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Breaking Dependence on Natural Resources: Is It Possible? A View from the Middle of the World

EDUCATION AS A DRIVING FORCE OF TRANSFORMATION Harvard Ecuadorian Student Association David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies

Cecilia Vaca Jones vacajones@hotmail.com @cecyvacajones Boston, April 2014


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•

NATIONAL PLAN FOR GOOD LIVING (2013-2017) Objective 1: Consolidate the democratic state and Objective 7: build up the people's power Ensure the rights of nature and promote territorial and overall environmental Objective 2: sustainability Foster quality, cohesion, inclusion, and social and territorial equity in a context Objective 8: of diversity Sustainably strengthen the economic, social, and supportive system. Objective 3: Improve the quality of life of the Objective 9: population Ensure decent work in all its forms. Objective 4: Build up the capacities and potential of citizens Objective 5: Build common-meeting spaces and strengthen national identity, diverse identities, plurinationality, and interculturality Objective 6: Consolidate the transformation of justice and strengthen overall security, with strict regard for human rights

Objective 10: Spur the transformation of the productive matrix Objective 11: Ensure the sovereignty and efficiency of the strategic sectors for industrial and technological transformation Objective 12: Ensure sovereignty and peace, enhance strategic integration into the world, and facilitate Latin American integration


NATIONAL SYSTEM OF SOCIAL INCLUSION AND EQUITY Education Transporta tion

Constitution, Article 340: •

•

The National System of Social Human Equity and Inclusion ensures the Security exercise, guarantee, and enforcement of rights. Population

Health

Social Security

National System of Social Inclusion and Equity

and Human Mobility

The system is guided by the principles of universality, equality, equity, progressiveness, Risk interculturality, solidarity and Manageme nt nondiscrimination.

Habitat and Housing

Culture Science and Technolog y

Social Communication

Physical Culture and Leisure


CONCEPTUAL SHIFT

LE B A H S RI E P RAW-MATERIALD N A D E ES T ECONOMY C R U LIMIEXPORTING RESO

Central Bank: Trade Balance Development - January-February 2014


CONCEPTUAL SHIFT Culture

KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

Innovation

Creativity

UNLIMITED RESOURCES FROM HUMAN CAPABILITIES


• Gender • Interculturality • Life cycle • Disability • Human mobility • Territory

Integral

• Intersectoral • Levels of government • Public, private and communal • Joint responsibility

Early Childhood

Equality

Elementary , Middle and High School r Highe on ati Educ

KNOWLEDGE- BASED ECONOMY


FAMILY AND COMMUNITY RESPONSIBLE PARENTING

KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Early Childhood

Private services for early childhood care

BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPING HUMAN TALENT (Academia, Universities, Organizations)


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Early Childhood LITY I B I ONS P S RE Y T I UN M OM C Y IL Neonatal FAM Services

Prenatal Services Conception to birth • Counseling and Adolescent support for Services couples • Family • Pregnancy care planning • Nutrition • Sex and (provision of reproductive micronutrients health ) education • Violence

• • • •

• •

From birth to one year Labor and delivery care Breastfeeding (employment policies) Parenting guidelines (skills and abilities of the child) Healthy child program, immunizations, newborn screening Maternal nutrition Violence prevention

Early Childhood Services Early Childhood Services Ages 1 to 3 years • Healthy child program • Nutrition and food services • Child care services, CNH (GUOC, Growing Up with Our Children program), CIBVs (GLCC, Good Living Children’s Centers) • Comprehensive child

Ages 3 to 6 years • Promoting services to develop motor and social skills, emotional and cognitive development • Early education • Healthy child program • Food and nutrition • Violence prevention


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Middle and High School Levels of Education

100%

98% 98% 97% 95%

Net Attendance Rate (Middle Education) 97% Quintiles 95%

95%

95%

92% 90%

90%

87% 85%

iles t n i u rest q o o p f ess o c c a ased Incre

80%

1

2

3

4

Source: INEC - ENEMDU Preparation: Coordinating Ministry of Social Development. Bureau of Social Sector Information, Analysis and Assessment

5

13 20

12 20

11 20

10 20

09 20

08 20

07 20

06 20

05 20

04 20

20

03

75%


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Middle and High School Levels of Education Net Attendance Rate High School Quintiles

90%

80%

80%

74%

72%

70% 60%

57%

50%

45%

40%

38%

64% 64% 56%

31%

30% 20%

as Incre

10%

tiles n i u q orest o p f o cess c a d e

1

2

3

4

Source: INEC - ENEMDU Preparation: Coordinating Ministry of Social Development. Bureau of Social Sector Information, Analysis and Assessment

5

13 20

_0 6

12 20

13 20

20

12

_0 6

11 20

_0 6 20

11

10 20

_0 6 20

10

09 20

20

08

07 20

06 20

05 20

04 20

20

03

0%


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Transformation of Higher Education Main Issues

Ongoing Transformation

Unequal access to higher education

Free access to higher education

Poor articulation of academic programs with national needs

Relevance

Absence of a quality higher educational system

Quality assessment and accreditation system

Reactionary funding

Results-based funding

Unregulated higher educational system

New institutions in the higher educational system

Source: National Secretariat for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, 2012 Coordinating Ministry of Knowledge and Human Talent


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY Democratization of Higher Education

Indigenous peoples Afro-Ecuadorians Quintile 1 Quintile 2

6.600% 9.400% 7.000% 2006

11.500% 16.200% 18.800% 24.700% 2012

Source: National Secretariat for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, 2012 Coordinating Ministry of Knowledge and Human Talent


KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

Commitment to Knowledge (Research, Innovation, Education and Culture) This will be the first planned city of Ecuador. Yachay University will promote technological and scientific research and development in an atmosphere of innovation and will involve all stakeholders in society.

IKIAM brings biodiversity and the natural and cultural heritage together with human talent and research. It seeks to strengthen Ecuador’s comparative advantages (natural and biological wealth) and the development of local and international research and technology networks.

The National University seeks to attract highly qualified teachers and educational specialists to contribute to the improvement of the education system.

UArtes focuses on local and international development of culture and arts. It stimulates discussion, the building of identities, and intercultural artistic production as part of its program to train high-quality professionals committed to national objectives.

Quality

Relevance

Democratization


KNOWLEDGE-BASED SOCIAL ECONOMY THEORETICAL APPROACH

SOCIALISM OF GOOD LIVING Knowledge-based social economy system Knowledge as an unlimited resource Knowledge as a common public good Supremacy of the value in use Maximization of the positive externalities of knowledge

COGNITIVE CAPITAL Knowledge considered a scarce resource Knowledge is a private good Supremacy of the exchange value Maximization of profit from agent’s private knowledge Competitive knowledge production

Collaborative knowledge production Private intellectual property Recognition of the plurality of intellectual properties (public, private, and collective) Social distribution of DPI benefits

Concentrated distribution of IPR benefits


SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND KNOWLEDGE REVOLUTION

• Health • Economic inclusion • Healthy habitat • Education • Leisure • Social security

Social revolution

Change in the • Diversification productive of production matrix • Technology and knowledge in productive processes • Selective import substitution • Encouraging the export of new products

• • • •

Unlimited resources Innovation Creativity Culture

Knowledge-based economy


SOCIAL REVOLUTION

810,238 prenatal care interventions (2013) 908,409 "healthy child" check-ups

86,304 children in early ed. (2013) 302,104 children - GLCCs and the GUOC program (2013) 560,000 elderly citizens receive pensions 20,303 housing bonus benefits (2013) Over 25,000 people no longer living in extreme poverty (2013) Gini coefficient of 0.48 Chronic child malnutrition reduced in average one point per year

Consular assistance to 21,449 individuals 1,267 Ecuadorian returnees Large-scale promotion of adapted sports, physical culture, national and international multi-sport games


COORDINATING MINISTRY OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATING MINISTRY OF KNOWLEDGE AND HUMAN TALENT NATIONAL SECRETARIAT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION, SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION


Education as a Driving Force of Transformation  

Education as a Driving Force of Transformation Cecilia Vacas

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