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GNCTR EDITION

COD, CAMPING AND CANOES TOBOGGANS

INFO ABOUT GNCTR NUMBER: 43 FEBRUARY 2017

DEADLIEST

B AT C H

NG I H S I F S G N I T BR A H T E N I Z A AG ER H T E THE ONLY M G O T E T E AND CONCR

THIS IS GONNA BE FLY

GREAT NORTHERN CONCRETE TOBOGGAN COMPETITION 2017

SCORE BIG THIS YEAR!!!

PACKED FULL OF BIG ‘UNS AND HOW TO CATCH ‘EM

THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO

JIGS & JIGGING

NO BITES? NO PROBLEM! WE’LL TELL YOU WHAT YOU’RE DOING WRONG

70

HOT SPRING BAIT TRICKS

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 1


THERE’S NO DE-BAIT, OUR CONCRETE REALLY IS THE GOT SLUMP? DEADLIEST BATCH*** NOPE, IT’S SCC! ***WE HAVE ENSURED THE SAFETY OF OUR SLED & NO INURIES WILL OCCUR IN OUR TOBOGGAN DUE TO THE DEADLINESS OF OUR PUNS.

4 CONTENT Ski Design

4

Mix Design

5

Breaking and Superstructure

8

Steering

2 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER

11

5-7


EVEN AT SEA YOU STILL NEED PPE A MESSAGE FROM THE CONCRETE FISHERMEN’S UNION

COD ALMIGHTY

YOU WON’T FIND CARP IN OUR MIX

21-24

5-7

Only the latest fishing gear brings all the bass to the yard. You better get suited up in this seasns rubber duck yellow today, only at Bass Bro Shops.

Sally sells seashell by the seashore and we put them in our mix for sustainable aggregate.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 3


1.0 IMAGES TAKEN BY DAVIE JONES

TEXT WRITTEN BYJOSHUA REDMOND

SKI & MIX DESIGN

-SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETEDoing a self compacting concrete mix for the first time was a challenge. Focusing on the spread and segregation were the primary goals. By striking a balance of sustainability and cost led to settling on a mix that was able to minimize the w/cm ratio and thus maximize the strength.

4 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER


SKI DESIGN Last year’s skis had a several performance issues that UBC Concrete Toboggan wanted to address: Unintentional drifting Poor steering input

This year’s skis have 90 degree edges to prevent unintentional drifting. The skis lengths have been set to 450mm for the front and 800mm-1000mm for the back allowing for more pressure on the front skis and for better steering input. The wood and concrete have been attached by bolts to create a thermal expansion joint between the two materials. Bolts also allow for the wood to be detached at the end of the life cycle allowing for responsible disposal.

Concrete and wood thermal expansion An inability to responsibly dispose of materials

REINFORCEMENT The reinforcement for the concrete was solely from macro polypropylene fibres last year. The goal for this year is to improve upon the following properties: Ski strength resilience Reliability when de-casting 20 gauge 316 stainless steel was used as reinforcement in the concrete. The corrosion protection was necessary as UBC is surrounded by ocean resulting in chlorides being very available. The skis were also cured in a curing room that provide constant moisture resulting in accelerated rusting. Typically corrosion protection is provided by concrete cover, however due to the thickness of the skis it was not possible to provide an adequate concrete cover making corrosion protecting necessary. Sheet metal was chosen as it can be easily bent and worked, which allowed us to build a custom T-shape. The shape of the reinforcement allowed us to optimise material use and provide as much strength as possible. As any tension due to bending would be located on the bottom of the skis, the flange was located towards the bottom maximizing the efficiency of the shape while the web could then be used to suspend the reinforcement during casting.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 5


CONCRETE MIX DESIGN Achieving a balance of economic, sustainable and a highly workable concrete mix was the design goal for this year’s concrete mix. UBC Concrete Toboggan developed a self compacting concrete (SSC) mix that could accommodate the reinforcement.

CEMENTITIOUS AGGREGATE MATERIALS

To improve sustainability, the total cemetitious material mass was limited to a low 500kg/m3 where typical SCC mixes will have 600+ kg/m3. The new Portland cement was limited to 30% by mass of the cementitious materials to reduce the CO2 footprint. The remaining 70% was Lafarge NewCem Plus which is a 50/50 mix of Centralia Type F fly ash and

By using no larger than 20mm diameter aggregate, the water to cementitious materials ratio (w/cm) was kept low ranging between 0.32 to 0.38. The resulting spread ranged between 450-750mm with the design target being 600mm-650mm. Workability properties of the fine and coarse aggregates was key to minimizing the w/cm ratio which increased the concrete strength. The final batch found a balance of seashells, 5mm birdseye, and concrete sand that minimized workability losses while also being economically feasible. While 4-8mm expanded glass improved workability, it is susceptible to segregation. To make the mix more robust,

An organics test (A27.2.7) was done on the fine portion of crushed shells. The limit of an acceptable amount of organics as defined by the CSA is if the solution turns yellow.

ground granulated blast furnace slag, where the slag allowed the concrete to set and cure at a normal rate.

consistent and replicable the 4-8mm expanded glass was excluded from the final mix design. The seashells were sieved to remove the fines portion from the shells to ensure a consistent ratio of coarse to fines ratio. Workability impacts of the unconventional aggregates relative the 5mm Birdseye and blended sand are on the following page.

6 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER


4-8mm (PORAVER) EXPANDED GLASS High Buoyancy Workability Result: Increase 0.10-0.25 (PORAVER) EXPANDED GLASS Extremely high surface area Workability Result: Large Decrease 15mm (FANNY BAY OYSTERS) CRUSHED SEASHELLS More surface area Workability Result: Slight Decrease RECYCLED CONCRETE SAND Extremely similiar to baseline Workability Result: No Change

SEASHELLS Fanny Bay Oysters provided UBC Concrete Toboggan with 20mm crushed shells that have been used in the final mix as a coarse aggregate. Seashell waste from the oyster farming is currently only used for fertilizing an oyster field; otherwise it ends up in landfills. By utilising them in the concrete mix UBC Concrete Toboggan are able to alleviate landfills while reducing costs and CO2 emissions by using another industries waste product. The biggest concern with using them in concrete is a high organics and salt content; however, the shells are rinsed during the disposal process at the shelling facility. An organics test (A27.2.7) was done on the fines portion of crushed shells as an indicator of whether the organics content of the shells was out of the range of the CSA standard. The limit of an acceptable amount of organics is if the solution turns yellow. Organics on the shells were on the upper limit; however, additional cleaning measures could be taken to clean the shell waste if necessary.

NONPOTABLE WATER To improve our sustainability, we used treated secondary effluent which while unsuitable for human consumption can be used effectively in concrete.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 7


2.0 SUPERSTRUCTURE & BRAKES FISH ARE BRAKE SYSTEM FRIENDS BY DANIEL ADRIA & HARRY LIU

The core design of the brakes is to use the weight of the roll cage and riders to engage spikes in the snow, as UBC has identified the gravitational potential of the riders to be the simplest source of energy. The back-ski supports are hinged to allow the back skis to slide out and away, lowering the back and engaging the spikes. To ensure the supports are controlled at all times, cables and springs are fixed to a central bar attached to both skis.

SCHEMATIC - BEFORE RELEASE

SCHEMATIC - AFTER RELEASE

8 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER

& FOOD

N e e d t o q u i c k l y r e l e a s e a c a b l e u n d e r t e n s i o n ? w h e t h e r i t s y o u r f i s h i n g l i n e o r b r a k i n g s y s t e m s o n r i d i c u l o u s m e t h o d s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n s n o w y c l i m a t e s ,

R o n s t a n

s n a p

s h a c k l e s r e l e a s e p e r f e c t l y , e v e r y t i m e .


LEGEND A A1 A2 B C D -

ACTIVATION CABLE - 2.0m PULLEY, TIED TO FRAME WITH 1/4” POLYESTER ROPE QUICK RELEASE, BOLTED TO PLATE WITH 3/8X1” BOLT SPRING CABLE - 400mm LONG, 0.85 N/mm SPRING COEFFICIENT FORWARD LIMITER - 2.0m CROSSBAR

The following are the major components of the brakes:

A

Activation Cable

B

Spring Cable (x2)

C

Forward Limiter

PLAN - CABLES

The main cable that allows the hinges to rotate from their starting position. It is operated by a quick-release shackle (A2), which UBC has found to be effective in the past, and is held in correct orientation with a pulley (A1).

There are two springs that pull over 400 N backwards on the skis, to ensure the skis slide back after activation.

This cable prevents the skis from sliding forward, and is in tension during the race. It acts opposite to the activation cable, ensuring the skis are stable until activation.

PROFILE - CABLES

BRAKE SPIKES The spikes have been fixed to a plate, as attaching directly to a member would shear the member at maximum velocity. The plate allows the moment to distribute across several members, as well as provide convenient connection points for the cables. The middle spike is larger and longer, so when the brakes are activated, it ensures the roll cage is recentered and prevents roll-over.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 9


CALCULATIONS & RESULTS VARIABLE

DESCRIPTION

M

Mass, 500 kg (350 lbs sled + 5x150 lbs riders)

ac

Deceleration from collision event, determined to be 15 Gs or 150 m/s2 (or slightly below threshold for internal injury due to decel.)

ab

Deceleration from braking, determined to be 4 Gs, or 20 m/s2 (similar to what lugers or high performance vehicles experience during braking)

Fc

Impact force for collision event, 75 kN

Fb

Force for braking, 20 kN

FEA Summary (see Head-on and Roll Over diagrams below) IMPACT CASE

MAX AXIAL STRESS [MPA]

MAX DEFLECTION [MM]

FOS [MAX STRESS/YIELD STRENGTH]

Head on Side Impact 1 Side Impact 2 Roll Over Pitch roll

88 57 148 56 137

7 1 2 27 17

3.1 4.8 1.9 4.9 2.0

Component Loads Summary APPLIED LOAD (KN)

RESISTANCE (KN)

FOS

Spike System

20

24

1.2

Cables

0.67

3.3

4.9

Quick Release

0.67

5.5

8.3

ROLL OVER IMPACT

HEAD ON IMPACT

COMPONENT

Axial Stress

Deflection

Diagram (MPa)

(x15)

Axial Stress

Deflection

Diagram (MPa)

(To Scale)

10 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER


3.0

STEERING ANNA ERIKSSON & LUTZ MARSDON This years main improvement was the integration of a rack and pinion mechanism into the steering system. We used two gears with a gear rack to transfer the rotational movement of the steering wheel into the linear movement of the skis. Implementing this system involved addressing two main challenges: selecting the appropriate gear diameter and designing a tight tolerance of all members. This design concept allowed for the driver to maintain better steering control. Selecting the appropriate gear diameter involved two factors: what is a safe amount of degrees for the driver to turn the steering wheel and what is a safe maximum angle that the skis should turn. With these constraints, we designed a system that would translate 120 degree turn of the wheel, where the driver wouldn’t have to let of the wheel, into 30 degree pivot of the skies. Through our calculations a 3 inch diameter was able to satisfy these needs. The second challenge that we had to address with implementing the rack and pinion system was to constrain all the members of the system. In order to allow for an efficient translation of movement through the rack and pinion, while ensuring that the teeth of the gears didn’t slip, we designed all the members of the steering system to be constrained in 3 dimensions. After addressing these main concerns, our design concept could be appropriately constructed.

Steering Limiter In consideration of steering control and rider safety, we incorporated a simple but effective steering limiter onto the gear rack. We took into account a maximum steering angle that would be necessary during the race, as well as the need for a connection to the skis. We implemented a connection to the tie rods on either end of the rack that would prevent a steering angle of greater than 30 degrees.

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 11


A-ARMS Another goal in this year’s design was an improved A-arm design that would allow for simpler manufacturing. The Table below, compares the manufacturing process and final design of the current and previous A-Arms.

Figure 1: Final design of current (2017) A-Arms.

Figure 3: Last years (2016) A-Arms; final design. Figure 4: Part of manufacturing process for last years (2016) A-Arm design. A jig was constructed that could secure the a-arms for consistent welding. Each of the 4 A-Arms, required 4 double angles of tubing to be welded. This meticulous process made consistency difficult to maintain.

12 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER

Figure 2: Manufacturing Process of A-Arms. A tube bender was used to allow for consistent curvature of each A-arm. We reduced the welding on each A-arm by half.


THE BEST

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If you didn’t take a picture of your trout, did you really catch it? Built-in USB cable for easy file transfer

The high-speed, built-in USB 2.0 cable allows for easy connection to your computer for charging or file transfer without having to remember separate cables. It also fits conveniently into the hand strap so it’s out of the way until you need it. Direct Copy to external HDD without PC

Store your memories in a whole new way with the ability to copy videos from your camcorder directly to an external hard disk drive (sold separately).

CANON-BALL REBEL TCi Highlight Playback creates movies with transitions

Why spend hours editing your movies when you can let your camcorder do it for you? Highlight Playback identifies and compiles key scenes into a short, entertaining movie complete with music and highlight reel.

Intelligent Auto (90 different scene combinations possible)

Intelligent Auto mode goes a step beyond traditional auto modes by analyzing your shot and then automatically selecting the appropriate settings from ten distinct scene modes.


2.5

Secondary Treatment Effluent

Superplasticizer (BSAF PS-1594)

-

28 Day Compressive Strength (Mpa)

$1.40

$1.40

* Poor quality cylinders

Poraver 4-8mm

Poraver 0.10-0.25 mm $0.03

-

-

-

2.5

-

170

370

370

-

-

-

870

4

-

330

150

3*

-

-

-

550

2.6

$0.03

52.5

46.5

40.4

450

2.3

31%

0.32

$125.50

1.8

3.2

-

160

380

380

-

-

-

900

-

-

350

150

4

27.6

22

11.1

600

3.4

40%

0.33

$167.30

-

2.5

-

165

380

380

-

-

40

450

-

-

350

150

5

$0.13

$0.13

Class F FA GGBS Slag

31%

0.35

$125.70

Blended Sand

^ Unworkable batches

$0.03

5mm birds eye

Concrete Sand

-

14 Day Compressive Strength (Mpa)

MATERIAL COSTS PER KG

-

-

500

-

Spread (mm)

7 Day Compressive Strength (Mpa)

31%

16%

1.9

0.45

$217.00

0.35

$140.80

-

2.5

-

297

425

425

-

-

-

700

60

-

300

300

2*

-

Air Content *

RESULTS

Water/Cementing Materials % Recycled Materials by Mass

RATIOS

CAD $ per Cubic Meter

175

Tap Water

Costs

370

Recycled Concrete Sand (Lafarge)

-

370

Blended Sand (Lafarge)

Polypropelene Macro Fibers

-

870

10mm Birds Eye (Lafarge)

0.25-0.50mm (Poraver - Expanded Glass)

-

Silica Fume (Quebec)

-

-

Type F Fly Ash (Centralia)

1� Crushed Seashells (Fanny Bay Oysters)

-

50/50 Slag - Fly Ash (Lafarge NewCem+)

-

500

Cement (Lafarge GUL)

4-8mm (Poraver - Expanded Glass)

1^

Batch

Fibers

Water & Admixtures

Fine Aggregate

Coarse Aggregate

Cementitious Materials

Class of Material

MATERIALS (KG/m3)

6.4

9.2

6.6

750

2.8

40%

0.38

32.5

26.8

23.9

700

2.2

$0.18

-

3

-

190

350

350

-

135

-

550

-

100

250

150

7

$113.00

Cement

48%

0.38

$187.35

-

3.25

-

190

250

250

40

130

23

280

-

-

350

150

6

$1.25

Silica Fume

-

-

-

-

-

42%

0.37

$ 89.75

-

3

-

185

-

225

-

250

-

250

-

-

350

150

8^

$1.00

SuperP

33.1

24.5

18.7

450

2.3

49%

0.37

$111.40

-

3.5

-

185

500

80

-

130

-

600

-

-

350

150

9

0.3

2.5

175

-

750

-

-

110

-

625

-

-

350

150

11

37.6

26.4

22.3

600

2.1

58%

0.37

44.1

37.2

35

600

2.2

64%

0.35

$ 115.00 $116.25

-

3.5

-

185

750

-

-

150

-

550

-

-

350

150

10

TRIAL BATCH PROGRAM SUMMARY

39

36

34

600

2.3

64%

0.37

$115.75

0.6

2

175

-

750

-

-

110

-

625

-

-

350

150

12

45.3

39.1

32.6

650

2.2

64%

0.33

$116.25

0.6

2.5

165

-

750

-

-

110

-

625

-

-

350

150

Final


QUICK FACTS MATERIAL COSTS PER KG

Poraver 0.10-0.25mm

$1.40

Poraver 4-8mm

$1.40

5mm Birds Eye

$0.03

Concrete Sand

$0.03

Blended Sand

$0.03

Class F FA

$0.13

GGBS Slag

$0.13

Cement

$0.18

Silica Fume

$1.25

SuperP

$1.00

In the next issue

Why you shouldn’t take a concrete toboggan out to sea...

45.3 MPa

28-DAY STRENGTH

SELF - COMPACTING

CONCRETE

Cement (Lafarge GUL) 8%

7%

50/50 Slag - Fly Ash (Lafarge NewCem+)

COMPANY INFO DEADLIEST BATCH

16%

1" Crushed Seashells (Fanny Bay Oysters) 35%

Recycled Concrete Sand (Lafarge)

Head Office

Secondary Treatment Effluent

124 Conch Street Bikini Bottom, WESST (+937) 8472 3778 EMAIL: ubc.tbog@gmail.com

10mm Birds Eye (Lafarge)

29%

5%

Superplasticizer (BSAF PS-1594) Polypropelene Macro Fibers

THE TEAM CAPTAIN - Joshua Redmond CHIEF STEWARD - Daniel Luo TECHX BOATSWAIN - Robbie Lew

mix department

FIRST MATE ANGLERS

- Elaina Collis - Erica Mason, Rachel Jackson, Erica Forkheim, Asha Fidow

SKI department

FIRST MATE ANGLERS

- Paulina Bukas - Jamie Faubert, Kirsten McDonald, Emilie Morin, Natalie Chu, Ros Fomin

sUPERSTRUCTURE / BRAKES department

FIRST MATE ANGLERS

- Daniel Adria, Harry Liu - Jonathan Schwarz, Jacob Kelly, Muin Ahmed Alif, Inderpaul Khunkhun, Simon Chen

NAVIGATION department

FIRST MATE ANGLERS

- Anna Eriksson, Lutz Marsden - Anthony Gonzalez, Jason Chow, Connor Fong, Natalie Cotton

SPIRIT department

SPIRIT CAPTAIN ANGLERS

- Kayla Robinson - Kate Burnham, Frank Hung

&

PPE IS THE ESSENCE OF SAFETY SAFETY IS THE ESSENCE OF TBOG

Editorial

Design/PHOTO

- Erica Mason

UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER | 15


Embrace the strength of Fisherman’s Friend. Keep a little paper packet in your pocket and whip it out at odd moments to surprise friends, relatives and even strangers. Pop one in. Suck. Breathe deeply. A Fisherman’s Friend is powerfully strong. There is a range of Fisherman’s Friend flavours to explore and none of them are shy and retiring. Embrace strength in depth and explore the outer limits of the lozenge.

16 | UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA - VANCOUVER

Every fisherman runs for Fisherman’s Friend


UBC Concrete Toboggan - Technical Display 2017