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India-brazil

in Focus

2014 Edition


Contents Ambassador's Foreword................................................................................................................................ 4 Tech Mahindra’s Ambitious Mission 2015 in Brazil....................................................................................... 6 Brazil, India Joint Venture Make Major Oil Discovery.................................................................................. 10 ONGC Videsh Acquires Additional 12 Per Cent Stake in Block BC-10 in Brazil............................................11 India-Brazil Enhance Co-operation..............................................................................................................12 Brazil's Trade Relations with India have Witnessed a Ten-fold Increase in the Last Decade..........................13 India has a Unique Strategic Culture and Diplomatic Style...........................................................................14 Genpact, from India, Expands Operations in Brazil.......................................................................................18 Godrej Group Evaluates Acquisitions in Brazil..............................................................................................19 Indian Railways Carry Passengers Equivalent to Almost the Population of Entire World.............................. 20 Reaching for the Skies - India’s Space Technology at its Best..................................................................... 22 India Reap Medals in International Maths and Science Olympiads.............................................................. 25 Brazil's Acting Talent in Bollywood.............................................................................................................. 28 Snapshots of Indian Embassy's Activities in Brazil in 2014......................................................................... 30 Embraer Executive Jets Signs MoU with Air Works..................................................................................... 38 Renewable Energy - The Way Forward........................................................................................................ 40 Aiming to be a Leading Go-to Restaurant Search Service in Brazil.............................................................. 42

Published by: Embassy of India SES 805 Lote 24, Brasilia | DF, CEP: 70.452-901 Phone: +55 (61) 3248-4006 Fax: +55 (61) 3248-7849 / 3248-5486 Produced by Krest Publications, New Delhi, India Tel.: 91-11-4653 9323 • Fax : 91-11-4610 5603 • Email: editor@diplomacy.in Editor: Harun Riaz • Project Co-ordinator: R.K. Verma • Marketing Manager: Ajit Thakur • Layout: Hari Sharma • Printing: Rave India Disclaimer: 'India-Brazil in Focus' is a special publication. The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily represent the position of the Embassy of India, Brasilia, Brazil or the Government of India. The magazine has no commercial value and is not for sale. It is for private circulation only


Ambassador's Desk

India's Diversified Ties with Brazil

Ambassador Ashok Tomar presenting credentials to H. E. President Dilma Rousseff

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ndia and Brazil today enjoy a diversified relationship, covering many themes and operating at multiple levels. Bilaterally, we see the relationship growing exponentially at the political, commercial, cultural, academic and intellectual levels. Our strategic partnership, established eight years ago also manifests itself at the plurilateral level in fora such as IBSA, BRICS, BASIC, G-20, G-4, and in the larger multilateral arena such as the UN, WTO, UNESCO, WIPO, etc. This publication provides us with an opportunity to take stock of the growing partnership between our two countries and share the new initiatives with readers to create awareness about the opportunities that exist, and the great potential that is yet to be harnessed in India-Brazil relationship. External Affairs Minister, Shri Salman Khurshid visited Brazil from October 14-17, 2013. He co- chaired the Sixth India- Brazil JCM with his counterpart Foreign Minister Mr. Luiz Alberto

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Figueiredo in Brasilia. The agreed minutes of the JCM contained 92 paras covering a wide range of issues such as Strategic partnership; Economic and Trade relations; Mining and Energy; Agriculture and Food Processing; Science & Technology; Environment and Sustainable Development; Technical Cooperation; Social and Health issues; Education; Culture; Tourism; Sports; Consular issues; and Regional and Multilateral issues. The details of agreed minutes are available at the MEA website and Brazilian Itamaraty site. Embassy of India in Brasilia in association with the FUNAG, a public foundation associated with the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, organised a seminar on 3 October 2013 on the topic “India and Brazil: a partnership for the XXI Century" in Brasilia. Speakers from both sides discussed the role of the two countries on the challenges and opportunities of global governance, strategic partnership and the evolution of the bilateral relationship.


Ambassador's Desk Brazil is one of the most important economic and commercial partners of India in the entire LAC (Latin America and Caribbean) region. Our cooperation is moving up the value chain in areas such as Information Technology, Pharmaceuticals and Life Sciences, Aviation Industry, Food and Energy Security, and Science & Technology research. India - Brazil bilateral trade has increased substantially in the last two decades. India’s exports to Brazil, which were US$ 6.30 billion in 2013, consist mainly of processed petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, textiles, chemicals, machinery and equipment, auto ancillaries, and fertilizers, etc. Brazil’s exports were US$ 3.13 billion in 2013 and consist of crude petroleum, chemicals, aircrafts, iron ore, etc. It was heartening to see visits to Brazil by around 100 Indian companies, sponsored by various export promotion councils during 2013. There have been two way investments between India and Brazil. While Brazilian companies have invested in automobiles, IT, mining, energy, biofuels, footwear sectors in India, Indian companies have invested in such sectors as IT, Pharmaceutical, Energy, agri-business, mining, aluminium production recycling, fertilizer production, and engineering/auto sectors, etc. Indian companies such as TCS, Wipro, Infosys, Cadilla, Mahindra, L&T, Novelis, Renuka Sugars, United Phosphorus, Polaris, and Glenmark and others are present in Brazil. The Brazilian companies present in India include Marco Polo (buses), Vale (biggest mining company), Stefanini (IT), Gerdau (Steel). Total estimated investments by Indian companies in Brazil have crossed US$ 4 billion. There is enormous Brazilian interest in India’s culture, religion, performing arts and philosophy. The first forms of Indian Culture to reach Brazil were spiritual, philosophical and religious in nature. Folkloric identities and celebrations from India relate very much and the exuberant

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and colorful nature of festivities such as the typical dances and parades of north and northeast of Brazil. The first classical art to come to Brazil was Bharatanatyam dance, with Odissi, Kathak and Kuchipudi to follow later. Not only for their distinct character but also due to the exoticism of costumes, ankle bells and, head dresses, impacting make-up and angular postures are immensely appealing to Brazilian eyes. The telecasting of the Brazilian tele-novella ‘Caminhos das India (Paths to India) made a great impact in enhancing the consciousness of India in the Brazilian public mind. In classical music, Brazil already has a share of those who have learnt Sitar, Tabla and other instruments and not only play some of the original ragas and rhythms but go beyond to create fusion music in conjunction with Brazilian artistes. There are numerous organizations teaching Yoga, all over Brazil. Several spiritual gurus and organizations have chapters in Brazil. India cinema is also popular among Brazilian people. Indian Film weeks organized by Embassy and Consulate have always received good responses. We have organized Indian film weeks August-September 2013 celebrating `Hundred years of Indian Cinema´ in seven Brazilian cities. The year 2013-14 witnessed valuable interactions at the G2G level inter-alia in the form of the Joint Commission Meeting in Brasilia in October 2013, improving B2B contacts with new trade and investment relationship, developing and strengthening of the old ones and the enhanced P2P initiatives at the cultural and academic levels to bring people of our two countries closer. All these are covered in detail in this publication. I am sure it would serve as a useful collage of last one year of action and provide impetus to our partners who are actively conceptualizing initiatives in the coming year.

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Business Writeup

Tech Mahindra’s Ambitious Mission 2015 in Brazil

If you had your cup of coffee at Starbucks, travelled with TFL, drove a Mercedes, Jaguar, Ford, Nissan or Land Rover, banked with Barclays Bank, bought clothes from Abercrombie & Fitch or GAP; used BT Services, sent your courier through DHL, bought an iPad from Apple Store, prepared your lunch or dinner using frozen food from Birds Eye, shopped at Tesco, played on Sony Play Station or listened to your favorite song on your Philips MP3 Player, enjoyed eating chocolates from Nestle, Mars or Godiva, used medicines from GSK; enjoyed the FIFA Football, then you have been using services provided by Tech Mahindra Heritage and link to Brazil…

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ech Mahindra Limited, a leading provider of solutions and services in the Information, Communications & Technology (ICT) industry serving over 500 global customers, including Fortune 500 companies, has expanded its footprint in the Latin American market with its recently acquired majority stake in one-of-the largest SAP consulting provider, in Brazil – Complex IT. Tech Mahindra serves many industries in the region, sweeping value from the region’s growing IT spending, gearing towards its Mission 2015. In 2009, when almost everyone had rated Satyam as a sinking ship with no ray of hope, Tech Mahindra acquired Satyam,

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

outbidding its closest competitor L&T. Analysts had all predicted that Tech Mahindra had bought Satyam at a fairly higher price than the market. But it was for the capabilities and leadership of Tech Mahindra, which sailed the rough seas and brought the ship to the shore and today, after the merger of the two entities, they form India’s 5th biggest IT Company.

employing more than 155,000 people across 49 countries, Tech Mahindra’s new brand mantra is “Connected World Connected Solutions’ highlighting its focus on representing the new connected world, offering innovative and customer-centric services and solutions integrating technology with business, thereby enabling Enterprises, Associates and the Society to Rise™.

A USD 2.63 billion company with over 83,000 professionals, its proven global delivery models, distinctive IT skills and decades of domain expertise help clients realize their business aspirations.

Mahindra group is many companies united by a common purpose—to enable people to Rise. Mahindra operates in the key industries that drive economic growth, enjoying a leadership position in utility vehicles, information technology, tractors, and vacation ownership, having a growing presence in the automotive

Part of the USD 16.2 billion Mahindra Group, one of the top 10 India-based business houses,

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Business Writeup industry, aerospace, aftermarket, components, consulting services, defense, energy, financial services, logistics, real estate, retail, and two wheelers. Journey So far… Tech Mahindra Limited was incorporated in 1986, as Mahindra British Telecom (MBT). In 1994, MBT was awarded the ISO 9001 certification by BVQI. In the following year, MBT established its first office abroad, its UK branch Office. MBT was renamed Tech Mahindra in 2006, after it raised a hugely successful IPO of $100 million, to build a new office in Pune. In the same year, Tech Mahindra set up its first Joint Venture with Motorola, under the name CanvasM. From here, Tech Mahindra, with its strong leadership and aligned focus took many major steps like launching the Tech Mahindra foundation, being the official technology partners for FIFA World Cup 2010, and later acquiring Hutchison Global Services, Comviva Technologies, vCustomer and Complex IT – all of them adding strategic value to the company. Tech Mahindra through its journey has been categorized as hungry for specialization. Before the merger with Mahindra Satyam, it had distinguished itself as an IT specialist in telecom and network services. And now, The chairman Anand Mahindra, Executive Vice Chairman Vineet Nayyar and the MD & CEO, CP Gurnani, all share the same vision – to be no. 1 in their chosen verticals. Vineet Nayyar said in an earlier interview: “We wanted to be 1 mile wide, but 10 mile deep.” Presently the company serves 5 of the top 5 in Telecom Equipment Manufactures, 3 of the top 10 in Aerospace, 5 of the top 10 in Automotive, 4 of the top 10 in Banking, 16 Greenfield operators in Telecom, 3 of the top 10 in

Energy and 3 of the top 5 in Foods. Over the years, the company has thrived on Mahindra’s core tenets of accepting no limits, thinking alternatively, and driving positive change. Tech Mahindra has devised a four pillar strategy for its growth in various sectors: Business Momentum: Telecom, Manufacturing & Engineering Heritage; Fast emerging BFSI, Healthcare and Retail Practice; 100+ Alliances / Partners Inorganic Growth: Customer, Hutchison Global Services, Comviva, Complex It, Mahindra Satyam Innovation : Co-innovation with customers; Platform / Solution sets; Digital Enterprise assets and frameworks

Non-Linear Growth: Technology Funds; Big bets and Intrapreneurship programs.

which yielded maximum benefits to investors.

All these have helped Tech Mahindra to attract premier projects and deepen client relationships, resulting in growth and strengthened market position over the years. Tech Mahindra recently declared revenues of INR 4,771 crore, with 57.6% growth YoY in its profits. It is amongst one of the top 5 stocks of 2013

Complex IT – Tech Mahindra Advantage

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Brazil is the second fastest growing geography globally for SAP AG. Software revenues for SAP AG grew 20% in the last year. The current spend on IT by companies in Brazil is approximately US$70B, with US$36B being spent on services

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Business Writeup and software. As Brazil gears up to host FIFA 2014 and the Olympics in 2016, it would only provide an increased impetus to an already rapidly growing IT services market Complex IT and Tech Mahindra jointly focus on developing solutions for the rapidly expanding Enterprise Solutions market within Brazil. Together, they are going to market with proprietary solutions for large manufacturing, financial and consumer services companies in the market. This is a part of Tech Mahindra’s strategy to a global delivery capability in Latin America. Today, Tech Mahindra is well positioned to combine local expertise with ability to deliver large and complex projects. Growth Plans in Brazil Tech Mahindra delivers services in Aerospace, Metal and Mining, BFSI, Energy, Automotive and dicreet manufacturing domains in Brazil. They specialize in design engineering, Manufacturing support and after – market. Tech Mahindra’s Aerospace Serves five of the top eight Aircraft manufacturers. Powered by over 1,000 associates who have rich domain and technical expertise in the Aerospace & Defense industry, their Aerospace & Defense projects, ranging from concept to design and manufacturing to aftermarket service, engage numerous entities that

include suppliers, partners and customers. The company’s Mining and Metals practice focuses on applying technology and domain expertise to deliver beyond best practice solutions to improve operational efficiency and maximize business effectiveness. Tech Mahindra’s dedicated Centre of Excellence (CoE) connects thought leaders, domain experts and strategic partners to deliver end-to-end solutions to the mining and metals customers enabling sustained competitive advantage.

Tech Mahindra has over two decades of experience in offering innovative solutions for Retail Banking, Lending and Leasing, Cards, Asset and Wealth Management, Investment Banks, Stock Exchanges and Life / Nonlife Insurances. Services and solutions are in Core banking, Cards and Payments, Risk and Compliance, Customer Centricity, Trading, Asset Management, Wealth Management, Data Management, Strategic and Operational Consulting. Tech Mahindra has a robust and mature Oil and Gas practice. They provide end-to-end IT services to O&G companies, thereby helping them focus on their core competencies. Tech Mahindra’s well-planned and well-executed IT projects have helped customers to streamline business processes, iron out inefficiencies and increase stakeholders’ value. Tech Mahindra provides dedicated IT, Engineering & Consulting solutions that meet the specific requirements of Auto OEMs and the supplier community. The unit integrates its in-depth knowledge of technology platforms, understanding of automotive business needs and world-class delivery capability, coupled with

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Business Writeup

its partner eco-system to offer end-to-end IT and engineering solutions. Way Forward… We are now living in the Hyper Connected World where People to People, People to Things and Things to Things are connected due to advancement in Mobile, Long Term Evolution (LTE), IPV6, M2M Communication and Social Networks. Hyper connectivism has forced people to adapt to a Digital Lifestyle and also giving life into non-living things like car, machines, equipment, etc. Tech Mahindra’s latest offering “Digital Enterprise Solutions” aka NMACS is the brand name for 5th generation digital technology stack. It consists of 7 technology forces like Networks, Mobility, Analytics, Cloud, Security, Social and Sensors (NMACS). NMACS is technology stack which is being used to build Digital Enterprises.NMACS Way brings the power of convergence of multiple technologies to resolve the current business problems, and destruct solution deficiencies thereby improving the business performance manifold which otherwise is not possible with one or two technologies. NMACS

brings the differentiation and value proposition through technology convergence. Tech Mahindra offers Digital Solutions which help in building Digital Processes, Digital Products and Digital People. Digital Solutions help in force multiplication of business performance (metrics) by significantly improving the business needs like identifying new mix of business metrics to re-define success of business; Identifying existing business problems; Identifying deficiencies in existing solutions; and Identifying current business trends of line of business.

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Mahindras could have been outsider in IT in 2008, now they are at the epicenter of Indian IT. A lot of what Tech Mahindra is today can be attributed to the energy that the leaders brought in, and the industry has definitely raised and cheered to their efforts. In the past few months, Tech Mahindra has been awarded with AT&T supplier award, HP Partner of the year award, SAP ACE Award, to name a few. Visit www.techmahindra.com to know more about the solutions Tech Mahindra offers to the connected world. You can also contact Anil.Joshi@techmahindra. com or Alberto.Rosati@techmahindra. com for more information on any products / services / solutions offered by Tech Mahindra Limited.

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Bilateral Business

Brazil, India Joint Venture Make Major Oil Discovery

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razil’s state-run oil company Petrobras and an Indian partner Bharat Petroleum Corp Ltd (BPCL) and Videocon Industries together hold 40% interest have discovered an oil exploration block that could contain more than a billion barrels of oil. The find of Petrobras and IBV Brasil in SEAL 11 off Brazil’s northeast coast, Sergipe-Alagoas basin could be the biggest oil discovery of the year. IBV Brasil is a joint venture between India’s

Bharat Petroleum Corporation and Videocon Industries.

of good quality crude following a drilling test.

Brazil currently produces about two million barrels per day nationally.

Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) has completed a test in well 3-BRSA-1178D-SES (3-SES176D), informally known as Farfan 1, to test the production capacity of the accumulation in the BM-SEAL-11 concession area of Block SEAL-M-426.

Brazilian oil giant Petrobras, which is the operator of the block, has confirmed the Farfan-1 oil discovery in the ultra-deep waters of the Segipe-Alagoas basin, off Brazil, Videocon said in a statement. The state-owned firm has confirmed excellent productivity

Based on an evaluation of 30 meters of turbidite sandstones, the test found good quality oil with a density of 38 degrees API in a "good" reservoir with "excellent productivity", the statement said. Farfan-1 is located 104 km north of Aracaju, the capital of the north-eastern Brazilian state of Sergipe. It lies in a water depth of 2476 metres, about 5 km from the Farfan discovery well. Petrobras is the operator of the block with a 60 per cent interest while IBV Brasil (a 50:50 joint venture of BPCL and Videocon) holds the remaining 40 per cent stake. A 51-metre reservoir was discovered at Farfan-1 well, a year after a 44-metre hydrocarbon column was found in Farfan a year ago. The discovery has been estimated to hold more than 1 billion barrels of oil. Petrobras chief executive Maria das Gracas Foster had previously said the BM-SEAL-11 concession could produce at least 100,000 barrels per day of oil, starting in 2018. Source: http://timesofindia.indiatimes. com

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Indian Investment

ONGC Videsh Acquires Additional 12% Stake in Block BC-10 in Brazil

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NGC Videsh, through its affiliates has acquired an additional 12% Participating Interest (PI) in Block BC-10, a deepwater offshore block in Campos Basin, Brazil taking its total PI in the block to 27%. The operator, Shell now holds the balance 73% PI in the block. ONGC Videsh had acquired 15 % PI in Block BC-10 in 2006. The other partners in the block were Shell, Operator with 50% PI and Petrobras with 35% PI. In August 2013, Petrobras entered into an agreement with Sinochem for sale of its 35% PI in the block. This agreement was subject to pre-emption rights of the partners. Shell and ONGC Videsh exercised their pre-emption rights for acquisition of 23% PI and 12% PI respectively. On approval of the Brazilian regulatory authorities for acquisition, the transaction has been completed on 30th December, 2013. ONGC Videsh has paid a purchase consideration of USD 561 million for 12% stake in the block. About BC-10 Block The Block BC-10 also known as Parque das Conchas is in Campos Basin of Brazil and includes 4 offshore deep-water fields Ostra, Abalone, Argonauta and Nautilus and a few identified exploration prospects. The block is in the deep-waters of Brazil in the water depths ranging from 1500 to 1950 meters. The Project is being developed in three phases. Production from Phase I started in year 2009. The Phase II of the Project has come on stream

in October 2013 with an expected peak production of about 35,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boepd) in 2014. The current oil production from the block is about 50,000 boepd. The Phase III is to come on stream in 2016 with expected peak production of about 28000 boepd in 2017. The production from all the phases is expected to be about 75,000 boepd in 2017. About ONGC Videsh ONGC Videsh is a wholly owned subsidiary of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC), the National Oil Company of India, and is India’s largest international oil and gas E&P Company. Presently ONGC Videsh has participation in 32 projects in 16 countries including Azerbaijan, Brazil, Colombia, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Libya, Myanmar, Russia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela and Vietnam. ONGC Videsh is currently producing 160 thousand barrels of oil and oil equivalent

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gas per day and has total oil and gas reserves of about 433 million tonne of oil and oil equivalent gas (mmtoe) as on 31 March 2013. About ONGC ONGC is the flagship National Oil Company of India and is the highest valued and the highest profit making Government of India enterprise. ONGC’s market capitalisation as on 30th December, 2013, was about INR 248,000 Crore (about USD 40 billion). In the financial year ending on 31 March 2013, ONGC Group produced 58.7 million tonne of oil and oil equivalent gas (mmtoe) which is approximately 1.2 million barrels of oil and oil equivalent gas per day. ONGC Group had a turnover of INR 165,849 Crore (USD 30.45 billion), profit after tax of INR 24,220 Crore (USD 4.44 billion) and total oil and gas reserves of 1,759 mmtoe as on 31 March 2013. Source: Press Trust of India

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Bilateral Ties

India-Brazil Enhance Co-operation

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xternal Affairs Minister of India, Shri Salman Khurshid co-chaired the Sixth India – Brazil Joint Commission Meeting with his counterpart Mr. Luiz Alberto Figueiredo Machado on 15 October 2013 in Brasilia. An Agreement on Transfer of Sentenced Persons was signed. Agreement on Cooperation between Foreign Service Institute, India and Rio Bronco Institute, Brazil signed in

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2007 was renewed. The bilateral agreement signed in 2007 on mutual assistance in customs matter entered into force after the JCM. During the meeting, the two sides recalled that the coordination in multilateral fora and the ongoing cooperation in IBSA, BRICS, BASIC, G-4 and G-20 as an extremely important dimension of the Brazil-India Strategic Partnership.

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The agreed minutes of 6th Meeting of Brazil – India Joint Commission was signed by the two Foreign Ministers on 15th October, 2013 in Brasilia had 92 paras covering a wide range of issues such as Strategic partnership; Economic and Trade relations; Mining and Energy; Agriculture and Food Processing; Science & Technology; Environment and Sustainable Development; Technical Cooperation; Social and Health issues; Education; Culture; Tourism; Sports; Consular issues; and Regional and Multilateral issues. The details of agreed minutes are available at the MEA website and Brazilian Itamaraty site. The External Affairs Minister also chaired the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) Regional Heads of Mission (HOMs Conference) in Rio de Janeiro from 16-17 October 2013. HOMs from 13 LAC countries attended the Conference.


Bilateral Trade

Brazil's Trade Relations with India have Witnessed a Ten-fold Increase in the Last Decade

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razil's trade relations with India have witnessed a ten-fold increase in the last decade and expected to reach $ 15 billion by 2015, with exports of $5.04 bn and imports of $5.58 billion – close to 10 times increase in the last ten years. Talking to FE, an official in the Indian embassy Brazil said, "These numbers include $ 2 bn in export of Diesel and $3.4 bn Indian import of crude oil. So in 2012, $5.4 bn accounts for oil trade out of total $10.6 bn - over 50%. And, 76 % of Indian imports from Brazil were crude oil, sugar and soya." Adding, “The good news is the increase in pharmaceutical, fertilizers and chemicals exports to Brazil from India which together is now close to $ 1 billion. Auto components and electrical and mechanical equipments have also seen good growth, so have textiles and fibers exports. While oil trade has different dynamics, rest of the products has seen good growth." Brazil's Ambassador to India, Carlos Duarte has at various fora highlighted the growing cooperation between the two developing powers in various fields including agriculture, science and technology, energy, education, defence, environment. According to former Ambassador R Viswanathan, "India's bilateral trade with Brazil 20 years ago in 1992 was just $ 177 million. Then ten years back, in 2002, it was $1.2 billion, with India's exports to Brazil declining in 2012 to $ 5.04 billion dollars from $ 6 billion in 2011." Current data indicates that 41 % of India's exports ($2.1 billion) in 2012 were diesel exported by Reliance and the fall in India's exports in 2012 is due

to the 33% decline in exports of diesel. The former diplomat goes on to add, "The second biggest export was chemicals and pharmaceuticals which amounted to $ 697 million. The third largest export item was polyester yarn – $ 225 million. Auto parts exports were $106 million. Apart from these items, the exports are well diversified with a wide range of engineering products and industrial raw materials besides textiles and traditional items. Surprisingly coal was an important export – $99 million."

Indo-Brazilian Joint Venture Tata Marcopolo Buses on Delhi Roads

Sugar (imported by Renuka Sugar) was the second largest import$500 million, accounting for 9 % of total imports. Soya oil imports were $ 364 million and Copper imports were $ 294 million. The two countries have also inked a deal worth $ 210 million for the supply of three aircraft by 2014. This includes a comprehensive logistic package that entails training, technical support, supply of spare parts and ground support equipment for Embraer aircraft equipped with India's firstever airborne Active Electronic Scanned Array (AESA) radar, giving it the capability to detect missiles and hostile fighters at all angles. Of the total bilateral trade of $10 billion Reliance alone accounted for $5.5 billion with their import of crude oil and export of diesel. India is expected to increase its imports of crude oil in the coming years, given the increasing

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Indo-Brazilian Joint Venture Embraer aircraft equipped with India's first ever airborne Active Electronic Scanned Array (AESA) radar

capacity of Brazil to produce more oil and the ever-increasing dependence of India on imported oil. "The Indian exports of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, engineering and other manufactured products as well as industrial raw materials will continue to increase steadily with the intensification of export promotion by the Indian exporters who are targeting Brazil as a large and growing strategic market," points out Viswanathan.

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India's Foreign Policy

India has a Unique Strategic Culture and Diplomatic Style Address by National Security Advisor Shiv Shankar Menon on Strategic Culture and IR Studies in India at the 3rd International Studies Convention held at JNU Convention Centre, New Delhi, December 11, 2013. He had previousoly served as the Foreign Secretary, the top diplomat in India. Prior to that he was Indian High Commissioner to Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and in China and Israel as Ambassador.

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hank you for asking me to speak to your Third International Studies Conference. My congratulations to MEA, JNU and the other co-sponsoring universities on arranging this Conference It has become an annual feature that we look forward to as an occasion to learn from the best minds in international relations (IR) studies in India. It was suggested to me that I should speak to you about ‘Strategic Culture in India”. I think my views on this are well known. There have been those, like George Tanham, who deny that India has a strategic culture. My view is that this is an impossibility for a self conscious culture and civilisation such as ours, with our heritage and sense of our own importance and role. Just as saying one is apolitical is itself a political choice, saying that India has no strategic culture is only to say that it is different from the strategic cultures one is used to. Sadly many Indians have picked up Tanham’s refrain saying that India has no strategic culture. I think what most of them mean is that they do not see the long term thinking and patient planning that is often (rightly or wrongly) ascribed to other cultures.

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This too seems untrue to me. India has shown remarkable consistency in the manner of her engagement with the world, across different stages of her development, under governments of divergent political persuasions, and in very varied international circumstances. The record has been remarkably consistent. But why is there an argument about this at all? One reason may be the nature of IR studies in India. Let us be honest among ourselves. With a few individual exceptions, IR studies in India are yet to benchmark themselves to the best in the world or to carve out a place in IR studies globally. As an Indian, this pains me. As a practitioner, rather than indulge in a theoretical discussion, which you scholars are much better qualified to do, I would therefore like to speak today on "Strategic Culture and IR Studies in India" and to suggest some issues for our future work. Issues Preparing for this talk, the first question that struck me as a practitioner was whether what we do as India’s diplomats is studied; whether we diplomats recognise the reality that we know and experience, or something like it,

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in the studies of Indian diplomacy and foreign policy that we see. My honest answer, after over forty years in the field, must be that there has actually been very little such scholarship. It is now beginning, as Srinath Raghavan’s ‘1971’, and his previous book show, but there is very little of that quality which is empirically based on the historical record and which suggests the real policy dilemmas that we face. We are fortunate in having a considerable body of memoirs, some of them like JN Dixit’s ‘Assignment Colombo’ of very high quality indeed, but little that combines theoretical rigour with knowledge of the real world. I suppose that what I am asking for is a combination of theory and practice that is rare, and difficult when we are so archivally challenged, to put it mildly. Even so, the exceptions prove that the effort can be made successfully. IR is and must be a primarily an empirical discipline, even though some of us are tempted by the ‘quants’ or by the desire to be ‘scientific’. To illustrate my point let me mention two issues in Indian foreign policy. (i) India and her Neighbours: We are yet to find a paradigm


India's Foreign Policy

Mr. Shiv Shankar Menon, NSA addressing at the Third Convention of International Studies Scholars with the theme 'Re-imagining Global Orders: Perspectives from the South', held at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi (December 11, 2013)

to satisfactorily explain the paradox of India having more in common than most countries with her neighbours in terms of language, culture, economic complimentarity, common history, and so on, but still having difficult or complex relations with each of them. Instead our studies concentrate on the day to day politics and compulsions that affect these relationships rather than their drivers or explanations of why they are as they are. (ii) India and China: Similarly, a simple realist theory is insufficient to explain or even describe the complex course and state of IndiaChina relations. If the balance of power were all that mattered, how do we explain the development of the relationship in the last twenty-five years? When Rajiv Gandhi became the first Indian PM to visit China after

Jawaharlal Nehru in 1954 we had a mono focal relationship. That is now transformed and it continues to change before our eyes. We lack a theoretical basis for understanding this change. 1. The Gap between Theory and Practice Why is there this gap between theory and practice, between theoreticians and practitioners, between academics and diplomats in Indian IR studies? Let me suggest a few reasons that my experience suggests: (i) One reason is the post-modern emphasis on narrative and discourse. When I look at your agenda some words leap out: "reimagining”, "imagining”, "subaltern reading”, "binaries, silences and alternatives”, a view from nowhere”, "intellectual discourse”, "contending discourses” and so on. These are no doubt useful in their place and are academically fashionable

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concepts. It is useful to be self conscious. The media, public diplomacy and an entire industry have been built on these post-modern concepts that other disciplines borrowed from literary criticism. When it comes to dealing with international relations they are useful in explaining subjective perceptions, which do affect policy choices. Methodological refinement and improving the tools available to the discipline certainly have some value. (ii) But the fact is that this is talking about talking. While it is useful to be self conscious there must be something to be self conscious about, not just self consciousness itself. Process cannot substitute for substance. For the practitioner of international relations, it is outcomes, the policy choices, and the objective realities that underlie them that is of interest. The practitioner seeks theories that contribute to understanding them. The

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India's Foreign Policy post-modern vocabulary and discourse does not offer that. In my experience what moves states and people who make decisions is not discourse but what they see as choices and risks in objective reality. In short, the diplomat seeks outcomes. These are not obtained in the real world by narratives and discourse though they can help. If IR studies want the satisfaction that comes from having changed or explained reality post-modern discourse does not provide it. (iii) The dominant discourse in IR studies, journalism and the world as a whole today is a Western metropolitan one. But that has not prevented the steady erosion of Western dominance, as the activation of the G-20 and its role after the 2007-8 financial crisis showed. (There will no doubt be push back as power seldom shifts smoothly from one set of hands to another in the international system.) That shift was based on actual changes in the global economy, with manufacturing and surpluses moving to the emerging world and China. Changes in discourse and narrative followed the objective shift, and will change again with push back. (iv) Besides, as IR studies concentrate more and more on less and less, they are less able to convey the complexity of the real world that we face, where what Game Theory calls "minimax” solutions and choices are the rule, and every choice involves risks. (v) Lastly, people are at the heart of what we diplomats do. Science deals with grand unification at the same time as chemistry burrows down to the molecular and atomic level. IR studies today are so concerned with being seen as "scientific” that they do not seem to have room for the individual. We today have a problem of plenty.

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

Scholars are under pressure to publish books and articles in journals and newsmagazines, to comment on daily events, write blogs, tweet, appear on TV, attend conferences, seminars and to teach. Frankly, I am amazed at the multitasking skills of my academic friends. But many of them secretly admit that quality suffers from this inflation of media and that the supply of ideas has not kept up with the demand.

2. India’s Role in the World

What is the answer to the gap between theory and practice?

All in all, our diplomatic engagement has been marked by circumspection, which may not be what an age of 24X7 media and celebrity culture demands, but judged by outcomes it has served us well. The modesty and patience that have marked Indian diplomacy so far have resulted in India making quiet but substantive contributions to the world in many ways.

IR has been most effective where there is an interchange between academia and government. (I say government only because for most recent history international relations and diplomacy have been the province of states. Now they involve governments, supragovernmental organisations, quasi-governmental and nongovernmental organisations.) But that does not affect the argument that value lies in the interchange between academia and these institutions that make policy. That is the key to both being more effective. Both academia and policy formulation benefit from such interchange. Some of the best academic work in India on our foreign policy was done by those like S Gopal who had experience of both. When we had a Historical Division in MEA it was possible for scholars to work in Government of India and make these transitions. We started these conferences because we wanted to create precisely this interchange in India, which has sadly become rarer over time. And Government is the poorer for not having the benefit of grounded academic advice. What I am suggesting is that we try to build links between academia and policy, and that this conference is a good place to start.

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My other suggestion would be for Indian IR scholars to look at the remarkable consistency of the role that India has sought to play in the world, under governments of different political persuasions and composition. India’s nonalignment, chosen levels of engagement, the balance between multilateralism and bilateralism, and the demands we place upon our negotiators are all unique.

This consistency is also a feature of India’s diplomatic style. Since independence India has been an independent actor on the international stage with a role, a diplomatic style, and a unique and recognisable personality all her own. I have said elsewhere that: 1. For one, we have practiced the most frugal diplomacy that I know. We expect a small band of professional diplomats with minimum means to deliver all and more that much larger, better equipped and well funded foreign services do. Judged by international standards we have delivered. But as India’s interests abroad expand it will no longer be possible to improvise and extemporise with what little we have. 2. We seem to use multilateralism for our values and bilateralism for our interests. We were among the first and most


India's Foreign Policy persistent to raise decolonisation issues, apartheid in South Africa, and nuclear disarmament in the UN. In the early years of the UN India played a pivotal role in the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other fundamental human rights Covenants and Conventions. And India is a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. But our experience of the UN’s reactions to Pakistani aggression in Kashmir, the genocide in East Pakistan in 1971, and other cases taught us to rely on our own resources when it came to defending our core interests. 3. India has shown a willingness to use force for clearly defined political ends when the cause is just, once it is clear that diplomacy’s potential is exhausted, internally in Goa and Hyderabad and externally in 1971, in Sri Lanka and the Maldives at the request of their governments. 4. In the choice between the imperatives of domestic politics and the demands of external engagement we have normally struck a balance which has stood the test of time. Think of our international dealings on the Kashmir issue, or those with Sri Lanka on the Sri Lankan Tamil issue. 5. Others tell us that the articulation of our policies is normative, moralistic and academic, even in explaining acts of real politik. We have even been called ‘preachy’! This has not changed much over time and seems to be a continuing cultural trait. 3. The Uses and Limits of Power All strategic thinkers through the ages, whether Kautilya, Sun Tzu,

Machiavelli or others, have sought answers to similar questions: how to win without battle; how to deal with a stronger power; how to choose between the risks associated with any course of action (since every course of action in IR involves risks); and so on. And they have chosen to do so empirically not normatively. India has been very economical in its foreign entanglements but not engagements. We have so far resisted siren calls for us to do what others want us to, in the name of being "responsible” or "stepping up to the plate”. This shows an acute awareness on our part, but not others, of the extent and limits of India’s power and its potential uses, and a clear prioritisation between our interests and between our goals. My own feeling is that the key to understanding India’s foreign policy practice so far is the Indian understanding of the uses, limits and nature of power. But this is a proposition that must be tested and proven with some academic rigour by you scholars. What we practitioners can bring to the exercise is some experience and anecdotal evidence. 4. An Indian Theory Which brings me to the last issue that I would like to raise. If India’s practice and style of foreign policy is so recognisably and so uniquely Indian why is there not an Indian theory to explain it? One way of developing such a theory is to look back. Chinese scholars have done this for some time, like Yan Xuetong, reinterpreting and mining their own past to produce what they see as a Chinese theory of international relations. In India too some people have started this exercise. The IDSA has been sponsoring some truly

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valuable work on Kautilya and the Arthashastra. It is interesting in showing how central the state was to strategic thinking in India as early as the third century BC, long before other cultures stopped speaking of a mysterious God and his ways as central to strategy. This is extremely useful work, if nothing else to break the mental shackles of academic and linguistic conditioning. But it has its limits. The other way is to look at the present and forward. If India is to deal with the new issues of the twenty first century, it is essential that we further elaborate our own culture and tradition of strategic thought and build on it. To the extent that India’s situation and needs are unique, we need our own ways of looking at developments, and our own strategic vocabulary and doctrines. Fortunately for us, there is no isolationist streak in our strategic thought, and we have a rich tradition to draw on. Conclusion So there is plenty to be done to link our studies with our practice, to study ourselves and our own practice and experience, and to elaborate an Indian approach to IR studies for the twenty-first century. I would also conclude that the mere fact that we can set out such an agenda for ourselves suggests that there is a strong strategic culture at work in India. My apologies for raising more questions than I have answers. I do hope they serve the intended purpose of provoking a discussion and some work on these issues in the future. Source: Ministry of External Affairs, India

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Business Growth

Genpact, from India, Expands Operations in Brazil

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he Indian Company Genpact associated of India Brazil Chamber of Commerce - CCIAIB of business process outsourcing (BPO, its acronym in English), has announced the installation of a service center in Uberlândia (MG) to expand its capacity in Brazil. The investment of the unit was not revealed. The new center will have between 200 and 300 employees in the first

two years of operation. Genpact, which started operating in Brazil two years ago, also has a plant in São Paulo, with approximately 80 people. "The expectation is to grow strongly in Brazil. I imagine that in the long term, the center of Uberlândia can reach a thousand people, "said Nina Affonso, Vice President of Business to Latin America, General Manager of Genpact to Brazil and Member of the Advisory Body of CCIAIB. The company was established in 1997 as an internal service unit of General Electric (GE). Eight years later, began operating as an independent company, with

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

a focus on business process outsourcing. The service offered includes activities such as payroll processing, human resources management, accounts payable and tax management for companies. The company also offers consulting in the area of business management.

ease of access (for airport and highways) and tax benefits granted by the government of Minas Gerais.

The 700 global customers that the company currently serves only 130 have operations in Brazil, reason why Genpact settle in

The company expects to have a strong growth in the country from 2014. According to Nina, the BPO market could grow 10% annually over the next three years. The executive did not say what has been the rate of growth of Genpact in the country, but said the company has achieved growth

the country. "Brazilian law is very complex, each municipality develops legislation and a set of rates, you need to be in the country to offer the service," said Nina.

above the initially planned by the matrix. "Brazilian companies need to gain productivity and there are a lot of them prepared to outsource part of the operations," he said.

According to the executive, current customers will continue to be served by the center of São Paulo. The unit in Uberlândia is to new customers. In focus are multinationals with operations in Brazil or that have plans to settle in the country, as well as large national groups.

According to Gartner, the BPO market generated U.S.$ 4.8 billion in the country in 2012. For this year, the forecast is for growth of 5% to 8%.

Uberlândia was chosen due to criteria such as supply of skilled labor, presence of universities,

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In 2012, Genpact recorded an overall revenue growth of 18.8% to $ 1.9 billion, a decline of 3.3% in net profit to $ 178.2 million. Source: India-Brazil Chamber


Business Growth

Godrej Group Evaluates Acquisitions in Brazil

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di Godrej, the owner of one of the largest groups of consumer goods from India, has a project that calls “10/10": grow your business tenfold in ten years, which means raising revenues to U$ 33 billion in a decade. In an interview to Valor, the Indian industrialist, with a fortune estimated at U$ 9 billion and was appointed as the sixth richest man in India, said that to achieve your goal will accelerate expansion to other developing countries, through acquisitions.

a dozen subsidiaries. His family founded the company in 1897 and began to make money in 1920 with the production of soap-based vegetable oil instead of animal fat, which was a hit among Hindus vegetarians. Since then, Godrej Industries has become a conglomerate that employs 28,000 people, with businesses ranging from cosmetics, chemicals, washing machines, refrigerator, insecticides, industrial engineering, agribusiness (palm

of hair dye. He told that he uses almost exclusively its own products, which led one Indian newspaper calling him "billionaire middle class." He said that in his mansion in Mumbai, its furniture, locks and security safe came all from his factories. Godrej told that his fortune is around U$ 9 billion, which is more than the double of U$ 4 billion, that Forbes said he had in 2009, when he gave the first interview to the newspaper, on the sidelines

So he took an interest in investing in Brazil, one of the world's largest markets for cosmetics, one of its business areas. "We are in discussions with some companies in Brazil and hopefully at some point move to negotiations phase," he said. In 2009, Godrej had already decided to acquire a company in Brazil. He told that he did not get the "right opportunity" in the country and ended up buying companies in Argentina, Uruguay and Chile. "If we have an interest in these countries, imagine in Brazil," he said.

oil, animal feed, etc.), and be one of the largest real estate market.

of the Forum World Economy at Davos (Switzerland).

"But acquiring companies in Brazil is difficult; beyond the 'due diligence' has issues guarantees. And when buying a business in Brazil the past debts are transferred directly to the new owner, which does not occur in other countries, "he added.

It is estimated that about 500 million of Indians use its products every day. For him, the recipe is simple: good products with affordable prices. "Our product is good for hair dye and costs 10% of the equivalent of L'OrĂŠal," he explains.

But the entrepreneur is quick to say that everything is invested in the family conglomerate. And that one of his tasks is just lately seeking to raise capital to grow abroad.

The Godrej Group is one of India's best known, with four listed companies and more than

At age 70, black hair and always elegant, Godrej puts emphasis on conversation in the business

Mr. Adi Godrej, Chairman, Godrej Group

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Source: India-Brazil Chamber

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Feature Story

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Indian Railways Carry Passengers Equivalent to Almost the Population of Entire World

ndian Railway is today the topmost railway in the world as far as passenger numbers is concerned by transporting passengers equivalent to almost the population of the entire world every year, and with a loading close to 1010 million tonnes in 201213, has become the fourth member of the select billion tonne club after USA, China and Russia. Indian Railways is the 3rd largest Rail system in the world, with an asset base of 65187 Route kms, 9000 locomotives, 53000 passenger coaches and 2.3 lakh wagons. Indian Railway today runs in excess of 19000 trains per day including 12000 passengers and 7000 freight, to carry more than 8 billion passengers and over 1000 Million Tonnes of freight per annum through the efforts of a dedicated work force of almost 1.4 million employees. While the network size (Route Kilometer) of Indian Railways since 1950’s has grown by about 20%, the total track kilometrage has grown by almost 50% from 70,000 kms to 1,15,000 kms. This is because of the thrust on gauge

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

conversions under the Unigauge Policy of Indian railway and doubling of the existing lines for capacity augmentation. In the 12th Plan, Indian Railways have envisaged addition of 4000 km of new line, 5500 km of gauge conversion,7653 km of doubling and 6500 km of electrification to augment capacity for achieving higher throughput.. In addition to this, a giant leap will also be undertaken in the area of capacity building by commissioning the Eastern & Western Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFC) which would add 3338 Km of 32.5 axle load freight network. The tenders for civil construction of both corridors have been floated and award of contracts is in process. Land acquisition of almost 76% of the corridor has been completed and it is expected that the Dedicated

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Freight Corridors on these two important routes will be in place by 2017. Indian Railways is also planning four more dedicated freight corridors for which preliminary traffic survey works are being undertaken. Initiatives on the passenger operations include proliferation of 24 coach trains to cater to large volumes, improved turn round of passenger trains through rationalization of maintenance schedules and coaching operations, progressive introduction of crashworthy LHB coaches with anti climb features to enhance comfort and safety, induction of indigenously designed air-conditioned double decker coach trains for intercity travel and revamping and development of additional coaching terminals. Other passenger friendly initiatives include:


Feature Story • Identification of 115 Coach Maintenance Depots for intensive mechanized cleaning of coaches. This has already being implemented in 91 depots. • Introduction of On Board House Keeping Services (OBHS) on 538 trains including all Rajdhanis, Shatabdi and Durantos, against which the scheme has been implemented on 336 trains. • Nomination of Clean Train Stations for mechanized cleaning attention with disinfecting of toilets, doorways, aisles on selected identified trains. Of the 30 stations selected on Indian Railways, 29 are now functional. • Establishment of Mechanized Laundries at 55 locations (19 already functional) for ensuring supply of clean and hygienic bedrolls to passengers. • Introduction of Bio toilets as a pilot project in 504 units of nine rakes. Other passenger facilitation measures include: • Progressive switchover of e-ticketing for reserved accommodation for which a “Next Generation e-ticketing system” is under implementation with a capacity to support 7200 tickets per minute and 1.2 lakh simultaneous users as against the present capacity of 2000 tickets per minute and 40,000 simultaneous users. • Coverage of a large number of trains under Real Time Information System (RTIS) which will give pinpointed status of passenger train movements through enquiry/mobile phones. • Provision of free Wi-Fi facilities in several trains. • Provision of 179 escalators and 400 lifts at category A-1 and other important stations. • Proactive steps to curb malpractices in reserved ticketing including Tatkal Schemes by rationalizing of booking timings and production of identity proof in all reserved classes. Initiatives for capacity expansion and modernization have to be guided by the

concerns of safety. In pursuance of this objective Indian Railways had formulated a Corporate Safety Plan for period 2003-13. Under the plan, Indian Railways had targeted large scale track renewals, rehabilitation/rebuilding of bridges, mechanization of track maintenance, induction of improved technology in wagons/ coaches and upgradation of signaling systems . Over 9166 kms of Track Renewals and rehabilitation of 6218 bridges has been completed, and 55% of the total track has been brought under mechanized maintenance ,as against 35% in 200304. Progressive upgradation of signalling systems have contributed significantly to the safety environment, of which four major thrust areas are noteworthy. These initiatives have resulted in substantial reduction in the number of accidents over the years. Notwithstanding the fact that Indian Railway proposes to move towards a zero accident regime, it is a matter of satisfaction that even while the freight and passenger traffic has increased manifold, the safety record of Indian Railways as per the universally recognized accident assessment parameter of the number of accidents number of train accidents per million train kilometres show a significant decreasing trend from 0.44 in 2003-04 to 0.13 at the end of 2012-13, thereby surpassing the target of 0.17 stipulated under the Corporate Safety Plan, 2003-04 one year in advance. Encouraging State Governments/ Central PSUs to share the responsibility of building rail infrastructure in the states has also found good response. So far 10 states are sharing the cost of 35 new line , doubling and gauge conversion projects covering a length of 4761 kms with a total cost of almost Rs 33000 crore of which over Rs 5000 crore have

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been already spent. Likewise PSUs such as NMDC have come forward for investment in the cost of doubling of the 150 km long Jagdalpur-Kirandul rail link at a cost of Rs 827 crores, SECL and IRCON are sharing the cost of 2 projects aimed at substantial coal evacuation in the State of Chattisgarh along with the state costing Rs 4000 crores, and Coal India is also funding certain other rail connectivity projects worth Rs. 2000 crores for improving rail connectivity to its mines in Orissa and Jharkhand. The financial health of the Railways has been under strain for almost one and half decades. Since 1997-98 upto 2011-12, barring the three year period between 2005-06 to 200708, the Operating Ratio of Indian Railway has been above 90%. The situation in fact became alarming over the previous three years since 2009-10 with a sharp deterioration of Fund Balances to the progressive pressures of a steep rise in input costs, particularly those related to manpower and Pensionary commitments following implementation of the recommendations of the 6th Pay Commission. The resultant increase in working expenses without being backed by commensurate revenues necessitated cathartic measures. These included rationalization of freight and fare tariffs, introduction of a Fuel Adjustment Component to neutralize fuel/energy price increases, creation of a New Debt Service Fund, prioritization of essentially required projects, a thrust on alternative funding mechanisms for infrastructure creation and a strong fiscal discipline. These measures are expected to restore fund balances to Rs.12000 crore by 31.03.2014 and pave the way of achieving the ambitious target of Rs.30000 crore by the end of the 12th Five Year Plan. While Indian Railways is a complex organization there is no doubt that it has successfully delivered in last more than 160 years and will continue to do so. Source: Press Information Bureau (Inputs from the Ministry of Railways).

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India's Success Story

Reaching for the Skies - India’s Space Technology at its Best

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little known fact, India today has end to end capabilities in space; the country builds and launches its own heavy duty rockets; designs and fabricates some of the most sophisticated satellites. In a singular achievement, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission or Mangalyaan, an unmanned satellite, is today racing to rendezvous with the Red planet, making India part of a select club of 6 that have dared to undertake the over 680 million kilometre journey. In 2009, India’s maiden mission to the moon, Chandrayaan-1 brought back the first clinching evidence of the presence of water on the parched lunar surface. In more down to Earth missions, Indian satellites are also helping locate underground water aquifers for some of the poorest and marginal people of India. In a way, India’s space technology is helping everyone. With 10 satellites in orbit, India has the largest fleet of communication satellites in space among all countries in the AsiaPacific region. Flying as many as a dozen remote sensing satellites, New Delhi controls the largest fleet of civilian eyes in the skies in the entire world with some birds that can see objects as small as car from 800 kilometres in the sky with other satellites that have day and night viewing capability and can image any part of the world. Till recently, the United States Department of Agriculture was estimating crop yields on American farms using data sourced from India’s `ResourceSat’ satellite.

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

Pallava Bagla* India today invests just about $ 1 billion annually in the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) which is the custodian of all space technology for the country. It was set up in 1969 and today employs about 16,000 people. India launches its rockets from the high-tech space port of Sriharikota situated some 80 kilometres north of Chennai on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Some 40 rockets have been blasted off from the twin launch pads. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), a versatile workhorse rocket of ISRO has an enviable record of 24 consecutively successful launches. In its heaviest variant it weighs 320 tonnes at lift off or the about the same as the weight of a fully loaded 747 Boeing Jumbo jet, it stands about 44 meters high or as tall as a 15 storey building, it can carry 1.5 tons to a geosynchronous transfer orbit and about 3 tons to a low earth orbit. On November 5, 2013 the same rocket successfully blasted off carrying India’s maiden mission to Mars. The PSLV launcher has been commercially used by Italians, Israelis and the French to hoist their own satellites. In all India has launched a total of about 35 foreign satellites from its soil. Despite huge leaps, India’s space program had humble beginnings as it literally started from inside the Saint Mary Magdalene Church located in the tiny fishing village of Thumba on the coast of the Arabian Sea in the southern Indian state of Kerala. The first rocket the country launched was half a century ago on November 21, 1963 when a small American

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made Nike Apache rocket zoomed into the evening sky reaching a glorious 180 kilometres into the atmosphere. Vikram Sarabhai, a legendary Indian physicist is credited as the father of the Indian space program who said `there are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or the planets or manned spaceflight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally, and in the comity of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society.’ Living up to the ideals, ISRO today focuses on helping large sections of the Indian people get access to services supported through its nifty space technology and is considered a global leader in space based applications. Fishermen in many parts of India take the help of advisories facilitated by the space department that help them locate the best fishing zones in the high seas, India’s OceanSat satellite aids the poor fisher folk in this process. India’s forest zones are mapped using satellites and areas most vulnerable for deforestation are identified from the sky, hence in way helping in the conservation of wild biological resources. India’s weather monitoring satellites have helped save thousands of lives when a series of cyclones or hurricanes struck India’s coast by giving timely and accurate advance information on such disturbances.


India's Success Story India is known as the information technology capital of the world with a booming software industry and none of that would have been possible without the availability of communication satellites that could connect in real time Bangalore with Boston and all other such hubs. A flourishing domestic media ecosystem thrives and survives on satellite based linkages. India’s communication satellites have helped spawn more than 500 entertainment and private news television channels, in a way bolstering and supporting the world’s largest democracy with a population of 1.21 billion make the right decisions. The demand for space based transponders is so high that ISRO is unable to meet the requirements and is forced to hire space from foreign vendors.

IRNSS-1A, the first satellite of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System being developed by the country, was successfully launched by PSLV. When fully ready it will be complimentary to the American global positioning system that so many have become familiar with while using it on mobile devices.

In July 2013, ISRO made a foray in yet another field of satellite applications – satellite navigation.

Interplanetary leap

Not everything has been magical; ISRO is struggling to master the art of flying the Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), India’s heavier rocket that suffered back-to-back failures in 2010. This rocket can hoist 2.5 ton class of communication satellites and its modified variant could well be the preferred rocket for launching Indians into space using Indian rockets from Indian soil.

India’s sojourn to the Red planet

began on a balmy afternoon, when India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle or PSLV lifted off, blazing a trail in the sky. The dreams of a billion plus people are riding on a small 1340 kilogram satellite which is now heading for Mars. A space mission which aims for Mars, yet has national pride written all over it and a deep desire by India to become the first Asian nation to orbit Mars. The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) prefers to call it the Mars Orbiter Mission. It is an unmanned satellite that has been conceived, designed and fabricated by Indian scientists. The cost of the entire maiden Indian Mars mission is about $ 70 million and about 500 scientists had toiled to fabricate it from scratch in a record breaking 15 months. A low cost mission no doubt. K. Radhakrishnan, chairman of ISRO explains this

PSLV-C24 Successfully Launches India's Second Dedicated Navigation Satellite IRNSS-1B ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C24, successfully launched IRNSS-1B, the second satellite in the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) on April 04, 2014 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, Sriharikota. This is the twenty fifth consecutively successful mission of PSLV. The 'XL' configuration of PSLV was used for this mission. Previously, the same configuration of the vehicle was used five times to launch Chandrayaan-1, GSAT-12, RISAT-1, IRNSS-1A and Mars Orbiter Spacecraft. After the lift-off with the ignition of the first stage, the important flight events, namely, stage and strap-on ignitions, heat-shield separation, stage and strap-on separations and satellite injection took place exactly as planned. After a flight of about 19 minutes, IRNSS-1B Satellite, weighing 1432 kg, was injected to an elliptical orbit of 283 km X 20,630 km, which is very close to the intended orbit. After injection, the solar panels of IRNSS-1B were deployed automatically. ISRO's Master Control Facility (at Hassan, Karnataka) assumed the control of the satellite. In the coming days, five orbit manoeuvres will be conducted from Master Control Facility to position the satellite in its Geosynchronous Circular Orbit at 55 deg East longitude. IRNSS-1B is the second of the seven satellites constituting the space segment of the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System. IRNSS-1A, the first satellite of the constellation, was successfully launched by PSLV on July 02, 2013. IRNSS-1A is functioning satisfactorily from its designated geosynchronous orbital position. IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland. IRNSS would provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Services (SPS) - provided to all users - and Restricted Services (RS), provided only to authorised users. A number of ground stations responsible for the generation and transmission of navigation parameters, satellite control, satellite ranging and monitoring, etc., have been established in as many as 15 locations across the country. Two more satellites of this constellation, namely, IRNSS-1C and IRNSS-1D, are planned to be launched in the second half of 2014. The entire IRNSS constellation of seven satellites is planned to be completed by 2015-16.

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India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India's Success Story Indian Mars mission is really a `technology demonstrator’, essentially showcasing to the world that India can undertake `interplanetary leaps’. Till date only Japan, China, Russia, USA and the European Space Agency have even attempted space travel to Mars, of these only the latter three have succeeded. Since 1960, some 51 missions have been launched, about a third of which have ended in disaster, the most recent being the Chinese failure in 2011. If India does make it to Mars, it would really only be

India-Brazil Space Co-operation India and Brazil are pursuing cooperation in the field of space mainly on Earth Observation data sharing. ISRO-AEB-INPE have signed a cooperative programme for reception of data from RESOURCESAT-1 in December 2008 which establishes the terms and conditions under which ISRO will provide and INPE will receive, process, archive and distribute data from RESOURCESAT-1 satellite. Brazil is regularly receiving the remote sensing data from RESOURCESAT-1 for its mapping activities including forestry mapping since October 2009. Visit of ISRO Scientists to Brazil: Three Scientists were deputed by ISTRAC/ISRO to Brazil (Cuiaba & Alcantara) from October 2013 to December 2013 in connection with India’s Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft tracking activities. ISTRAC/ISRO had entered into an agreement with INPE, Brazil for providing Tracking services through their ground stations located in Cuiaba MT and Alcantara. While the Indian government is yet to clear a full- fledged human space flight program, yet it has sanctioned enough seed money so that Indian space technologists can master the technologies needed for orbiting an astronaut in space. As of now, the country has no plans of sending humans to the moon or to Mars. In an interesting recent development, the Indian and American space agencies are exploring the real possibility of jointly making a Radar satellite that would help study climate change and sea level rise.

India’s Maiden mission to Mars spectacularly lifted off from Sriharikota on the coast of the Bay of Bengal on November 5, 2013 using the indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its 25 th launch. (Photo Credit: ISRO)

the third individual nation in the world to have done it all on its own after USA and Russia. The European Space Agency has also reached Mars. So, is this a giant leap or a fool hardy step by a nation that still can’t provide electricity to 400 million of its population and where 600 million people still defecate in the open? It all depends on which side of the divide you belong. But nobody

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

doubts that the Mangalyaan is truly the cheapest interplanetary mission to be undertaken ever by any country and now it may well pave the way for low cost access to Mars. India is already planning its second visit to the moon with Chandrayaan-2 which will possibly land on the lunar surface India’s own rover; a satellite to study the Sun, called Aditya is being built and ISRO is already eyeing a visit to a passing asteroid.

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`We will not turn our backs to help India alleviate poverty and will fully help in the country’s development process’ says ISRO chairman K. Radhakrishnan, yet he asserts ‘this Mars mission is a historical necessity, after having helped find water on the moon, looking for signatures of life on Mars is a natural progression. India is now demonstrating its capability to undertake interplanetary travel with end-to-end technological prowess in space’. (*Pallava Bagla a globally recognized science writer is also author of the book `Destination Moon: India’s Quest for Moon, Mars and beyond’. Views expressed are personal. He can be reached at Pallava.bagla@gmail.com)


Feature Story

Emphasis on Experimental Science Helps India Reap Medals in International Maths and Science Olympiads

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t all started exactly 25 years ago. In last quarter of 1988, the National Board of Higher Mathematics (NBHM) initiated process to identify the first ever Indian team to participate in an International Olympiad. Although the Olympiad movement at the international level was much older, India had not ventured in that direction till then. From 1998 onwards, Indian participation in other Olympiads began in a phased manner. Physics (1998), Astronomy (1999), Chemistry (1999), Biology (2000), and Junior Science (2007) followed. The International Olympiads (IOs) present academic challenges of high difficulty level to young minds and thus represent celebration of the best in senior secondary and higher secondary levels. For every Olympiad, each country sends a contingent of fixed number of students as its representatives. These students

individually participate in various tests set by the host country and they are awarded medals based on their performance. Different Olympiads have slightly different formats for rounds and criteria for medals. However, basic tenets of the competition are same in all. Maximum number of students by each country also varies from four in Chemistry and Biolgy to six in Mathematics and Junior Science. The Olympiad Movement The Olympiad movement started in the year 1958 in Romania by a group of mathematicians in the form of International Mathematics Olympiad (IMO). A total of seven countries participated in the first IMO. Chemistry and Physics Olympiads began in late 60s while Biology Olympiad started in 1990. Rest of the Olympiads are much younger. Today, the Mathematics Olympiad is the biggest Olympiad

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with more than 100 countries participating in it every year. In other Olympiads the number of participating countries ranges from 40 to 80. India in the Olympiads In the Indian context, the focus of Olympiad activities has been on promoting excellence at the higher secondary stage. Emphasis on nurturing motivated sections of students is consistent with the basic tenet of the National Education Policy, that is, promotion of excellence in higher education for ensuring professional human resources for the country. Good performance of the Indian teams right from the beginning has acted as a catalyst and led to the consolidation of the national Olympiad programme. Availability of country-wide network of Indian Association of Physics Teachers (IAPT) helped in smooth launching of the Science Olympiad programme in the country. Involvement of teacher associations and various decisive funding departments such as the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) and Department of Space (DoS) on a consensual basis is the key factor that triggered the inception and growth of theprogramme.

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Feature Story The current national Olympiad programme involves three stages. The procedure is identical for all the science subjects and is slightly different for mathematics. The academic responsibility of the first stage in the science subjects lies with respective teacher organizations (namely, Indian Association of Physics Teachers (IAPT), Association of Chemistry Teachers (ACT) and Association of Teachers in Biological Sciences (ATBS)). The first level examination -called the National Standard Examinations - NSEs), conducted at around 900 centres across India in November

centres in late January or early February. It consists of problems of high difficulty level designed on the lines of those appearing at the International Olympiads. While the participation in the first test runs into tens of thousands, for example, the enrollment in the year 2012-13 was about 41000 in Physics, 35000 in Chemistry, 14000 in Biology, 12000 in Astronomy and 25000 in Junior science, the second level is limited to the top 300 students in each subject. For the mathematics Olympiad programme, the first stage consists

In the final selection, about 35 students in each subject are selected from the Indian National Olympiad examinations and are invited for Orientationcum-Selection Camps (OCSCs) held at HBCSE. During these camps, which last between two weeks and a month, students appear for several theoretical and experimental tests, leading to the selection of Indian teams for the final International Olympiads. Over 200 of the best students from across the nation are exposed to a high level experimental and theoretical training every year at the OCSCs. The teams, consisting

Team India in the Mathematical Olympiads 2013

is taken by students of both Class XI and XII level. The Junior Science Olympiad and the junior level of the Astronomy Olympiad are taken by students between classes VIII and X. The second stage -called Indian National Examinations: INOs is conducted by the HomiBhabha Centre for Science Education (HBCSE) at around 16 different

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

of the Regional Mathematical Olympiad (RMO) and is taken by a large number of students, around 30000 in 2012-13. This test is organised in a decentralised manner in 36 different regions in the country. The second stage, called the Indian National Mathematical Olympiad (INMO), is organized by HBCSE and is limited to the top 750 students from RMO.

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of 4 to 6 students, depending on the stream are selected at the end of the OCSCs and are trained for about two weeks just prior to their participation at the international events at the Pre-Departure Training camps at HBCSE. The special Olympiad laboratories in Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Junior Science and Physics at


Feature Story HBCSE design, develop and standardize new experiments on continual basis and these experiments are valuable inputs for the higher secondary and undergraduate science laboratories in the country. Every year, the Olympiad programme sends 30 students to represent India in the International Olympiads in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, Astronomy and Junior Science. It is worth mentioning that till date almost all participants have won medals including numerous gold medals. For the year 2012, 29 out of 30 won medals and this included 11 coveted gold medals. Based on aggregate scores, India is generally among the top ten nations in the Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Junior Science, and Physics Olympiads. In Astronomy as well as in Junior science it has managed to top medal tally in several years.

colleges. Several experimental kits developed at HBCSE have been distributed to a number of schools across India and also through the IAPT network. The success of the Olympiad programme can in some measure be estimated by the longterm effect it has on students participating in it. It has been observed that a large fraction of the students who go through the Olympiad experience continue their academic pursuits in the future. Many of these students take up professional courses immediately beyond the higher secondary stage, but more often than not they continue their careers through doctoral research in respective domains. Some of them even return to the pursuit of basic sciences and mathematics. Many of these students credit their

Earth Science Olympiad, International Astronomy Olympiad, International Olympiad in Informatics and Asian Physics Olympiad. These Olympiads are organized by separate government recognized agencies but most of them are also monitored by the National Steering Committee chaired by Centre Director of HBCSE. Each participating country is obliged to host IOs sometime or the other. India has hosted several IOs in the past e.g. Mathematics (1996), Chemistry (2001), Astronomy (2006) and Biology (2008). All these Olympiads were organized in the city of Mumbai. Now, India will be hosting the 10th International Junior Science Olympiad (IJSO) in Pune in December 2013. Around 45 countries are expected to

Emphasis on Experimental Science One of the unique aspects of the Olympiad programme is its significant emphasis on experimental science. Most talent nurture programmes or competitive examinations in the country focus purely on theoretical aspects of a subject, thereby creating a learning environment in which the student is hardly encouraged to hone his/her experimental skills. By exposing students to innovative and novel experiments and training them in the methods of experimental science, the Olympiad programme strives to address the problem of acute need of motivated bright students in research laboratories across the country. The Olympiad laboratories at HBCSE are equipped to the level of international standards, much beyond the typical facilities found in Indian schools and

Emphasis on Experimental Science

career choice to the exposure of research they got in the Olympiad programme. For example, Prof. Amol Dighe of TIFR who was awarded Shantiswarup Bhatnagar award in Physics this year, was member of first ever Indian team to International Mathematics Olympiad (1989). Apart from the above mentioned Olympiads, Government of India also recognizes and sends teams to few more IOs, namely International

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participate in the IJSO 2013. Each country will be represented by 6 students and about 3 team leaders. Thus we expect close to 250 students and 150 leaders participating in IJSO 2013. Olympiads are a good opportunity for the students of this age group, to interact with their international counterparts to understand the cultural and scientific environment of the different nations. Source: Press Information Bureau, India

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Cross Border Talent

Brazil's Acting Talent in Bollywood

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ollywood is no stranger to international divas wanting to work in Hindi films — from Australian Fearless Nadia in the '30s and '40s to British import Katrina Kaif in recent times. Now, it seems like women from the far-off land of Brazil are flocking in large numbers to Mumbai to try their luck in films. It all probably started with Bruna Abdullah's item number, Reham Kare in Cash (2007) followed by Giselli Monteiro's Punjabi girl act in Imtiaz Ali's hit, Love Aaj Kal (2009). We look at the other Brazilian beauties in Bollywood.

Manushulu and Cameraman Gangatho Rambabu. Now, Gabriela will be seen in Balwinder Singh Famous Ho Gaya alongside Mika Singh and Shaan. Bruna Abdullah She started off with an item number in Cash, followed by a small role and a special number in I Hate Luv Storys (2010) and Desi Boyz (2011) respectively.

Gabriela Bertante After modelling in Sao Paulo, Gabriela moved to India in 2010 and took part in a fashion week

Last year, she appeared in a Tamil film, Billa II. This year, Bruna will hit the big league with prominent roles in big ventures such as Indra Kumar's Grand Masti and the Salman Khan-starrer Mental.

hai' in the Amitabh Bachchan-Ben Kingsley starrer Teen Patti (2010). Then, in 2011, the Brazilian model landed a full-fledged role opposite Prateik in Rohan Sippy's Dum Maro Dum. Post that, she is yet to be spotted in any other Bollywood venture.

Giselli Monteiro

in Mumbai before she was roped in as a VJ on a popular youth channel. Last year, she appeared in back-to-back Tamil and Telugu films, Billa II, Devudu Chesina

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

She surprised audiences by playing a typical Punjabi girl in Imtiaz Ali's Love Aaj Kal, starring Saif Ali Khan and Deepika Padukone. Then, in 2011, she appeared in Always Kabhi Kabhi, which was produced by Shah Rukh Khan. Although she is busy endorsing a number of brands, Giselli is yet to sign many new films. Mariah Gomes

Nathalia Pinheiro

She made her B-town debut with a hit item song, 'Neeyat kharab

Also known as Nathalia Kaur, she was born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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Cross Border Talent

She won a calendar's model hunt contest in 2012 and appeared in it that year. Later, she made her film debut in the Kannada film, Dev Son Of Mudde Gowda, followed by an item number in Ram Gopal Varma's Amitabh Bachchan-Sanjay Dutt starrer Department (2012).

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Izabelle Leite The Brazilian model has just made her Hindi film debut with Raj Purohit's Sixteen. She will next be seen in Purani Jeans that will mark the debut of Rati Agnihotri's son Tanuj Virwani. Source: Hindustan Times


India in Brazil

Snapshots of Bilateral Cooperation Activities in Brazil during Oct 2013-April 2014

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

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India in Brazil

Gifting of books by the Embassy of India to University of state of Rio de Janeiro: Embassy of India in Brasilia in association with the Public Diplomacy Division of Ministry of External Affairs gifted books to the Indian Studies Program (PEIND) at University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), which aims at contributing to academic integration between India and Brazil. The books were presented by Hon´ble External Affairs Minister of India, Shri Salman Khurshid. During the event, Ambassador Shri Ashok Tomar said that “Both India and Brazil attach significant importance to education as a way to promote social and economic development and have a mutual interest

in strengthening the mobility economic relationship between both countries. In that context, we are working on initiatives for the exchange of visiting teachers and mutual attraction of young talents in the areas of common interest”. Seminar on "India-Brazil: a partnership for 21st Century”: Embassy of India in Brasilia in association with the FUNAG, a public foundation associated with the Brazilian Foreign Ministry, had organised a seminar on the topic “India and Brazil: a partnership for the XXI Century" in Brasilia. Ambassador of India, Shri Ashok Tomar and Ambassador Jose Vicente de Sa Pimentel, President of Funag made the opening remarks.

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Ambassador Maria Edileuza Fontenelle Reis, Under SecretaryGeneral in Brazilian Foreign Ministry and Ambassador Hardeep Singh Puri, former P.R. of India to U.N, spoke on the topic "Challenges and Opportunities of Global Governance: The Role of India and Brazil". Dr. Marcelo Cortes Neri, President of IPEA. & Prof. Abdul Nafey, Centre for Canadian, US and Latin American Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University spoke on “Challenges and Opportunities in the Strategic Partnership between India and Brazil". Prof. Renato Galvao Flores Jr, Fundaçao Getulio Vargas, and Prof. Aparajita Gangopadhyay, Professor and Associate Director, Centre for Latin American Studies,

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India in Brazil opportunity to institutions of both the countries to draw up plans for continuity of partnerships for the development in Ayurveda sector. The next step in the partnership would be to establish a MOU between the Government of Goais and Department of AYUSH. Ambassador Ashok Tomar called on the Governor of the State of Minas Gerais, Antonio Anastasia at the Liberty Palace in Belo Horizonte on 3 December This was the first official visit of the Ambassador Tomar to a Brazilian state since he assumed office as Indian Ambassador to Brazil. During the meeting, Governor Anastasia and Ambassador Tomar highlighted the strong economic, cultural and social cooperation between Minas Gerais and India. Minas Gerais is increasingly becoming a hub of Indian IT and pharmaceutical companies due to special incentives provided by the state government. Infosys has made Belo Horizonte its headquarters for Brazil. Brazil India Chamber of Commerce of Belo organised in partnership with Indian Embassy a business interaction with state authorities and businessmen interested in strengthening the cooperation. Ambassador Ashok Tomar called on the Governor of the State of Parana, Beto Richa in Curitiba on 16 December

University of Goa deliberated on “Brazil-India Relations in the XXI Century: Historical ties of the Convergence�. The speakers also discussed about the role of these two countries on the challenges and opportunities of global governance, strategic partnership and the evolution of the relationship between Brazil and India.

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

International Congress on Ayurveda held in Goiana Brazil: The International Congress on Ayurveda was organised in the State of Goias in Brazil from 12 to 14 November 2013. The event was co-sponsored by Department of AYUSH, Ministry of health and family welfare, Government of India and State government of Goias. The congress gave an

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During the meeting, Governor Richa and Ambassador Tomar discussed possible cooperation between the State of Parana and India. Wipro has made Curitiba its headquarters for Brazil and some other Latin American countries. A business meeting at the State Industry Federation was also organised allowing an opportunity for the businessmen of two sides to interact.


Indian Embassy Family in Brasilia at the Flag hoisting Ceremony on 26th January 2014 at the new Embassy Premises The Reception for the 65th Republic Day was hosted by Ambassador Mr. Ashok Tomar on 27th January, 2014 in Brasilia which was very well attended. Senior officials from Brazilian Foreign Ministry and other Ministries and local government, diplomats and others attended the event.

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India -bra zil in Focus 2014


India in Brazil On 31 January, Ambassador visited the regional offices of Indian companies Glenmark and TCS in Sao Paulo. During the visit to Glenmark, Ambassador was taken on a tour of the production facilities. Ambassador discussed the operations and presence of Glenmark in Brazil with senior executives of the company. On a similar visit to TCS, the same day, Ambassador was taken on a tour of the TCS BPO Centre. Later in the day Ambassador had also discussions in Sao Paulo with senior executives of Wipro.

On 2 February, Ambassador attended the Birth Anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh organized by Shri Guru Nanak Dev Sabha. The event was organized at India Cultural Centre, Sao Paulo. During the event, it was also announced that the Sikh community in Sao Paulo would soon be establishing a Gurdwara in that city.

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

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India in Brazil

On 6 February, Ambassador called on Mr. Jose Raimundo Braga Coelho, President of the Brazilian Space Agency in Brasilia and discussed matters of mutual interest and cooperation. On 9 February, Indian Navy sail boat INS Mhadei set sail from Rio after participating in the ‘Cape to Rio’ international sailing race. This sail boat had participated in this race that is held every three years. Ambassador and some members of the Indian community in Rio met the crew. Ambassador visited Belo Horizonte from 19-21 February to attend the First International Symposium of Brazil-India Studies organised by the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG). Ambassador and Rector of the University unveiled a plaque to commemorate the establishment of the Centre for Indian Studies by UFMG. In his speech at the inaugural address, Ambassador congratulated UFMG at this initiative, and offered full cooperation to the new Centre. Cultural Week of India in Minas Gerais: The Cultural Center of Bank of Brazil (CCBB) hosts between 16 and 22 March the Cultural Week of India in Belo Horizonte, an event that brings together dance, film, food and workshops. Conducted with the support of the Embassy of India, Maharaja Restaurant and Indian Chamber of Commerce in Belo Horizontel, the idea of the event is to promote Indian culture in Minas Gerais.

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India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Opening ceremony of the I Semana Cultural da Índia em Belo Horizonte Mr. Kamal Jit Singh – Director of India Cultural Centre in São Paulo, Honorary CG in Belo Horizonte Élson de Barros Gomes Jr., Mrs. Brenna Correia, Mrs. Andreia Prior – dancer, Ambassador Ashok Tomar, Mrs. Silvana Duarte – dancer, Ms. Iara Ananda – dancer, Mr. Leonardo Ananda Gomes Cultural evening on India in Brasilia: On March 20 a cultural evening “Sarao Chato” was organized in Brasilia with the cooperation of Foundation Assis Chateaubriand and Petrobras. The evening showed Indian classical and contemporary dances, Indian music and the cultural dances of State of Amazonas. Cultural evening on India in Sao Paulo: A cultural week of India was celebrated in Paineiras Club in Sao Paulo in which an exhibition of photographs of India by Brazilian photographer Andrea Ribeiro and Indian musical instruments provided by Indian Cultural Centre, Sao Paulo was made during 25-30 March and a movie show “Taare Zameen Par” was organised on 29th March.

Raj Srivastava, Deputy Chief of Mission, speaking at the event in Paineiras Club, Sao Paulo

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

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Seminar on India in Paraiba: A two day Seminar on Indian religion and philosophy was organised by the Federal University of Paraiba with the cooperation of Embassy of India in Brasilia which was very well attended by the academicians as well as local government officials. Ambassador Tomar also


participated in the event and handed over a set of 60 books on Indian and oriental philosophy which were procured with the kind support of the Public Diplomacy Division of MEA. A cultural evening with Brazilian dancers of Indian classical dances was also organised. Mr. Ashok Tomar and the Rector of UFPB, Margareth Diniz, changing presents (after the donation of the books).

Seminar on India Brazil Cooperation – Dynamics and Perspectives: One full day Seminar was organized on 9th April 2014 by the India Study Programme of the State University of Rio de Janeiro with the participation of many Brazilian experts on the issue and Ambassador Ashok Tomar. Ms. Adriana Erthal Abdenur of BRICS Policy Centre spoke on “India Brazil Relations: New Settings in the Post Cold War”. The Coordinator of the programme Prof. Edgard Leite spoke on “Horizons of IndiaBrazil Academic Integration”, Prof. Leane Cornet Naidin and Mr. Lernardo Ananda Gomes spoke on India-Brazil commercial

and trade relations. The Seminar also had a debate on the multiple issues of India-Brazil relations with the panel made of Mr.

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Kai Kenkel, Ambassador Ashok Tomar and Prof. Renato Flores of FGV.

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Business Growth

Embraer Executive Jets Signs MoU with Air Works for Legacy 500 and Legacy 450 Support in India

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yderabad, India, 12 March 2014 – Embraer Executive Jets has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Air Works Pvt Ltd to provide full maintenance support to the Legacy 500 and Legacy 450 customers in India. This agreement comes ahead of the Legacy 500 midsize jet’s entry into service in the first half of 2014. The Legacy

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

450 mid-light jet’s certification is expected a year later. This is the second MoU signed to support the Legacy 500 in India. “This MoU with Air Works is yet another step in our preparation to fully support Legacy 500 and Legacy 450 customers upon delivery of their aircraft,” said Edson Carlos Mallaco, Vice

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President Customer Support and Services, Embraer Executive Jets. “India is one of the countries with a fleet of the complete portfolio of Embraer Executive Jets in operation, which we support with a network of Embraer authorized service centers strategically located across the nation, and field support representatives to


Business Growth swiftly respond to our customers’ needs.” "We have a long standing r el at i o n s h i p w i t h E m br aer Executive Jets and have been providing support to their customers since 2010," said Vivek N. Gour, Managing Director & CEO of Air Works Pvt Ltd. "We are proud to be able to provide support for their latest Legacy 500 and Legacy 450 aircraft. This is in addition to the support we currently provide for owners and operators of the Phenom 100, Phenom 300, and the line

Embraer Executive Jets Delivers Phenom 300 to India’s Joy Jets Singapore, January 10, 2014 – Embraer Executive Jets delivered a Phenom 300 to India’s Joy Jets, a luxury air charter company (subsidiary of Joyalukkas Group) that currently operates a Phenom 100. India now has the complete portfolio of Embraer Executive Jets in operation, which also comprises the super midsize Legacy 600 and large Legacy 650 as well as the ultralarge Lineage 1000E. Two new clean-sheet design jets, the Legacy 500 midsize and Legacy 450 mid-light, are currently under development and scheduled to enter into service in 2014 and 2015, respectively. “When I was introduced to the Embraer Phenom 100,

maintenance support for the Legacy 600 and Legacy 650 in India." The multiple Embraer authorized service centers in India are also supported by the company’s customer support team in Singapore, with access to spare parts inventory in Bangalore, Singapore, and Australia. A 24hour customer contact center at the company’s headquarters in São José dos Campos, Brazil, complements the global service center network of Embraer Executive Jets. Embraer S.A. is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial jets up to 130 seats, and one of Brazil’s leading exporters. Embraer’s headquarters are located in São José dos Campos, São Paulo.

I was impressed by the convenience and reliability of the aircraft and it gave me an idea of starting the first luxury air-charter business in Kerala,” said Mr. Joy Alukkas, Chairman of Joyalukkas Group. “Joy Jets was launched with the primary intention of offering an option to time pressed entrepreneurs and business executives, like me, to travel at their own time and convenience. The response we have received for Joy Jets is phenomenal hence we have now decided to add the second aircraft to our fleet. For this I felt that the Phenom 300 would suit the best because other than its reliability and comfort, it can carry more people and fly non-stop for a longer period. Embraer is one of the best aircraft manufacturers in the world so I feel they best suit the objectives of Joy Jets, that is to provide safe, reliable, comfortable and convenient air travel to discerning individuals.” Joy Jets is a luxury flight service provider headquartered in Kochi, India, from where the Phenom 300 can fly non-stop with six occupants to destinations across India, to Dubai, Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok or Seychelles. “Every aircraft in our portfolio, from the entry-level Phenom 100 to the ultra-large Lineage 1000E, is designed to suit the particular needs of the Indian market, be it for transporting personnel to remote locations or for business travels to the Middle East, Europe, the Americas or other parts of Asia,” said José Eduardo Costas, Vice President Sales and Marketing – Asia, Embraer Executive Jets. “Our customers value the sleek design of our aircraft, as well as the high performance reliability, low operating costs, and ease of maintenance.”

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India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Feature Story

Renewable Energy The Way Forward By Ashok Handoo

wind energy. Biomass accounts for 14%, small hydro- power projects contribute 13% and solar energy 5%. Other sources contribute about 3%. This imbalance needs to be corrected on many counts, on top being the environmental concerns. When the world is seriously concerned about global warming, non-conventional sources of energy need to be exploited to the maximum extent. And that is precisely what India is trying to do. Besides, the country imports 70 % of oil which is a big drain on its foreign exchange reserves.

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he Government recently announced an ambitious plan to produce more electricity from renewable sources as a part of its target to add 10 Giga watts of solar energy by 2017 and 20 Giga watts by 2022. The steps being taken in this direction include setting up of an ultra-mega green Solar Power Project in Rajasthan near Sambhar Lake. The project will be the first of this scale in the world and will thus turn to be a model for future projects. With the completion of the first phase of Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission by surpassing the target, the country is set to embark on its second phase. In the first phase 1685 MW of solar energy was generated against the target of 1100 MW. In the second phase, areas for focus

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

have been identified in Rajasthan, Kargil and Ladakh. Generation of solar energy has come a long way since we embarked on the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar mission in 2010. Today, we generate 1.8 GW of electricity from solar energy which is going to be multiplied in the years to come. Despite this, solar energy forms but only a small fraction of power generation in the country. In fact the entire sector of renewable energy, which includes small hydro- electric projects, contributes only 12 % to the national power kitty; about 17% comes from hydro- power and about 2% from nuclear power. The bulk 70% comes from coal and gas based plants. Sixty-five percent of power from renewable sources comes from

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The total installed capacity of power generation in the country now stands at just over 223 GW, far less than the requirement. The demand for power is estimated to increase by 16 GW a year at least until 2020. In this situation, every source of energy needs to be tapped to meet the needs of a growing economy. The 12th plan provides for increasing the capacity generation by 72 GW in thermal sector, 11 GW in hydro sector and over 5 GW in nuclear sector. In physical terms renewable sources of energy contribute 29 GW of electricity. The country is set to double this generation to 55 GW by 2017. Solar energy generation alone will increase to 20 GW during this period under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar mission. Even though India has less than global average of wind speed,


Feature Story

wind energy has been the most successful renewable source of energy in the country. Bulk of it comes from just five states, with Tamil Nadu as the leader. An encouraging factor is that off shore wind energy is becoming cost competitive with the energy generated from fossil fuels. It therefore becomes an attractive option for electricity generation. Biomass is another area which holds a good promise. With over 60 % of India’s population dependent on agriculture, the area throws up opportunities for power generation. No wonder major projects in this field are coming up in different states particularly in Punjab. The estimated power generation capacity in this area is put at 18000 MW. In Britain and some other European countries too, coal-fired plants are converting to bio mass. Proper exploitation of this field needs huge investments for building storage capacity and plants, the way countries like Finland and Sweden have done. In Finland 20 % of power generation and in Sweden 16% of power supply come from

biomass. With about 200 tons of agricultural waste going unused in India, the potential of harnessing this area is substantial. Though per capita greenhouse gas emissions in India are very low, it has added about 2000 clean power projects in the last decade or so. The number of greenhouse buildings where solar and wind energy mechanisms and water harvesting etc. are in place has reached 2204. The number is planned to reach 1 lakh markan ambitious target indeed- by 2025. The Asian Development Bank has just announced that it will provide $500 million to build a power transmission system to carry clean electricity from wind and solar power projects in Rajasthan to the state and the National grid. Since setting up of transmission lines to evacuate power from the generating stations is a massive challenge, it will go a long way in dealing with the problem. Today, India is in a position to help other countries also. It has offered line of credit and expertise

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to Cuba to develop renewable energy projects to enable it to reduce its dependence on oil imports. NTPC is exporting 250 MW of electricity to Bangladesh at a fixed tariff. India has also invested in power projects in Bhutan. In short, keeping in view the challenges of power shortage and increasing demand in developing countries and environmental challenges across the world, India as also the rest of the world, needs to pay adequate attention to power generation through nonconventional sources. According to one estimate India has the potential to generate 150 GW of power through renewable sources alone- thanks to plenty of sunshine for most part of the year and a good wind velocity in many parts of the country. But it needs huge investment to realise it. The rich countries must come forward to help developing nations to promote clean power generation. India on its part is well on the march. The author is a Freelance Writer Source: Press Information Bureau, India

India -bra zil in Focus 2014


Indian Investment

Aiming to be a Leading Go-to Restaurant Search Service in Brazil

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bout a year and a half ago, we decided to take the plunge into the international market. It had been looking increasingly imminent for some time before that, but in July of 2012, it happened at last – Zomato went global. Twenty months on, we are in 41 cities across 12 countries, and this is just the beginning. Zomato is a weband mobile-based restaurant search service that was started by Deepinder Goyal and Pankaj Chaddah in 2008, and after gaining a strong foothold in the Indian market, we have begun work on doing the same worldwide. We realised long ago that a rock-solid content base is essential to attract and retain consumers, and it is something that has formed the backbone of our operational model. Combining this with a strong revenue model and backing it up with a fantastic team is what has brought us this far. Zomato was created with the aim of helping people find great places to eat around them, and since day one, this has been the primary focus. We currently list over 221.000 restaurants globally, with detailed information such as menus, pictures, contact details, maps, ratings, and reviews. We are always working to make the Zomato experience as smooth and easy for our users as possible. They are able to rate and review restaurants, and take pictures and upload them through the mobile app. Geo-mapped coordinates make finding the exact location of a restaurant a breeze using smartphones.

we have received from the users, we are certain that it is the right product for this market. The dining culture is rich and vibrant, and the people are very tech-savvy, making Brazil a very promising market. We already have a sizeable local team, and are in the process of growing it further. There’s nothing to beat local knowledge of the restaurant industry, which will go a long way in ensuring smoother functioning of the service in the long term. At the end of the day, the target Director-Americas, with Brazil is the same as withZomato every new global market we enter – to Albinder is Director of the Americas at Zom become the go-to restaurant search Prior toinjoining Zomato, Albinder headed th service the country.

ALBINDER DHINDS ALBINDER DHINDSA Director-Americas, Zomato

With the launch of our São Paulo section in November, Zomato became the city’s most comprehensive online restaurant discovery service with more than 15.000 restaurants listed, a number we are constantly revising upward. Zomato São Paulo already sees 150.000 monthly visitors. We subsequently launched in Brazilia, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, and Porto Alegre, bringing our restaurant coverage in Brazil to 25.000. We aim to be present in all 12 of the host cities for the football World Cup in June, and are working towards that. Brazil provides an excellent business opportunity for us, and we have earmarked US$5 million for our expansion in the country. Users and the restaurant industry have been very receptive to Zomato, and given the feedback

simulation team at Cambridge Systematics In the last year, we New York andfinancial San Francisco. In that role, h expanded our services to include several successful projects in the United St 23 new cities across 7 countries. and Canada. In addition, worked briefly So far, the response from he almost Brazil and Chile as an associate every market that we’ve expanded with UBS to has been Bank. encouraging, and we Investment

intend to continue in that vein. Our UAE business in March Albinder grewbroke up ineven Patiala, India. He is a 2013, having launched in September graduate of the Indian Institute of Technolo 2012. It goes without saying that Delhi andtoreceived his M.B.A from Columbi we’d like achieve similar growth Business School in New York. across the board in all our global locations. We have 22 countries in the pipeline for expansion over the next two years, including moves into North America and Europe, as well as growing further in Southeast Asia. The funding of $37m that we received from Sequoia Capital and Info Edge has given us the muscle we needed to meet our expansion goals. 2014 promises to be a great year for us, and we can’t wait to get going.

Zomato News On the 9th of April 2014, Zomato rolled out a completely revamped version of its web and mobile product. Zomato has now added a new, social layer to restaurant search - personalized recommendations from people whose opinions you choose to value. Zomato now enables users to create their own network of foodies allowing users to give and get recommendations, follow one another and get updates on their FoodFeed. Zomato now offers a more social and interactive restaurant discovery experience. Zomato also added another country to its growing list of international locations this month, with the launch of a section for Portugal. Users will now be able to choose from over 9500 dining options in the city. The website and mobile apps are available in Portuguese as well as English.

India-B r a z il in F o c u s 2014

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India brazil in focus 2014 f  

Indian Embassy in Brasilia releases its 2014 edition of Annual Publication