ELT NEWS September 2019 Preview

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ELT NEWS No 347/αν Ξ SEPTEMBER 2019

THE GREEK MONTHLY MAGAZINE FOR EFL

E H C T LA N I SS S IE

DIFFICU L NIG T NI

Nick

Michelioudakis talks about ELT its past, present and future

The Inclusion of Learning Difficulties into TEFL: From insecurity towards adaptation and independence

N Ο E CTIO : ΙΟ L A R SE

INTERVIEW

E

Σ EAT • F M UR O O R

Μαθησιακές Δυσκολίες: Οδηγίες προς ναυτιλομένους

Mind mapping and

DYSLEXIA Supporting those who teach learners with special educational needs: the role of the Academic Manager


ELT NEWS MHNIAIΟ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΙΚΟ ΓIA THN ΞENOΓΛΩΣΣH

Contents Why Are Teachers Underappreciated?

Editorial

EKΠAIΔEYΣH Iδιοκτήτης: ΔHMHTPHΣ ΣΠYPOΠOYΛOΣ

4

Aγ. Γεωργίου 74 154 51 N. Ψυχικό - Aθήνα  (210) 6712991 - 6722647 e-mail: info@eltnews.gr

Nick Michelioudakis talks about ELT its past, present and future

Εκτύπωση: Θ. Φιλιππούσης Πραξιτέλους 3, Ταύρος (210) 3450853 Oι απόψεις των ειδικών συνεργατών που φιλοξενούνται στην ELT NEWS είναι καθαρά προσωπικές και δεν απηχούν υποχρεωτικά τις θέσεις του περιοδικού.

ELT NEWS is a monthly edition pub-

10 The Inclusion of Learning Difficulties into TEFL: From insecurity towards adaptation and independence

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lished TEN times a year. Ag. Georgiou 74 154 51 N. Psychico Athens - Greece Tel: (210) 6712991 - 6722647 e-mail: info@eltnews.gr Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of

Seven Steps to Better Control a Classroom with Students with Learning Disabilities

29

ELT NEWS.

The Brain: a Language Learning Stimulant

Learning Challenges Dimitris Maroulis

35 Preventing Burnout Dr Theodora Papadopoulou Chamouza

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30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

EDITORIAL

M

ost people have a kind of metaphor in their minds when they think of teachers and what they do. They see something like a conduit. Educators are people who know things and can pass that information along in the same way a pipeline moves a fluid from one location to another. In this case, the “fluid” is knowledge or information that it is moved out of educators’ minds and mouths and into pupils’ ears. Based on this way of looking at things, the job that teachers perform is merely one of

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EDITORIAL

Why Are Teachers Underappreciated? ANASTASIA SPYROPOULOU anastasia@eltnews.gr


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

EDITORIAL

transmission. The assumption underpinning such a metaphor is that the pipeline has value only as a tool of transportation. It contains nothing of value in and of itself. The liquid it moves along -water or oil- is the thing which is coveted. When information is not being transported, the pipeline is nothing more than an empty vessel or vein and therefore has no raison d’être. Instead of pipelines, teachers are actually, metaphorically, more akin to raconteurs. Of course, educators have to be experts in their fields, meaning that they have to know things, but that does not mean they have to be information-obsessed or see themselves as simply movers of knowledge. Good educators operate within a learning (growing) space and they want others to join them there. They convince listeners and learners to do so by starting conversations that engage and then promote thought. Conversation and storytelling begets thinking and thinking gives rise to questioning. Socrates, a teacher thought to be so profoundly influential that he was forced to drink hemlock for causing Greek youth to think too far outside the box, never taught by beating his listeners over the head with information. Instead, he drew them into conversations. He did so by artfully crafting these discussions so that listeners would feel compelled to join

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Good educators operate within a “learning (growing) space and they want

others to join them there. They convince listeners and learners to do so by starting conversations that engage and then promote thought.

in. Though Socrates was the teacher in these situations, he also learned by listening to his students’ responses and then kept the learning moment alive by focusing and refocusing the attention of those who were part of the exchange. I don’t even like to say that what really good teachers do is “teach.” I put “teach” in quotation marks because it suggests two things, both of them bad. First of all, teaching sounds like “talking to,” and there is a very fine line between talking to and “talking down to.” A teacher who spends all his time talking, especially in our field and especially if s/he is talking down to, is not going to have much time to listen and learn by hearing. Secondly, using the term “teacher” means that we have to use the word “learner.” This suggests a dichotomy. This type of thinking means that there are teachers and there are students and the space where real learning -in the sense of growing, exploring, sharing, collaborating, and questioning- is made up of those who are capable of giving and those who are incapable of doing

anything but receiving. The givers play an active role and the receivers play a passive one. Let’s be honest. The educational space requires that all overly simplistic labels be questioned (and discarded). The teacher must step off the pedestal and the student must be viewed as someone with valuable (and even profound) things to say. When we discard oversimplifications, we find that all of us who occupy the learning space simultaneously become speakers and listeners and therefore learners. We all become thinkers and problem-solvers. We all become deeply engaged in attempting to understand the box and then figuring out how to move outside of it. Teaching is an activity that is part critical thinking and part performing; it is both a science and an art. To manage both of these things simultaneously requires incredible skill. It requires artistry. And those who do it, deserve MUCH more (in terms of money and respect) than they are currently receiving.


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

INTERVIEW

Nick

Michelioudakis talks about ELT its past, present and future

On the occasion of ELT NEWS’s 30th anniversary we are happy to publish a series of interviews from ELT personalities who have left their trace in the Greek and international ELT scene. Nick Michelioudakis (B. Econ., Dip. RSA, MSc [TEFL]) has been active in ELT for many years as a teacher, examiner, presenter and teacher trainer. He has worked for a number of publishers and examination boards and he has given seminars and workshops in many countries. He has written extensively on Methodology, though he is better known for his ‘Psychology and ELT’ articles which have appeared in numerous newsletters and magazines. His areas of interest include Student Motivation, Learner Independence, Teaching one-to-one and Humour.

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30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION FEATURE SECTION

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30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION

The Inclusion of Learning Difficulties s into TEFL: From insecurity towards adaptation and independence The Origins of LD The identification of Learning Difficulties and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) causes is largely elusive, as the educative reforms in the 20th century have been so many, that it becomes precarious to end up to a limited enumeration of the potential culprits. The incremental percentage of the population literacy, heredity, biology, environmental circumstances, brain structure, or the combination of multiple factors, are amongst the most prevalent suppositions in the educational community as the original causes of Learning Difficulties within the student body. Admittedly, “most of the current research is consistent with a correlated liabilities hypothesis, which predicts some attributes are associated with ADHD and LDs in isolation, but the different disorders share common weaknesses” (Willcutt et al., 2010b). As a consequence, since only the observable attributes of the students with LDs are measurable, identification will always carry some inherent unreliability, even if the measure itself is high in reliability (Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs, Barnes, 2019). Hence, it is imperative to understand that every diagnostic outcome is subject to reconsideration and divergence; diagnoses on learning difficulties are not conclusive or undeviating.

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Marina Siskou EFL Teacher

Further on, all measurements involving human behavior can err, so that any indicator of an attribute will have a certain degree of unreliability (Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs, Barnes, 2019). Inclusion of LDs into EFL environment Based on the conclusions upon the theory of LDs, identification alongside the selection of appropriate TEFL methods and approaches is slippery, because, “unlike medical conditions, such as mumps and measles, the understanding of disorders like LDs lies upon a conceptual framework where the defining attributes exist along a continuum and are noncategorical” (i.e. dimensional) (Ellis, 1984). There is in fact, “no standard for any definition of LDs, which is also the case for many other ‘disorders’ such as ADHD […] or hypertension” (Ellis, 1984; Hinshaw & Scheffler, 2014) In effect, teaching routine and life experience with L2 learners with LDs converges to the acceptance that the


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION FEATURE SECTION

major and persistent issue is with time allocation, L2 intensity, span of concentration and hyperactivity interference during the learning process. L2 learners with LDs appear to be easily distracted, bored, and unable to retain the average expected amount of the instructed TL items. L2 learners with LDs are generally prone to struggle with their working memory function, organization and planning skills, self-regulation command and their capacity to manage and articulate emotions. Typically, English Language Teachers are ready and informed enough to recognize those common manifestations, which might also drive them to raise awareness of the family and encourage them to seek further advice or validation. The fact of the matter is that, underlying LDs “may first appear in the English Language class because the focus is on activities that require students to communicate and interact with other students, using all four skills of listening, reading, writing and speaking” (Delaney, 2018). After all, language is a communication entity, thence permitting for the manifestation of underlying disorders that touch upon the social –lingual development of the child.

merely the LD students. The same principle applies to other methods, such as the multi-sensory approach where L2 learners participate in the learning procedure with their body movement and sensory response, rather than with the traditional asking /replying, true/ false method. In the EFL class with learner(s) with LDs, ADHD or mental disorders, some pivotal characteristics deriving from the traditional teaching are daunting and discouraging.

For children struggling with LDs this entails attaining an impossible outcome-within the same time, as time is crucial with LDs- as compared to their fellow students; a conclusion which, in turn, might lead them into withdrawal, negation to attend classes or even isolation and proclivity to depression.

“LDs become a problem with adaptation when they are on the extreme end of the distribution” (Fletcher, Lyon, Fuchs, Barnes, 2019). A confirmation which reiterates the fact that, most students with LDs can adapt into the TEFL progressively and undisturbed.

One of the hazardous characteristics is the punishment or reward system for poor or high performance respectively. Translated in EFL routine, there is little point in perpetuating the system with rewarding students with stickers, symbolic presents or any other means. For children struggling with LDs this entails attaining an impossible outcome-within the same time, as time is crucial with LDs- as compared to their fellow students; a conclusion which, in turn, might lead them into withdrawal, negation to attend classes or even isolation and proclivity to depression. Attitudes and practices that involve inequity of opportunities also foster feelings of despair and prepare the ground for –silent or blatant-bullying or seclusion among students.

In the same wavelength, blatant comparisons to other L2 learners’ performance have no place in the classroom.

Yet, the challenging task is not in having L2 learners with LDs into the classroom, as this is vastly common nowadays with the soaring percentages of LDs all educators witness.

Accordingly, if students with disruptive LDs belong into our classrooms, it is optimum to avoid activities that can embarrass them, such as team activities as they can easily be marked as being unwanted into the groups, because they cannot follow the pace of the rest of the team, depriving them of the prize or of the extra points.

Where the challenge lies is in integrating LD students completely, and leading them into fulfilling their potential.

Instead, temper the difficulty of the tasks so that each L2 learner is offered the opportunity to receive praise.

In the ESL classroom, via employing approaches and strategies meant to facilitate processing and understanding for students with LDs, the possibility for coincidental benefit for the whole classroom is born.

The sense of accomplishment is instrumental into the holistic procedure of making progress with the LDs.

If for instance, the teacher rephrases and repeats frequently, most –if not all- students are favored and facilitated, not

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Some fundamental teaching principles that could permeate EFL class with LDs learners are appropriate to be established.


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

Οδηγίες προς ναυτιλομένους

FEATURE SECTION

ΜΑΘΗΣΙΑΚΕΣ ΔΥΣΚΟΛΙΕΣ: «Δεν υπάρχει μεγαλύτερη ανισότητα από την ίση μεταχείριση άνισων ανθρώπων»

Γεράσιμος Ρούσσος Παιδιατρικός Εργοθεραπευτής S.I.T. – Εμψυχωτής

Το σχολείο, το γνωρίζουμε βέβαια όλοι μας, είναι μια τεράστια πρόκληση για όλους τους μαθητές, όλων των επιπέδων. Μια πρόκληση, που ο κάθε μαθητής θα πρέπει να αντιμετωπίσει με την αναμενόμενη επιτυχία. Κάποιοι μαθητές όμως, συναντούν δυσκολία στο να ανταπεξέλθουν στις απαιτήσεις με αποτέλεσμα, να επηρεάζεται η απόδοσή τους ολοένα και σε μεγαλύτερο βαθμό. Δυσκολεύονται δηλαδή να μάθουν αν και δεν παρουσιάζουν κάποια αισθητηριακή ανεπάρκεια, νοητική υστέρηση, συναισθηματικές ή αναπτυξιακές διαταραχές.

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Bio

Ο Γεράσιμος Ρούσσος είναι Επιστημονικός Υπεύθυνος Διεπιστημονικού Κέντρου Λόγου, Μαθησιακών & Αναπτυξιακών Δυσκολιών: «ΑΝΑΠΤΥΞΗ & ΕΚΠΑΙΔΕΥΣΗ» Λόγος – Μάθηση – Συμπεριφορά Είναι εξειδικευμένος στην Παιδιατρική Εργοθεραπεία και σε διάφορα αναπτυξιολογικά τεστ. Έχει εξειδικευτεί στο Πρόγραμμα Πρώιμης Παρέμβασης (PORTAGE), στη μέθοδο δομημένης εκπαίδευσης (TEACCH), στη χρήση αναπτυξιολογικών και αξιολογητικών τεστ και στην διαχείριση συμπεριφοράς. Είναι αναγνωρισμένος συνεργάτης και εξουσιοδοτημένος να χορηγεί το Α’ ΤΕΣΤ (τεστ σχολικής ετοιμότητας) σε παιδιά προσχολικής ηλικίας από το 2007 Για οποιαδήποτε ενημέρωση ή πρόσθετη πληροφόρηση, παρακαλώ μη διστάσετε να επικοινωνήσετε μαζί μας στο 210-2792955 & 6934-457847


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION FEATURE SECTION

Mind mapping and

dyslexia

The current trend of graphic organizers for effective English language teaching Evangelia Vassilakou MA in Applied Linguistics

What is a mind map?

T

he common saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” gives prominence to the idea that an image is more powerful when engraved on our mind than a multitude of words. Visual representations of ideas can function as an instructional strategy in the EFL classroom and students with dyslexia who face problems with short term memory, concentration span, sequencing information and processing information quickly may be benefited to a great extent. A mind map could be defined as “a type of visual diagram that consists of a centralized subject and related topics or ideas branching off from it in all directions. From each topic subtopics can again branch off, resulting in a radial structure” (https://www.mindmeister.com/training/mind-mapping-101/1) or “the art of writing in a language that is understandable and conceivable for the brain” (Akinoglou & Yasar, 2007, p. 35).

Mind mapping history The creator of mind mapping was Tony Buzan, an English author and educational consultant and an advocate of whole brain thinking. According to Buzan: “Mind maps utilize all our cortical skills and activate the brain on all levels, making it more alert and skillful at remembering. The attractiveness of mind maps makes the

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30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION

Learning Challenges

P

aul Dirac was born in 1902, in Bristol. He is considered as one of the most important physicists of the 20th century. He was the father of antimatter created by the annihilation of positrons which he described in the so-called “most beautiful equation in the world of physics” (see the title of this article). He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge (1932 to 1969), like Isaac Newton and Stephen Hawking, and in 1933 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to the reconciliation of general relativity with quantum mechanics. A genius, with a brilliant career.

DIMITRIS MAROULIS AdvDipEd – MEd – EdDoctorate

Paul Dirac’s secret was that he belonged to the 20% of the world population, equally distributed between women and men, of the HSPs or Highly Sensitive People. It was indeed obvious that Paul Dirac was different. If you

SEPTEMBER 2019 | 35


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

FEATURE SECTION COLUMNISTS

Δυσαριθμησία (Μαθησιακές Δυσκολίες στα μαθηματικά)

Η

Δυσαριθμησία ως ξεχωριστή έννοια εμφανίστηκε από τον Αμερικανό R. Cohn, σε άρθρο του στο περιοδικό Archives of Neurology. Σε αυτό το άρθρο η Δυσαριθμησία περιγραφόταν ως δυσλειτουργία του κεντρικού νευρικού συστήματος που συναντάμε σε άτομα που έχουν δυσκολία στις μαθηματικές δεξιότητες. Ο Τσέχος ερευνητής νευροψυχολόγος A. Kosc, πρωτοπόρος στην έρευνα για τις Ειδικές Μαθησιακές Δυσκολίες, την ορίζει ως αναπτυξιακή δυσκολία που είναι μια δομική διαταραχή μαθηματικών ικανοτήτων. Οι αιτίες της βρίσκονται στη διαταραχή ορισμένων τμημάτων του εγκεφάλου που αποτελούν το φυσιολογικό υπόστρωμα της ηλικιακής ωρίμανσης των μαθηματικών ικανοτήτων. Όπως σε όλες τις Ειδικές Μαθησιακές Διαταραχές δεν υπάρχει ταυτόχρονη διαταραχή των γενικών νοητικών λειτουργιών. Ο A. Kosc υποστήριξε ότι η Δυσαριθμησία συναντάται σε ποσοστό 6% στο γενικό μαθητικό πληθυσμό. Το ίδιο περίπου ποσοστό επιβεβαιώνουν και άλλες έρευνες. Η διαταραχή συγκριτικά με τη Δυσλεξία και τις αναγνωστικές δυσκολίες δεν έχει ακόμα ερευνηθεί τόσο πολύ. Η Αμερικανική Ψυχιατρική Ένωση ορίζει ότι η μαθηματική ικανότητα ατόμων με μαθηματική διαταραχή είναι σημαντικά χαμηλότερη από αυτή που αναμένεται σε σχέση με την χρονολογική ηλικία του ατόμου, τη νοημοσύνη του και την κατάλληλη για την ηλικία

Ιωάννης Κοσμόπουλος Ειδικός Παιδαγωγός, Μed στην Εκπαίδευση Ενηλίκων του μόρφωση. Το άτομο με μαθηματική διαταραχή βιώνει μια μεγάλη δυσκολία στις ακαδημαϊκές του δυνατότητες αλλά και στις καθημερινές του δραστηριότητες που απαιτούν μαθηματικές ικανότητες. Έχουμε έναν μαθητή που δυσκολεύεται στα μαθηματικά ενώ έχει διδαχθεί μαθηματικά κι έχει την κατάλληλη νοημοσύνη και ηλικία. Η δυσκολία θα πιστοποιηθεί μέσα από κατάλληλα ατομικά τυποποιημένα τεστ.

Χαρακτηριστικά της Δυσαριθμησίας Η Δυσαριθμησία έχει μια σειρά από συμπτώματα που έχουν σχέση με το πώς αντιλαμβάνεται ένα άτομο τους αριθμούς, τις σχέσεις μεταξύ τους και τις αριθμητικές ενέργειες που πρέπει να γίνουν. Αναλυτικότερα τα άτομα με Δυσαριθμησία έχουν δυσκολία:

 Στην εκμάθηση αριθμητικών πράξεων κυρίως δε με τις μεθόδους που στηρίζονται στη μέτρηση.

 Στις συναλλαγές χρημάτων. Δυσκολεύονται στο να δίνουν και να παίρνουν ρέστα.

 Στην εκμάθηση αφηρημένων εννοιών όπως του χρόνου και της κατεύθυνσης.

 Δυσκολεύονται με την ώρα, ενώ πολλές φορές δεν έχουν

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30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

TEACHING

Preventing

burnout Dr Theodora Papadopoulou Chamouza Doctor of Psychology, Neurolinguist

B

urnout is defined as a negative psychological experience related to work stress. It is an umbrella term for different negative consequences of work such as emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and lack of personal accomplishment. (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). It is evident in people whose jobs require repeated exposure to emotionally charged social situations . Thus, it is a number one risk among teachers. Burnout was first defined by Freudenberger (1974) and involves feelings of failure and exhaustion which result from excessive demands on a person’s energy. This is accompanied by insufficient reward for the effort. Burnout is also defined as “a syndrome of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Accomplishment. Teaching is a high-stress occupation. Carter (1994) defines teacher burnout as physical, emotional, and attitudinal exhaustion. Its first signs are feelings of uneasiness and mounts as total lack of motivation for teaching. Teacher burnout has long been understood to have significant negative effects on teaching efficacy. Research has proved that student misbehaviour is a major predictor of teacher burnout. Teachers lose energy and effort trying to deal with student misbehavior and if their efforts do not prove to be effective then teachers feels useless and insufficient. The truth is that it requires a lot of knowl-

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edge and experience to deal with such behaviours in the classroom without labelling these students and destroy your lesson. Teacher burnout is also caused by a lack of social recognition of teachers, large class sizes, lack of resources, isolation, fear of violence, lack of classroom control, role ambiguity, limited promotional opportunities, and lack of support. To prevent burnout, it is suggested to initiate the development of professional support groups in every school In order to restore balance and prevent burnout, Teachers need to feel supported, estimated, and embraced in a working environment that is supportive After all, teaching is an art! Therefore it needs to be admired, ‘seen’, understood and cherished.

Bibliography Maslach C & Jackson SE (1986). MBI: Maslach Burnout Inventory; Manual Research Edition (2nd ed.). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychological Press. Maslach C, Schaufeli WB & Leiter MP (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review Psychology, 52, 397-422 Vanderberghe R & Huberman AM (1999). Understanding and preventing teacher burnout. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

Ένα σεμινάριο της ELT NEWS θα γίνει κοντά σας! Δείτε το αναλυτικό πρόγραμμα των σεμιναρίων στο

eltnews.gr/seminars SEPTEMBER 2019 | 41


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

TEACHING

The Brain

a Language Learning Stimulant Dr. Susie Michailidis Professor, Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Webster University Athens

I

nterest in the function of the brain was already known in ancient Greece. Alcmaeon of Croton was an early Greek medical writer and philosopher-scientist. (Beare, J. I., 1906,). He is possibly to have expressed his ideas sometime between 500 and 450 BCE. The surviving fragments and testimonial focus primarily on issues of physiology, psychology and epistemology reveal Alcmaeon to be a thinker of considerable originality. He was the first to identify the brain as the seat of understanding and to distinguish understanding from perception. Alcmaeon thought that the sensory organs were connected to the brain by channels (poroi) and may have discovered the poroi connecting the eyes to the brain (i.e. the optic nerve) by excising the eyeball of an animal, although it is doubtful that he used dissection as a standard method. He was the first to develop an argument for the immortality of the soul. The intellectual history of the twenty first century tries to solve the riddles of human agency, subject formation, language acquisition, and consciousness, with little or no awareness of the spectacular developments in psychology, literature, linguistics, philosophy of mind, and neuroscience that form the central story of Western intellectual life from the 1950s to the present. These fields, which have been uniting (along with artificial intelligence) under the rubric of “cognitive science” or “the cognitive neurosciences,” have largely abandoned the Saussurean and Freudian approaches to language and mind. Overall, the functions of the brain are innumerable. Cognitive

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Linguistics and the field of Neuroscience have provided us with insightful findings about the activity of the brain in the process of learning a second or other language(s), thus making us more conscious of our cognitive abilities as language learners, and on the countless brain benefits of second language learning, promoting a healthier life, especially in later years. On first note, comparative studies in Neuroscience have made it possible for us to examine the capacity and activity of the brain when picking up a second or other language. In a Swedish study, MRI brain scans showed that the brain of language learners grew in size, and especially in the regions related to language learning (hippocampus and cerebral cortex), proving that learners were better in language than in motor skills (“What…Learn a Language?”). Conversely, the brain structures of science or medical students did not undergo any change. Moreover, MRI brain scans can detect which parts of the brain are activated while learning a second or other language(s). A perfect example to consider is the Japanese speakers trying to hear the difference between the English sounds of “r” and l”. In the Japanese language, these do not exist as separate sounds, but as one single sound entity (phoneme) (“What… Learn a Language?”). As a result, brain-imaging studies reveal that for the English speakers, there are two areas of activity, one for each distinct sound, whereas for the Japanese speakers, only one region of the brain is activated (“What…


30 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

COLUMNISTS

Supporting those who teach learners with special educational needs: the role of the Academic Manager

I

n the last few years, emphasis on honing our teaching skills so that we can be effective teachers of all learners, regardless of their special abilities or weakenesses, has become the mainstream attitude in the Greek ELT. It could be argued that in this climate discussing how academic managers should support teachers who teach learners with special educational needs (SEN), might seem unnecessary since by definition academic managers are responsible for ensuring that the courses they market are provided in an appropriate environment and in a way that is meaningful and inspiring for both learners and teachers. This article sets out to discuss the kind of support teachers may require when teaching learners with SEN and the challenges inclusive educational practices may pose. Additionally, this article aims to discuss some frequent challenges and offer tips to support the teachers and promote their schools.

Healthy concerns of inclusive practices Despite the fact that all schools have some kind of

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MARIA-ARAXI SACHPAZIAN BA edu RSA dip/TEFL

THE CONSULTANCY CORNER Maria Sachpazian BA education / RSA dip/tefl (hons) is the Academic and Managing Director of Input on Education a company which provides academic, business support and consultancy to Foreign Language Schools. Maria is also a part-time lecturer at City College, the International Faculty of the University of Sheffield and an EFL teacher at the Straight Up Markoyannopoulou schools. Since March 2016 she is also the Chairperson of TESOL Macedonia-Thrace, Northern Greece. www.input.edu.gr - sachpazian@input.edu.gr


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