoît LÉVESQUE 6. “Is there a Future for Social Democracy?” by Lars HULGÅRD (former EMES president)

The rationale for the Series is that we are at the end of a cycle that started in the second half of the 19th century. During this cycle, and particularly in the 20th century, the political left was governed by the ideology of progress and economic determinism. After the collapse of the so-called ‘communist’ countries, the question of the relevance of a new left for the 21st century was raised. Different elements are necessary to answer it, e.g. the growing number of citizen initiatives all over the world (that is the subject of the launch text by Laville), or the ambivalent experiences of leftist governments in South America (second subject raised by Coraggio). The analysis of these complex background issues opens up new perspectives for collective action and emancipation (third and fourth texts by Wainwright and Hart) and the structural crisis of European social democracy (fifth and sixth, closing texts by Hulgård and Lévesque). In addition, the EMES Selected Conference Papers devoted to this seminar is under preparation and will be published in 2017.


EMES Activity Report 2016

TSI outputs Voluntas Symposium: Comments on Salamon and Sokolowski’s Reconceptualization of the Third Sector Jacques Defourny, Kirsten Grønbjerg, Lucas Meijs, Marthe Nyssens, Naoto Yamauchi, Voluntas Symposium: Comments on Salamon and Sokolowski’s Re-conceptualization of the Third Sector, August 2016, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1546–1561 A long-awaited article “Beyond Nonprofits: Re-conceptualizing the Third Sector”published in Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations in August 2016, marked an important contribution on the revised version of the third-sector. The article by Salamon and Sokolowski is accompanied by a symposium with comments from several major scholars based on a debate held at the conference of the International Society for Third Sector Research, in Stockholm in 2016, including EMES former president, Jacques Defourny, and current president, Marthe Nyssens. They note that “the attempt made by L.S. Salamon and S.W. Sokolowski to propose an extended conception of the third sector, beyond typical non-profit institutions, represents a significant progress at various levels. Most importantly, it takes into account some rules and practices that are found in some cooperatives, mutuals and social enterprises. By doing so, the boundaries of the third sector are moved, thus allowing the inclusion not only of non-profit institutions but also of some social economy organizations as conceptualized in many countries, especially across Europe and Latin America”. To emphasize this central advancement and discuss both its strengths and limitations, they first went back to the very roots of the social economy concept and underline how its centre of gravity differs from the core feature of the non-profit sector. Against such background, they discussed the relevance of these extended boundaries.

Other publications EMES members co-author and co-edit numerous publications together beyond the framework of projects and events. There are many of them to include all of them here so we included an example:

Participatory Governance in Social Enterprise Paper Lars Hulgard, Victor Pestoff, VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, August 2016, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 1742–1759 Two other EMES members, former president, Lars Hulgård and Victor Pestoff, published another article on participatory governance in social enterprise. The article argues that social enterprise must be analyzed through a multidimensional perspective. It refers to the EMES approach of definition of social enterprise based on three dimensions emphasizing the social, economic, and political dimension, thus differing from many Anglo-American definitions which 24


tend to use a one-dimensional spectrum framework. The latter often see social enterprise as a simple phenomenon that can be arranged along a continuum, ranging from economic to social, where more of one means less of the other. The article suggests that scholars inspired by the EMES approach should devote greater attention to exploring the interactive and interrelated nature of the three dimensions of social enterprise, especially the governance dimension.

Institutional members All institutional members publish regularly the results of their projects in their national languages but also very often in English. Several members have ongoing working papers series Research Centre on Cooperation and Non Profit Organizations (AICCON), CIRTES and European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises (EURICSE) devoted to the study of social enterprise among others. Below we include the direct links to the publications pages of EMES institutional members, which include downloadable versions of articles and book chapters:


Chair in Solidarity Economy











EMES Activity Report 2016

Training and education In 2016, EMES held its fifth PhD Summer School, consolidating once more its commitment with the PhD community. Indeed, this contact with the next generation of scholars continues to be a priority for the Coordination Unit and other scholars within EMES.



5th EMES International PhD Summer School, Glasgow

22 - 25 JUNE | 16 GLASGOW SCOTLAND (UK) The transformation of EMES into a global network of researchers interested in social enterprise at the beginning of 2013 brought up a new opportunity for PhD students to increase their activity and their presence within EMES with a specific membership category created for them and unique roles in the events and governance structure of the network. Four successful EMES PhD Summer Schools had taken place at the University of Corsica (France) in 2008, Roskilde University (Denmark) in 2010, University of Trento (Italy) in 2012, and West University of Timișoara (Romania) in July 2014. The fifth edition was hosted by the Yunus Centre for Social Business and Health at Glasgow Caledonian University (Scotland, UK) in June 2016 with 41 participants. The quality of work delivered and discussed benefitted from the EMES PhD Student Network launched in 2008, the collective energy that had resulted in the publication of a PhD Reader in 2012 and the experience of 160 students from over 33 countries who had previously taken part. We believe that the creation of a dedicated blog (EMES Junior Experts Blog) in 2011 and that of the EMES Alumni Network in 2014, have further contributed to the very high quality and variety of the applications received so all 41 participants had a chance to learn from the excellent work that their peers are conducting in other countries and from the direct contact with renown scholars from around the world. In the last decade, social enterprise research has witnessed some in-depth developments in terms of theory and methodology developments, while new bridges continue to be built with disciplines that contribute to consolidate the understanding of social enterprises, their dynamics, institutionalization processes


EMES Activity Report 2016

and interactions with other actors in society. This consolidation of social enterprise research has brought about the crystallization of a community of researchers in parallel to the brand new field of scientific inquiry. Such developments in the academic sphere have occurred against a backdrop of growing social challenges and changing social relations and dynamics. This context has increased the sense of urgency to find solutions both from the public and private sectors to these ‘wicked’ social problems. Indeed, policy-makers are turning their attention to social enterprises and request the help of researchers in order to inform with evidence the way policies are designed and implemented. Practitioners increasingly realize the need to be more reflexive, both as a way to be more efficient in the way they operate and to increase their influence in the policy-making process. However, social enterprises are far from being fully understood: their emergence and evolutionary trends, and their interaction with other social and economic actors, remain under researched. In this context, the fifth EMES PhD Summer School introduced innovative approaches to the study of social enterprise and contributed to the consolidation of a research community. As termed by EMES researchers in the first EMES PhD Reader, the three “SE pillars” - which include social enterprise and social entrepreneurship, social economy and solidarity economy - continued to function as conceptual anchors for the theoretical and practical discussions and workshops to be held during these four days. In addition, other notions currently driving SE-research and policy initiatives were incorporated into the Summer School such as social innovation, the third sector, buen vivir, etc. Interesting ongoing research projects were presented during the Summer School as valuable resources to illustrate the most innovative research on the SE pillars.




On the first day, Cam Donaldson (Glasgow Caledonian University GCU) and Marthe Nyssens (Université Catholique de Louvain - UCL), co-chairs of the Summer School, introduced the event and welcomed all participants. After, Yvonne Strachan from the Scottish Government provided an overview of the SE ecosystem that has developed in Scotland. The first plenary conference was delivered by Jean-Louis Laville on “Rethinking the relationship between governance and democracy: the theoretical framework of the solidarity economy” and had Sílvia Ferreira as a respondent. The second day opened with the plenary session devoted to an ongoing research

Participants listen to Eileen Cummings during the visit to the Kibble Education and Care Centre

project (ICSEM) and was delivered by Marthe Nyssens and Jacques Defourny. The title of the plenary was “Towards an international typology of social enterprise models” and Mary O’Shaughnessy acted as respondent of this presentation. In the afternoon, a session focused on methodological and career-development issues and included presentations by Cam Donaldson (“Social enterprise, health and wellbeing: developing a centre of research excellence”), Rory Ridley-Duff (“Inquiring into participation at work: ontological, epistemological and methodological questions for action researchers”) and Helen Haugh (“The highs and lows of coauthoring a paper”). On the morning of the third day, Benjamin Huybrechts presented “Social enterprise and inter-organizational collaboration: empirical research in fair trade and renewable energy, methodological challenges, and theoretical contributions” followed by Andrea Bassi’s “The Tyranny of Numbers. How macro (economic and financial) data shape our everyday life”. In the afternoon, Rory Ridley-Duff led a session using an open space methodology around SE. This session provided room to address some issues identified as important for the PhDs. It implemented an innovative format (Open Space) that allows participants to jointly build an agenda based on their interests and expertise. The last day offered the opportunity to hear two more presentations in the last plenary session: Linda L. Andersen presented “Social Entrepreneurship and Social Enterprises in the Nordic countries. Narratives Emerging from Social Movements and Welfare Dynamics” while Giulia Galera shared some “New avenues for research: social enterprises and the challenge of current migration flows”.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Like in previous editions, we asked participants to complete a satisfaction survey to help us improve the experience of future participants. For this edition we had a 100% response rate, which was extremely positive as captured visually in the two graphs below:

About the overall content of the Summer School

Some feedback from the participants about the different sessions follow:

“Very insightful and on the cusp of the latest research in the field. Additionally there was an easy interplay between current issues and theory.”

You are globally satisfied with this training

87,8% 8,9% 2,4%

You are satisfied with the session format used (plenary lectures, parallel training)

85,4% 14,6%

You are satisfied with the atmosphere and interactivity of the sessions

90,2% 7,3% 2,4%

The contents of the Summers School will be useful for your future training

77,5% 22,5%

The contents of the training met your expectations

65,9% 34,1%

About the plenary lectures

“Extremely friendly and supportive. I was made feel welcome.” About the EMES and University staff

“This summer school has been well organised. The people have been helpful and openminded. Thank you for a great experience.”

About the interaction betweem faculty members and PhDs The faculty members’ lectures were well structured

85,4% 14,6%

Links were created between the faculty members and the participants’ interests

73,2% 24,4% 2,4%

You found the faculty members’ contributions interesting

92,7% 4,9% 2,4%

The faculty members were open to participants’ questions

90,2% 9,8%

Overall impression

“It was my first Summer school, good atmosphere, and inspiring. Made me rewrite my research question.” Overall impression


Fully agree

No opinion

Rather agree

Completely disagree


EMES PhD Student Network

The EMES PhD Student Network was created after the 1st EMES PhD Summer School held in Corsica in July 2008. All students who have participated in any of the EMES PhD Summer Schools as well as individual Graduate Members are members of the EMES PhD Student Network. The EMES PhD Student Network has a Facebook group to exchange information and news and it publishes the EMES Junior Experts’ Blog (EJEB). PhD students are represented in the EMES Board of Directors by a PhD representative, namely Francesca Calò (Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland, UK).

The following two posts were published

In 2016, the EMES PhD Network held its annual meeting during the Glasgow Summer School Network. The goal was to plan the involvement of the Network in the 6 EMES th

conference in Louvain-la-Neuve, discuss various possible

October, 24

“Mix and Match: Essays on collective dynamics in nascent social entrepreneurship” by Frédéric Dufays (Belgium)

activities for 2016-2017, choose the new coordinator and

Septembre, 29

propose possible contributions for the EJEB.

“The role of human capital on the failure of social enterprises” by Sandra Ramos (France)

The EJEB underwent a period of inactivity due to the hand over of coordination. Since June 2016 Benedetta de Pieri is the new EJEB coordinator. She is currently doing her PhD research at the Yunus Centre for Social Business and Health at GCU and she accepted the appointment from the EMES PhD Student Network in the course of the 5th EMES PhD Summer School held in Glasgow.


EMES Activity Report 2015

Institutional members academic programs AICCON ( \\ The fund raising school

CIRTES \\ Master course “Économie sociale” (https://uclouvain.


\\ Executive training, European Summer School on the

Social Economy \\ MUEC Master

\\ Master course “Economie sociale et non-marchande” \\ Seminar “Économie sociale et transition” (https://

CES-BE ( \\ Master in Management of Social Enterprises \\ University Certificate in Management of Social

Enterprises \\ Seminar on the social economy

EURICSE ( \\ SIBEC – the Italian School for Common Goods \\ European Summer School on Social Economy \\ Master Programme in Management of Social


\\ Course on “Entrepreneurship and Management in the

Social Economy”


\\ PhD seminar on the “Social and solidarity economy,

popular economy and non-profit organisations” \\ PhD seminar on “Social Entrepreneurship”

LEST \\ Masters ( \\ PhD program (

CCS \\ Masters in Cooperative and Social Enterprise. (http://

\\ Master in Social Business and Microfinance \\ Master in Public Health (

CSE \\ Master in Social Entrepreneurship and Management.


CES-PT \\ Doctoral program. ( \\ Advanced training (



\\ PhDs (


Events In addition to the 5th EMES PhD Summer School, EMES in collaboration with CNAM organized the second international seminar on Karl Polanyi entitled ”Societies in transition – Social and solidarity economy, the commons, public action and livelihood”. The network and its members participate in numerous conferences, seminars and events which are available on the websites of EMES institutional and individual members.


EMES Activity Report 2016

2nd International EMES-Polanyi Seminar The main purpose of this event is to contribute to the analysis of the contemporary recomposition of the relationship between the economy and democracy. These open and pluralistic reflection seminars were held under the aegis of Karl Polanyi because they are inspired by a major characteristic of his work: the combination of the economic and political spheres. It is through this perspective that themes specific to the EMES network (social economy, solidarity economy, social enterprise, third sector) are discussed. Through these publications, we aim to contribute to the building of a theoretical framework allowing to better understand the content of current changes and to go beyond critical observation. In the face of the threat of an authoritarian regression, it becomes crucial to study practices that propose solid and democratic outcomes to the crisis. After the success of the 1st EMES-Polanyi International Seminar held in Paris in February 2012, EMES in collaboration with the European Institute of Political Economy Karl Polanyi and the Conservatoire national des arts et mĂŠtiers, organized the 2nd EMES-Polanyi International Seminar on 19th and 20th of May 2016. After the focus on the economic crisis of the 1st Seminar, the main objective of this edition was on contributing to the analysis of contemporary modalities of the relationship between economy and democracy. In addition, the seminar seeked to increase the community of scholars interested in the crossing of the works of Karl Polanyi with some of the relevant issues and phenomena currently at play in our societies.




The Seminar was organized around the following four thematic axes and included the following presentations: Axis 1 – Social and solidarity economy, social enterprise, and associations \\ Rene Knussel and Michael Gonin

Axis 2 – Analyses of the commons Commun et Economie plurielle \\ Evelyne Baumann

De l’ess a l’economie de marche,il n’y a qy’un pas en

Communs, logiques paysannes et raison d’etat.


L’agriculture en Georgie (caucase du sud)

\\ Mathilde Renaud Tinacci

Etre un jeune entrepreneur associatif a Paris \\ Ariadne Rigo Scalfoni and Jeova Silva Torres

Approaching plural economy concepts and sharing economy experiences \\ Didier Minot

Les chemins de la transition \\ Ana Margarida Esteves

Towards an “embedment” approach to social entrepreneurship: insights on class, “movementality”, resource mobilization from Tamera ecovillage, Portugal \\ Sebastià Riutort Isern

Limits and potentialities of embedding energy provision from the sse realm \\ Olivier De Schutter

Construire la transition par l’innovation locale: le cas de ala valle de la drome

\\ Philippe Eynaud and Adrien Laurent

Articuler communs urbains et economie solidaire – une question de gouvernance \\ Antoine Perrin

Ess et communs – le cas d’une association indienne \\ Maité Juan

Communs culturels, espaces publics alternatifs et economie solidaire. Revisiter Polanyi au prisme des institution culturelles citoyennes \\ Etienne Verhaegen

Communs et alimentation. La reconfiguration des relations de propriete a travers les sytemes agroalimentaires alternatifs \\ Pierre Yves Cadalen

Les temps conflictuels du commun en equateur et Bolivie Commun et monnaies \\ Eric Dacheux and Daniel Goujon

La monnaie deliberee: pour une theorie heterodoxe articulant les apports de l’ess et des communs \\ Marie Fare and Tristan Dissaux

La monnaie comme commun: une illustration a partir du cas des monaies locales associatives \\ Jérôme Blanc

Monnaie communaute: la communaute comme construction monnetaire \\ Rolph Schroeder

The double edgeness of monetarymultiplicity: how can complementaty currencies promote the casefor social justice?


EMES Activity Report 2016

Axis 3 – Reconfigurations of public action \\ Michele Cangiani

Economy citizenship and the public purpose \\ Chris Holmes and David Yarrow

The politics of the post gdp agenda: progress beyond growth? \\ Patrick Valeau

Democracy, institutional entrepreneurship and sociopolitical performance. \\ Yves Vaillancourt

La co construction des politiques publiques \\ Laurent Fraisse

Co construire l’action publique \\ Jean-Louis Laville and Anne Salmon

Axis 4 – Steps toward buen vivir \\ Luciane Dos Santos

Polanyi through the lens of epistemologies of the south and postcolonial feminist economics: different glances at the concept of disembeddedness \\ Anne Salmon

Le mythe occidental de purification et les réalités hybrides \\ Magali Zimmer

L’etude des dyamiques de l’economie solidaire a travers les travaux de k. Polanyi \\ Bruno Theret

La dette (et le don) contre le partage? \\ Jean-Michel Servet and Isabelle Hillenkamp

L’autre monde est deja dans celui-ci

Rethinking the relationship between governance and

Karl Polanyi devoted his work to the relationship between

democracy: the theoritical framework of the solidarity

economic and political pluralism. Thus, the 2nd International


EMES-Polanyi Seminar, essentially centered around the question how to bring democracy back into economic practice. A timely discussion, since so many of today’s major global challenges (financial crisis, slow economic growth, refugees, climate change) are seen exclusively through an economic lens, giving rise to fears that result in the many populist movements we see around the world today. A summary document entitled “Afterthoughts from the seminar” ( Afterthoughts.pdf) was published giving an overview of the contents and the discussions of this rich seminar. The conceptual dialogue that the seminar stimulated continues while initiatives around the world that challenge dominant economic beliefs are starting every day.



1st EMES-RILESS International Conference “Solidarity economy and social enterprises“ After over a decade of partnership, Red de Investigadores Latinoamericanos de Economía Social y Solidaria (RILESS) and EMES, in collaboration with Unisinos, organized the 1st EMES-RILESS International Conference under the general title of “Solidarity economy and social enterprises“. The event was held in parallel to the 5th International Symposium “Inequalities, rights and public policies: Protagonisms and alternatives” organised by the PostGraduate Program in Social Sciences of Unisinos (PPGCS). This combination resulted in a privileged moment of interaction, bringing together researchers, students, and professionals from diverse areas, to present work and take part in debates about new initiatives and social alternatives dedicated to combatting inequality, to the expansion of human rights, improving economic organization, and public policy innovation. RILESS is the Network of Latin American Researchers on Social and Solidarity Economy and it is coordinated by “Social Policy and Practices” research group at Unisinos and the National University of General Sarmiento (Argentina). Since 2013, PPGCS has participated in the ICSEM Project as part of the Brazilian team together with several teams in Latin America and researchers in over 50 countries. A large representation of Latin American researchers participating in ICSEM participated in this Conference (see section 1.1.1) below. The program consisted of plenary lectures by renowned scholars including EMES members Marthe Nyssens (CIRTES, Belgium) and Jean-Louis Laville (Chairin Solidarity Economy, CNAM) as well as working groups, organized around six thematic areas and in three different languages (Portuguese, Spanish, and English). Marthe Nyssens from CIRTES, president of EMES, and Lars Hulgård from Centre for Social Entrepreneurship (CSE) at Roskilde University are members of the Conference scientific committee.


EMES Activity Report 2015

Communication and dissemination Communication, including dissemination and engagement, constitutes a core function of EMES. It is not only about reaching the right audiences with the materials and knowledge that EMES and its members generate but also about involving current and potential stakeholders (mainly students, researchers, practitioners and policimakers) into the creation of such knowledge.



EMES website The goal of the EMES website is to feature news about the projects and activities as well as about institutional and individual members. The web site constitutes one of EMES’ main tools to disseminate results and actions together with a number of web-enabled tools such as the social networks and the news alerts.

EMES website visits Map Overlay | 182 countries

www. January 01- December 31, 2016

Visits by County Main 9 countries United Kingdom




United States



















% New visits


Pages viewed


EMES Activity Report 2016

Social networks EMES takes the social network seriously given the number of information readily available for sharing that is available to the coordination unit and the EMES members. In addition to keeping its own Twitter and Facebook it also manages the social media of its main projects (TSI and ICSEM) and contributes to the ones managed by other partners (Social Innovation Europe).

Facebook Page “Likes” January 01- December 31, 2016

2k Total likes 1,8k

Total likes



January 01

December 31

1,6k Jan












Twitter | @emesnetwork Top countries


New Followers


United Kingdom






new users started following you

United States

Fri, Jan 01 2016 Followers 771


Fri, Dic 30 2016 Followers 953


Top cities











Projects social networks In addition, throughout 2016 EMES updated the TSI website (events, news, stakeholder profiles, online consultations) on a weekly basis and maintained the WILCO page available beyond the duration of the project.

Twitter name: @TSI_EU Facebook page:

Third Sector Impact


The TSI Facebook page has been active since April 2014. At the time of midterm reporting in 2015 it had 420 followers, in December 2016 the number had risen to 830. Facebook posts are linked to Twitter. In December 2016 it

Date: January - December 2016

had 285 followers (compared to 109 at mid-term reporting) on Twitter and 945 (compared to 416) tweets. EMES published two TSI news alerts throughout the year, informing about project news and publications, events, stakeholder and TSI researcher profiles, and new consultations. It offered quotes by consortium members about TSI project and informs about stakeholder news relevant to TSI’s objectives. Subscribers could sign up via the TSI website and Facebook page (now discontinued).

The following two TSI news alerts were published in 2016:

March 2016

TSI News Alert #6

July 2016

TSI News Alert #7

TSI News Alerts



Moreover, profiles for institutions and individual stakeholders were created

National stakeholders

in the TSI website, reaching a total of 59 institutions and 75 individuals:

59 Institutions




















The Netherlands




The Netherlands











United Kingdom

11 3



Croatia Germany

United Kingdom


EMES Activity Report 2016

News page and News Alerts

Dissemination campaigns 1,250 people were signed into the News Alert distribution list by December 2016. Here’s the info on the News Alerts produced:



EMES News Alert - Feliĉan Novjaron 2017!

people signed up by


EMES News Alert - November 2016

December 2016


EMES News Alert - October 2016


EMES News Alert - June 2016







5EMESconf - Last day to register for #2EMESPolanyi + Save the date: EMES-RILESS conference in Brazil EMES News Alert - April 2016 EMES News Alert - Last day to submit abstracts to #2EMESPolanyi + EMES Best Paper Awards EMES News Alert - Deadline for applying to the 5th EMES PhD Summer School is on Monday! EMES News Alert - EMES events deadlines approaching fast

EMES membership There are two categories of members in EMES, institutional and individual, and each of them brings to the table different set of capacitities in order to ensure the sustainability of the network.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Institutional members Institutional members represent a solid institutional strength behind EMES. Indeed, they take the leadership in organizing events and launching publications that draw from the research they conduct. Finnish institutional member, Finnish Social Enterprise Research Network (finSERN) left the network in 2016 due to financial restrictions. After founding institutional member Recherche et d’Information sur la Démocratie et l’Autonomie (CRIDA) left EMES in 2015, the Chair in Solidarity Economy at Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM) joined to provide continuity to the connection with the team of researchers in Paris. There were a total of 174 individual members in 2016 and they came from over 40 countries. Among these individuals, 56 were PhDs students and 118 were individual researchers. They have the opportunity to keep their on-line profile updated so as to share their latest publications and participation in research projects with the rest of the EMES community and the world.



AICCON - Research Centre on

CES-PT - Centre for Social Studies (PT)

Organizations. Univ. of Bologna, Forlì

LEST - Laboratoire d’Economie et de Sociologie du Travail, LEST. Univ. of

Cooperation and Non Profit website

Aix-Marseille (FR)

Campus (IT) website website

CES-BE - Center for Social Economy.

CIRTES - Centre Interdisciplinaire de

YC-GCU - Yunus Centre for Social

Univ. of Liege (BE)

Recherche Travail, État et Société.

Business and Health (UK)

Catholic Univ. of Louvain (BE) website

website website

Chair of Social and Solidarity Economy

CCS - Centre for Co-operative Studies.

EURICSE - European Research Institute

Chair of Social and Solidarity Economy,

Univ. College Cork (IE)

on Cooperative and Social Enterprises.


Univ. of Trento (IT) website

website website

CSE - Centre for Social Entrepreneurship.

ISF - Institute for Social Research.

Roskilde University (DK)

Oslo (NO)



A detailed description of each research center can be found in the “About us” section of


EMES Activity Report 2016



Functioning and governance of EMES With an open membership and members from all over the world, EMES is committed to ensuring an institutional sustainability that allows it to achieve its mission in serving the community of social enterprise researchers.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Governing bodies

Board of Directors The newly elected Board of directors fully deployed its functions in 2016. The Board met three times in 2016 in the spring in Brussels (14-15 April), in the summer in Glasgow during the 5th EMES PhD Summer School (24 June) and in the fall in Brussels again (24-25 November). In its last meeting of 2016, the EMES Board of Directors decided to engage in a new process of strategic planning beginning on the fall 2017. This strategic planning effort will continue the spirit of the 2012-2015 process that guided the development that EMES underwent during those crucial years. Also during the December meeting, the Board decided to create a new Working Group to focus specifically on the financial stability of EMES. The objective of this Working Group is to discuss the financial position of EMES and to brainstorm about the possible strategies on how to make the organisation more financially sustainable. On the basis of brainstorming exercise, it will create a list of proposed action areas to tackle the major challenges of financial sustainability. These action areas and specific actions will be presented to the Board, which will decide which ones to implement. The first meeting of this Working Group is planned for February 2017.

General Assembly The 2016 General Assembly was reduced since it was held during the Glasgow PhD Summer School. This was the first General Assembly led by Marthe Nyssens as new president. A total of 25 members participated in the meeting, 16 in person and 9 via representation. Nine institutional members out of 11 with voting rights (thus qualifying for the quorum) and 14 individual members with voting rights were present. Two PhD students also participated, including PhD representative in the Board, Francesca Calò.




Financial situation overview The financial result of EMES for 2016 was again positive and the small benefit (1,270€) generated will be reinvested into the association. The issue of long-term financial sustainability from its own resources remains present given EMES’ commitment to institutional sustainability. At present, EMES generates income from its membership, return from events and the provision of services, mainly in the context of European projects. This creates a situation of fluctuating financing flows that goes against such commitment. Therefore, it is crucial that a stable income is generated via solid partnerships with foundations for specific events, training programs, as well as the enlargement of its membership base. The income of EMES in 2016 approached 179,430 € with the majority of the income stemming from research projects (44%); the organization of events (28%); membership fees (26%); and other minor areas such as service provision and book sales (2%).

179,430 €

Income of EMES in 2016





Research projects

Membership fees

Organization of events

Services provision and book sales


EMES Activity Report 2016

Partnerships and alliances

EMES Alumni Network Network page on The Alumni hold different types of positions in academia (research and/ or teaching) or outside. They share their experience and networks with PhD candidates, thereby forming a bridge between these students and senior scholars in the field of social enterprise; they participate in the consolidation and diffusion

The EMES Alumni network gathers scholars who did their PhD on a topic related to social enterprise and who participated in one of the EMES PhD summer schools.

of the EMES network across geographical and disciplinary boundaries; and they more broadly contribute to promoting research and networking in the field of social enterprise. During the Helsinki Conference, the EMES Alumni network held its first formal meeting gathering seven young scholars having recently obtained their PhD and involved in EMES. Members of the group who participated in the meeting of the network include: Millán Díaz-Foncea (Spain), Jennifer Eschweiler (Germany), Michela Giovannini (Italy/Chile), María Granados (Colombia/UK), Carmen Guzmán (Spain), Benjamin Huybrechts (Belgium), and Pablo Nachar (Chile). After a first roundtable to share the expectations with regard to this network, two main goals were identified. On the one hand, the Alumni network should be a space for mutual exchange about the challenges and opportunities of early career development, including obtaining research funding and academic positions. On the other hand, the network endorses a supporting role for PhD students working on social enterprise, translating into a presence at the EMES PhD summer school and interactions with the EMES PhD network.

RILESS Network page on RILESS is the Network of Latin American Researchers on Social and Solidarity Economy and it is coordinated by “Social Policy and Practices” research group (PPGCS) at Unisinos and the National University of General Sarmiento (Argentina). After over a decade of partnership, RILESS and EMES organized the 1st EMESRILESS International Conference under the general title of “Solidarity economy and social enterprises“ described above. 50


Presence in international and European institutions Social enterprises and the social economy going forward - A call for action from the GECES Rocío Nogales, director of EMES, was extensively involved in the production of a piece “Social enterprises and the social economy going forward – A call for action from the GECES” published by the European Commission in collaboration with Expert Group on Social Entrepreneurship (GECES). The report proposes a series of key recommendations for policy-makers to support the development of social enterprises and the social economy as a driver of inclusive and impactful economic growth. The report is structured according to four key thematic areas. Rocío was the coordinator of the work done around the first area, namely visibility and recognition of social enterprises. She joined forces with 24 members of a working group focused on the topic to come up with ways to raise awareness and to promote a better understanding of what social enterprise means.

UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Social and Solidarity Economy (UN-TFSSE) In its capacity of an observer of the UN-TFSSE, EMES attended the technical symposium of the task force held in Rome 3-4th November 2016. The UNTFSSE can be seen as multi-stakeholder partnership between UN agencies, Social and solidarity economy (SSE) networks (national, regional, sectoral federations), research institutes and donor agencies to support the SSE as a means of implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The UNTFSSEE also acts as a hub for UN inter-agency coordination and knowledge sharing on how to scale up and build an enabling environment for SSE. The objective of the symposium in Rome was to promote and support SSE as a means to implement the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by bringing together UN members, governments and civil society observers of the UNTFSSE to discuss future collaboration along three related dimensions: Policy, Partnerships and Research. During the session on Research, Michaela Lednova who represented EMES on the seminar, contributed to the discussion with the presentation from the perspective of EMES core activities dedicated to research and evidence-based policy making, emphasising the need to synthesise findings and bridging existing knowledge gaps in the area of SSE. At the same time, referring to EMES research experience, she highlighted the importance of consolidating a variety of impactassessment methodologies while ensuring high-quality indicators to measure the impact of the contribution of SSE organizations.


EMES Activity Report 2016

OECD/EC Capacity Building Seminar to facilitate social entrepreneurship The EMES network was represented by the Managing Director, Rocío Nogales at the capacity building seminar entitled “Building enabling ecosystems for social

Invited participants were stakeholders concerned with building conducive ecosystems for social enterprises; policy makers and administrators, networks of social enterprises, social finance investors.

enterprises”, organized jointly by the OECD LEED Programme (Local Economic and Employment Development Programme) and the European Commission, in Brussels on 17-18 February, 2016. The seminar followed two objectives: 1. Fostering international exchange of information on the most successful programmes and policies supporting the establishment of effective ecosystems for social enterprises across the European Union; 2. Providing a platform for discussions among actors from different countries and with different roles and perspectives. During the seminar, the EMES Managing Director Rocío Nogales shared her view on why visibility had been identified as one of the three key action areas within the EU Social Business Initiative and how this fed into issues of identity and recognition of the social enterprise community. Considering the central role that visibility can play for social enterprises, she also contributed with her ideas on how visibility and recognition tools could promote access to markets and finance for social enterprises, underlined by concrete examples. The event was part of a European Commission and OECD LEED Capacity Building Seminar Series, aiming to bring together representatives of governments, actors, academia, and other stakeholders, to spark animated discussions and create a fertile ground for generating and sharing ideas. At the same time, drawing on actual case studies makes the seminar conversations concrete and applicable to the situation existing on the ground, so that policies and practices are better aligned.



Overall evaluation for 2016 and overview for 2017 Looking back on 2016 allows the community of social scientists working on SE topics to realize of the consolidation of a research field and its impact on policy-making. In this sense, EMES considers the work of each of its members of utmost importance so that we can achieve this task together. EMES will continue to work with its member community to facilitate their job and create opportunities to enrich their experiences. This task represents a huge effort for an organization with such a reduced structure so the collaboration and generosity of members and partners are crucial to make it happen. Leading the update of the European mapping of social enterprises and the ICSEM project or holding the 2nd edition of the EMES-Polanyi have represented both an honor and a responsibility. Next year’s conference will constitute another unique occasion to once more gather EMES’ members, partners and friends in Louvain-la-Neuve next July 2017. We have been working all this year in order to have everything ready for the 300 researchers that we anticipate will be participating. Likewise, we have already begun planning the next PhD International Summer School, which will take place in Aix-en-Provence/Marseille in June 2018. At EMES we thrive for accessibility and inclusion of various research approaches, disciplines and traditions: this is how EMES has been able to forge its plural identity. Despite the obstacles in the way, related mainly to ensuring the financial sustainability of the network, we are determined to continue doing what we do best: building knowledge together.


EMES Activity Report 2016

Next EMES summer school

The next EMES International Research Conference on Social Enterprise will be the 6th edition of this event and will take place in Aix-Marseille University (France) in June 2018.

Hosted by

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EMES Network Annual Activity Report 2016  
EMES Network Annual Activity Report 2016