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CONTENTS

Cover Story

6-10

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²FÀFIY SXWXF W`X dIY³³FüSX

Paradise Lost Its pristine beauty has attracted rulers for centuries together who even waged wars to rule the 'Paradise.' Due to its abundant glaciers which feed almost the whole sub-continent including India and Pakistan, Kashmir is also known as 'Water Tower...

10-13

Himalayas

13-14

Siting on a Tinder Box While one section believes that cracks are being caused because of abscence of drainage system others claimed that hydro electric projects which have been mushrooming in the area were the main cause because for these projects explosives...

18-20

Denuding Forest Cover

In fact, a series of political movements during last two decades have resulted in making the situation worse.The fact is that after the end of the Gorkhaland movement in 90's there had been a spurt in tourism which led to illegal construction on a large... Contribution Amout :

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India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the...

25/-

22-23

24-25

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26-27

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29-30

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Disaster Management & Development (DMD) welcomes/ invites reaction, suggestions, articles, subscription related enquries from our valued readers. Please write/ mail us at : The Editor, Disaster management & Development, 1/122, Vijay Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow- 226010, U.P., INDIA e-mail : editor@disastermgmt.in

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011


Dear Readers,

Vol. 1, No. 2

February 2011

Chief Editor Dr. BHANU Managing Editor AP SINGH Editorial Consultant Savita Verma Reporting Team Sunita Mall Reeta Tiwari Anjana Singh Sanjeev Srivastava SK Singh Vijay Vineet

Editorial Office Disaster Management & Development 1/122, Vijay Khand, Gomti Nagar Lucknow- 226010, U.P., INDIA. Tele-Fax : + 91522-2304853 E-mail : editor@disastermgmt.in

Created by Kash Media Planet Pvt. Ltd. E-mail : kashmediaplanet@gmail.com Published by Dr Bhanu on behalf of Poorvanchal Gramin Vikas Sansthan 1/122 Vijay Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow- 226010 and printed at Neelam Printing Press 41/381 Narhi, Lucknow- 226001.

India’s 1st Bilingual Monthly Publication on Disaster Management by

POORVANCHAL GRAMIN VIKAS SANSTHAN e-mail : pgvs.vasudeva@gmail.com

website : www.pgvsindia.org

PGVS Educates Communities & Institutions to Plan for Minimizing Disaster Risk

PGVS has started publishing “Disaster Management & Development (DMD)” magazine in January 2011. In it’s inaugural issue DMD has taken up the Tehri issue at length. It is intended to educate the citizens that “Single disaster can wipe out the developmental gains of decades”. Hence Reducing the Disaster Risk (DRR) in all developmental programs (Mainstreaming DRR) is the only way for sustainable development. The purpose of touching Himalaya in the begining itself, is with a firm belief that it's biodiversity conservation is very important for the survival of Asian countries inhabitants. We know that 60 million years ago Tethys sea was situated in place of Himalaya and it originated due to undercurrent of tectonic plates in the earth mass. Hence it becomes very important to know our land and implications of over exploitation of its resources. The issue before you is focused on Himalayas to understand and discuss it in detail. These on ground stories are from Kashmir, Himanchal, West Bengal, Sikkim and Uttarakhand. These stories on Himalaya have been written by different senior environment journalists. DMD is a monthly publication and it’s every issue shall be focused on certain themes. Next issue (March 2011) shall be focused on water. Kashmir has been a major attraction for tourists across the globe. It is very beautiful in all seasons. However, during the past few years, the state has been experiencing an erratic climate pattern. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is blessed with snow-clad mountains, gushing streams, mesmerizing landscapes guarded by lush green forests. Owing to its natural beauty, Kashmir is called a 'Paradise on Earth'. World's mountain glaciers are decreasing rapidly and many of which are already gone during this century. Studies have shown that 90 percent of mountain glaciers worldwide are visibly retreating as the planet warms. Their shrinking will lead to floods and acute water scarcity. Melting of the glaciers is contributing to floods in that region. But the most immediate, current, and long-term problem associated with disappearing glaciers will be water shortages leading to devastating droughts. Ecological Science has come with the concept of "planetary boundaries," in which nine critical boundaries/thresholds of the earth system have been recognised in relation to: (1) climate change (2) ocean acidification (3) stratospheric ozone depletion (4) the biogeochemical flow boundary (the nitrogen cycle and the phosphorus cycles) (5) global freshwater use (6) change in land use (7) biodiversity loss (8) atmospheric aerosol loading and (9) chemical pollution. Each of these is considered essential to maintaining the relatively benign climate and environmental conditions that have existed during the last twelve thousand years (the Holocene Epoch). The sustainable boundaries in three of these systems-climate change, biodiversity, and human interference with the nitrogen cycle-may have already been crossed. It is clear that approximately half of humanity-over three billion people, living in deep poverty need to have access to the requirements for a basic human existence such as housing, a secure food supply, clean water, and medical care. Though in the last few years a number of initiatives have been taken by the Government of India to strengthen and institutionalize the Disaster Management in India. In 2009 the GOI has announced a National Policy on Disaster Management following the National Disaster Management Act which came in 2005. In the past budgets the focus was always on the provisions for the expenditure on National Disaster Management programmes (both Natural & Man-Made disasters) to provide post disaster relief to the victims of disasters. In the budget provisions for 2010-11 Rs 545.86 Crore have been allocated for Disaster Management but again it was for the post disaster relief and nothing very significant efforts was being made on the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) front. Now its high time to make a significat contribution in Reducing Risks and review our roles for saving the planet - Earth. Dr. Bhanu

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 3


Letters agement. Apart from this articles Review: DM Act & Policy in India and Disaster Management Policy are very informative and analytical, which gives clarity on the subject and also suggests how to go about. All the very best to the editorial team of this magazine. Dr H.K.Pillai, Disaster Management Consultant, Chennai.

Excellent beginning

An Appreciable Effort Seen the first issue of "Disaster Management & Development" magazine. It's a very good effort to address the issues related to disasters and development. The editorial "Why this magazine on disaster management" clearly states in detail why a magazine on this issue was really needed. This magazine will establish effective link and advocate the issues with all pillars of development. The cover story "Sinking Tehri..." is an eye opener and it has very clearly pointed out on the possible threats to a major ecological disaster in time to come.Considering the seriousness of the issue the concerned government officials and departments must take corrective measures to prevent such disasters. Congratulations to the DMD editorial team for this appreciable effort. Alok Joshi Editor Input,CNBC-AWAAZ,Mumbai.

A Complete Magazine Gone through all the stories of the inaugural issue of "Disaster Management & Development" magazine and could not believe that, this is the first issue of this magazine, as it has covered all the aspects of disaster management in a very effective manner. The stories Sinking Tehri, Flash Floods & Government Apathy, Bounty for Babus, Snow Carpets Entire Europe are very well reported and written with keeping in consideration all the important points which needs to be addressed in relation to disaster man-

Excellent beginning. The magazine will surely help in strengthening the learning on emergency management and disaster preparedness to a large audience as it is bi-lingual. I like the design and the quality of the content. Great work to you and your team. Vikas Gora International Peace Fellow, Rotary International, Delhi.

Greetings... Congratulations to the team behind creating a forum for capturing experiences and sharing them with a wide range of practitioners and policy makers Suneet Anand Knowledge Works, New Delhi. Badhai! Excellent. DMD Editorial Team ko bahut badhai. Dr.Seema Javed Greenpeace, New Delhi.

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4 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

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World

CHANGE IN CLIMATE

A BIG BLOW TO NATIONAL EXCHEQUER Shikha Varshney From London fter facing a harsh summer a few months back, the Londoners are now facing a very cold season which has forced the normal life out of gear in many parts of the Britain.While schools and colleges have been closed sine die the winter is having its impact on rail,road and air traffic.In December ,the Heathrow was virtually closed for four days because the planes could neither landed nor could take off as the tarmac had a multi-inch layer of snow. The cold weather had also speeled doom for children because Santa Claus could not reach many places following freezed paths.Situation is worse in eastern parts of the country and in Scotland. Insurance agencies have estimated a loss of 4.8 billion pounds to the exchequer so far and if the situation did not improve it may touch 8.4 billion pounds.Weathermen have predicted that there will be no let up in the situation for next two months. The change

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in climate was visible in Britain when the country faced an unprecedently warm weather in July and August .Such was the impact of change in weather that it had to be dealt with like a national calamity.The National Health Service(NHS) advised people to wear thin clothes and keep themselves cool with frequent sprinkling of water on their faces.In July 2010, the mercury touched 32 in London which was maximum in last 80 years. People were advised to stay in the coolest room because there are no fans in houses in London. Directives were issued by school authorities that the children should be armed with measures which can counter the onslaught of summer. Children were asked to carry water bottles and they were not allowed to play outside during intervals. Fire fighters have readied themselves to meet any emergency arising out of the fire in grass.The grass in Hayed park which normally remains lush green had become dry. All newspapers and electronic media

channels were flooded with suggestions to help fight the unexpected weather. As per a government website the tempearture of the outer atmosphere of the Earth has risen by 0.75 celsius since 1900 and scientists believe that 21st century this temperature will rise to the level of 6.4 degree celsius.The sea water in Britain has hotted up by 0.7 degree celsius which has resulted in increasing of the sea level.The rise in sea level will innundate places situated in its vicinity . Since 1766 from when the rain records are being kept ,The frequency of rains has risen in England and Wales.There had been many cases of a heavy downpour during last 45 years. In 2000 ,Britain faced worst rains which had never been so bad during last 270 years and now this country is paying a price of one Billion pounds every year.The rains and change in weather is also having its impact on animals and crops.The leading economist Stern in his report has pointed out that the climate change will deliver an advserse effect to the country and if measures were not taken in time Britishers will have to pay heavily owing to changing climate. Anomalies in rains will cause damage to crops in Central Asia and India and this will have its impact on Britain also. The United Kingdom Climate Impact Programme(UKCIP) has warned that people will have to face health hazards at a large level because of change in the climate .

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 5


Cover Story

PARADISE LOST KASHMIR FACES PANGS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

Arif Shafi Wani From Srinagar

Jammu and Kashmir. Besides, Kashmir has been a major attraction of tourists across the globe who throng the 'paradise' in all seasons to enjoy its splendid beauty. However, during the past few years, the State has been experiencing an erratic climate pattern. Experts believe that the pangs of the global phenomenon, Climate Change has finally draped the Kashmir Valley.

Most of the irrigation and water supply schemes in the district have been estled between the towering affected due to tremendous depletion Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir of water level in the streams. Due to is blessed with snow-clad felling of trees water has stopped of mountains, gushing streams, mesmerizooze out of the mountains and now ing landscapes guarded by lush green almost all the Nallahs, including Pahtra, forests. Owing to its natural beauty, Varni, Vaji, Hamal area of Rafiabad are Kashmir has earned a sobriquet of flowing at their lowest level. being a 'Paradise on Earth'. In past over a decade and previous Its pristine beauty has attracted two years in particular, the Valley witrulers for centuries nessed a sharp Its pristine beauty has attracted rulers for centuries together together who even depletion of the waged wars to rule Snow Cover—the who even waged wars to rule the 'Paradise.' Due to its abunthe 'Paradise.' Due spatial distribution dant glaciers which feed almost the whole sub-continent to its abundant including India and Pakistan, Kashmir is also known as 'Water of snow in an area glaciers which feed Tower of Asia'. which is maximum almost the whole in winter and melts sub-continent by the end of sumincluding India and Pakistan, Kashmir is INDICATORS OF CHANGE mer. Geo-scientists mention that Snow also known as 'Water Tower of Asia'. Experts blame mostly the internal Cover is different than the ice cover and Owing to Kashmir's immense hydro- factors particularly the unabated felling glaciers which are relatively permanent logical and ecological significance, India of trees and vandalization of water bod- in nature. and Pakistan since 1947 have fought ies, for exceptional climate change in The scientists of Department of three full-fledged wars and been Kashmir. Due to extensive felling of Geology and Geophysics of Kashmir indulging in inconclusive diplomatic and trees in upper reaches of Rafiabad area University which has been monitoring political battles. Incidentally, the of Varmul district in north Kashmir par- variability of snow cover, on the basis of Northern states of India are wholly ticularly in two decades, soil has started scientific studies maintains that the dependent on the electricity generated to erode and settle in the Jhelum, which decreasing trends in the snow cover by the power projects on the rivers of is the main water resource. distribution are quite discernible all

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6 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011


Cover Story over the Pir Panjal and the Himalayan range The scientists maintained that the decreasing trend in the snow cover coupled with increase in winter and summer temperatures has posed serious ecological and economic consequences for this mountainous state. In an unusual phenomenon Oranges which normally grow in high temperatures zones, sprouted in a garden in Srinagar in May, 2007. Pertinently Kashmir's climate is not suitable for cultivating oranges as its temperatures fall to sub-zero levels during winter. Oranges normally grow in the plains and usually are imported from Nagpur, which is one of the Country's hottest places. The Valley received only 20.7 mm rainfall in July 2009, a deficit of 35.2 mm from a normal 55.9mm affecting agriculture and horticulture sectors. On August 14, 2009, the Valley the mercury soared to record 35.11 degree Celsius. It was in August 1946, that the Valley had recorded the highest temperature at 36.7 degree Celsius. The rise in temperature in the Valley has almost closed the gap between Kashmir and Jammu regions whose climate is similar to New Delhi. In July 2009, the Wildlife authorities found barking deer, which are not endemic to the Valley, in north Kashmir's Tangmarg area. Experts say the climate change might have forced the deer, usually found in hotter

regions, including Jammu, to move into the Valley. Pertinently the Barking Deer or Muntjac are the oldest known deer, appearing 15-35 million years ago. The present day species are native to Southeast Asia and can also be found in hotter regions of India, Sri Lanka, Southern China, Taiwan, and Japan. On May 25, 2010, the temperature in Jammu city the temperature touched 45.5 degree Celsius, highest ever in the past eight years. Last time the maximum of 45.5 degree Celsius in this month was recorded in the year 2002 Two months later, the intermittent rains lashed plains in Kashmir while upper reaches witnessed untimely light snowfall. The rains resulted in a sharp dip in the day temperatures from 35 degrees Celsius to 14.8 degrees Celsius. Ironically the temperatures dropped sharply forcing people to wear woolen clothes in peak summers. More than 150 people were killed and 400 injured in flash floods triggered by a huge cloudburst in the Leh area of the Ladakh region in Jammu and Kashmir on August 6, 2010. The cloudburst had triggered mudslides which wiped out many houses and buried the inmates alive in Choglumsar village. On the basis of detailed analysis of weather data of last five years in Leh, Ladakh, scientists have attributed the cloudburst in Ladakh which is usually considered unnatural because it is a rain shadow area, mainly to prolonged

winters which may be due to climate change. The study 'Evaluation of climate change in Ladakh sector and causes of cloudburst' by Leh-based Defence Institute For High Altitude Research (DIHAR) has analyzed the weather data of the last five years in terms of monthly temperature, rainfall, humidity and snowfall. The study indicated that increased temperature and hot summers in the plains led to increased evaporation and subsequent cloud formation in the hills. This in turn, led to increased duration of snowfall in Ladakh when compared to previous years. However the study maintained that it will need long term data to analyze the other factors for the cloudburst. On December 30, 2010, the Kashmir received season's first snowfall after a decade in December. The meteorologists said they have registered precipitation in the month of December but mainly in the form of rain in the past one decade. Experts maintain that above instances of clearly point towards erratic climate pattern in the State due to climate change. MELTING GLACIERS Glaciers are important source of fresh water in Kashmir, and any change in the temperature or winter precipitation in the form of snowfall influences the flow in the hydrological system of

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 7


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the Valley. Studies have established that Kolhai, one of the largest glaciers of Kashmir Himalayas has shrunk nearly 18 percent during past three decades. Pertinently Kolhai is the one of the largest sources of water in Jhelum which is termed as the lifeline of Kashmir as it supports irrigation and drinking water uses. Experts blamed the unprecedented increase in temperature, deforestation, increased activity of Gujjars (Nomads) near the glacier and high levels of pollution caused by the emission of greenhouse gases by military vehicles and cement plants for Kolhai's melting. Under Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI, sponsored research project, Dr. Shakil A Romshoo of Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Kashmir, Romshoo said the glaciated area of Kolhai has undergone drastic changes in the recent past. He said the glacier area has shrunk from 13.87 sq. km in 1976 to 11.24 sq. km in 2006. In 1999, it was spread over an area of 12.98 sq. km and shrunk to 11.79 sq. km in 2001. “Eighteen percent of the glacier was lost during the last 30 years. The obser-

vations and hydrological simulations from the Lidder and Sind rivers are showing increased discharge trends due to increase in glacier melt runoff, and the snow cover has progressively declined in both the basins,” he said. Earlier a study on Kolhai Glacier conducted by remote sensing by the

been shrinking since the start of 19th century. But in the last decade it has been receding quite fast. The study says several small glaciers have disappeared completely in some areas, the thickness of glaciers has reduced by more than two-thirds, and most of the springs in the Valley have dried up, and the remaining are drying up. “The quantity of snowfall has been clearly reduced over the last some decades. Cement plants in the Kashmir Valley are producing heat-trapping gases that could lead to no snow in the plains in the next two decades,” the study says. The study further reveals that more than 300 military convoys producing high-level green house gases move across the Valley everyday. “The gases emitted by these vehicles disturb the atmosphere of the Valley. The annual Amaranth Yatra is proving disastrous to the fragile environment of the area,” it states. INTERVENTIONS In 2008, a team led by Prof Syed Iqbal Hasnain installed machinery including eights stakes and an automatic weather station powered by a solar panel at the glacier which will help to determine the glacier's recession rate in different seasons. The team has also installed water level measuring devises at Lidder to record the discharge from the Glacier. Based on the findings the team will recommend measures for the preservation of the glacier Prof Hasnain, it was for the first time that scientific studies sponsored by The International Environmental

Under Ministry of Environment and Forests, GOI, sponsored research project, Dr. Shakil A Romshoo of Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Kashmir, Romshoo said the glaciated area of Kolhai has undergone drastic changes in the recent past. He said the glacier area has shrunk from 13.87 sq. km in 1976 to 11.24 sq. km in 2006. In 1999, it was spread over an area of 12.98 sq. km and shrunk to 11.79 sq. km in 2001. National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, revealed that its spatial extent has changed from 19.34 Km² in 1992 to 17.23 Km² in 2001, a net decrease of 2.11 Km² in 10 years. The rate of retreat in 2007 was 21.88 meters in the main snout. A study on glacier recession in Kashmir by Muneer Ahmad, an environmental expert from the National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, says the Kolhai Glacier has

8 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

Organization and the Energy and Resources Institute New Delhi are sponsoring the study in collaboration with Indian Mountaineering Federation (IMF.) are being conducted on the glacier. “The studies will last for five years after which we will recommend measures to bring down the glacier's recession rate. Kolhai Glaciers has been selected for the studies as it is main source of water for the Valley. “In absence of measure to check the reces-


Cover Story sion of Kolhai, ecological catastrophe is imminent in Kashmir. Himalayan ecosystems including in the Valley are rapidly changing under the influence of global and regional warming. The Valley will turn into a desert with the melting of glaciers,' he warned. EXPERTS SPEAK Dr Romshoo blames the climate change to varied factors. He said the Valley has been observing clear and louder indications of climate change due to recession of glaciers, erratic and scanty precipitation, change of growing season, change in species composition, shifting of vegetation to higher altitudes and shrinking of wetlands. Romshoo who is also the convener of the Working Group on Climate Change Research at the Kashmir University said the analysis of vast repository of meteorological data for Mean Annual Temperature from 1893 up to 2010 in Kashmir shows a statistically significant increasing trend. “Both, mean minimum and maximum temperatures are also showing an increasing trend during the observation period. Glaciers are receding at a faster rate in the state compared to other glacial regions in the world. Climate change is likely to affect a number of sectors, particularly irrigated agriculture, horticulture, and hydropower capacity in the state. Changes in flow magnitudes are likely to raise tensions between India and Pakistan, in particular with regard to reduced water flows in the dry season and higher flows during the wet season, posing increased risk to hydropower development and higher frequency of floods in both parts of the Kashmir,” he said. He said the future temperature prediction scenarios generated over the Kashmir region using General Circulation Models and a region climate model signifies an increase of 2-5 degree centigrade. “I believe that by 2050, we will have much hotter summers than we have been experiencing for the last few years now, If the current global greenhouse gas emission scenario is not drastically brought down,” he said. He said for Jammu and Kashmir the increasing temperatures means a lot more than a just hotter summer and warm winters. “Every sector of our economy shall be adversely impacted by the climate change. Already, we have observed decreasing precipitation trends including snow over the Kashmir

region by observing the data and model simulations since 1893-2009. The warmer temperatures in winter shall mean less accumulation of snow and more recession of glaciers in the region. This would ultimately affect our agricul-

Glaciers are receding at a faster rate in the state compared to other glacial regions in the world. Climate change is likely to affect a number of sectors, particularly irrigated agriculture, horticulture, and hydropower capacity in the state. Changes in flow magnitudes are likely to raise tensions between India and Pakistan, in particular with regard to reduced water flows in the dry season and higher flows during the wet season, posing increased risk to hydropower development and higher frequency of floods in both parts of the Kashmir,” ture due to floods” he said. “It should be a matter of concern to all of us that the state lacks a long historical time series of hydrometeorological observations. Though, modern scientific data analysis and climate models

do allow us to simulate hydrometeorological observations based on the past and existing time series but the opportunity to observe such variables in the past has been lost forever. At least now, we should rise to the occasion and build, on priority, an adequate network of observations for environmental variables related to primary processes of atmosphere, land, water, snow etc. throughout the state,” he said. Senior scientist of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences (SKUAST), Shafiq ul Rehman said spurt rise in temperature had affected crops across the Valley. “Climate change has affected the frequency of rains in the Valley. Besides the increase in temperature after sporadic rains dries up soil which gradually affects its fertility. This has led to decrease in ground water and triggered contamination of surface water. The rise is temperature has drastically affected the rice crop,” he said. Besides humans, the temperature increase has severely affected the animals. “It has impacted their production, productivity, reproductive hours and procreation process. They become more susceptible to parasitic infections,” a veterinarian said. The head of Disaster Management Cell of Jammu and Kashmir Government, Aamir Ali, said it was high

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 9


Cover Story time to take eco-friendly measures to save the Valley from ill-effects of global warming. “We plan to go for massive afforestation, rain water harvesting and conservation of our water bodies. This would help to maintain the temperature around normal level,” Aamir said. HOPE The University of Kashmir has identified Climate Change as a thrust area of research and has been seeking collaborations and partnerships with the reputed national institutes like ISRO, DRDO, TERI, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology and international institutes including Cambridge University, UK, University of California, USA and Newcastle University, UK, to initiate a long term research program on Climate Change on Kashmir Himalayas. The University of Kashmir has recently formed the Working Group on Climate Change (WG-CCR) that shall suggest a strategic plan that outlines the policies and actions required to be taken by the different organizations in the state to mitigate and adapt to the climate change effects. An international workshop on “Fixing Climate Change in Kashmir Valley”, with collaborative support from these institutes is being organized by the University a few years ago. A regional Climate Change Model developed by the UK's Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research is being setup at the University to predict the future climate change scenarios and their impacts on water resources availability in the state. “Similarly, we plan to use regional crop growth model driven by the simulations from the Climate Model to predict the changes in the yields of main agricultural crops under the predicted climate scenarios. The model is also being used to generate impacts of climate change on vegetation, biodiversity and land use, cover in the state. It is expected that these collective efforts and research collaborations would contribute to the better understanding of the Climate Change linkages to the local environmental problems and ultimately lead to the development of a strategy to mitigate and adapt the climate change in the region,” Dr Romshoo said. -The writer is a senior journalist. He is the recipient of Sher-e-Kashmir Award, the Ozone Award for best environmental reporting in 2008, best environmental and tourism reportage 2009.

HIMALAYAS 0 Dr Bhanu

T

he Himalaya, meaning "abode of snow", is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. By extension, it is also the name of a massive mountain system that includes the Karakoram, the Hindu Kush, and other, lesser, ranges that extend out from the Pamir Knot. The Continental Shuffle Over two hundred fifty million years ago, India, Africa, Australia, and South America were all one continent called Pangea. Over the next several million years, this giant southern continent proceeded to break up, forming the continents we know today. Pangea essentially turned inside out, the edges of the old continent becoming the collision zones of new continents. Africa, South America, and Antarctica began to fragment. If these mountains were not there, the rain clouds sweeping up from the Indian Ocean would have passed over the Indian subcontinent into central Asia leaving south Asia a burning desert. Himalaya can be divided into three distinct areas:

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 Greater Himalayas - The average height of the Greater Himalayas is about 6000 meter. This range consist of three mountains, namely Mount Godwin-Austen or K2, Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga.  Outer Himalayas - The Outer Himalaya has an average altitude of 900 to 1200 meter. This mountain range is situated between the Indo-Gangetic Plain and the Lesser Himalayas.  Lesser Himalayas - In the north western part of India, the Lesser Himalayas is situated. The approximate height of Lesser Himalayas is about 1500 to 5000 meter. Many of the important hill stations like Darjiling and Simla are located in the Lesser Himalayas. Mountain Range of Himalaya The major mountain ranges are 1- Main Himalayan Range, 2- Pir Panjal Range, 3- Dhaula Dhar Range, 4- Siwalik Hills, 5- Zanskar Range, 6- Ladakh Range, & 7- East Korakoram Range Main Himalaya Range This is the principal mountain range dividing the Indian subcontinent from Nanga Parbat in the west, the range stretches for over 2,000-km to the mountains bordering Sikkim and Bhutan in the east. The west Himalaya


Cover Story is the part of this range that divides Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh from Ladakh. The highest mountains here are Nun and Kun. In Kashmir the subsidiary ridges of the Himalaya include the North Sonarmarg, Kolahoi and Amarnath ranges. Major Passes The major passes over the main Himalaya range include  the Zoji la, at the head of the Sindh valley;  the Boktol pass, at the head of the Warvan valley;  the Umasi la in the Kishtwar region; and  Thekang la and the Shingo la between Lahaul and the Zanskar region of Ladakh. It also includes the Pin Parbati pass between Lahaul and the Zanskar region of Ladakh, the Pin Parbati pass between the Kullu valley and Spiti, while in Kinnaur it is traversed when crossing the Charang la in the Kinnaur Kailash range. The River System of Himalaya It was a collision of plates that formed mountain ranges right across asia, including the karakoram, the

pamirs, the Hindukush, the Tien Shan and the Kun Lun. The Himalayan mountains, are still being formed, rising and assuming complex profiles. Mt. Kailash was believed to be the centre of the universe with the River systems of - the Indus, the Brahmaputra, and the Sutlej.

Himalayan Glaciers V.K.Raina, Geological Survey of India, with 36 years of service and extensive research on the geology and the glaciers of the Himalayas, says in his Discussion Paper: “Himalayan Glaciers: A Stateof-Art Review of Glacial Studies, Glacial Retreat and Climate Change�.: Glacier Monitoring in the Indian Himalayas started in the early 20th century, when 20 odd glaciers in the Himalayas, located across the Indian Himalayas, from Jammu and Kashmir in north-west to Sikkim in northeast, began to be monitored by the Geological Survey of India (GSI), the organisation that was entrusted with the task. Data that has been generated from the glacier studies, in the Himalayas, over the last 100 years or so, indicates that the glaciers, in the Himalayas, have been, by and large, shrinking and retreating continuously, barring a flip here and there, but the rate of retreat can not be considered as alarming/ abnormal, especially in the last decade or so. To illustrate the point, example of a few glaciers, from the various physiographic zones of the Himalayas, those having an observation

record of more than 100 years, is sited below. A few glaciers can not be taken as the representative of around 10,000 glaciers of various sizes that exist in the Indian part of the Himalayas. All the same, these have been selected specifically, as there had been reports, floating around, that these glaciers were under going an abnormal retreat, due to global warming, and were likely to vanish in next 50 odd years or so. The GSI began making a repository of all the data generated. The analysis showed that most glaciers were retreating or showing degenerated conditions along the glacier front. The average annual retreat was around 5m, although a few glaciers were observed to have higher retreat, such as the Pindari glacier in the Central Himalayas which was observed to have an annual retreat of 810m1. Studies also revealed that fl uctuation of the glacier snout is not a simple phenomenon that can be attributed to climate change, but in fact is the result of complex regional and local phenomenon. Glaciers in the Himalayas, over a period of the last 100 years, behave in contrasting ways. As an example, Sonapani

All flowing from its snowy ridges and maintaining the courses. The Sutlej was able to maintain its course flowing directly from Tibet through the main Himalaya range to the Indian subcontinent, while the huge gorges on both flanks of the glacier has retreated by about 500m during the last one hundred years. On the other hand, Kangriz glacier has practically not retreated even an inch in the same period. Siachen glacier is believed to have shown an advance of about 700m between 1862 and 1909, followed by an equally rapid retreat of around 400m between 1929 and 1958, and hardly any retreat during the last 50 years. Gangotri glacier, which had hitherto been showing a rather rapid retreat, along its glacier front, at an average of around 20m per year till up to 2000 AD, has since slowed down considerably, and between September 2007 and June2009 is practically at a standstill. The same is true of the Bhagirathkharak and Zemu glaciers. It is premature to make a statement that glaciers in the Himalayas are retreating abnormally because of theglobal warming. A glacier is affected by a range of physical features and a complex interplay of climatic factors. It is therefore unlikely that the snout movement of any glacier can be claimed to be a result of periodic climate variation until many centuries of observations become available. While glacier movementsare primarily due to climate and snowfall, snout movements appear to be peculiar to each particular glacier.

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 11


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Himalaya reflect the ability of the Indus and the Brahmaputra to follow their original courses. The Indus flows west until it rounds the Himalaya by the Nanga Parbat Massif, while the Brahmaputra flows eastwards for nearly 1000-kms around the Assam Himalayas and descends to the Bay of Bengal. Rivers of Himalayas The Five main rivers are also called as Five Sisters, these are: Indus River, Sutlej River, Chenab River, Beas River, Ravi River Other rivers Jhelum River, Spiti River, Ganga Or Ganges River, Yamuna River, Brahmaputra River Climate of Himalaya - India India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas, along with the Hindu Kush mountains in Pakistan, prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. Simultaneously, the Thar Desert plays a role in attracting moisture-laden southwest summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall. Four major climatic groupings predominate, into which fall seven climatic zones that, as designated by experts, are defined on the basis of such traits as temperature and precipitation Disasters in Himalayan Region and India

Climate-related natural disasters cause massive losses of Indian life and property. Droughts, flash floods, cyclones, avalanches, landslides brought on by torrential rains, and snowstorms pose the greatest threats. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat.

India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall. The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. Landslides In the Lower Himalaya, landslides are common. The young age of the region's hills result in labile rock formations, which are susceptible to slippages. Rising population and development pressures, particularly from logging and tourism, cause deforestation. The result, denuded hillsides, exacerbates the severity of landslides, since tree cover impedes the downhill flow of water. Parts of the Western Ghats also suffer from low-intensity landslides. Avalanches occur in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim.

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Floods Floods are the most common natural disaster in India. The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers often flooding surrounding areas. Though they provide rice paddy farmers with a largely dependable source of natural irrigation and fertilisation, the floods can kill thousands and displace millions. Almost all of India is flood-prone, and extreme precipitation events, such as flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures. Cyclones Tropical cyclones, which are severe storms affects millions of Indians living in coastal regions. Its genesis is particularly common in the northern reaches of the Indian Ocean in and around the Bay of Bengal. Cyclones bring with them heavy rains, storm surges, and winds that often cut affected areas off from relief and supplies. Droughts Indian agriculture is heavily dependent on the monsoon as a source of water. In some parts of India, the failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, resulting in below-average crop yields. This is particularly true of major drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines. These include the Bengal famine of 1770, in which up to one third of the population in affected areas died; the 1876–1877 famine, in which over five million people died; the 1899 famine, in which over 4.5 million died; and the


Cover Story Bengal famine of 1943, in which over five million died from starvation and famine-related illnesses. Extreme temperature Alwar, on the fringes of the Thar Desert, registered a temperature of 50.6 °C (123.1 °F), India's highest. India's lowest recorded temperature was -45 °C (-49 °F) in Dras, Ladakh, in eastern Jammu and Kashmir; however, the reading was taken with non-standard equipment. Readings as low as 30.6 °C (-23.1 °F) have been taken in Leh, further east in Ladakh. The average annual Rainfall of 11,871 millimetres (467 in) in the village of Mawsynram, in the hilly northeastern state of Meghalaya, is the highest recorded in Asia, and possibly on Earth. Remote regions of Jammu and Kashmir, such as Baramulla district in the east and the Pir Panjal Range in the southeast, experience exceptionally heavy snowfall. Kashmir's highest recorded monthly snowfall occurred in February 1967, when 8.4 metres (27.6 ft) fell in Gulmarg, though the IMD has recorded snowdrifts up to 12 metres (39.4 ft) in several Kashmiri districts. In February 2005, more than 200 people died when, in four days, a western disturbance brought up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) of snowfall to parts of the state. Thousands of people have been displaced by ongoing sea level rises that have submerged low-lying islands in the Sundarbans. Temperature rises on the Tibetan Plateau are causing Himalayan glaciers to retreat, threatening the flow rate of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, and other major rivers; the livelihoods of hundreds of thousands of farmers depend on these rivers. A 2007 World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) report states that the Indus River may run dry for the same reason. Severe landslides and floods are projected to become increasingly common in such states as Assam. Ecological disasters, such as a 1998 coral bleaching event that killed off more than 70% of corals in the reef ecosystems off Lakshadweep and the Andamans, and was brought on by elevated ocean temperatures due to global warming, are also projected to become increasingly common.

HIMALAYAN TOWN

SITTING ON A TINDER BOX Raj Kumar Negi From Rikangpio racks have appeared in government buildings ,individual houses and commercial establishments allover the Rikangpio town ,the district headquarter of Kinnaur district in Himanchal Pradesh .Cracks as big as five to six inches have caused a panic in the town with a population of nearly 40,000. The geologists have warned that the placeis likely to be cave in in near future and the government has forcibly vacated a number of buildings and houses in case of any eventuality.

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Such alarming is the situation that cracks are visible in the Fire Station building, office of the Vypar Mandal,the degree college building causing a panic among local residents. None is aware of the reason behind these cracks and the government has put different teams of the geological Survey of India (GSI) into service to find the cause behind the development. The town appears to be jinxed and is likely to be obliterated from the world map. While the government has forcibly vacated all dwelling and commercial units which have developed cracks and also bulldozed

References  “Himalayan Glaciers: A State of-Art Review of Glacial Studies, Glacial Retreat and Climate Change”-Dr Raina.  Wikipedia info.  Glaciology of the Indian Himalaya.  GSI’s Special Publications. Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 13


Cover Story the Vypar Mandal building so that its debris cannot damage the adjacent Indira Market. The Public Works Department (PWD) had kept a close eye on these cracks from November 1 to December 18 last year and observed that the cracks very getting larger by five to six inches on an average.The reason behind bizarre and macabre development is not known to anyone but the locals blame it to non-existence of the sewarge system as a result of which water is going down in mountains causing cracks in the buildings. "The GSI has submitted its report to the government and we have requested that findings of the report be known to us soon so that we can take ncessary measures to avoid further damage." said Sunil Chaudhary,the Deputy Commissioner of Kinnaur. While the official failed to come out with reasons causing cracks, the former Assembly Speaker, Jagat Singh Negi said that lack of sewearge system in entire Rikangpio town has caused the damage and this cracks have now started affecting the roads also. While one section believes that cracks are being caused because of abscence of drainage system others claimed that hydro electric projects which have been mushrooming in the area were the main cause because for these projects explosives were used on a large scale to make way for mines and this caused cracks in buildings. "The private players who own these hydro electric projects have gone for a heavyblasting to pave for mines instead of controlled blasting which should be followed because of fragile nature of rocks in this part.," alleged R.S.Negi,the Convenor of the Himlok Jagran Manch. The environmentalist, however, have pointed out that both the nonpresence of drainage system and hydro electric projects were responsible for the cracks. Reasons apart,the local administration has started attempts to ensure that cracks may not appear on remaining buildings .The adminsitration is filling these cracks on a large scale but this appears to be an inadequate step to deal with such a problem. Locals are apprehensive that these cracks will be developed more once the snow started melting but none is paying any attention to this prospect.Kinnaur remains cut off to rest of the country during the snowfall and so far the area has experienced a heavy snowfall.

EMPLOYEES & PRIVATE PLAYERS NEXUS

POSING A THREAT TO NATIONAL SECURITY Sushil Kumar From Kinnaur cartel of government employees ,ministers and private players has put a question mark on National security and environment in Kinnaur which is situated in outmost corner of Himanchal Pradesh bordering the China. This nexsus is also openly violatinbg the Forest Land Act in which handing over of the land in area to outsiders is prohibited but a number of outsiders are operating with a free hand on atleast five hydro-electricity projects which have assumed shape on Sutlej river and its tributaries . Agitated with continued violation of the Act and exposing of the area to foreigners the local had held a series of agitatation here but of no avail because the law enforcers have become the law breakers in this region.Its proximity with China the aerial distance of which is as low as 20 kms has also turned the place hyper sensitive in connection with any eventuality. Such close China is to the region that damage to any of the ongoing hydro electric projects can lead to flash floods and landslides in which thousands are feared to have lost their lives or rendered homeless. While the government has turned a blind eye towards the issue ,the High Court while taking a suo moto notion has directed that a single member commission should be formed to bring to fore the problems being faced by locals and the issue of national security.The

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Commission led by Abhay Shukla, Additional Chief Secretary (forest) has submitted its report which may have several discrepancies but one thing it has made abundantly clear that from now onwards there should be "no more" (construction). "We have been raising the issue for a long time but none is paying any heed .The issue is linked with national security and should be dealt with an immediate attention but the government is not making any attempt," Said Kulbhushan Upmanyu ,a leader of the Himalaya Policy Campaign Committee which has so far raised the issue in public for a number of times. With a population of nearly 80,000 this region is the border area and is situated in the North-East direction.It's borders are connected with Tibet and China.There used to be traditional business between the two countries which was carried out through the Shipki Pass but this route had to be closed following a war with China in 1962. The state government is willing to earn maximum money through full utilisation of the hydro electric projects but in this process the national security has been kept at a stake .The existing hydro electric projects are NathpaJhakri(1500 MW) ,Sanjay Project(120 MW) ,Baspa 2(300 MW) and Rukti(115 MW) while those under construction are Karcham-Wangtu (1000MW), Kashang (66MW) and Shorang (100MW) .While other projects which have been approved but the construc-


Cover Story tion is yet to be started are KhabShyaso (1020MW), Jangi-Thopan (480MW), Thopan-Powari (480MW). Shoktong-Karcham (402MW) and Tisong (100 MW). besides these projects like Shayso-Spilo (500MW), Chango-Yangthung (200MW), Yangthang- Khab (200 MW) and Baspa 1 (300MW) are few of the minor projects which are awaiting a clearance. In Kinnaur ,the Indo-Sino borders extends upto 150 kms. The sutlej river also flows nearly from the international border and a majority of these projects are within the 5 to 20 kms. aerial distance from China which can be dangerous whenever there is a war between the two countries. The most surprising thing about these hydro projects is that the state government had even not care to seek the no objection certificates from the Defence and Foreign ministry before giving a go ahead to these projects which is running very close to the neighbouring and powerful China which even had a war with India once. Even the Hiamchal Pradesh land Transfer Act (amended) -1968 and Hiamchal Pradesh Panchayati Raj (amended) Act have made a provision of seeking approval of the Gram Sabha before transferring of land in the region which has been declared a scheduled area under article 244 of the constitution. Karcham-Wangtu (1000MW) project is one among the many which are coming up on Sutlej river. Despite a heavy protest from locals,the government at the centre has given a clearance to it in 2006.The locals alleged that because of laying of mines for these projects there water reservoirs have not only dried up but it has also exposed the region to landslides. The government is taking issues here half-heartedly .The environment impact report of this project is not only incomplete but also unscientific . The report did not mention that the area is hyper sensitive to earthquakes. Similar protests were also lodged when the Khab hydro electric project came into being in 2006.This project is in vicinity of the Chia borders.People have yet not forgotten the damagedone during the flash floods in Sutlej in 2000 and 2004in which thousands were rendered homeless . Locals are now fed up with non seriousnes of the state government towards these and they gave vent to their ire against the system by boycotting the Panchayat polls in December ‘10 and January this year.

SIKKIM

SITTING ON A POWDER KEG Kumar Prateek From Gangtok ikkim is one of the most beautiful and strategically important states of the Indian Union. Sikkim is a picture of perfection and pristine purity. Nestled in the Himalayas and endowed with exceptional natural resources, Sikkim is a hotspot of biodiversity and development. The state may be one of the most beautiful places on the earth, but it is living dangerously like its neighbour Darjeeling. The experts believe that although soil erosion and its conservation are important to cause landslides, the evolution or rising of young mountains is

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the basic reasons for frequent landslide hazards in the Himalayan region. The rise of young mountains accentuates unstable geological structure, tectonic disturbances, parallel subsidence of Himalayan slopes. The soil of this hilly tract comprises of gneiss, schists and Phyllites. Soil erosion increases these days due to extensive root crops cultivation. Moreover, the hilly area is devoid of any soil deposition. As a result, hilly tracts are vulnerable to soil erosion. Finally, the excessive amount of forest depletion also makes the hilly soil severely vulnerable. In 2001, Professors Roger Bilham,

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 15


Cover Story Vinod K. Gaur and Peter Molnar pointed out in their research paper in the journal science ('Himalayan Seismic Hazard') that “several lines of evidence show that one or more great earthquakes may be overdue in a large fraction of the Himalayas, threatening millions of people in that region.” According to them, six regions in the Himalayas have the potential to generate earthquakes of a magnitude greater than 8. One of these high-risk zones lies in the Darjeeling range of the Himalayas. There is a possibility that parts of the Himalayas that have not been ruptured in major earthquakes for the last 500 to 700 years will be associ-

ated with slip on faults (fractured surfaces on which earthquakes originate) exceeding 10 meters. “Eastern Part of the Himalayas is youngest part of this mountain. Naturally, rock foundations are not solid and this range is fragile,” Says Animesh Basu, Convener of the Siliguri based Himalayan Nature and Adventure Foundation, an NGO working towards saving these hills. He says that all the roads were made during the British era. Then the load and number of vehicles plying on them was much lower. But it has increased at least a hundred times by then. That is one of the reasons why the hills are crumbling.

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The Darjeeling-Sikkim range is seismically dangerous because it has not experienced any big earthquake in recorded history. Studies conducted for the past several years by a team from the Centre for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Centre (CSIR) suggest that strains are gradually accumulating in this region. According to Prof. Gaur, leader of the team, the area is ripe for a big earthquake. There is a possibility that a large amount of stored strain energy might be released, creating a devastating earthquake. The structure of the Himalayas is


Cover Story characterised by fold-and-thrust belts containing a number of large faults separating gigantic sheets of rock masses. The sheets move southward because of the collisional effects of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The sheets move periodically, and during these movements accumulated strains are released in the form of earthquakes. The youngest fault in the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belts, called the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), which extends into the Indo-Gangetic planes in front of the Himalayas, is also likely to be very active seismically. Any substantial movement along this fault will release tremendous energy in the form of seismic waves. A series of dams have been proposed on the river Teesta, which might have an adverse effect on the already sensitive seismic zone in the DarjeelingSikkim area. The issue here is not about the dams' failure during an earthquake but about the damage that will be caused to the area by the quake. The river Teesta carries one of largest sediment loads in the world. Therefore, there will be a lot of sediment accumulation in the reservoirs created by the dams. This load is only going to increase because it is being predicted that the water level of the Teesta will rise considerably as the glaciers feeding it are melting at an accelerated rate as a result of global warning. If there are active faults in the area, there is a risk of cutting short the already burning fuse by increasing the stress on the system. The warning is based on the realisa-

A series of dams have been proposed on the river Teesta, which might have an adverse effect on the already sensitive seismic zone.The issue is not about the dams' failure during an earthquake but about the damage that will be caused to the area by the quake. tion that a certain amount of strain needs to build up in the rocks before they can rupture and cause earthquakes. Such stress may require hundreds to thousands of years, or a few days. In a given area, any accurate prediction of this interval prior to a big earthquake is impossible. The clock of course, is reset every time an earthquake occurs. The Arunachal Himalaya and central Nepal Himalaya are relatively safer as they have experienced

major earthquakes in 1950 and 1934 respectively. The Darjeeling-Sikkim area and western Bhutan have not. Since the Himalaya is a seismically active mountain chain, it is not a question of 'if' an earthquake occurs, but 'when.' The Darjeeling-Sikkim area is sitting on ticking time bombs set up on the Teesta dams and we have no means of knowing when the clock started. While progress is being made on the Teesta dams, no awareness programmes have been launched. As a result this once favourite picnic spot has now become forbidden to tourists. Diversion of the Teesta river through two tunnels for implementing a 510 mega watt hydel plant in Sikkim, would also be executed very soon. In any hydel project, diversion of the river on which it is commissioned is regarded as a major achievement. “These mega dams added with illegal construction are taking its toll on the Himalayas. We are cutting the trees and mountains as per our requirements without giving heed to geological situation here. So, the nature is now taking its revenge,� adds Basu. He says that now linking Sikkim with railways and a proposal by army to construct an alternative road to capital Gangtok through Jaldhaka, Jhalong and Neoravalley forest, which is

rich with natural resources, will have a very adverse impact on the mountains. Experts say, So far disasters caused by landslides, earthquakes, floods etc. have not lead to large scale human tragedy in Sikkim in recent memory. However, there is ever increasing human demand of natural resources, especially land for urban development and mega dams in an apparently unsustainable manner, making some of the denizens to adapt and survive at dangerous margins. Basu says that we must not delay in formulating a strict code for construction of buildings and high-rise structures. Steps should also be taken to strengthen the existing vital structures and buildings such as schools, hospitals etc in the seismically active areas. An earthquake of magnitude 6 or more in the area would make the alluvium and sand temporarily 'liquified'. Buildings will topple or collapse automatically. Experts say that a detailed plan of action is needed to tackle the problem of a big earthquake in the Darjeeling-Sikkim range. The government, town planners, and other civic bodies should chalk out strategies keeping in mind the seismicity of the area. But will someone take the responsibility, Basu wonders.

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 17


Cover Story

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

DENUDING FOREST COVER Reeta Tiwari From Darjeeling

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nhindered and illegal mushrooming of multi-storey buildings and continued erosion in the forest cover due to neglect of officials concerned have put a question mark on survival of Darjeeling ,known to be the queen of hills in West Bengal.Situation is such that entire town is set to be wiped out with an earthquake measure even below on the richter scale. Every year this region has to suffer human and concrete losses in rainy season which generally leads to landslides. despite this scenario the surging crowd of tourists is prompting locals to construct hotels and resorts without obtaining permission from departments concerned. Once considered to be the boon of economy in this region the growing number of tourists have now become a danger in itself for survival of the pictuseque Darjeeling town. Frequency of earthquakes is rising every year and each tremor brings in

memory of locals the devastation and destruction caused during massive earthquake here in 1934 measureing more than 7 on the richter scale ,the quake that time had claimed more than 100 lives .Then another earthquake in 1998, however,did not claim human lives but it developed cracks in many buildings here .Major General (retd) KP Malla and also a Secretary of the Red Cross Society who had been an eye witness to earthquake in 1934 said that population of the town has now crossed over one lakh which means that even a minor earthquake measuering six can spell doom for the town."Unhindered construction have narrowed down lanes and by lanes and in case of an earthquake locals will find it difficult to come out of the debris caused due to natural disaster.While there were hardly one or two buildings with double storey in 1934 but now the city is littered with five or six storey buildings ," he observed. The Darjeeling Nagarpalika had issued show cause notice to owners of

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five or six storey buildings after the earthquake in in May last year but it failed to evoke any response so far.Ongoing construction activities a majority of which have come up surpassing the law of land have even changed the soil structure in this himalayn town. This is why the entire area has become hyper sensitive to landslides and the situation is such that even a minor rainfall results in major destruction but local builders have nothing to do with these problems and they are operating with a free hand in coming up with new construction sites.Geologists are of the opinion that illegal construction activities and improper drainage system in these structures have contributed to increased landslides. "The population here has increased rapidly and to accomodate a larger number of people new constructions were put up at different places and each of these buildings have improper drainage system resulting in landslides" said Subir Sarkar,a Geologist.


Cover Story

The state's Urban Development Minister Ashok Bhattacharya has also echoed similar sentiments." The builders are operating with a free hand and they have no fear from law makers. None has been arrested in this connection so far.The situation will not

ongoing illegal construction activity.The Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) leaders cooled their heels in luxury and minting money after a prolonged agitation .Now ,the locals in hilly regions are paying price of the lack of interest shown by the GNLF leaders on

In fact, a series of political movements during last two decades have resulted in making the situation worse.The fact is that after the end of the Gorkhaland movement in 90's there had been a spurt in tourism which led to illegal construction on a large scale .The Drajeeling Gorkha Mountanious Federation led by Suhash Ghesing had turned a blind eye to the ongoing illegal construction activity.The Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) leaders cooled their heels in luxury and minting money after a prolonged agitation. improve unless officials of municipal corporation join hands with locals to put an effective check on builders. In fact, a series of political movements during last two decades have resulted in making the situation worse.The fact is that after the end of the Gorkhaland movement in 90's there had been a spurt in tourism which led to illegal construction on a large scale .The Drajeeling Gorkha Mountanious Federation led by Suhash Ghesing had turned a blind eye to the

this count. Now,the state government and the local municipal corporation are playing the blaming game instead of finding means to help darjeeling come out of the impedning danger .The Subash Ghesing era has now gone and Gorkha People Liberation Morcha is already on a warpath with its demand of creation of a seperate land as a results of which the governance is at its worst. Everybody is free to gain when the government is non-existent.

In rainy season,the area remains cut off from rest of world due to frequent landslides .Roads are broken and rails through which the world famous Toy train passes get uprooted due to erosion in soils. The UNSECO has put this Toy train in category of World Heritages .In few words one can say that unplanned development of the region is slowly pushing the place to destruction. Thousands of new house have come up on both sides of the 77-kms Hillcart road which connects Siliguddi with Darjeeling.These also include four to eight storey buildings .The illegal cutting of trees to pave way for construction has become a routine sight here .The unhindered and illegal construction has weakened the soil to such an extent that even minor rains cause major destruction . Darjeeling town has been completly changes because of ongoing and unplanned construction.While fort like house painted in red were the face of Darjeeling during the British Rule but now multi-storey complexes have mushroomed in entire area. "Now old buildings have become a rarity.Entire town has been changed .The place is like a concrete jungle which we see in Mumbai," observed Ram Chand Nayak, a resident of Mumbai who has come to the place

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 19


Cover Story afterr a gap of 12 years. One cannot find open space anywhere in entire Darjeeling town.Rajen Thapa,a hotelier in Chowk Bazar area lamented on changing landscape of Darjeeling ."Entire town is crowded with buildings while earlier Darjeeling looked beautiful because of its old buildings all of which were developed by Britishers but now it has been reduced to its former self.The growing tourism and ongoing construction activity have put a question martk on survival of the town" he pointed out.Thapa is living here for last forty years and had been a witness to decaying glory of Darjeeling. More than 40 persons died and damage to property was estimated to the tune of crorers during the massive landslide six years back after which the state government entrusted Ashok Bhattacharya,the Urban Development Minister and the Legisator from Siliguddi with responsibility of finding the main cause for the trouble.In his report Bhattacharya highlighted unhindered construction as the only cause for frequest landslides ."A fast speed construction is mainly responsible for the natural disasters here .The state government had tried to bring the mountanious area under the Town and Country Planning Act but the Darjeeling Gorkha Mountain Federation did not

Darjeeling has now become the most populace hilly town in the country. Though the state government after getting alarmed with growing landslides had prepared an elaborate plan which included bulldozing of weak structures ,removing encraochment from National Highway and limiting the height of houses to 13 meters but none of these could see the light of the day for some reason or the other. approve it and this was why the issue had to be stonewalled there," said the minister. Darjeeling has now become the most populace hilly town in the country. Though the state government after getting alarmed with growing landslides had prepared an elaborate plan which included bulldozing of weak structures ,removing encraochment from National Highway and limiting the height of houses to 13 meters but none of these could see the light of the day for some reason or the other. "The government will undergo for a survey of weak structures and make a list of troubled spots and then notice will be served to those owners in which they will be directed to go for proper construction of their respective building and if they did not agree to this,the weak structures will be flattened. Human lives cannot be left at risk for weak structures," said the Minister.

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Entry of heavy vehicles is also a cause of concern for erosion of soil in the region .Till 70s eatables were transported to the town through the Toy train but now all this material is sent thorugh trucks which are causing a major damage .Frequent travel of these heavy vehicles lead to caliberation in mountains as a result of which the soil becomes slippery making the area prone to landslides. Had the state government,district administration and the Gorkha federation joined hands and made a unified approach ,this queen of hills would not have to face the challenge on its survival but it never happened.Is anybody concerned with decaying Darjeeling? None seems to have the answer.The height is that at a time when Darjeeling is virtually on the verge of being eliminated from the World map, none has a plan to save it from extinction.


Review DISASTER RISK REDUCTION

SHOULD IT BE A HIGH PRIORITY? A P Singh he Indian sub-continent has been exposed to disasters from time immemorial. The unique geo-climatic and socio-political conditions of the Indian sub-continent make the region vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. As mentioned in the Eleventh plan, about 60% of the landmass is susceptible to earthquakes and over 8% is prone to floods. Of the nearly 7500 kms long coast line , approx 5700 kms is prone to cyclone. Apart from this 68% area is susceptible to drought. All this entails huge economic losses and causes developmental setbacks. The increase in the vulnerability in recent years has been serious threat to the overall development of the country. Subsequently, the development process itself has been a contributing factor to this susceptibility. Coupled with lack of information and communication channels, this had been a serious impediment in the path of progress. Over the years it had been noticed that mammoth funds were drawn to provide post disasters relief to the recurring victims of floods, cyclones, droughts, earthquakes and landslides. Disasters are no longer limited to natural catastrophes. Man-made emergencies often cause bigger disasters in terms of fatalities and economic losses. It is increasingly of global concern. This compounded by increasing vulnerabilities related to changing demo graphic, technological & socio-economic conditions, unplanned urbanization, development within high risk zones, environmental degradation, climate variability, climate change, geological hazards, completion for scare resources, impact of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS etc, points to a future where disaster could increasingly threaten the economy, population and the sustainable development. Though in the last few years a number of initiatives have been taken by the Government of India to strengthen

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and institutionalize the Disaster Management in India. In 2009 the GOI has announced a National Policy on Disaster Management following the National Disaster Management Act which came in 2005. The NDMA is also continuously making serious efforts at the national level but in many of the states SDMAs are still remaining as non functional bodies. In the past budgets the focus was always on the provisions for the expenditure on National Disaster Management programmes (both Natural & Man-Made disasters) to provide post disaster relief to the victims of disasters. In the budget provisions for 2010-11 Rs 545.86 Crore have been allocated for Disaster Management but again it was for the post disaster relief and nothing very significant efforts was being made on the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) front. Recently the GOI has notified the constitution and administration of the “State Disaster Response Fund (SDRF)” at the state level and “National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF)” at the national level. The Thirteenth Finance Commission (TFC) has made provisions of funds for State Disaster Response Fund in its recommendations which has

BUDGET 2011 been accepted by Government of India. Keeping in view of the provisions of the Disaster Management Act, 2005 and the recommendations of Thirteenth Finance Commission, the GOI has also framed guidelines for SDRF and NDRF. As per the provisions made in it the SDRF shall be used only for meeting the expenditure for providing immediate relief to the victims of cyclone, drought, earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, hailstorm, landslide, avalanche, cloud burst and post attack. But it has been very clearly mentioned in it that the provision for disaster preparedness, restoration, reconstruction and mitigation should not be part of SDRF or NDRF. As per it such expenditure is needed to be built into the state plan funds. Globally lots of importance and emphasis are being given to the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). In many developed countries DRR has been regarded as part of long term sustainable development work and also as a core element of development programme planning. In fact DRR is a systematic approach for identifying, assessing and reducing the risk of disasters. There is a potential for DRR initiatives in just about every

sector of development and humanitarian work to avoid (prevention) and to limit (mitigation & preparedness) the adverse impact of hazards within the broad context of sustainable development. Keeping this in mind, 168 Governments met in Kobe Japan, in January 2005, and adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from natural hazards at the Word Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) is a global blueprint for disaster risk reduction efforts during the next ten years. Its goal is to substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 - in lives, and in the social, economic, and environmental assets of communities and countries. As per studies though only 4% of the estimated 10 billion dollars in annual humanitarian assistance is devoted to prevention and yet every dollar spent on risk reduction saves between 5 to 10 dollars in economic losses from disasters. It is need of the hour that a portion of the plan funds is earmarked in the coming annual budget for the efforts that directly or indirectly help in Disaster Risk Reduction. Accordingly our development process needs to be sensitive towards disaster prevention, preparedness & mitigation. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) must be regarded as part of long-term sustainable development work and should be a core element of programme planning. This contributes to sustainable development by preventing or decreasing the frequency of shock occurring or by increasing the capital resource base of a community...so that the impact of the shock is less or recovery is more rapid.

Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 21


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24 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

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26 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

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28 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

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Disaster Management & Development • February 2011 29


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30 Disaster Management & Development • February 2011

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DMD Feb  

29-30 24-25 Denuding Forest Cover Himalayas Contribution Amout : 25/- For limited circulation only. IYWXFh ªFF¹FZÔ AF´FQF IZY ¸FFSmX While o...

DMD Feb  

29-30 24-25 Denuding Forest Cover Himalayas Contribution Amout : 25/- For limited circulation only. IYWXFh ªFF¹FZÔ AF´FQF IZY ¸FFSmX While o...

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