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WAT E R G R A B B I N G

WATER GRABBING An Atlas of Water

Texts Emanuele Bompan Marirosa Iannelli

Cartography Riccardo Pravettoni

Infographics, cover and layout Federica Fragapane Translations Mary Trease

Printed - Milano 2017 2


Index 07

10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

Preface Vandana Shiva

Homepage Emanuele Bompan

PART 1 A WORLD OF WATER A planet of water Emanuele Bompan

The human right to water and sanitation Marirosa Iannelli Hygiene for all Debora Del Pistoia

Water as a common good? Marirosa Iannelli Virtual Water Marirosa Iannelli

Water, food and conflicts Emanuele Bompan Water and Energy Emanuele Bompan

Land and Water Grabbing Marirosa Iannelli Transboundary waters Emanuele Bompan

30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

PART 2 A CLOSER LOOK Water in Italy Emanuele Bompan

Austral Africa, contested water Marirosa Iannelli

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

05

Mega dams Emanuele Bompan Mekong Emanuele Bompan Ethiopia Marirosa Iannelli Brazil Marirosa Iannelli

South Africa Emanuele Bompan

Occupied Palestinian Territory Emanuele Bompan Ghana Marirosa Iannelli

3


4

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


We.are.Water Vandana Shiva

Our bodies are 70% water. The planet is 70% water .Water is the condition of our being, the source of life.

Water has its own rights - to flow free and unpolluted , to be renewed through the amazing hydrological cycle.

Since we are part of nature, and since we are water, the rights of the nature, and the human right to water are part of one continuum. Every ecological movement I have been part over the past 5 decades has been a movement for the protection of water, and the defence of the human right to water. I have worked with the women of Plachimada in Kerala who stopped Coca Cola’s water grab.

45 years ago I joined the Chipko movement in my home region of the Garhwal Himalaya as a volunteer to stop deforestation. The women of Chipko saw the primary products of the forest as soil and water. not timber and revenue, Logging in their view was water grab. In 1983, the Supreme court stopped limestone mining in Doon Valley, on the basis of a study we had done for the Ministry of Environment of the Government of India. Mining was destroying the aquifer that the limestone provided. It was not just extraction of a mineral but a water grab. The 2013 disaster in the Himalaya which washed away 20,000 people in the floods was a combination of a climate extreme, and excessive building of dams and hydroelectric project. Chemical intensive, water intensive industrial agriculture is a major water grab, using up and polluting 75% of the water of the planet. I have seen water grabbed for industrial farming, leaving soils desertified, streams and rivers diverted, ground water mined.

In my book Soil not Oil I have shown how fossil fuel based industrial agriculture contributes 50% of the Green House gases that contribute to climate change.

I see the problem of climate change as a water grab, because all climate instability is experienced as too much water and floods, or too little water and draughts. The polluters of the atmosphere are in effect stealing the water cycle and its stability and predictability, leading to climate disasters.

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

P R E FAC E

Every act of violence against nature becomes a violence to humans, and even triggers violence within and between communities. This is why I wrote Water Wars. In 2014, waiting for the Year of Soil, as more boats sank in the Mediterranean, and more and more uprooted people moved as refugees to Europe, I worked with an International team to explore the connections between the soil and refugees. As our Manifesto “Terra Viva : Our Soils, Our Commons, Our Future” shows, the Syrian crisis began in 2009 with an extreme drought which drove more than 1 million farmers from their desertified farms to the cities as refugees, triggering the conflicts and instability that has made half of Syria refugees. In Africa, Lake 22,000 sq km Lake Chad, shared by 4 countries and 9 million fisherman, pastoralists, farmers has started to disappear as 80 dams divert water for irrigation of commercial farms. In 2009 conflicts started between farmers and pastoralists around Lake Chad because of water scarcity. All we heard about 2011 was Boko Haram.

Indigenous people in North Dakota are resisting the North Dakota Access Pipeline. The world has gathered in solidarity with the indigeneous communities, to resist the polluting and violent invasion of oil. As young Tokata Iron Eyes and her friends who are credited with being the creative catalysts for starting the #NoDAPL movement at Standing Rock says, with the distillation of the wisdom of centuries of indigenous cultures -- “In Dakota/Lakota we say ‘Mni Wiconi.’ Water is life.” 5


6

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


Homepage Emanuele Bompan

The expression water grabbing or “water hoarding” refers to a situation in which powerful actors, public or private, are able to take control of or reallocate precious water resources for their own benefit, at the expense of local communities and ecosystems on which the communities’ livelihoods are based. The effects are devastating: families driven from their villages to make room for mega dams, privatization of water sources, water polluted for industrial purposes that benefit few and damage water quality, control of water sources by military forces to limit development.

In 2010 the United Nations General Assembly approved a resolution recognizing access to clean water and sanitation as fundamental human rights. The historic resolution on the motion presented by Evo Morales Ayma, President of Bolivia, along with thirty other countries, states that “drinking water and sanitation services are human rights essential to the full enjoyment of the right to life and of all other human rights.” Yet today, this right is not actively protected by member states.

The member states have also failed to respect the United Nations treaty on transboundary waters to mitigate the risk of conflicts related to water, which only 39 states have signed to-date. The

United States and China remain deaf to calls to support the legal document.

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

H O M E PAG E

In the so-called southern parts of the world, but also in some industrialized countries, water is turning from a freely accessible common good to a private good, or one controlled by those in power. Under the pressure of growing water demand due to the increase in population and industrial growth in developing countries in the grip of climate change, which is more and more visible in our daily lives, water is becoming a source of conflict. A scarce commodity that must be “hoarded” at the neighbor’s expense, even to the detriment of women and girls who take care of gathering water daily, taking time from education and work. This special “Watergrabbing – a Story of Water,” looks into the water-hoarding phenomenon. Every story explains a specific theme (transboundary waters, dams, hoarding for political and economic purposes), and shows the players involved, country-by-country. Photos, articles, and maps will take you on this journey. As a tool for reference, we have also created a geographic atlas, available for download to the curious reader, student or researcher. Take time to read and discover what water grabbing means. So that water can become a right for each country and every person. 7


8

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


1

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

PA RT 1

A W O R L D O F WAT E R 9


CHAPTER 01

A planet of water

More people and less water in a world beset by climate change

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Emanuele Bompan

Water covers 1,390 million cubic kilometers of Planet Earth. Salt water in our seas and oceans accounts for 97.5 percent, and only 2.5 percent is fresh water – most of which is frozen in the polar ice caps. Human beings have access to only 93,000 cubic kilometers, or about 0.5 percent of fresh water. Only a portion of this water is drinkable or uncontaminated, and it is unequally distributed across the planet. Even where there would be plenty for all, mankind often limits their fellow man’s access and right to water for political or commercial reasons.

97.5%

Approximately 97.5% of all water on the planet is salt water

2.5%

Only 2.5% is fresh water

Most fresh water remaining is underground, too deep to be accessible, or is in the form of moisture in the soil

70%

Approximately 70% of all fresh water is in the form of ice in Antarctica and Greenland

Only 1% of fresh water is available to be used Source: unwater.org

Water stress

While consumption has soared in the western world (a U.S. citizen consumes 1,208 cubic meters per year; a European citizen 700 cubic meters), consumption has collapsed in developing countries. An African consumes an average of just 185 cubic meters. In Sahel, families consume even less than 10 liters of water per day.

With increased water consumption and population growth, water availability per capita at a global level has passed from 9,000 cubic meters of drinking water available in the ’90s to 7,800 in the first decade of the 21st century. By 2025, this figure is anticipated to drop to a mere 5,000 cubic meters. The glass is quite literally half empty.

One billion people lack access to safe drinking water. More than double are without access to basic sanitation. Obviously, this carries serious health consequences. Diarrhea kills 1.8 million children every year. This is a disaster equivalent to twelve Boeing 747s full of passengers crashing by accident. Every day. Water is an increasingly disputed commodity between states, businesses (energy vs. agriculture), social classes, cities and regions. Globally, 70 percent of water is used to feed us through farming, 22 percent is used to produce materials and objects, while the remaining 8 percent is reserved for domestic use. The challenge for the planet is to change water consumption. How? Sustainable agriculture, reducing meat consumption, circular economy and renewable energy, developing infrastructures for public hygiene, and guaranteed, shared water access. 10

Water stress

Annual freshwater withdrawal, percentage on total available Low (less than10%) Low-medium (10% to 20%) Medium-High (20% to 40%) High (40% to 80%) Extreme (more than 80%) Arid or unpopulated areas *Baseline water stress measures total annual water withdrawals (municipal, industrial, and agricultural) expressed as a percentage of the total annual available fresh water.


CHAPTER 01

How much water do we use and how

North America

Europe

Water withdrwal per capita by sector

Southern Asia

Domestic Industry

0

200 400 600 800

Cubic meters

Latin America and the Caribbean

1 000

Africa Oceania

Source: FAO statistical database, 2009; UNPD, 2009.

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Acriculture

Asia (excluding Southern Asia)

Sources: WRI aqueduct database, September 2016

11


CHAPTER 02

Water, a human right with a long way to

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Canada

The human right to water and sanitation Limits and progress on the journey to make this a reality

Cuba

Mexico

Dominican Republic Guatemala

Haiti El Salvador Nicaragua Honduras Costa Rica Panama Colombia

Puerto Rico

Cape Verde

Venezuela Guyana

Ecuador Peru Brazil

Paraguay

Chile

Uruguay Argentina

Marirosa Iannelli

In 2004 the United Nations Development Program, UNDP, published a report on, “Water as a Human Right?” and for the first time raised the question of access to water as a right. The text reads, “Formally acknowledging water as a human right, and expressing the willingness to give content and effect to this right, may be a way of encouraging the international community and governments to enhance their efforts to satisfy basic human needs and to meet the Millennium Development Goals.”

Six years later, United Nations General Assembly recognized the report when Resolution 64/292 defined water as a right with in July 2010. The resolution points out that access to drinking water is “essential to realizing all human rights.” The legal definition has been reinforced over the years across international organizations on long path that included the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), which was held to mark the twentieth anniversary of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The conference agreed on an outcome document entitled “The Future We Want,” which dedicated a paragraph in which the international community and governments reaffirmed their commitment that the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation 12

United States

should be “progressively realized […] with full respect for national sovereignty.”

The Rio+20 document was a launching pad for the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals, 17 goals for sustainable development and 169 targets to serve as new universal Agenda for achieving a sustainable future by 2030. Water is addressed Target 6, which includes a commitment to achieve universal and equitable access to safe drinking water and sanitation services by 2030. Particular attention is given to the needs of women in vulnerable conditions, and to improving water quality conditions to drastically reduce water pollution and waste.

But it is Resolution 70/169, more recently approved by the UN National Assembly in December 2015, that affirmed, “the distinction between the human right to water and the human right to sanitation,” for which we must develop a clear and binding definition, to guarantee everyone the right “to have access to sufficient, safe,


CHAPTER 02

o go

Russian Federation

Slovenia Serbia

Morocco

Ukraine Georgia Azerbaijan Turkey

Lebanon Israel

Tunisia

Syria

Mauritania

Libya

Egypt

Senegal Nigeria

Saudi UAE Arabia

Pakistan

Myanmar

India

Maldives

Thailand Sri Lanka

Without access Million people

DR Congo

Vietnam

Bangladesh

Oman

Ethiopia

Philippines

Malaysia

Indonesia

Papua New Guinea

Without access to improved water sources Without access to improved sanitation facilities

Angola

Namibia

China Nepal

Cote d'Ivoire Ghana

North Korea

Iran Afganistan

Kuwait Algeria

Mongolia

Kazakhstan

Timor-Leste

775 000

Mozambique Madagascar

South Africa

100 000 50 000 10 000 New Zealand

A right stated on paper

Countries that recognize water and sanitation rights in their constitution or national law Both water and sanitation Only water

Funding water development

Percentage of funds necessary to reach the Sustainable Development Goals More than 75% 50% to 75%

Less than 50% No data

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Poland

Source: WHO/GLAAS, Investing in Water and Sanitation, 2013/2014 country survey; WHO statistical database, accessed February 2017

acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic use.”

The United Nation’s stance further reinforces the path to legal recognition both at an international and national level. This is particularly true for the constitutional processes brought forward in different countries. Such as Slovenia, which in 2016 became the first European country where Parliament declared that the abundant sources of drinking water in the country are public property managed by the state and are not a merchandisable commodity. Over 75 percent of countries recognize water as a human right, and 67 percent have also recognized sanitation service as such. However, today a large number of local constitutions still do not provide adequate resources or infrastructure to support the right to access. In fact, public agendas still feature discussions on whether the right to drinking water should be considered as a public service, a universal right, or a commodity.

Minimum quantity of water needed 7.5 litres per capita per day

15 litres per capita per day

20 litres per capita per day

minimum required for most people under most conditions

minimum required in an emergency situation

minimum requred to take care of basic hygiene needs and basic food hygiene Source: who.int

13


CHAPTER 03

Hygiene for all

Guaranteed access to water is foundational to a person’s health and dignity - especially for women*

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Debora Del Pistoia

The serious water crises caused by “water wars” are responsible for significant inequalities worldwide as regards access to water. Vandana Shinva calls this phenomenon a “water apartheid,” as opposed to “water democracy,” which does not apply the principle of “a little for all,” but that of “all for few.” The WHO’s report in 2014, Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation, underlines the important progress achieved over the past 30 years: 4 billion people today enjoy access to drinking water. Nonetheless, inequalities persist. In some cases, they have increased. In recent years, water crises and water privatization have highlighted discrimination, especially against women. According to UNICEF, today 2.4 billion people lack access to sanitary services, while 663 million do not have access to water that is safe for hygienic use. The December 2015 UN Resolution 70/169 establishes that “water and hygienic sanitary services are separate rights,” and was a substantial achievement for enforcing fundamental rights to ensure the dignity of women and men. The same resolution stresses the importance of affirming the principles of non-discrimination, gender equality, participation and accountability in order to fully recognize the right fundamental to hygienic services – sanitation. Having these principles written in an international resolution is a critical step when millions of women around the world are deprived quantitatively and qualitatively of sufficient access to water and sanitation services. For women, lack of access to hygiene has a doubly detrimental impact to personal dignity. It also affects the affirmation of other human rights such as selfdetermination, education, health, employment, freedom of movement and economic independence. The challenge for the future is to affirm equal rights for both men and women to control and access water. In particular, full recognition must be given to the role of women the management of water recourses and specific sanitary needs, in particular of a sufficient water supply for the ordinary management of menstruation, childbirth and the post-partum phase. *See article on “Water wars and women’s rights,” by Debora Del Pistoia.

14

Country

Rural population with access to safe drinking-water (%) 1992

1997

2002 2007

2012 2015

Population affected by water related disease ����-���� (���� inhab)

1992

2015

1997

2012

2007

2002

Urban population with access to safe drinking-water (%)

Argentina

71.3

77.5

83.7

90

96.2 100

� ��� 99 98.8 97.6

97.9

98.5

98.2

Burkina Faso 40.3

49.2

58.1

67

75.8 75.8

� ��� 97.5 76

81.4

86.8

92.1

97.5


CHAPTER 03

Access to safe drinking-water and water related disease

59

73.8

66.4

81.2

69.2

88.5

Colombia 70.3

71.4

87

72.5

���.� 96.8

97.5

97.4

97.3

22.8

32.8

42.7

99.5

66.6

97

97.1

India

Ethiopia

99.6

96.9

97.5 97.4

72.5

78.4

99.2

84.4

99.3

92.6

data not available

99.5

99.4

Mali

90.3

48.6

12.9

91.7 91.9

�.���

97.3

90.5

73.8

data not available

97.2

89.3

73.6

93

97.1

88.1

31.8 22.9

data not available

40.8 49.7 58.7

64.1

� ��� 97.1

85.8

87.9

89.9

91.9

93.1

89.6

34.6 30.4

38.7 42.8

� ���

47

33.7 27.2

48.6

94.7

93

Nigeria

Niger

40.3 46.8

69.1 53.4

data not available

72.9

81.3

89.7

98.2

76.8

77.6

96.5 65.2

73.9

Panama

73.4

77.6

82.6

81.8

91.3

86.1 88.6

57.3

���.� 80.8

100 64.5

56.5

96.4 91.3

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

China

Costa Rica

78.5

79.4

Source: fao.org

97.7

80.3

97.7 97.8

97.8

97.8

97.8

15


Water as a common good? CHAPTER 04

The global situation of public and private management, with a look at bottled water consumption Marirosa Iannelli

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

The more efficient the management, the greater the benefits for citizens, the more the public sector downsizes. This is the mantra that in the nineties backed the wave of privatization of the water industry at a global level. The neoliberal dream was never completely realized. To the point, in fact, that for several years there has been a real turnaround as many metropolises have opted for redistricting of water management, given the operational failures of large private operators (more than 180 metropolises in 2014, according to research by the Transnational Institute and by Public 329 380

235 850

Services International Research Unit).

Large cities like Berlin, Paris, Atlanta, Accra or Dar el Salaam, have chosen to put water management back under public oversight. The private industry has too often been characterized by low investments, high costs, and low quality of service. In France alone over 50 municipalities have chosen not to renew licenses to private operators, in a trend that seems to be gathering more and more momentum. Cities are even taking back control at a high cost: the U.S. city of Indianapolis, for example, had to compensate the French company Veolia 29 million dollars after withdrawing their twenty-year license early. Cities like Tucuman or Buenos Aires have been deferred before a court of arbitration for the protection of investments, exactly because of the municipalities’ choice to take back control of water management.

The fight for control of blue gold is not limited to water infrastructure, but goes all the way back to the sources where water is often bottled. In 2015, in the United States alone over 44 billion liters of water were bottled. The increase is over 11 billion liters since 2007, at a price tag of over 14 billion dollars. In 2015 the amount of water in bottles worldwide reached in the astronomical figure of 329 billion liters.

Global bottled water market. Leading

Countries’ Consumption and Compound Annual Growth Rates 2010 – 2015

261 515

177 812

Millions of Liters 2015

2010

Compound annual growth rate 2010/2015

Country 67 868

58 037

39 818

77 623 44 436

33 145

26 304

�.�%

World Total 16

�.�%

Top 10 Subtotal

�.�%

All Others

�.�%

��.�%

1. China

2. United States

30 589

�.�%

3. Mexico


CHAPTER 04

50 biggest private water utility companies

Veolia France Thames Water

Severn Trent United Utilities Anglian Water Yorkshire Water Northumbrian Water Southern Water Affinity Water Suez France Groupe Saur

Grupo Agbar

Gelsenwasser ACEA

Acciona Aqualia Spain

Gruppo Hera Apa Nova Bucharest

Gruppo Iren

Aguas de Valencia SABESP

People served by each private utility Million people 20

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

American Water

COPASA Manila Water

Foz do Brasil

SODECI

PBA Holdings Acuatico

SANEPAR

Maynilad

United Water

15

Puncak Niaga

Aqua America California Water American States

Cab Ambiental

SDE

Ranhill Utilities Phnom Penh Water

Triple A Barranquilla

Aegea

Aguas Andinas

5

Aguas Nuevas

Country with one or more top 50 utility Remunicipalisation: country in which 5 or more cities have remunicipalised the water between 2000 and 2014

0

25 801

14 498

Thai Tap

Aguas do Brazil

10

10 390 16 576

17 397

7 601

13 718

20 278

4. Indonesia

5. Brazil

11 734

11 030

�.�%

8. Germany

�.�%

��.�%

Source: PSIRU; Bluefield Research

��.�%

6. India

��.�%

7. Thailand

10 886

10 114

�.�%

9. Italy

9 043

8 327

�.�%

10. France

Source: Beverage Marketing Corporation

17


Virtual Water

Water Footprint of Selected Products

CHAPTER 05

for Selected Countries (m3/ton)

China

India Netherlands USA

Weighted average

Green Water Footprint

How much is necessary to produce food and products for everyday use? Marirosa Iannelli

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

When we shop we often ignore how much water was necessary to produce the food that we put on the table every day. For example, according to the Water Footprint Network, a network of international organizations specialized in water consumption: 70 liters of water are required to produce a single apple; for 500 grams of pasta, 780 liters of water; for a classic pizza, 1150 liters are necessary; for a slice of cheese, 2500 liters; and for a beef steak a hefty 4650 liters. To define the water dependency of each consumable item, Tony Allan of King’s College, London, has theorized the concept of “virtual water,” or invisible water. By this, he means the amount of water needed to produce and trade certain property such as agricultural products, food, routine as well as more uncommon goods.

Although some industrial products like paper for notebooks or cotton for garments have high water requirements (100 liters for 1 kilogram of paper, only 2 liters for 1 kilogram of recycled paper, and 11,000 liters for 1 kilogram of cotton textile), 90 percent of the water we consume is incorporated into the food we eat. Cultivation and livestock require the largest amounts, along with food harvest, conservation and transport that also require water for fuel production and packaging. To carefully weigh the virtual water, Arjen Hoekstra, committee chairman for the Water Footprint Network, introduced a water footprint measurement that makes it possible to calculate freshwater consumption from rivers, lakes and aquifers (both surface and groundwater). The measurement includes the direct and indirect use of water on the part of a consumer or producer, the use of water in agriculture, industry and domestically, and rainwater used in agriculture.

Since 2008 the scientific community has recognized the virtual water footprint as an analogue to an actual ecological footprint, an indicator used to assess human consumption of natural resources with respect to the Earth’s capacity to regenerate them.

Blue Water Footprint and

Grey Water Footprint

Product

Water footprint per unit of nutritional value

Weighted average, total

Calorie (liter/kcal) Fat (liter/g fat)

Protein (liter/g protein)

China

India 15 537

USA

12 933

12 795

14 414

Netherlands 5 684

495

398

722

288

345

484

Beef

525

10.19

China

7 416

550

451

153

112

India

733

Netherlands

USA

10 948

8 248

Weighted average 9 813

5 347

452

14

582

314

35

422

Lamb

315

44

4.25

18

Weighted average

54 63

522

76


CHAPTER 05

China 2 958

0

312

Weighted average

India 4 194

4

*

Goat meat 454

6

330

405

648

1 191

Weighted average

Netherlands USA 4 102

4 907

3 723

2 443

13

393

5 415

5 050

9 813

Netherlands

India

China

268

554

438

645

Pork

761

459

622

4.25 54 63

6 726

China

854

3 545

Netherlands USA

2 836

281

Weighted average

1 728

1 545

873

77

768

165

Chicken

187

303

313

India

China 217

1 175

666

55

1 206

Egg

542

635

3

111

130

230

145

210

China

41

63

462

25

60

Milk

647

89

86

863

72

India

5 044

Weighted average

India Netherlands USA 885

130

429

33

34

927

244

2.29 43

China

2 592

Netherlands USA

2 211

467

Weighted average

4 888

4 819

Netherlands 2 513

789

1 141

134

224

341

706

Weighted average

29

USA 3 519

324

Butter

4 695

483

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

India

393

465

0

0.72

1.82 33

31

6.4

India

USA

15 103

14 450

China

Weighted average 15 916

11 323

China 4 581

India 4 377

Netherlands 2 283

732

1 036

657

310

219

121

Cheese

USA 3 196

310

439

Netherlands

Weighted average

6 067

4 264

439

357

515

352

777

280

589

369

658

819

Leather (beef cattle)

Source: “A Global Assessment of the Water Footprint of Farm Animal Products”, Mesfin M. Mekonnen and Arjen Y. Hoekstra, ����

679

498

19


CHAPTER 06

Water, food and conflicts

Water, food security and conflicts

Here come the water wars: conflicts over water

Canada

Emanuele Bompan

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

What happens when water becomes scarce? The first impact is a collapse in food production, such as wheat or rice. And the list goes one: climate change, water grabbing, poor infrastructure, rising prices because of privatization and competition with other industries (i.e., energy production from fossil fuels). The impacts are many, but the result is always the same: conflict. Academics have defined “water wars” as wars and conflicts fought over water or the lack of it, linked in part to agriculture.

United States Mexico

Guatemala Nicaragua Honduras Haiti

El Salvador

Dominican Rep.

Examples in the news abound: the drought in Syria, which has helped to exacerbate one of the worst conflicts of the past 50 years, the global drought in 2016 that added 50 million people to the list of those affected by “extreme hunger, the tragedy in South Sudan at the beginning of 2017, the protests in Bolivia and Chile for water privatization.

Ecuador

Colombia

Guyana

Peru

Mauritania Senegal

In some instances these conflicts can escalate to cause international tensions. One of the “hottest spots” is the Indus River that feeds the agricultural and energy sectors of two longtime enemies, India and Pakistan. The strong agricultural levy often sparks harsh political invective from both sides without – for now – true escalation. Large hydrogeological operations often create tensions. Take Ethiopia’s Grand Renaissance Dam for example, which prompted the Egyptian government to threaten retaliation if they find a sharp drop in the Nile’s water levels and a decrease in the rich sediments and nutrients essential for their agriculture. In other cases, river diversion or damming has decimated freshwater fishing and has created tensions between nations. This is exactly what is happening along the Mekong and Brahmaputra rivers, where violent exchanges between diplomatic missions in Vietnam are more and more frequent. Tensions continue to mount even higher as the global population increases.

Guinea

Bolivia

Guinea-Bissau Sierra Leone

Brazil Paraguay

Liberia Côte d’Ivoire

Water conflict chronology list 1950–2015

35

Source: worldwater.org

Chixoy dam massacre

30 25 20 15 10 5

20

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980


CHAPTER 06

North Korea Mongolia Philippines China

Russia

Georgia

Morocco

Palestina

Tunisia

Iraq

Burkina Faso

Niger

Percentage of population without access to improved water sources

Eritrea Sudan Somalia

Nigeria

Togo

Ethiopia Kenya

Rwanda Congo Angola

Less than 2% 2% to 5% 5% to 10% 10% to 20% More than 20%

Malnutrition

Million people, 2013 213 (India)

Tanzania

Burundi

Indonesia

Inaccessible water

Yemen

South Sudan Centrafrican Rep. Uganda Cameroon

Thailand

Sri Lanka

Egitto

Chad

Malawi Zambia

Zimbabwe

100 50 10 1

Madagascar

Mozambique

Undernourrished population*

Namibia Botswana South Africa

Timor-Leste

India

Jordan Libya

Myanmar

Pakistan

Iran

Algeria Mali

Cambodia

Bangladesh

Afghanistan

Siria

Laos

Tajikistan Nepal

Uzbekistan Ukraine

Vietnam

Kyrgyzistan

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Kazakhistan

Percentage, 2014-2016 average

Swaziland

25

Lesotho

*Percentage of people below the energy requirement

50

Water conflicts, 2011-2015 Where water resources or water systems are a major source of contention and dispute in the context of economic and social development Sources: FAO statistical database, accesso 2017; WRI Aqueduct; WHO UNICEF JMP 2010; Pacific Institute, 2017

Kashmir conflict Water war in Bolivia

Iran-Iraq war

1985

1990

1995

2000

Social tensions in Nigeria

2005

2010

2015

21


CHAPTER 07

Water for hydroelectricity

Canada

United States

Mexico

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Dominican Rep.

Water and Energy

Honduras Venezuela

Costa Rica

Ecuador

Emanuele Bompan

In North America, many dams built in the ’80s are now being demolished because of their impacts on species like salmon, and may be replaced with more modern dams that do not require building large-scale reservoirs. But, for the rest of the world, construction continues (see the section on “Mega dams”).

Equally impactful is water extraction for energy and

Suriname French Guiana

+15%

Panama

Colombia

+7% +16%

Brazil

Peru Bolivia

The production of hydroelectric power, its benefits and its effects on economies and populations Water in the energy sector is mainly implicated in two industries: hydropower and electric energy production from fossil fuels, and nuclear power. Hydroelectric power today produces 16.4 percent of the world’s energy. The total reached 1064 gigawatts in 2016, thanks to 57,000 dams of various sizes, from colossal giants to small dams to “micro-hydropower” plants. Although the energy that harnesses the force of water comprises about 70 percent of the renewable energy mix and guarantees a lower amount of total emissions than fossil fuel plants, overall impacts are not always positive. Especially when the dams are not planned with an emphasis on environmental impact. Among the negative effects are: extinction of numerous aquatic animals, destruction of wetlands and forest areas, blockages in the natural flow of debris, and the forced displacement of thousands of people.

22

Puerto Rico

Guatemala

Paraguay

Uruguay Chile Argentina

Installed capacity

Megawatts

320 000 (China)

100 000

10 000 1 000 100 Total generation capacity, 2016 Generation capacity increase between 2014 and 2016

+28% Generation capacity growth, 2014-2016 Sources: International Hydropower Association, Status Report 2016

gas and for fossil fuel production (more for nuclear), which is estimated at about 583 billion cubic meters (15 percent of all water extracted). Of this enormous quantity, 66 billion cubic meters are consumed and do not return to the supply source. According to the International Energy Agency, by 2035 water extraction is projected to increase by 20 percent and consumption


CHAPTER 07

Russia

EUROPE Kazakhstan

+15%

Kyrgyzstan

Uzbekistan

+16% Turkey

Lebanon Syria

Morocco

Iran

Iraq

Afganistan

Algeria

+6%

Ghana

Cote d’Ivoire

Laos

+17%

Nigeria

+5%

Camerun Uganda

Eq. Guinea Gabon

Vietnam

+28% +471%

Myanmar

Ethiopia

+9%

Tailandia

Cambodia

Sri Lanka

Philippines

+40% Malaysia

Kenya

DR Congo Tanzania Angola

Papua New Guinea

Malawi

Zambia

Madagascar

Zimbabwe Namibia

Indonesia

Mozambique

Australia

South Africa

New Zealand

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

+188%

Taiwan

Laos

India

Mali

South Korea

Bhutan

Bangladesh

Sudan

Japan

+8%

Nepal

Pakistan

Egypt

Guinea

China

Tajikistan

+10%

North Korea

Norway

Sweden

Iceland Luxemburg

Latvia Lithuania

UK Ireland

Belgio

Finland

Germania

Polonia

Czeck R. Slovakia France

Portugal

Spain

Ukraine

Slovenia Switz. Romania Austria BosniaSerbia Bulgaria Croazia Italy

Albania

Georgia

Azerbaijan

Armenia Greece Macedonia Montenegro

by 85 percent. This trend is caused by construction of new power plants that extract less water, but consume more energy per unit of electricity produced.

Water scarcity may lead to a dangerous energy blackout. An example? As of 2012, 620 million people in India remain without electricity. They are at the center of a

perfect storm given the increase of water extraction for agriculture, increased energy consumption for cooling, the water needed for feeding water pumps and energy infrastructures that may have to go without water needed for cooling. And this is just an example of the risks run by countries impacted by water scarcity and also strongly dependent on fossil fuels. 23


CHAPTER 08

Land grabbed, water grabbed

Canada

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

USA

Land and Water Grabbing Land and water usurped from the inhabitants of a territory, a connected phenomenon Marirosa Iannelli

In recent years various actors, from governments to large national and international companies to the financial industry, have given way to true, global-scale appropriation of agricultural lands, particularly in developing countries. This process is characterized by large-scale investments for rural development, which often bring little, if any, benefit to the people. Instead, the process favors the stakeholders of large agribusiness corporations. Seizing land is like a new gold rush, better known as land grabbing, that involves at least 62 “grabbed” countries and 41 “grabber” countries. Land access, use and rights are controlled and managed improperly, which causes negative effects on human rights, on local food security, on rural livelihoods and on land itself. Connected to land and energy resource grabbing, one of the other most prominent forms of appropriation is that of water – needed to “quench” the newly acquired mega territories. According to a study by the Transnational Institute, “The Global Water Grab,” the expression water grabbing or “water hoarding” refers to a situation in which powerful actors, public or private, are able to take control of or reallocate precious water resources for 24

Colombia

Senegal Gambia Paraguay

Guinea Sierra Leone

Argentina Brazil Uruguay

Source: Rulli, M., C., et al., Global land and water grabbing, PNAS, June 2013

their own benefit, at the expense of local communities and ecosystems on which the communities’ livelihoods are based. By analyzing the relationship between land and water grabbing, we see that the most affected countries are Gabon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sudan/ South Sudan. Each respectively has 4,450, 2,380 and 1,850 square meters per capita of water taken annually through land acquisition.

Liberia


CHAPTER 08

Japan North Korea Russia South Korea

Philippines Papua New Guinea

Sweden

Kazakhstan

Denmark Belgium France Spain Portugal

Laos China

Germany

Indonesia

Pakistan

Czech Ukraine Republic

India

Italy

Israel

Malaysia Australia

Singapore

Qatar

Morocco

UAE Libya

Egypt

S. Arabia

Mali Sudan Benin Nigeria Cameroon

Land grabbing transactions Thousands hectares 8 250 (DR Congo)

South Sudan Uganda

Rep. Congo Gabon

Ethiopia

Democratic Republic of the Congo

5 000

Tanzania

2 000 Madagascar

Zambia

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

UK

500 100 Land grabbed Land ceded

Mozambique

South Africa

Per capita water grabbed through land grabbing operations Cubic meters per capita per year 4 450 (Gabon) Agricultural water limit for a balanced diet (1 300) 500 100

From a freely accessible common good, water is transformed into a private good for which we must negotiate and be willing to pay. Use or license rights are marketed and traded on financial markets. Take Chile, for example, where it is literally possible to purchase rivers or springs, or in Indonesia, Brazil and the Philippines, and countries with more than thousands of hectars of land sold outside of the African Continent.

After the process of commodification (the transformation

of a good from a common good to an economic good), liberalization and privatization (opening to the market and to private management companies), financialization aims to transform a freely available natural resource into a financial asset that can be exchanged on major global equity markets. That is why water grabbing is one of the most common processes of appropriation, privatization, impoverishment, commercialization and financialization of land, water resources, and natural resources. 25


CHAPTER 09

Hydropolitical tension

Yukon

NelsonSaskatchewan

Fraser Columbia

St. Lawrence

Colorado

Mississippi

Tijuana

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

Yaqui

Transboundary waters

Water management of large transnational waterways, such as in China, Austral Africa, and the Himalaya Emanuele Bompan

Water is a global element that knows no borders. Yet, increasingly, states compete to take advantage of water resources. Approximately 40 percent of the world’s population lives along rivers and water basins that belong to two or more countries. To put this in perspective, around 5 billion people live in countries that share transboundary water. The 276 transnational lakes and basins cover half of all surface water, and are the source of 60 percent of fresh water. In addition, two billion people share about 300 transboundary aquifer systems.

The intense exploitation of aquifer systems by one state can lead to significant impacts on a regional scale. Impacts include depletion of ground water and the intrusion of salt water in river delta areas (caused by the decrease in fresh water that normally stops salt water from entering). Toxic substances such as arsenic and fluoride can also move quickly through waterways and contaminate aquifers, even large ones. On this point, says UN-Water, the United Nations 26

Rio Grande

Grijalva Lempa San Juan

Catatumbo Orinoco

Patia Mira Chira

Amazon

Transboundary river basin

Lake Titicaca-Poopo System Cancoso

Risk of Potential Hydropolitical Tensions Due to basin development in absence of adequate institutional capacity High

Valdivia Baker

Medium Low

Serrano San Martin

Population in transboundary river basin Million people 705 500 100 10 1 Sources: UNEP/GEF Transboundary Waters Assessment Programme - River Basins, Marzo 2017

inter-agency coordination mechanism, the shared basins, which are a potential source of conflict, even military conflict, must be managed cooperatively with rational and efficient management. From 1948 to today, the UN has recorded 37 incidents that resulted in open conflicts linked to water. In the same period, 295 multilateral international agreements on water management have been signed between parties to ensure peace and cooperation.

One of the most effective international legal instruments is the “United Nations Watercourses Convention,” signed in 1997. Unfortunately, to-date only 39 states have ratified it. China and the United States have yet to sign. In South East Asia, Vietnam is the only state to have ratified the agreement, in 2014. To ensure a future where water is managed sustainably, strengthening cooperation between states is fundamental. We need new multilateral arrangements and updated existing agreements, which are often too sectorial and not holistic enough. We need to encourage information exchange in a way that is transparent and harmonious.


CHAPTER 09

Vuoksa

Ob Volga

Dnieper

Seine

Don

Yenisey Ural

Rhone

Aral Sea Guir

Tigris-Euphrates

Guir Atui

Har Us Nur Tumen Tarim

Medjerda

Dra

Senegal

Amur

Ili

Danube

Niger

Lake Chad

Awash

Irrawaddy Bei Jiang/Hsi

Indus GangesBrahmaputraMeghna

Mekong

Salween

Nile

Volta

Saigon

Lake Turkana

Sanaga

Juba-Shibeli

Ogooue

Kunene Cuvelai Okavango

Ruvuma Sabi Limpopo

Orange

Thukela

Transboundary river basins of the world

64

46

Africa

Sepik Fly

PA R T 1 — A W O R L D O F WAT E R

La Plata

Zambezi

Tami

Pangani

Congo

North America

60

68

38

Asia

Europe

Global Figures on Transboundary Waters 148

countries include territory within one or more transboundary river basins

39

countries have more than 90% of their territory within one or more transboundary river basins Source: unwater.org

South America 21

lie entirely within one or more of these watersheds 27


28

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


2

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

PA RT 2

A CLOSER LOOK

29


CHAPTER 01

Water in Italy

A common good as a political project Emanuele Bompan

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Italy has played a globally recognized leading role in water management, use, accessibility and public policy. The country’s leadership is important both practically speaking, with excellent management and provision of services, and also from an ideological point of view. As noted by professor Ugo Mattei (University of Torino), “the massive Mexican mobilization campaign ‘Agua para todos, agua por la vida,’ is pushing an integrated water service reform that is specifically inspired by the 2015 proposal from Italian popular initiative.”

Italy’s international leadership role was established thanks to the work of a few enlightened individuals and to the work of many active citizens who affirmed that “water is a common good” through a 2011 referendum. Twenty-seven million Italians voted in favor. The Rodotà Commission, established by the Prodi Government to reform the Civil Code relating to public goods, first elaborated the legal concept of a common good in 2017. The topic is still open.

Public management as a gatekeeper for common goods has only been tested in Naples so far. While the Rodotà Commission’s text did not become law, it has found its way

into countless local regulations to guarantee access and good governance of water resources.

Under the Italy’s current legal system, water remains a local public service with general economic interest. All in Italy are guaranteed the right to a minimum quantity of water per capita (up to 50 liters per day, even in case of default). On the other hand, simply turning to public companies to entrust them with integrated water services is not always the first priority. Now emerging are companies with public capital competing to participate with the local authorities, and who are showing great vitality and innovation when compared to completely private entities. Italy however has a low confidence level for water in the home. According to Istat (Italy’s National Institute for Statistics), one out of three Italians does not drink tap water. According to a 2015 study by Altroconsumo, which took 35 samples of water from public drinking fountains in all regional capitals and in other particularly populous centers, tap water in Italy is good and high quality. Toping the ranks: Aosta, Ancona, Caserta, Perugia. How to defeat this crisis of confidence? Soon Italy will have to implement the European Directive 2015/1787, for a Water Security Plan, a system of holistic control. These measures should further confirm the quality of Italian water and reassure consumers.

Water management in Italy: different types of custody

34 follow the house model: the local authority manages its own service, without recourse to the external market, but establishes publicly controlled companies

13 have been stipulated with companies listed on regulated markets

72 custodies

12 are custodies in joint public-private ventures 7 are pluri-management custodies Source: Gruppo HERA

30

6 are entrusted in concession to third-capital companies: they are totally private operators


CHAPTER 01

Water in Italy

Trentino Alto Adige Aosta Valley Lombardy

Veneto

Friuli-VeneziaGiulia

Piedmont Emilia Romagna Liguria Marche

Tuscany

Domestic water withdrawal Million cubic meters 1 500

Umbria Abruzzo

500 Lazio

50

Molise

Water network dispersion 0

Puglia

25% Sardinia

60%

Campania

Basilicata

Wastewater treatment plants

Calabria

1 000 200 Source: ISTAT, data refers to 2012

Sicily

Fragmented water management

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

3 916 (Piedmont)

Management of water distribution Municipality or consortium of municipalities Enterprise with only public capital Enterprise with mainly public capital Enterprise with mainly private capital Private enterprise Note: The data shown in this map comes from sources updated to different moments, and it could not fully reflect the situation as per 2017 Sources: Portale dell’acqua, http://www.acqua.gov.it, accessed March 2017; Acqua Referata.

31


Austral Africa, contested water CHAPTER 02

In search of sustainable development in a region strongly impacted by climate change Marirosa Iannelli

Austral Africa is considered among the major emerging regions of the African continent. Progressive democratization, the difficult but firm exit from apartheid, and powerful development of the extraction, energy and agricultural industries, in particular in South Africa and Swaziland, have brought the region into the group of emerging countries, along with China and India. Numerous contradictions, however, remain. The increased use of natural resources, water in particular, to support industrialization and mining, and an excessive dependence on foreign markets for food products because of an agriculture industry that is poorly planned and strongly affected by the effects of climate change, is raising the issue of food safety. It is preventing millions of people from having adequate access to food and clean water, and is causing riots and internal migration.

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Energy implications The energy wasted every year in South Africa for producing food that is never consumed is estimated to be sufficient to power the City of Johannesburg for roughly 16 weeks 80% of the projected growth in crop production in developing countries will come yield increases and higher cropping intensities 8%

More energy required

Urbanisation

71%

CASE STUDY

32

ne ed rt po ns ra M or et

In South Africa, analysts have linked the social unrest in informal settlements, the mining sector and among farm workers during recent years to the rise in global food prices. South Africa’s mining riots in August 2012 coincided with record prices for maize and other basic food items. The xenophobic riots of 2008, which coincided with food riots around the world, were attributed to anger about foreigners competing for limited resources – arguably exacerbated by high food prices.

ed

POPULATION GROWTH

Changing class structure, food demand and food habits


CHAPTER 02

Nearly a third of available food is wasted or lost in the production chain: 10 million tons of food, out of over 31 million available, do not reach the population. This waste is significant for water consumption as well, since a fifth of water supplies are used to produce food products that will never be distributed. All this in the face of an increasingly unpredictable climate, which will bring a mounting average temperature beyond centigrade for the next ten years (with worst estimates predicting an increase of 4 degrees Celsius by 2050) and with heavy impacts on rainfall (up to 15 percent less in the next 30 years). It’s simple

enough to calculate that a 10 percent decrease of the rain level corresponds to a 4 percent decrease in corn production.

Lastly, land availability is dropping because of desertification and degradation. Only 13 percent of the land is arable, and only 3 percent of arable land is considered highly productive. If the region does not soon move towards more sustainable agriculture and more responsible water use, its entry into the club of emerging countries could be revoked, and social insecurity could greatly increase.

Water implications

Need for commercial irrigation to grow the food required

About 1.7 cubic kilometre of water is extracted from ground and surface water bodies to produce food that is subsequently wasted in South Africa This is around one of fifth South Africa’s total water withdrawals

10 million tonnes

31 million tonnes

More land for commercial farming needed to increase food production

More water for commercial irrigated farming

wasted food

In South Africa it is estimated that about 10 million tonnes of food is lost to waste in some form or other across the supply chain – from an estimated 31 million tonnes of food available South African

Climate change +0.7/1 C

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

food

Food waste

temperature rainfall

CLIMATE CHANGE

-10/15%

In Southern Africa temperature is predicted TO increase by up to 0.7 and 1 degree per decade and rainfall to decrease by between 10-15% by 2050

A bright future is possible cereal yields in Africa

d

Loss of ecological resilience reduces the productive capacity of an ecosystem, increasing food loss

Climate change affects ability to grow crops

cereal yields in developing world

1.2 tonnes

3 tonnes

Yield gaps could be exploited with given varieties and with known practices. Cereal yields in Africa have grown little and are still at around 1.2 tonnes per hectare, compared to an average yield of some 3 tonnes per hectare in the developing world as a whole Source: SAREP/USAID

33


Mega dams CHAPTER 03

330 dams in 74 countries.

Dams: sources of renewable energy and social and environmental issues Emanuele Bompan

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

The first dam dates from between 2950 and 2750 BC in Egypt. The purpose was to collect water for agriculture, which continued to be the main purpose until the late nineteenth century. In California, without the construction of 1400 dams beginning in 1850 the state would never have become the economic superpower that it is today. Only at the end of eighteenth century did water exploitation for hydroelectric energy begin with construction of the first mega dams like the Aswan (1902) and the colossal Hoover Dam (1932). Today over 900,000 dams are estimated to exist worldwide, including 40,000 on a large scale. Population growth and the growing demand for water in recent years has accelerated the construction of mega dams, thanks also to the central role of large Chinese lenders who have financed

Dam

Location Construction began

After the construction of the largest dam in the world, the Three Gorges Dam (18.2 gigawatts), China now has a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The country wants to build one hundred mega dams. Many of the dams will be along transboundary rivers, which is arousing concern from India and southeastern Asian countries. Brazil has also decided to invest heavily in constructing hydroelectric plants in the Amazon. Over forty are projects in the Tapajós basin. The goal is to produce 25 gigawatts of hydraulic energy by 2025. Last but not least are the African countries; Ethiopia and The Republic of Congo in particular are developing several important projects thanks to Chinese and international funding. While dams offer energy and water security, in many cases they have devastating effects on biodiversity, food security and the security of the local populations. Local inhabitants are often relocated without adequate compensation to poorly built, poorly planned shantytowns. The Three Gorges Dam alone has caused the displacement of over 1.2 million people. The smallest, Merowe Dam in Sudan, has forced over 50,000 people to relocate. No financial compensation was paid.

Generating Capacity

Lake Volta, Ghana

Funders

Opening date Cost Reservoir Surface Area

1960

Churchill Falls Generating Station

1965

161 million dollars � ��� km² 80 000

Zhiguli Dam

Smallwood Reservoir, Canada

2 404 MW

Kuybyshev Reservoir, sixth in the Volga Kama Dam Cascade, Russia

British Newfoundland Development Corporation

1967

Ex-Im Bank, likely others

People displaced

5 428 MW

950 million dollars

1 040 MW

Akosombo Dam

1974

1950

� ��� km²

1957

Unknown data � ��� km²

Multiple villages and towns had to be resettled

Unknown displacement, considered ethnic cleansing for flooding traditional hunting grounds of Innu people

11 223 MW

Belo Monte Dam Complex Altamira Reservoir, Brazil

16 000 million dollars

34

Brazilian National Development Bank, Norte Energia consortium, unknown private banks

planned Altamira dam upstream: 6 140 km²

��� km²

2011

2016–2019

30 000

Source: International Rivers


CHAPTER 03

1 626 MW

Kariba Dam/ Lake Kariba

Bratsk Dam

Lake Kariba, Zambia – Zimbabwe

� ��� km²

Lake Nasser, Egypt

2 100 MW

Unknown data

356.2 MW

Rybinsk Hydroelectric Station

Rybinsk Reservoir, Third in the Volga-Kama Dam Cascade, Russia European Bank for Reconstruction and Development is funding rehabilitation

1970

1935

� ��� km²

Guri Dam

1950

Unknown data � ��� km²

120 000

10 235 MW

150.000

1 050 MW

Sobradinho Dam

Lake Guri, Venezuela 1963

1967

Unknown data � ��� km²

57 000

Soviet Union

1960

1954

480 million dollars

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

1959

Aswan Dam

1.120 million dollars

Bratsk Reservoir, Russia

World Bank, likely others

1955

4 500 MW

Sobradinho Reservoir, Brazil

World Bank

Inter-American Development Bank 1973

1978

85 million dollars � ��� km²

1979

� ��� km²

Many indigenous tribes

650 million dollars 70 000

18 200 MW

Three Gorges Dam Yangtze River, China Chinese government

1994

2003

� ��� km²

more than 1.2 million

27 600 million dollars

35


CHAPTER 04

Mekong

States bordering the south-east Asian giant dispute over the river’s water basin, which could lead to open conflict

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Emanuele Bompan

The Mekong, whose name means “Mother of Water,” is considered the giant of Indochina. The River is the twelfth in the world in terms of capacity at 475 cubic kilometers per year. The Mekong’s length is estimated at 4880 kilometers and the basin has a width of 8100,000 square kilometers. From the Tibetan plateau, the river flows through China’s Yunnan province, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Over 200 million people depend on the river for sustenance. Along the Mekong’s long path, over sixty million people rely on its waters for rice crops and as a resource for the fishing industry. For thousands of years the river’s abundance has enabled prosperous kingdoms like the Khmer to flourish. The river has supported hundreds of indigenous communities that have always lived in harmony with the Mekong. In recent years, however, a number of factors are altering this balance. The most significant are the construction of over 39 mega dams along its pathway, the modification of the water levels because of climate change and increased water

extractions. “Future water shortages threaten to slow down the key sector for alleviating poverty in Southeast Asia: agriculture,” says Brahma Chellaney, author of Water, Asia’s New Battleground. “The risk is likely to explode political tensions surrounding the Mekong if the states do not cooperate to face these new challenges.” Dams in particular are considered as an element of destruction. China has built seven large hydroelectric plants in the Upper Mekong, while twenty others are in planning phases. In the southern part of the basin, 11 dams are planned. These dams are mostly in Laos, one of the poorest countries of Asia. Laos aspires to become Asia’s hydroelectric battery, with a production potential of 26 gigawatts. An energy boom, but at what cost? The organization International Rivers confirms that, “dams could significantly reduce fishing, restrict the flow of sediments and elements for agriculture, impact food security and jeopardize the Mekong Delta, in addition to forcing tens of thousands of inhabitants to relocate.”

Country areas in the Mekong river basin Area of Mekong river basin (km2)

Mekong river basin area % of Southeast Asia

Countries Area of country Included in basin (km2) China

Source: fao.org

36

3.8

21

24 000

3

202 000

25

Thailand

184 000

23

Cambodia

155 000

20

Viet Nam

65 000

8

Myanmar 795 000

165 000

As % of total area of the basin

Lao PDR

As % of total area of the country 2 4 85 36 86 20


CHAPTER 04

Mekong river trapped by hydroelectric dams Dongzhong t Guoduo Lin Chang Kagong

Ru Mei Guxue Gushui Wunonglong Lidi Huangdeng Xi'er He Dams

Dahuaqiao Miaowei XunCun

Xiaowan Laoyinyan Nanhe 2 Dachaoshan Nanhe 1

Manwan Dam

C HINA

Luozhahe 1 Dam Luozhahe 2 Dam

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Gongguoqiao

Nuozhadu

M YA N M A R

Jinghong Ganlanba

V IETNAM

Jinfeng

Hanoi

Luangprabang Nam Tha 1

Nam Ou Dams Nam Khan Nam Ngum 5 Nam Chian 1 Nam San 3A

Nam Beng

Naypyidaw

Pak Beng Xayaburi Nam Pha Gnai Dam Nam Lik 1-2 Pak Lay Santhong-Pakchom

Yangoon

Nam Ngiep Dams

Sanakham

Nam Ngum

Chulabhorn

Theun-Hinboun Nam Theun 2

Nam Leuk Dam

L AOS Houay Por

Ubol Ratana

A Luoi

Ban Kum Xeset

T HAILAND Lam Ta Khong

Latsua Pak Mun Siridhorn

Hydroelectric dams Operational

Bangkok

Under construction

Stung Treng Battambang 1

Proposed

Installed capacity MegaWatts

Xepian-X.

Don Sahong

5 850

C AMBODIA

Nam Kong

Houay Lamphan Houayho Xe Kaman 3 Nam Bi 2 Dams Xekaman-Sanxay Plei Krong Sesan 3 Sesan 3A Yali Falls

Lower Sesan 2 Sambor

Sesan 4 Sre Pok 3 Dray Hinh 2 Buon Kop Buon Tua Srah

Phnom Penh

2 000 1 000 500 100 Sources: WLE 2017. Dataset on the Dams of the Irrawaddy, Mekong, Red and Salween River Basins. Vientiane, Lao PDR: CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems - Greater Mekong. https://wle-mekong.cgiar.org/maps/

37


CHAPTER 05

Ethiopia

Mega dams, between development and watergrabbing Marirosa Iannelli

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Ethiopia is one of Africa’s fastest-growing economies. The country still lives today principally from agriculture, with more than 80 percent of the population made up of small farmers. In the last 10 years the country has suffered heavy soil and natural resources degradation, which have compromised the river basins in particular that are more and more subject to erosion and sedimentation.

To address these critical issues, develop the economy and increase access to an electrical network that is among the lowest on the planet, in the ‘80s the Ethiopian government approved construction of a large series of hydroelectric dams. Two of these, the Gibe III (part of a hydroelectric cascade of 5 dams) and the imposing Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (6450 megawatts) – one completed, the other in construction – will triple the country’s power generation. The Gilgel Gibe group is considered by many organizations and political figures as a highly controversial project because of the impacts on the Omo River and Lake

Mega dams

Turkana basins, the latter the largest lake in Africa’s desert region. The Turkana basin supports around 350,000 people, and receives more than 90 percent of its water from the Omo River. In recent years the lake, already hit by climate change, has receded dramatically. The change has exponentially increased its salinity. The changes are due to the water level monitoring of the construction of the Gibe III dam, and the construction of immense agribusiness projects, mainly for sugar refining and ethanol, supported by the dam reservoirs.

Hundreds of thousands of people along the Omo are directly affected by the dam and by crops, with tens of thousands relocated in five new towns and dozens of farming villages around the plantations. Many communities of the 42 tribes of the Province of Southern Nations cannot count on the support of silt and water from the Omo’s flooding. This is a heavy problem for the livelihood of the farmers used to planting crops along the banks of the river every year, and the flooding also marked the beginning of fish migration and was fundamental for livestock.

Production capacity

6 500 GWh/year

6 450 GWh/year

Koysha

Omo river, Ethiopia Cost 2 500 million dollars

Reservoir Surface Area ��� km²

Construction began and opening date

GIBE III

Fiume Omo, Ethiopia

2016–ongoing

2006

��� km²

people displaced: data not available

people displaced: data not available

2016 1 470 million dollars

15 000 GWh/year

GERD

Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia � ��� km²

38

2011

2017

4 800 million dollars

at least 20,000 people displaced

Source: salini-impregilo.com


CHAPTER 05

Omo river valley, between dams and monoculture Addis Ababa

Nazret

Giyon

Gore GIBE I 180 MW

GIBE II 420 MW

Jima

Asela

Hosaina

E THIOPIA

Shashemene Awasa

Sodo

Dila

GIBE IV 2 200 MW Maji

Arba Minch

Jinka

Thirsty monocultures

Key Afer

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Yirga Alem

GIBE III 1 870 MW

Dimeka Turmi

Sugarcane development concession Farmland

Sugarcane plantation Operational Developing 0

K E N YA

Lake Turkana

5

10 Km

Lake shrinkng

Ferguson Gulf Lodwar

Water receding, 2014-2016 0

1

2 Km

Sources: Human Rights Watch, Ethiopia: Dams, Plantations a Threat to Kenyans, 2017; National Geographics; Salini-Impregilo.

39


CHAPTER 06

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Brazil

The water crisis and growing investments in hydroelectric projects Marirosa Iannelli

Brazil has one-fifth of the world’s water reserves, yet periodically suffers from severe water shortages. The reasons are many. Natural aquifers are unevenly geographically distributed, with a water-rich North and constant shortages in the South. Climate change has had important effects on rainfall in arid areas by slowing the refilling of ground aquifers subject to large extraction. The environmental factors are exacerbated since the economy is firmly built on agriculture and livestock, which according to Agência Nacional de Àguas are responsible for 72 percent of water consumption (Brazil is the second largest exporter of food products). To complete an insufficient regulatory and political framework, there is a total absence of sustainable management policies for groundwater and renewal of water infrastructure, including those for hygiene.

This imbalance has led to a greatly unstable situation that exploded in 2016 with an extended waterrationing program for 30 million citizens in the metropolitan area of San Paolo and in many other regions of the South American country. For months, many industries lived in dread of having to stop production because of water scarcity. Also at risk was the agricultural industry, which is worth 8.4 percent of GDP and has seen a dangerous decrease in water availability in the dry season. Unfortunately, the worst is not past. In the next decade the water levy is expected to grow substantially. But at the end of 2016 less than 20 percent of irrigated land had access to efficient irrigation systems. The diagnosis is clear: the country needs to invest in more sustainable models of agriculture, upgrade water infrastructure, 40

and support water recycling and reuse systems in industrial production. For the moment, the government’s focus is entirely turned to the dams. Hydroelectric plants produce sixty-two percent of Brazil’s energy. But the demand for electricity is rising, as is demand for water. For this reason the state wants to install 25-gigawatts of hydropower by 2024, creating huge basins and waterways. The beneficiaries, however, will not be Brazil’s citizens (only 79 percent have a water faucet at home), but the large agribusiness families. The water taken from them will be used to grow extensive soy plantations for export on deforested land in the Amazon forest.

Brazilian Amazon: the most water consuming activities

Agriculture Pasture Source: IBGE online mapping tool


CHAPTER 06

Big hydroelectric dams in the Amazon river basin

V ENEZUELA

G U YA N A F RENCH G UIANA

S URINAME

B ra

nco

C OLOMBIA

Jar i

Maicuru

azon a s

Iriri

Ta p

Am

a js

Japur

a

u Jur d

eira

Xin

Ma

g

u

Santo Antonio

Belo Monte Teles Pires

P ur s xi

It u

Jirau

Acre

B RAZIL

Jip n ara

P ERU

xi

m

J uruena

Ja m a n

s Pires ele

T

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

São Luiz do Tapajós

Ju t

Amazon river basin Intact forest landscape* * Unbroken expanse of natural ecosystems within the zone of current forest extent, showing no signs of significant human activity and large enough that all native biodiversity, including viable populations of wide-ranging species, could be maintained

B OLIVIA

Hydro power plants Existing In construction Proposed

P A R A G U AY

Installed capacity MegaWatts

11 200

5 000 2 500

A RGENTINA

1 000 100 Sources: Fundación Proteger, International Rivers, ECOA, Dams in Amazonia, accessed March 2017, Intact Forest Landscape, accessed March 2017

41


South Africa CHAPTER 07

Emanuele Bompan

The mining industry is at the root of water contamination and heavy water extraction South Africa, one of the most developed economies on the continent, has been exposed for years to a complex water crisis. Guilty parties are climate change and poor water management by the mining and energy industries.

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Regarding the climate, analyses by IPCC scientists show how global-warming-induced changes will have severe impacts on water availability in the region. Rainfall will decrease during the dry season and extreme weather patterns will worsen during the rainy season. South Africa currently receives an average of 492 millimeters of water per year (the world average is 985 millimeters). Compounding the situation, the mining industry alone consumes 10.5 percent of all available water.

Coal mining water consumption/extraction Consumption (m3/metric tonne)

Withdrawal (m /metric tonne) �

Surface mining Underground mining

1. Mining

Minimum

�.���

Coal is most impactful industry in terms of water and environmental impact. Coal requires enormous quantities of water in the mines as well as in thermal power plants where the water is used for cooling the steam from the turbines. Despite the tremendous impacts on water and emissions (and South Africa recently signed the Paris Agreement to fight climate change), the country is heavily investing in coal plants. Between 2017 and 2018 two colossal plants will begin operations: the Medupi power plant (4.8 gigawatt) and the Kusile plant (also 4.8 gigawatt). In total the two plants will consume about 142 million liters of water per day.

Maximun

Median

��.���

��.���

0.054

0.200

0.154 �.���

0.509 �.���

0.527 2.091 �.���

Mine dewatering

Mine

Mine slurry pond

Acid mine drainage

2. Washing

Mines are a key industry for the country. South Africa possesses 3.5 percent of the world’s coal reserves, and extracts 8 million carats of diamonds each year. It owns more than 80 percent of platinum and 12 percent of the world’s gold. Both are extracted from giant South African mines, the largest over 3900 meters deep. South Africa is ranked the fifth state in the world by mining industry value. The mines are so numerous that no one really knows exactly how many there are, especially since many are managed semi-officially, without rules and without supervision. The impacts are significant. One of the mines’ consequences is acid drainage, which is a compound of dissolved toxic substances from the water used for extraction or from infiltrations in abandoned mines.

Contaminated groundwater

Coal-washery

42 20

Coal slurry pond


CHAPTER 07

Polokwane

Black water

Matimba

Water demanding coal powerplants of South Africa

Medupi

LIMPOPO

Coal powerplants Installed capacity 4 800

North West

2 000 1 000 500 180

Pretoria

Existing plant Plant under construction Annual water consumption of coal power plants Million cubic meters

Arnot

Kendal Johannesburg

Hendrina

50 Kusile

Komati

30

Marla

“Wet cooling” technology

20

10

Majuba

Mining Operational coal mine Abandoned mine “Dry cooling”

0

Camden

Tutuka

GAUTENG

Water stress Severe water gap between Kroonstad existing supply and projected demand in 2030

Nkwazulu-Natal

Sources: Water Research Commission, Long Term Forecasts Of Water Usage For Electricity Generation: South Africa 2030, 2015; The 2030 Water Resources Group, Charting Our Water Future, 2009; http://globalenergyobservatory.org, accessed March 2017

Water use for cooling tower, coal fired power plants Minimum subcritical supercritical

3. Cooling

�.�� 0.76

1.74 �.��

Median

Withdrawal (m�/MWh)

4.92 �.��

Acid rain

1.89 �.��

2.23 �.��

Furnace Scrubber Smoke stack Cooling water

Consumption (m3/MWh)

Maximun

�.�� 2.01

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

MPUMALANGA

40

4. Waste Coal ash pond

Slurry pond may break and flood the area with toxic waste

Scrubbing – Water use 4.92 m3/M

Dry coal ash

Source: “The Great Water Grab. How the Coal Industry is Deepening the Global. Water Crisis” Greenpeace, ����

43 21


CHAPTER 08

Occupied Palestinian Territory

Militarisation of water resources is one of the key obstacles to peace in the Holy Land

“Divide et impera” Divide and conquer

Separation wall and the control of the territory Green line: armistice line that constitutes the de facto internationally recognised border between Israel and Palestine Separation wall built by Israel

The green line deviation 0

100

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Emanuele Bompan

Water control means controlling a strategic resource in order to exercise political control on a territory. One of the clearest examples is the Palestinian/Israeli conflict, a never-ending tragedy that has gone on for nearly seventy years. Following the 1967 occupation of West Bank and Gaza, the Israeli army has pursued a policy of monopolizing water access (military orders 92 and 291). They have limited the construction of new wells and have monitored water supplied to the outside through Israeli utilities. The Oslo Peace Accords in 1995 sought a solution to ensure water access for the Palestinians. However, the failure of the peace process froze into a stalemate, where control remains with the Israeli military.

For Palestinians, the Oslo Peace Accord’s goals (which were intended as temporary pending full sovereignty) remain the only framework they have available. Water is one of the five key points in the agreement. It demands fair use for both peoples, with equal per capita consumption. The reality however is far from the purposed agreement: each Palestinian has an average availability of 70 liters per day, while each Israeli has on average 280, and inhabitants of Israeli colonies consume 350 liters per day. In addition to the Israeli occupation, the Palestinian authorities have been incapable of intelligently managing what little, poor infrastructure is available.

The solution has worsened in recent years, in particular for the residents in area C, the section of the West Bank under Israeli military authority. Israel continues to expand their settlements, which the United Nations considers illegal. Given the Palestinian Authority’s political impotence and lack of interest in the Bedouin minority, more than 150,000 residents have little access to water. In many cases people have to carry water in tanks and barrels from the source, in spite of the proximity of the water network that serves Israeli settlements. 44

200

300

400

500

600

700 Km

Only 20% of the “wall” coincides with the path of the green line 5% of the fence is an actual wall, the rest is constituted by a complex system of trenches, check points, electronic devices and guards Palestinian built up Area Area under the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) civil control and security authority (Area A) Area under Palestinian civil administration, Israel retains exclusive security control with limited cooperation from the Palestinian police (Area B) Palestinian territory fully controlled by Israel

(Area C)

Israeli settlements in Palestinian territory Settlement built-up , outer limit and municipal area under full control of Israel

Water resources control Daily water consumption Liters per capita 300 (Israel national average) 162 100 (WHO recommended limit) 42 Palestinian springs aquired through the wall or through the settlements Palestinian springs risking acquisition

Sources: UN-OCHA, How Dispossession Happens, 2012; B'Tselem - The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, 2013; Accordi di Oslo II; Amnesty International, Troubled Waters – Palestinians Denied Fair Access to Water, 2009; UN-OCHA, Humanitarian Atlas, 2012.


CHAPTER 08

Jenin

C ISGIORDANIA

W EST B ANK

Tulkarim

Tubas

Nablus

J ORDAN

I SRAEL

Ramallah Jerico

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Qalqillya

EAST JERUSALEM

Betlemme

Hebron

Dead Sea

45


CHAPTER 09

Equity EQUITY IN FINANCE

Ghana

Access to water and public health at risk: the commodification of water resources

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

Marirosa Iannelli

Ghana is one of the West African States classified by the World Bank as a middle-income country. Growing urbanization over the past decade in the metropolises, particularly in the capital, Accra, has not led to adequate redistribution of wealth. Inequality has caused environmental and social degradation. What makes social tensions even more acute is the privatization of the water industry. In 2016, thanks to $120 million in funding from the World Bank for privatizing water resources, the country has experienced five years of a disastrous public-private water management project between the state-run Ghana Water Company and the multinational Dutch-South African Aqua Vitens Rand Ltd.

In 2011, numerous protests followed the expiration of the agreement from a civil society in turmoil both because of water waste from old, unrepaired water networks – about 50 percent of water in the pipes was lost – and also because of the costs, which increased by 80 percent over the last five years. The mobilization process culminated in the State obtaining exclusive management of water and hygienic-sanitary services. Despite water having been recognized by the Constitution of Ghana as a fundamental human right, this legal significance has not been enough to ensure adequate water provisions for the country’s whole population.

A prime example of the absence of a concrete human right to water is the “pre-paid water” system, where a prepaid card is required to buy water. This system excludes anyone who does not have money to pay upfront for what they consume, and prevents water access to the most needy families. Today access to drinking water is still insufficient: 3.5 million citizens have inadequate access, especially in urban areas. Hygienic services are also a true emergency in the country: 87 percent of Ghanaians (more than 21 million people) have no access to basic sanitation services, and 80 percent of childhood diseases result from unsafe water and aquifer pollution. Private toilets are considered a luxury and public ones are prohibitively expensive. Poor sanitary conditions related to limited access to water and toilets have spiked an increase in the spread of diseases like typhoid, cholera and dracunculiasis, an infection by subcutaneous parasites. 46

Urban vs. rural WASH funding Urban

Rural

13% 87%

Disaggregated WASH expenditure Drinking-water Sanitation

4% 96%

Population with access to improved sanitation facilities Improved Unserved sanitation access

14% 86%

Population with access to improved drinking-water sources Improved Unserved drinking-water access

13% 87%


CHAPTER 09

Governance LEAD INSTITUTIONS

SANITATION

Ministry of Water Resource, Works and Housing

Water Directorate

Community Water and Sanitation Agency Ghana Water Company Limited

DRINKING-WATER

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development

Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies

Ministry of Health/Ghana Health Service

HYGIENE PROMOTION

Ministry of Education/Ghana Education Service/School Health Education Programme

Urban sanitation Rural sanitation

COVERAGE TARGET (%)

Year

61

2015

68

Sanitation in schools

100

Urban drinking-water supply

100

Sanitation in health facilities Rural drinking-water supply

Drinking-water in schools

100 100 75

Drinking-water in health facilities

100

Hygiene promotion in schools

100

Hygiene promotion

Hygiene promotion in health facilities

43

100

2015

PA RT 2 — A C L O S E R L O O K

PLAN AND TARGETS FOR IMPROVED SERVICES

2015 2013 2025 2025 2020 2015 2015 2015 2013

Financing WASH VS. OTHER EXPENDITURE DATA Total WASH expenditure 493 M.USD

Expenditure as a % GDP Education

6.8

WASH

0.5

Health

5.2 Source: hwho.int

47


48

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


WAT E R G R A B B I N G

“Saving our planet, lifting people out of poverty, advancing economic growth... these are one and the same fight. We must connect the dots between climate change, water scarcity, energy shortages, global health, food security and women’s empowerment. Solutions to one problem must be solutions for all.” Ban Ki-moon

49


Bibliography PART 1

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

A planet of water More people and less water in a world beset by climate change Franco J., Feodoroff T., Kay S., Kishimoto S., Pracucci G., “The global water grab”, TNI, Amsterdam, 2014 Un Water website http://www.unwater.org/ SDGs website https://sustainabledevelopment. un.org/sdgs

| The human right to water and sanitation Limits and progress on the journey to make this a reality “Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 28 July 2010 [without reference to a Main Committee (A/64/L.63/Rev.1 and Add.1)] 64/292. The human right to water and sanitation”, UN, 2010 “General Comment No. 15. The right to water” , UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, November , 2002 “Resolution Adopted by General Assembly on 17 December 2015- 70/169 The human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation”, UN, 2015 “Investing in water and Sanitation: increasing access, reducing inequalities – Special report for sanitation and water for all (SWA) High-Level Meeting (HLM) 2014” , UN Water, 2014 “National Human Right Institution and Water Governance”, Water Lex, 2015 SDGS website https://sustainabledevelopment. un.org/topics/waterandsanitation Hygiene for all Guaranteed access to water is foundational to a person’s health and dignity - especially for women Vandana Shiva, Making peace with the earth. Beyond resource, land and food wars, Paperback, 2012 https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/03/07/simpleneeds-many-women-out-reach https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/02/14/humanrights-watch-submission-gender-equality-specialrapporteur-human-right-safe https://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ resources/JMP_report_2014_webEng.pdf

Water as a common good? The global situation of public and private management, with a look at bottled water consumption Kishimoto S., “The mirage of public-private water”, TNI, Amsterdam, 2015 Kishimoto S., Lobina E.,Petitjean O., “Our Public Water 50

Future”, TNI, PIRU, MPS, EPSU, Amsterdam, 2015 Kishimoto S., Lobina E.,Petitjean O., “Here to stay: water remunisipalisation as a global trend”, TNI, PSIRU, Multinational Observatory, 2014

Virtual Water How much is necessary to produce food and products for everyday use? Allan T., Lant C., Merret S., “Virtual Water - The Water, Food, and Trade Nexus Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor?”, IWRA, Water International, London, United Kingdom, 2003 Antonelli M., Sartori M., “Unfolding the potential of virtual water concept: what is still under debate?”, IEFE, The center for research on Energy and Environmental Economics and Policy at Bocconi University, Milano, 2014 Hoekstra A.I., Chapagain A.K., Aldaya M.M, Mekonnen M., “The water footprint assessment manual” Waterfootprint Network, London , Washington, DC, 2011 http://waterfootprint.org/en/ http://www.angelamorelli.com/water/

Water, food and conflicts Here come the water wars: conflicts over water Chellaney B., “Water: Asia new battleground”, GeorgeTown University Press, Washington, D.C., 2013 Chellaney B., Water, Peace, and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis, Rowman & LittleField, Boulder, 2015 Raines Ward D., “Water Wars: Drought, Flood, Folly, and the Politics of Thirst”, Riverhead Books, New York 2003 WWAP (World Water Assessment Programmme) , “World Water Development Report 4: Managing Water under Uncertainty and Risk”, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, 2014 Water and Energy The production of hydroelectric power, its benefits and its effects on economies and populations International Energy Agency, “Water for Energy: is Energy becoming a thirstier resource?”, IEN, Paris, 2012 Macknick J., “A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies”, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, United States, 2011 Land and Water Grabbing Land and water usurped from the inhabitants of a


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Transboundary waters Water management of large transnational waterways, such as in China, Austral Africa, and the Himalaya Jacobs JW, “The Mekong River Commission: transboundary water resources planning and regional security”, The Geographical Journal Vol 168, No. 2, 2002. Un Water, “Transboundary waters, sharing benefits, sharing responsabilities”, UN WATER, 2010 Zeitoun M, Naho M., “Transboundary water interaction I: Reconsidering conflict and cooperation”. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics Vol. 8, No. 4, 2008 PART 2

Water in Italy A common good as a political project Mattei U., “Beni comuni, un manifesto”, Laterza, 2011 Martinelli L., “L’acqua (non) è una merce”, Milano, Altreconomia, 2011 Petrella R., “Il manifesto dell’acqua”, Gruppo Abele Edizioni, 2013 Austral Africa, contested water In search of sustainable development in a region strongly impacted by climate change The Hight Level Panel of Expert of Food Security and Nutrition, “Water for food security and nutrition”, FAO, Roma, 2015 FAO, World Water Council, “Towards a water and food secure future”, FAO, Roma, Marsiglia, 2015 Mega dams Dams: sources of renewable energy and social and environmental issues Jobin W., “Dams and Disease: Ecological Design and Health Impacts of Large Dams, Canals and Irrigation System”, E&FN Spon, London, 1999.

Fahim H., Dams, People, and Development: The Aswan High Dam Case, Pergamon Press, New York, 1981. USGS website https://www.usgs.gov/

Mekong States bordering the south-east Asian giant dispute over the river’s water basin, which could lead to open conflict Chellaney B., “Water: Asia new battleground”, GeorgeTown University Press, Washington, D.C., 2013 International Rivers website https://www. internationalrivers.org/ Ethiopia Mega dams, between development and watergrabbing Avery S., “What future for lake Turkana?”, University of Oxford Press, Oxford, 2014 Carr C., “Humanitarian catastrophe and regional armed conflict brewing in the transborder region of Ethiopia, Kenya and South Sudan”, University of California Berkley Press, California, 2013 Survival International website http://www. survivalinternational.org/

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

territory, a connected phenomenon Franco J., Feodoroff T., Kay S., Kishimoto S., Pracucci G., “The global water grab”, TNI, Amsterdam, 2014 Franco J., Borras S., Alonso-Fradejas A., Bruxton N., Herre R., Kay S., Feodoroff T., “The global land grab”, TNI, Amsterdam, 2014 Rulli M.C., Saviori A., D’Odorico P, “Global Land and Water Grabbing,” Vol. 110, No. 3, PNAS, 2013 GRAIN, “The global farmland grab in 2016 – How big, how bad”, GRAIN , 2016 Land Matrix website http://www.landmatrix.org/en/

South Africa The mining industry is at the root of water contamination and heavy water extraction Groenewald Y., “Coal’s hidden water cost to South Africa”, Greenpeace Africa, SouthAfrica, 2012 WWF-SA, “Facts and futures: rethinking South Africa’s Water Future”, WWF, Cape Town, South Africa, 2016 Occupied Palestinian Territory Militarisation of water resources is one of the key obstacles to peace in the Holy Land Gasteyer S., Isaac J., Hillal J., Walsh S., “Water Grabbing in colonial perspective: Land and Water in Israel/Palestine”, Water Alternatives, 2012

Brazil The water crisis and growing investments in hydroelectric projects International Rivers website https://www. internationalrivers.org/ Dams in Amazonia website http://dams-info.org/en

Ghana Access to water and public health at risk: the commodification of water resources Water.ORG website http://water.org/country/ghana/ SWA, “The Ghana Compact”, Water and Sanitation for all, Accra, 2014 Cardascia S., Lembo R., “Ghana quando l’acqua diventa merce”, COSPE, Firenze, 2014 51


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WAT E R G R A B B I N G


T HIS P ROJE C T IS SU P P ORTE D BY:

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

UN DE R TH E PATRONAGE OF:

IN C OLLA B OR ATION W ITH :

53


54

WAT E R G R A B B I N G


No text of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, recording, or other electronic or mechanical methods, without the prior written permission of the publisher, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law

Maps and graphics may be used and distributed freely for educational and non-commercial purposes. For any form of publication please give credit to Pravettoni (maps) and Fragapane (infographics).

WAT E R G R A B B I N G

A L L R I G H T S R E S E RV E D

55

Watergrabbing - An Atlas of Water  
Watergrabbing - An Atlas of Water  

What is the future of water? How much water is available? Who doesn’t have any? “Watergrabbing – an Atlas of Water” aims to provide a framew...

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